newsletter/2018/06 (Link Bibliography)

“newsletter/​2018/​06” links:

  1. https://gwern.substack.com

  2. 05

  3. newsletter

  4. Changelog

  5. https://www.patreon.com/gwern

  6. Scanners

  7. Notes#a-market-for-fat-the-transfer-machine

  8. MLP-genetics

  9. 2020-barth.pdf: ⁠, Daniel Barth, Nicholas W. Papageorge, Kevin Thom (2020-04-01; economics):

    We show that genetic endowments linked to educational attainment strongly and robustly predict wealth at retirement. The estimated relationship is not fully explained by flexibly controlling for education and labor income. We therefore investigate a host of additional mechanisms that could account for the gene-wealth gradient, including inheritances, mortality, risk preferences, portfolio decisions, beliefs about the probabilities of macroeconomic events, and planning horizons. We provide evidence that genetic endowments related to human capital accumulation are associated with wealth not only through educational attainment and labor income but also through a facility with complex financial decision-making.

  10. 2018-torkamani.pdf: “The personal and clinical utility of polygenic risk scores”⁠, Ali Torkamani, Nathan E. Wineinger, Eric J. Topol

  11. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1804710

  12. https://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-018-0042-6

  13. ⁠, Jonas Donner, Heidi Anderson, Stephen Davison, Angela M. Hughes, Julia Bouirmane, Johan Lindqvist, Katherine M. Lytle, Balasubramanian Ganesan, Claudia Ottka, Päivi Ruotanen, Maria Kaukonen, Oliver P. Forman, Neale Fretwell, Cynthia A. Cole, Hannes Lohi (2018-04-11):

    Knowledge on the genetic epidemiology of disorders in the dog population has implications for both veterinary medicine and sustainable breeding. Limited data on frequencies of genetic disease variants across breeds exists, and the disease heritage of mixed breed dogs remains poorly explored to date. Advances in genetic screening technologies now enable comprehensive investigations of the canine disease heritage, and generate health-related big data that can be turned into action.

    We pursued population screening of genetic variants implicated in Mendelian disorders in the largest canine study sample examined to date by examining over 83,000 mixed breed and 18,000 purebred dogs representing 330 breeds for 152 known variants using a custom-designed beadchip microarray. We further announce the creation of MyBreedData, an online updated inherited disorder prevalence resource with its foundation in the generated data.

    We identified the most prevalent, and rare, disease susceptibility variants across the general dog population while providing the first extensive snapshot of the mixed breed disease heritage. Approximately two in five dogs carried at least one copy of a tested disease variant. Most disease variants are shared by both mixed breeds and purebreds, while breed-specificity or line-specificity of others is strongly suggested. Mixed breed dogs were more likely to carry a common recessive disease, whereas purebreds were more likely to be genetically affected with one, providing DNA-based evidence for hybrid vigor. We discovered genetic presence of 22 disease variants in at least one additional breed in which they were previously undescribed. Some mutations likely manifest similarly independently of breed background; however, we emphasize the need for follow up investigations in each case and provide a suggested validation protocol for broader consideration. In conclusion, our study provides unique insight into genetic epidemiology of canine disease risk variants, and their relevance for veterinary medicine, breeding programs and animal welfare.

    Author summary:

    Like any human, dogs may suffer from or pass on a variety of inherited disorders. Knowledge of how likely a typical dog is to carry an inherited disorder in its genome, and which disorders are the most common and relevant ones across dog breeds, is valuable for both veterinary care and breeding of healthy dogs.

    We have explored the largest global dog study sample collected to date, consisting of more than 100,000 mixed breed and purebred dogs, to advance research on this subject. We found that mixed breed dogs and purebred dogs potentially suffer from many of the same inherited disorders, and that around two in five dogs carried at least one of the conditions that we screened for. A dog carrying an inherited disorder is not a “bad dog”—but we humans responsible for breeding selections do need to make sustainable decisions avoiding inbreeding, ie. mating of dogs that are close relatives. The disease prevalence information we generated during this study is made available online (www.mybreeddata.com [now defunct?]), as a free tool for breed and kennel clubs, breeders, as well as the veterinary and scientific community.

  14. ⁠, Michael D. Morgan, Erola Pairo-Castineira, Konrad Rawlik, Oriol Canela-Xandri, Jonathan Rees, David Sims, Albert Tenesa, Ian J. Jackson (2018-05-11):

    We have extensively mapped the genes responsible for hair colour in the UK population. MC1R mutations are well established as the principal genetic cause of red hair colour, but with variable penetrance. We find variation at genes encoding its agonist (POMC), inverse agonist (ASIP) and other loci contribute to red hair and demonstrate between MC1R and some of these loci. Blonde hair is associated with over 200 loci, and we find a genetic continuum from black through dark and light brown to blonde. Many of the associated genes are involved in hair growth or texture, emphasising the cellular connections between keratinocytes and melanocytes in the determination of hair colour.

