Neon Genesis Evangelion source anthology

Extensive anthology of Gainax/Anno/Evangelion quotes, excerpts, sources, references, and analyses, organized by reliability and year.
NGE, anime, criticism, sociology, bibliography
2009-09-302021-02-10 notes certainty: log importance: 3

This page is an ex­ten­sive an­thol­ogy of Gainax/Hideaki An­no/Evan­ge­lion-re­lated quotes, ex­cerpts, sources, ref­er­ences, & analy­ses, or­ga­nized by re­li­a­bil­ity & year.

The pur­pose of com­pil­ing a large page of quotes & ref­er­ences clas­si­fied by date & source level is to make it eas­ier to put NGE into a his­tor­i­cal con­text by trac­ing the evo­lu­tion of plot or char­ac­ters, cross-ref­er­ence state­ments made in in­ter­views, jump for­ward and back­wards to flesh out oth­er­wise ob­scure al­lu­sions to events, and en­able easy key­word-based search for var­i­ous con­cepts (eg. the con­nec­tion of Ka­woru to cats, Gainax’s baffle­ment that view­ers might think Mis­ato killed Ka­ji, the in­flu­ence of earth­quakes on peo­ple, con­nec­tions to Aum Shin­rikyo, gar­bled in­for­ma­tion about sui­cide at­tempts, An­no’s con­ser­v­a­tive na­tion­al­ist views or phi­los­o­phy of “poi­son”, ret­cons like swap­ping the Adam and Lilith plot de­vices, pansper­mia & First An­ces­tral Race be­ing slowly re­moved from pro­duc­tion ma­te­ri­als and then post-NGE slowly re­stored, the many con­flict­ing pieces of in­for­ma­tion on the end of NGE TV and EoE, Ya­m­a­ga’s ques­tion­able re­li­a­bil­ity etc).

As I com­pile more ma­te­ri­al, I be­come in­creas­ingly con­vinced that far from Evan­ge­lion be­ing a baffling mys­tery, it is in fact one of the most un­der­stand­able anime out there, with a wealth of in­for­ma­tion about al­most every de­tail, from the ear­li­est plan­ning meet­ings to how long par­tic­u­lar episode pro­duc­tions took to the source of mi­nor de­tails like the “A-10 nerve”, and that Hideaki An­no, far from be­ing a ret­i­cent au­teur of mys­tery, has col­lec­tively been forth­com­ing about any­thing one might ask - to the point where mul­ti­ple in­ter­views could justly be de­scribed as “book-length” (the books in ques­tion be­ing June, Schizo, Prano, the 1.0 CRC, & the 2.0 CRC). There is so much ma­te­r­ial that half the diffi­culty is sim­ply col­lat­ing the ex­ist­ing ma­te­ri­als, and some ex­ten­sive sources seem to have been lost to both the Japan­ese and Eng­lish fan­doms (eg. there seem to be no men­tions or quo­ta­tions of the Anata to Watashi no Gainax in­ter­views in the Japan­ese we­b).

This page is sorted by chronol­ogy to al­low track­ing the flow of causal­ity and ref­er­ences over time, and help high­light changes like ret­cons or self­-serv­ing mem­o­ries. So the date is when­ever a source was cre­ated, not when it was pub­lished or oth­er­wise dis­sem­i­nat­ed. Within each year, en­tries are fur­ther cat­e­go­rized by level of in­volve­ment:

  1. Pri­mary is ma­te­r­ial from some­one who worked on an ob­ject of in­ter­est: eg. Hideaki Anno or Hi­royuki Ya­m­a­ga. (I in­clude Japan­ese seiyuu be­cause as Asuka’s last line shows, they have di­rect in­put, or as Rit­suko’s last line shows, spe­cial in­sight.)
  2. Sec­ondary is a source from some­one who knows Pri­maries or is re­port­ing about events/s­tate­ments first-hand: eg. Carl Horn or Toshio Okada, or fans at­tend­ing events.
  3. Ter­tiary is any source fur­ther re­moved than that—­main­stream news cov­er­age, aca­d­e­mic analy­sis, fan spec­u­la­tion & analy­sis etc.: eg. Mari Kotani, David Samuels, Aaron Clark. Ter­tiary sources can be in­sight­ful, but they also are often work­ing with ru­mor or out of date in­for­ma­tion.

Source is based on the ul­ti­mate ori­gins of in­for­ma­tion, not prox­i­mate; an email for­ward­ing an anony­mous fan trans­la­tion of a Anno in­ter­view in a Japan­ese book is con­sid­ered pri­ma­ry, not ter­tiary. Some peo­ple or ma­te­ri­als shift sta­tus­es; eg. Carl Horn is some­times record­ing Anno (pri­ma­ry), state­ments by Hi­royuki Ya­m­aga (pri­mary or sec­ondary), or his own in­ter­pre­ta­tions (ter­tiary). It is usu­ally clear which clas­si­fi­ca­tion ap­plies best.