  15. ⁠, Bowen Hu, Ning Shen, James J. Li, Hyunseung Kang, Jinkuk Hong, Jason Fletcher, Jan Greenberg, Marsha R. Mailick, Qiongshi Lu (2018-06-06):

    Facial attractiveness is a complex human trait of great interest in both academia and industry. Literature on sociological and phenotypic factors associated with facial attractiveness is rich, but its genetic basis is poorly understood. In this paper, we conducted a to discover genetic variants associated with facial attractiveness using 3,928 samples in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study⁠. We identified two genome-wide statistically-significant loci and highlighted a handful of candidate genes, many of which are specifically expressed in human tissues involved in reproduction and hormone synthesis. Additionally, facial attractiveness showed strong and negative genetic correlations with in females and with blood lipids in males. Our analysis also suggested sex-specific selection pressure on variants associated with lower male attractiveness. These results revealed sex-specific genetic architecture of facial attractiveness and provided fundamental new insights into its genetic basis.

  16. 2018-tedja.pdf: “Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error”⁠, Milly S. Tedja, Robert Wojciechowski, Pirro G. Hysi, Nicholas Eriksson, Nicholas A. Furlotte, Virginie J. M. Verhoeven, Adriana I. Iglesias, Magda A. Meester-Smoor, Stuart W. Tompson, Qiao Fan, Anthony P. Khawaja, Ching-Yu Cheng, Renamp#x000E9, Hamp#x000F6;hn, Kenji Yamashiro, Adam Wenocur, Clare Grazal, Toomas Haller, Andres Metspalu, Juho Wedenoja, Jost B. Jonas, Ya Xing Wang, Jing Xie, Paul Mitchell, Paul J. Foster, Barbara E. K. Klein, Ronald Klein, Andrew D. Paterson, S. Mohsen Hosseini, Rupal L. Shah, Cathy Williams, Yik Ying Teo, Yih Chung Tham, Preeti Gupta, Wanting Zhao, Yuan Shi, Woei-Yuh Saw, E-Shyong Tai, Xue Ling Sim, Jennifer E. Huffman, Ozren Polaamp#x00161;ek, Caroline Hayward, Goran Bencic, Igor Rudan, James F. Wilson, Tin Aung, Amutha B. Veluchamy, Kathryn P. Burdon, Harry Campbell, Li Jia Chen, Peng Chen, Wei Chen, Emily Chew, Margaret M. Deangelis, Xiaohu Ding, Angela Damp#x000F6;ring, David M. Evans, Sheng Feng, Brian Fleck, Rhys D. Fogarty, Jeremy R. Fondran, Maurizio Fossarello, Xiaobo Guo, Annet E. G. Haarman, Mingguang He, Laura D. Howe, Sarayut Janmahasatian, Vishal Jhanji, Mika Kamp#x000E4;hamp#x000F6;nen, Jaakko Kaprio, John P. Kemp, Kay-Tee Khaw, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Eva Krapohl, Jean-Franamp#x000E7;ois Korobelnik, Kris Lee, Shi-Ming Li, Yi Lu, Robert N. Luben, Kari-Matti Mamp#x000E4;kelamp#x000E4;, George McMahon, Akira Meguro, Evelin Mihailov, Masahiro Miyake, Nobuhisa Mizuki, Margaux Morrison, Vinay Nangia, Konrad Oexle, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Chi Pui Pang, Mario Pirastu, Robert Plomin, Taina Rantanen, Maria Schache, Ilkka Seppamp#x000E4;lamp#x000E4;, George D. Smith, Beate St Pourcain, Pancy O. Tam, J. Willem L. Tideman, Nicholas J. Timpson, Simona Vaccargiu, Zoran Vatavuk, Jie Jin Wang, Ningli Wang, Nick J. Wareham, Alan F. Wright, Liang Xu, Maurice K. H. Yap, Seyhan Yazar, Shea Ping Yip, Nagahisa Yoshimura, Alvin L. Young, Jing Hua Zhao, Xiangtian Zhou, Michelle Agee, Babak Alipanahi, Adam Auton, Robert K. Bell, Katarzyna Bryc, Sarah L. Elson, Pierre Fontanillas, David A. Hinds, Jennifer C. McCreight, Karen E. Huber, Aaron Kleinman, Nadia K. Litterman, Matthew H. McIntyre, Joanna L. Mountain, Elizabeth S. Noblin, Carrie A. M. Northover, Steven J. Pitts, J. Fah Sathirapongsasuti, Olga V. Sazonova, Janie F. Shelton, Suyash Shringarpure, Chao Tian, Vladimir Vacic, Catherine H. Wilson, Tariq M. Aslam, Sarah A. Barman, Jenny H. Barrett, Paul N. Bishop, Peter Blows, Catey Bunce, Roxana O. Carare, Usha Chakravarthy, Michelle Chan, Sharon Chua, David Crabb, Alexander Day, Parul Desai, Bal Dhillon, Andrew D. Dick, Cathy A. Egan, Sarah Ennis, Marcus Fruttiger, John Gallacher, David F. Garway-Heath, Jane Gibson, Dan M. Gore, Alison Hardcastle, Simon P. Harding, Ruth E. Hogg, Pearse A. Keane, Peng Tee Khaw, Gerassimos Lascaratos, Andrew Lotery, Phil J. Luthert, Tom J. MacGillivray, Sarah L. Mackie, Keith R. Martin, Michelle McGaughey, Bernadette McGuinness, Gareth J. McKay, Martin McKibbin, Danny Mitry, Tony Moore, James E. Morgan, Zaynah A. Muthy, Eoin Oamp#x02019;Sullivan, Chris Owen, Praveen J. Patel, Euan N. Paterson, Tunde Peto, Axel Petzold, Alicja R. Rudnicka, Jay E. Self, Sobha Sivaprasad, David H. W. Steel, Irene M. Stratton, Nicholas Strouthidis, Cathie L. M. Sudlow, Caroline Thaung, Dhanes Thomas, Emanuele Trucco, Adnan Tufail, Stephen A. Vernon, Ananth C. Viswanathan, Jayne V. Woodside, Max Yates, Jennifer L. Y. Yip, Yalin Zheng, Peter K. Joshi, Akitaka Tsujikawa, Fumihiko Matsuda, Kristina N. Whisenhunt, Tanja Zeller, Peter J. Spek, Roxanna Haak, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, Elisabeth M. van Leeuwen, Sudha K. Iyengar, Jonathan H. Lass, Albert Hofman, Fernando Rivadeneira, Andramp#x000E9, G. Uitterlinden, Johannes R. Vingerling, Terho Lehtimamp#x000E4;ki, Olli T. Raitakari, Ginevra Biino, Maria Pina Concas, Tae-Hwi Schwantes-An, Robert P. Igo, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Nicholas G. Martin, Jamie E. Craig, Puya Gharahkhani, Katie M. Williams, Abhishek Nag, Jugnoo S. Rahi, Phillippa M. Cumberland, Camp#x000E9;cile Delcourt, Camp#x000E9;line Bellenguez, Janina S. Ried, Arthur A. Bergen, Thomas Meitinger, Christian Gieger, Tien Yin Wong, Alex W. Hewitt, David A. Mackey, Claire L. Simpson, Norbert Pfeiffer, Olavi Pamp#x000E4;rssinen, Paul N. Baird, Veronique Vitart, Najaf Amin, Cornelia M. Duijn, Joan E. Bailey-Wilson, Terri L. Young, Seang-Mei Saw, Dwight Stambolian, Stuart MacGregor, Jeremy A. Guggenheim, Joyce Y. Tung, Christopher J. Hammond, Caroline C. W. Klaver