1990 Primary

1990 Secondary

1990 Tertiary

ex­treme but in­ter­est­ing 1990 ar­ti­cle on otaku: ‘“I’m alone, but not lonely”: Japan­ese Otaku-Kids col­o­nize the Realm of In­for­ma­tion and Me­dia; A Tale of Sex and Crime from a far­away Place’


1991 P

An­i­m­age: What would you rec­om­mend?

An­no: Shows like Yam­ato or Gun­dam (1979, TV) which have soul, emit the staff’s “cry of mind” out of the screens as a cer­tain vi­bra­tion. On the other hand, I feel bad when I watch shows that are made slug­gishly with­out such soul.

… An­no: Of the movies, I rec­om­mend Gun­dam III - Meet­ing in Space. The pic­ture is quite nice. More­over, if I have to rec­om­mend Mr. Tomi­no’s an­i­ma­tion, I would choose Leg­endary Gi­ant IDEON (1980, TV). It would be best to watch the movie ver­sion’s Part II (1982, movie) after watch­ing the TV se­ries. Al­though some of the pic­ture qual­ity might be poor, please tol­er­ate it.

…An­no: Yes, I did, al­though it is a lit­tle bit light. I was just over­whelmed by its adult mood through­out the an­i­ma­tion. I can’t ex­press such mood yet. Ac­tu­al­ly, I felt sad when I watched Na­dia, which I di­rect­ed, soon after watch­ing it. I felt Na­dia was too child­ish. (laughs)

… An­no’s Top 10 Anime 1. Yam­ato (1974, TV) 2. Mo­bile Suit Gun­dam (1979, TV) 3. Gun­dam–Char’s Coun­ter­at­tack (1988, movie) 4. Leg­endary Gi­ant IDEON (1980, TV & movie) 5. An­i­mal Trea­sure Is­land (1971, movie) 6. Fight! Pyu­ta! (1968, TV) 7. Fu­ture Boy Co­nan (1978, TV) 8. Aim at Ace (1973, first TV se­ries) 9. Tom & Jerry (1944) 10. Ann the Red Hair [] (1979, TV)

–Kazuhiko Shi­mamoto (Gyakyoo Nine) and Hideaki Anno (Na­di­a); from An­i­m­age mag­a­zine, Sep­tem­ber 1991; trans­lated by Masashi Suzuki; The Rose #33, July 1992

1991 S

1991 T


1993 P

“We had no trou­ble start­ing up an­other project right away. All the out­side staff we had hired for Aoki Uru were now gone, but Anno and the rest were still there. They went on a re­treat to Mat­sumoto in Nagano and be­fore you knew it, they had a project plan all drawn up. Still, it would take over a year to go from project start to broad­cast. Anno had been run­ning on empty ever since Na­dia fin­ished, but Evan­ge­lion seemed to be just the thing to get him up and run­ning again. And once he puts his mind to some­thing, he goes all out…”

–Ya­suhiro Takeda, pg 165

Early Evangelion

Project Meeting

Pre­lim­i­nary Meet­ing


Be­fore the birth of the hu­man race, there twice ex­isted pre­his­toric civ­i­liza­tions with ad­vanced tech­nol­o­gy. The first civ­i­liza­tion (the First An­ces­tral Race) cre­ated the EVA, but be­cause of this they were de­stroyed. The next civ­i­liza­tion (the Sec­ond An­ces­tral Race) cre­ated the Spears of Long­i­nus, thus suc­cess­fully con­tain­ing the EVA; after­wards, as a coun­ter­mea­sure to any­one re­viv­ing the EVA, they planted An­gels all over the world.


At this stage EVA are not to be con­sid­ered “man-made”, but be­ings res­ur­rected by the An­ces­tral Races. Hence, the An­gels ex­ist largely to de­stroy the EVA and re­move traces of their pres­ence in the case of their re­vival. How­ev­er, it goes with­out say­ing that very sim­i­lar themes are to be found in some of Di­rec­tor An­no’s works such as Nau­si­caa of the Val­ley of the Wind and Na­dia. An­cient civ­i­liza­tions that boasted great tech­nol­ogy are a typ­i­cal theme found in Sci­ence Fic­tion ani­me. At this stage, it is diffi­cult to imag­ine works with the same level or orig­i­nal­ity and com­plex­ity com­ing after EVA.

–trans­lated by AyrYn­take from a Japan­ese fan­site, with un­clear sourcing; I date this to Sep­tem­ber-De­cem­ber 1993. That there are two pre­de­ces­sor civ­i­liza­tions is sup­ported by Ikuto Ya­mashita in the 1998 Sore o Na­sumono; Olivier Hagué in 2001:

Ac­tu­al­ly, I was re­fer­ring to the “two an­cient civ­i­liza­tions” bit men­tioned in “Sore o Nasu Mono”, here… I guess “Aruka” was sup­posed to be the ru­ins of one of those?…

Re­ichu offers a par­tial trans­la­tion of Sore o Na­sumono:

p. 45 [WEAPON]

By the time hu­man­ity came into be­ing, a pre­his­toric civ­i­liza­tion with su­per-ad­vanced tech­no­log­i­cal ca­pac­ity had ex­isted on Earth in two phas­es. The first civ­i­liza­tion made EVA, which brought upon their ru­in. The next civ­i­liza­tion made the Spear of Long­i­nus, and EVA was suc­cess­fully con­tained. Apos­to­los [An­gels] were placed into slum­ber as safe­guards – fully au­to­mated se­cu­rity de­vices, one could say – in the event that some­one later re­vived EVA.