  17. https://www.bmj.com/content/361/bmj.k2022

  18. ⁠, Robert M. Maier, Zhihong Zhu, Sang Hong Lee, Maciej Trzaskowski, Douglas M. Ruderfer, Eli A. Stahl, Stephan Ripke, Naomi R. Wray, Jian Yang, Peter M. Visscher, Matthew R. Robinson (2018-03-07):

    Genomic prediction has the potential to contribute to precision medicine. However, to date, the utility of such predictors is limited due to low accuracy for most traits. Here theory and simulation study are used to demonstrate that widespread pleiotropy among phenotypes can be utilised to improve genomic risk prediction. We show how a genetic predictor can be created as a weighted index that combines published genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics across many different traits. We apply this framework to predict risk of and bipolar disorder in the Psychiatric Genomics consortium data, finding substantial heterogeneity in prediction accuracy increases across cohorts. For six additional phenotypes in the data, we find increases in prediction accuracy ranging from 0.7% for height to 47% for type 2 diabetes, when using a multi-trait predictor that combines published summary statistics from multiple traits, as compared to a predictor based only on one trait.

  19. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-04148-1

  20. 2018-rimfeld.pdf: “Genetic influence on social outcomes during and after the Soviet era in Estonia”⁠, Kaili Rimfeld, Eva Krapohl, Maciej Trzaskowski, Jonathan R. I. Coleman, Saskia Selzam, Philip S. Dale, Tonu Esko, Andres Metspalu, Robert Plomin

  21. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41380-018-0109-2

  22. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41380-018-0070-0

  23. 2018-miles.pdf: ⁠, Matthew R. Miles, Donald P. Haider-Markel (2018; genetics  /​ ​​ ​heritable):

    Existing literature connects military service to regional characteristics and family traditions, creating real distinctions between those who serve and those who do not. We engage this discussion by examining military service as a function of personality. In the second portion, we examine military service as predisposed by genetics. Our findings indicate there is a statistically-significant heritability component of serving in the military. We find a genetic correlation between personality traits associated with progressive political ambition and military service, suggesting that military service represents a different form of political participation to which individuals are genetically predisposed. We discuss the long-term implications of our findings for policy makers and recruiters.

  24. http://www.wiringthebrain.com/2018/05/grandmas-trauma-critical-appraisal-of.html

  25. https://research.fb.com/do-jobs-run-in-families/

  26. https://us.dantelabs.com/collections/best-seller/products/whole-genome-sequencing-wgs-full-dna-analysis

  27. ⁠, Yaniv Erlich, Tal Shor, Shai Carmi, Itsik Pe’er (2018-06-19):

    Consumer genomics databases reached the scale of millions of individuals. Recently, law enforcement investigators have started to exploit some of these databases to find distant familial relatives, which can lead to a complete re-identification. Here, we leveraged genomic data of 600,000 individuals tested with consumer genomics to investigate the power of such long-range familial searches. We project that half of the searches with European-descent individuals will result with a third cousin or closer match and will provide a search space small enough to permit re-identification using common demographic identifiers. Moreover, in the near future, virtually any European-descent US person could be implicated by this technique. We propose a potential mitigation strategy based on cryptographic signature that can resolve the issue and discuss policy implications to human subject research.

  28. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/160114160.pdf

  29. ⁠, Felix C. Tropf, Renske M. Verweij, Peter J. van der Most, Gert Stulp, Andrew Bakshi, Daniel A. Briley, Matthew Robinson, Anastasia Numan, Tõnu Esko, Andres Metspalu, Sarah E. Medland, Nicholas G. Martin, Harold Snieder, S. Hong Lee, Melinda C. Mills (2016-05-02; genetics  /​ ​​ ​heritable⁠, genetics  /​ ​​ ​selection  /​ ​​ ​dysgenics):

    Family and twin studies suggest that up to 50% of individual differences in human fertility within a population might be heritable. However, it remains unclear whether the genes associated with fertility outcomes such as number of children ever born (NEB) or age at first birth (AFB) are the same across geographical and historical environments. By not taking this into account, previous genetic studies implicitly assumed that the genetic effects are constant across time and space. We conduct a mega-analysis applying whole genome methods on 31,396 unrelated men and women from six Western countries. Across all individuals and environments, common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) explained only ~4% of the in NEB and AFB. We then extend these models to test whether genetic effects are shared across different environments or unique to them. For individuals belonging to the same population and demographic cohort (born before or after the 20th century fertility decline), -based heritability was almost five times higher at 22% for NEB and 19% for AFB. We also found no evidence suggesting that genetic effects on fertility are shared across time and space. Our findings imply that the environment strongly modifies genetic effects on the tempo and quantum of fertility, that currently ongoing natural selection is heterogeneous across environments, and that gene-environment interactions may partly account for missing heritability in fertility. Future research needs to combine efforts from genetic research and from the social sciences to better understand human fertility.

    Authors Summary

    Fertility behavior—such as age at first birth and number of children—varies strongly across historical time and geographical space. Yet, family and twin studies, which suggest that up to 50% of individual differences in fertility are heritable, implicitly assume that the genes important for fertility are the same across both time and space. Using molecular genetic data (SNPs) from over 30,000 unrelated individuals from six different countries, we show that different genes influence fertility in different time periods and different countries, and that the genetic effects consistently related to fertility are presumably small. The fact that genetic effects on fertility appear not to be universal could have tremendous implications for research in the area of reproductive medicine, social science and evolutionary biology alike.

  30. ⁠, Xuanyao Liu, Po-Ru Loh, Luke J. O’Connor, Steven Gazal, Armin Schoech, Robert M. Maier, Nick Patterson, Alkes L. Price (2018-06-27):

    The genetic architecture of most human complex traits is highly polygenic, motivating efforts to detect polygenic selection involving a large number of loci. In contrast to previous work relying on top GWAS loci, we developed a method that uses genome-wide association statistics and linkage disequilibrium patterns to estimate the genome-wide genetic component of population differentiation of a complex trait along a continuous gradient, enabling powerful inference of polygenic selection. We analyzed 43 UK Biobank traits and focused on PC1 and North-South and East-West birth coordinates across 337K unrelated British-ancestry samples, for which our method produced close to unbiased estimates of genetic components of population differentiation and high power to detect polygenic selection in simulations across different trait architectures. For PC1, we identified signals of polygenic selection for height (74.5±16.7% of 9.3% total correlation with PC1 attributable to genome-wide genetic effects; p = 8.4×10−6) and red hair pigmentation (95.9±24.7% of total correlation with PC1 attributable to genome-wide genetic effects; p = 1.1×10−4); the bulk of the signal remained when removing genome-wide statistically-significant loci, even though red hair pigmentation includes loci of large effect. We also detected polygenic selection for height, systolic blood pressure, BMI and basal metabolic rate along North-South birth coordinate, and height and systolic blood pressure along East-West birth coordinate. Our method detects polygenic selection in modern human populations with very subtle population structure and elucidates the relative contributions of genetic and non-genetic components of trait population differences.

  31. ⁠, Xuan Wang, Bo-Wen Zhou, Ting-Ting Yin, Fang-Liang Chen, Ali Esmailizadeh, Melissa M. Turner, Andrei D. Poyarkov, Peter Savolainen, Guo-Dong Wang, Qiaomei Fu, Ya-Ping Zhang (2018-06-19):

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT), the oldest known somatic cell line, is a living fossil, originating from cancer cells transmitted from a host to other canids during the mating process7. Clonal origin analyses hints that the original dog infected with CTVT (CTVT founder) came from an ancient sled dog or wolf population. However, the genetic composition of the CTVT founder is still not clear.

    In order to explore this issue, we applied whole genome sequencing (WGS) to two CTVT samples, their corresponding hosts, and 24 additional canids (Supplementary Note). Combined with published WGS data of two CTVT samples and high quality canine WGS data, we constructed a data set containing WGS data of four CTVT samples a 169-individual reference panel composed of worldwide gray wolves (Canis lupus), dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), coyotes (Canis latrans) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) (Supplementary Note, Table S1).

    …Our results reveal that the CTVT founder was more closely related to present-day arctic sled dogs than to any other populations (Figure S6–8), in accordance with very recent results. However, ADMIXTURE analysis showed that the CTVT founder also possessed an ancestral component found predominantly in non-dog populations, a result that we do not observe for any arctic sled dog (Supplementary Note, Figure 1A). Moreover, the CTVT founder did not cluster tightly with arctic sled dogs in the PCA analysis (Figure S7). These results imply that the CTVT founder belonged to a previously unknown arctic dog population that is not represented in the reference panel…In conclusion, our detailed analyses reveal that the CTVT founder came from an arctic sled dog population that possessed introgression from a population related to coyotes, a result that was not known in previous studies. Considering the habitat of coyotes in North America, we propose two hypotheses: (1) The CTVT founder lived in the arctic region of North America. (2) The CTVT founder lived in the arctic region of the Far East, where arctic dogs possessing the introgressed segments migrated through the Bering Strait in an unknown period. Hence, an ancient story of canine admixture is hidden in the genome of a living fossil, the CTVT. To further test our hypotheses of ancient admixture and to better understand the detailed evolutionary history of dogs from the arctic region and Americas, it is crucial to acquire ancient samples in these regions in future work.

  32. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/05/study-short-peruvians-reveals-new-gene-major-impact-height

  33. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/16/world/africa/south-africa-elephants-tusks.html

  34. 2010-kean.pdf: {#linkBibliography-(science)-2010 .docMetadata doi=“10.1126/​​science.328.5976.301”}, Sam Kean (Science) (2010-04-16; genetics  /​ ​​ ​selection):

    [Review of modern apple breeding techniques: genome sequencing enables selecting on seeds rather than trees by predicting taste & robustness, saving years of delay; this also allows avoiding the ‘GMO’ stigma by crossbreeding (quickly moving genes into new apple trees without direct genetic editing using ), such as a “fast-flowering gene” to accelerate maturation during evaluation but then select it out for the final tree; the creation of “The Gauntlet”, a greenhouse deliberately stocked with as many pathogens as possible, provides a stress test to weed out weak sapling as quickly as possible; and buds can be cryogenically preserved to cut down storage costs by more than an order of magnitude.]

    Until recently, geneticists, their skills honed on Arabidopsis and other quick-breeding flora, avoided fruit-tree research like a blight. Of the 11,000 U.S. field tests on plants with transgenic genes between 1987 and 2004, just 1% focused on fruit trees. That’s partly because of the slow pace. Whereas vegetables like corn might produce two harvests each summer, apple trees need eons—around 5 years—to produce their first fruit, most of which will be disregarded as ugly, bitter, or squishy. But everything in apple breeding is about to change. An Italian team plans to publish the decoded apple genome this summer, and scientists are starting to single out complex genetic markers for taste and heartiness. In some cases the scientists even plan, by inserting genes from other species, to eliminate the barren juvenile stage and push fruit trees to mature rapidly, greatly reducing generation times.

  35. https://openai.com/blog/openai-five/

  36. https://old.reddit.com/r/reinforcementlearning/comments/8tqzvq/openai_dota_update_ppo_lstm_reaches_amateurlevel/

  37. http://bair.berkeley.edu/blog/2018/06/28/daml/

  38. https://ai.googleblog.com/2018/06/scalable-deep-reinforcement-learning.html

  39. ⁠, Dmitry Kalashnikov, Alex Irpan, Peter Pastor, Julian Ibarz, Alexander Herzog, Eric Jang, Deirdre Quillen, Ethan Holly, Mrinal Kalakrishnan, Vincent Vanhoucke, Sergey Levine (2018-06-27):

    In this paper, we study the problem of learning vision-based dynamic manipulation skills using a scalable reinforcement learning approach. We study this problem in the context of grasping, a longstanding challenge in robotic manipulation. In contrast to static learning behaviors that choose a grasp point and then execute the desired grasp, our method enables closed-loop vision-based control, whereby the robot continuously updates its grasp strategy based on the most recent observations to optimize long-horizon grasp success. To that end, we introduce QT-Opt, a scalable self-supervised vision-based reinforcement learning framework that can leverage over 580k real-world grasp attempts to train a deep neural network Q-function with over 1.2M parameters to perform closed-loop, real-world grasping that generalizes to 96% grasp success on unseen objects. Aside from attaining a very high success rate, our method exhibits behaviors that are quite distinct from more standard grasping systems: using only RGB vision-based perception from an over-the-shoulder camera, our method automatically learns regrasping strategies, probes objects to find the most effective grasps, learns to reposition objects and perform other non-prehensile pre-grasp manipulations, and responds dynamically to disturbances and perturbations.

  40. https://auphonic.com/blog/2018/06/01/codec2-podcast-on-floppy-disk/

  41. http://nautil.us/issue/21/information/the-man-who-tried-to-redeem-the-world-with-logic

  42. http://ctlj.colorado.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Meyer-final.pdf

  43. https://slate.com/technology/2017/04/the-impostor-cell-line-that-set-back-breast-cancer-research.html

  44. https://humanvarieties.org/2014/03/31/what-does-it-mean-to-have-a-low-r-squared-a-warning-about-misleading-interpretation/

  45. https://statmodeling.stat.columbia.edu/2018/06/01/data-code-study-puerto-rico-deaths/

  46. https://www.wired.com/story/willie-brown-middle-school-startup-mentality-failed/

  47. Fashion

  48. 1972-downs.pdf: ⁠, Anthony Downs (1972-01-01; sociology):

    American public attention rarely remains sharply focused upon any one domestic issue for very long—even if it involves a continuing problem of crucial importance to society. Instead, a systematic “issue-attention cycle” seems strongly to influence public attitudes and behavior concerning most key domestic problems. Each of these problems suddenly leaps into prominence, remains there for a short time, and then—though still largely unresolved—gradually fades from the center of public attention. A study of the way this cycle operates provides insights into how long public attention is likely to remain sufficiently focused upon any given issue to generate enough political pressure to cause effective change.

    The shaping of American attitudes toward improving the quality of our environment provides both an example and a potential test of this “issue-attention cycle.” In the past few years, there has been a remarkably widespread upsurge of interest in the quality of our environment. This change in public attitudes has been much faster than any changes in the environment itself. What has caused this shift in public attention? Why did this issue suddenly assume so high a priority among our domestic concerns? And how long will the American public sustain high-intensity interest in ecological matters? I believe that answers to these questions analyzing the “issue-attention cycle.”

    The dynamics of the “issue-attention cycle”

    Public perception of most “crises” in American domestic life does not reflect changes in real conditions as much as it reflects the operation of a systematic cycle of heightening public interest and then increasing boredom with major issues. This “issue-attention cycle” is rooted both in the nature of certain domestic problems and in the way major communications media interact with the public. The cycle itself has five stages, which may vary in duration depending upon the particular issue involved, but which almost always occur in the following sequence:

    1. The pre-problem stage…
    2. Alarmed discovery and euphoric enthusiasm…
    3. Realizing the cost of substantial progress…
    4. Gradual decline of intense public interest…
    5. The post-problem stage…
  49. 2015-gupta.pdf: ⁠, Kuhika Gupta, Hank Jenkins-Smith (2015; sociology):

    This chapter comments on Anthony Downs’s 1972 seminal paper “Up and Down with Ecology: The ‘Issue-Attention’ Cycle”, which tackles the concept of “public” or “issue” attention. Focusing on domestic policy, particularly environmental policy in the United States, Downs describes a process called “issue-attention cycle”, by which the public gains and loses interest in a particular issue over time. This chapter summarizes studies that directly put Downs’s propositions to the test, laying emphasis on research that probes the existence of and interrelationships among the public attention cycle, media attention cycle, and government attention cycle. It then reviews the main arguments put forward by Downs before concluding with a discussion of promising avenues for future research as well as important theoretical and methodological questions that need further elucidation.

  50. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/26cf/592c500860d43ceab39d21816654e53e9c6c.pdf

  51. https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/140/5/1231/2951052

  52. 2018-maier.pdf: “Pharmacological cognitive enhancement among non-ADHD individuals—A cross-sectional study in 15 countries”⁠, Larissa J. Maier, Jason A. Ferris, Adam R. Winstock

  53. 2018-maier-gds-figure2-selfreportedcognitiveenhancement.png

  54. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2018/07/when-a-child-says-shes-trans/561749/

  55. https://harpers.org/archive/1954/12/the-jet-propelled-couch/?single=1

  56. https://harpers.org/archive/1955/01/the-jet-propelled-couch-2/?single=1

  57. https://www.amazon.com/Fifty-Minute-Hour-Robert-Lindner/dp/1892746247

  58. https://elms.faculty.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/98/2014/07/20021-Behind-the-Jet1.pdf

  59. 2018-gordon.pdf: “Association of Efficacy of Resistance Exercise Training With Depressive SymptomsMeta-analysis and Meta-regression Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials”⁠, American Medical Association

  60. 2018-gordon-supplement.pdf⁠, pruich

  61. 2018-wong.pdf: ⁠, Kimberly Wong, Frempongma Wadee, Gali Ellenblum, Michael McCloskey (2018-04-02; psychology  /​ ​​ ​illusion-of-depth):

    Knowledge of letter shapes is central to reading. In experiments focusing primarily on a single letter shape—the —we found surprising gaps in skilled readers’ knowledge.

    1. In Experiment 1 most participants failed to recall the existence of looptail g when asked if g has 2 lowercase print forms, and almost none were able to write looptail g accurately.
    2. In Experiment 2 participants searched for Gs in text with multiple looptail gs. Asked immediately thereafter to write the g form they had seen, half the participants produced an “opentail” g (the typical handwritten form), and only one wrote looptail g accurately.
    3. In Experiment 3 participants performed poorly in discriminating looptail g from distractors with important features mislocated or misoriented.

    These results have implications for understanding types of knowledge about letters, and how this knowledge is acquired. For example, our findings speak to hypotheses concerning the role of writing in learning letter shapes. More generally, our findings raise questions about the conditions under which massive exposure does, and does not, yield detailed, accurate, accessible knowledge. In this context we relate our findings to studies showing poor knowledge or memory for various types of stimuli despite extensive exposure.

    Public importance Statement—Knowledge about the shapes of letters is critical for reading. This study investigated skilled readers’ letter-shape knowledge, focusing primarily on one specific letter form, the “looptail” form of lowercase G. Looptail g is extremely common in printed materials, but most people never learn to write it. We found that skilled readers were often unable to recall the existence of looptail g, and that their knowledge of the shape was usually incomplete or perhaps even inaccurate. These results contribute to our understanding of how letter shapes are learned (highlighting in particular the role that learning to write may play), and may also have implications for teaching of letters.

  62. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180403140403.htm

  63. 2007-reeves.pdf

  64. 2018-ward.pdf: ⁠, Robert Ward (2018-08-01; psychology):

    • Perceived mental health from men’s facial appearance reflected actual mental health.
    • Results held for subclinical autistic quotient, depressive symptoms, and ⁠.
    • Accuracy was not explained by attractiveness or other appearance variables.
    • Mental health vulnerability could lead to negative social evaluation.

    Previous work shows that mental health can be evident from neutral facial appearance. We assessed the accuracy of mental health perceptions from facial appearance, and how perceived mental health related to other appearance cues, specifically attractiveness, perceived physical health, and masculinity.

    We constructed composite images from men scoring high and low on autistic quotient, depressive symptoms, and schizotypy inventories, and asked observers to rate these images for mental health. We found perceived mental health reflected actual mental health in all cases. Furthermore, the accuracy of mental health inference was not fully explained by other appearance cues.

    We consider implications of accurate mental health detection from appearance, and the possibility that appearance could be a risk factor for mental health issues.

    [Keywords: facial appearance, mental health, attractiveness, masculinity]

  65. http://www.wine-economics.org/aawe/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Vol13-Issue01-Fine-Water-A-Blind-Taste-Test-Kevin-W.-Capehart-and-Elena-C.-Berg.pdf

  66. 2002-hall.pdf: ⁠, Sarah L. Hall, John W. S. Bradshaw, Ian H. Robinson (2002-11; cat):

    We have investigated the role of habituation and disinhibition in the control of object (predatory) play by adult domestic cats Felis silvestris catus both with and without experience of hunting. We hypothesised that object play is terminated by rapid habituation to the sensory characteristics of the object played with, and therefore should be disinhibited if the sensory characteristics of the object are changed. Three sequential sessions of play with an unchanging object (a toy) caused almost complete habituation of the play response; replacing the toy with one of contrasting colours in a fourth session elicited intense disinhibited play, suggesting that motivation for play itself had not diminished substantially during the first three sessions. The time interval between sessions affected the extent of disinhibition. After a long delay (25–45 min) between each session play was less intense in the fourth session than in the first; if the interval was 5 min, it was more intense, indicative of post-inhibitory rebound, possibly caused by initial positive feedback of play on its own performance. We suggest that object play by adult is controlled by two mechanisms derived from predatory behaviour: one responds to prey-like stimulus characteristics, such as texture and small size, which elicit play, while the second detects change in the toy. The behavioural default towards any object is initial interest if it possesses relevant stimulus characteristics, followed by rapid habituation unless these stimulus characteristics change.

  67. 2007-pozza.pdf

  68. 1930-kuo.pdf

  69. 1938-kuo.pdf

  70. 1950-pitt-romanceofnature-v2-ch18-thewildcat.pdf

  71. 2010-kelly-whattechnologywants-ch11-lessonsofamishhackers.pdf: “What Technology Wants: Chapter 11, Lessons of AMish Hackers⁠, Kevin Kelly

  72. https://www.amazon.com/What-Technology-Wants-Kevin-Kelly/dp/0143120174

  73. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7243739/

  74. https://reason.com/archives/2007/02/07/who-owns-your-body-parts/print

  75. https://kk.org/thetechnium/1000-true-fans/

  76. https://www.amazon.com/Bad-Blood-Secrets-Silicon-Startup/dp/152473165X

  77. Books#bad-blood-carreyrou-2018

  78. ⁠, Alex Roland, Philip Shiman (2002):

    Between 1983 and 1993, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency () spent an extra $2$11993 billion on computer research to achieve machine intelligence.1 The Strategic Computing Initiative (SCI) was conceived at the outset as an integrated plan to promote computer chip design and manufacturing, computer architecture, and artificial intelligence software. These technologies seemed ripe in the early 1980s. If only DARPA could connect them, it might achieve what Pamela McCorduck called “machines who think.” What distinguishes Strategic Computing (SC) from other stories of modern, large-scale technological development is that the program self-consciously set about advancing an entire research front. Instead of focusing on one problem after another, or of funding a whole field in hopes that all would prosper, SC treated intelligent machines as a single problem composed of interrelated subsystems. The strategy was to develop each of the subsystems cooperatively and map out the mechanisms by which they would connect. While most research programs entail tactics or strategy, SC boasted grand strategy, a master plan for an entire campaign.

  79. ARPA

  80. https://www.amazon.com/Historicity-Jesus-Might-Reason-Doubt/dp/1909697494

  81. Books#on-the-historicity-of-jesus-carrier-2014

  82. 1992-miller-researchfraudbehavioralmedicalsciences.pdf

  83. Books#research-fraud-in-the-behavioral-and-biomedical-sciences-miller-1992

  84. Books#years-of-nobel-prizes-shalev-2002

  85. 1978-brower-fujiwarateikas100poemsequence.pdf

  86. Books#fujiwara-teikas-hundred-poem-sequence-of-the-shoji-era-1200-brower-1978

  87. https://www.amazon.com/Freeze-Frame-Revolution-Peter-Watts/dp/1616962526

  88. https://streamable.com/87z73

  89. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zcdHLUTKcgk

  90. https://www.dropbox.com/s/z0q0m2krkijwdx0/b.rosecrown-alfheim-%E5%A4%9C%E7%A5%AD.ogg?dl=0

  91. https://leme.me/verah/mp3/?C93/Lost%20Garden%20%E2%80%94%20ENIGMATIC%20LINER%20%5BMP3-V0%5D%5BC93%5D#trk6

  92. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M9-lPHwWp_0

  93. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTO3tja7uaQ

  94. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=neveSi-uENE

  95. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=riEGY-yXOO8

  96. https://www.dropbox.com/s/bmv7ozh2nq16h6s/marasy-vocalopiano-helloworker.ogg?dl=0

  97. https://www.dropbox.com/s/sxb86teclbga152/marasy-vocalopiano-%E5%BF%83%E5%81%9A%E3%81%97.ogg?dl=0

  98. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LmBiW56lZtc

  99. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A7GG5CCPIkI

  100. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qTHJv3SAMBY