Lit­tle did we know at the time that the story had al­ready got­ten away from us. But even so, this [the Spear con­cept de­sign] be­came des­ig­nated set­tei [set­ting de­sign work] at the project meet­ing.

Al­though a plain old spear is bor­ing, I pri­or­i­tized “ul­ti­mate tech­nol­ogy”-esque sim­plic­i­ty, leav­ing the de­sign at a twisted band of met­al. This started off as an an­ti-Eva gun bar­rel. Nor­mally it’s a looped thing re­sem­bling a rub­ber band stretched taut. The Spear’s shape folds the space in­side its rings, trap­ping vast en­ergy with­in, though this can’t be seen [in the draw­ing]. If an Eva ap­proach­es, the band tears sharply, form­ing a bar­rel that con­tains a twist. When the Spear is dri­ven into the Eva, a bul­let shell slides out that is gen­er­ated within the bot­tom-most ring.

Evangelion Proposal

Al­so, in the Eva pro­duc­tion time­line in the Col­lec­tors Box Set, Anno pro­posed the first in­-house draft of “Evan­ge­lion” to Gainax for con­sid­er­a­tion on Sep­tem­ber 20, 1993 – over two years be­fore the start of the se­ries.

The Se­ries Plan (2nd draft) and plot/syn­op­sis of all 26 episodes was sub­mit­ted on Jan­u­ary 5 of the fol­low­ing year (1994), and for the most part “fixed” (in-house) the fol­low­ing month on Feb­ru­ary 4. The Plan­ning Draft for ex­ter­nal dis­tri­b­u­tion was com­pleted in April of that same year – a year and a half be­fore the start of the se­ries.

Pro­duc­tion work for Ep.1 was com­pleted in April 1995, and Ep.2 in May 1995, but the open­ing and end­ing se­quences were not fin­ished un­til Sep­tem­ber.


In the notes of the DVD vol­ume 7, it says that the cat was sup­posed to be the real An­gel, ac­tu­al­ly…but in the pre­vi­ous out­line the Ka­woru is ‘hu­manoid An­gel’

http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/2001-March/039397.html TODO: I never did fig­ure out what notes these were; there is no cat in the Plat­inum com­men­tary

Ka­woru & cat sketch from New­type 100% Col­lec­tion

more pics & trans­la­tions; note that episodes 23-26 were re-trans­lated (& bet­ter):

Hu­man­ity has reached its evo­lu­tion­ary lim­it. Their sal­va­tion lies in in­vok­ing the Hu­man In­stru­men­tal­ity Pro­ject. In or­der to dis­rupt the plan, a group of uniden­ti­fied gi­ant bat­tle weapons have in­vad­ed.

The Apos­to­los. They’ve been given the names of an­gels, but can they re­ally be Mes­sen­gers of the Gods?

… [Notes: They use the word Kamigami, “Gods,” for the phrase (Kamigami no tsukai), or, “Mes­sen­gers of the Gods” on page 2. In this con­text it’s differ­ent than say­ing the one Chris­t­ian God. Kind of note­wor­thy, I thought. -AET]


The Feel Of A Game

The main project will in­clude all sorts of game el­e­ments to be in­laid into the main sto­ry.

In the sec­ond half of the sto­ry, prepa­ra­tions to in­vade a dis­cov­ered en­emy strong­hold would be done in the vein of a sim­u­la­tion or RPG game


Pos­sess­ing var­i­ous forms and var­i­ous su­per-sci­en­tific spe­cial abil­i­ties, the mys­te­ri­ous ob­jects Apos­to­los ad­vance upon mankind. In ac­tu­al­i­ty, they are an­cient relics that were left sleep­ing all around the world by pre­his­toric life­forms called the First An­ces­tral Race [!!!]. There are 28 in all. Adam was the first one con­firmed, ex­ca­vated by mankind 15 years ago in the Dead Sea re­gion, but it was de­stroyed by a mys­te­ri­ous ex­plo­sion. 27 will sub­se­quently awak­en.


The trans­la­tor does not ap­pear to be fa­mil­iar with the se­ries and thus some er­rors are pre­sent.

What is meant by “The Hu­man Com­ple­men­tary Plan,” a plan to save mankind from de­spair?

Mankind has al­ready ob­tained the power to an­tag­o­nize God. This is the ba­sis of this story and the great in­ter­na­tional project known as “The Hu­man Com­ple­men­tary Plan.” Half a cen­tury ago, we de­vel­oped nu­clear fu­sion. Next up for mankind, who can store the sun in the palm of his hand, is a com­ple­men­tary plan to cre­ate the “per­fect hu­man” with their own hands. The goal is to lib­er­ate all of mankind by sci­en­tifi­cally re-cre­at­ing “the tree of life” for­bid­den by God, by tak­ing away “death” from man, and by free­ing him from the orig­i­nal sin and the curse that plagues him. The one who is ad­vo­cat­ing and rec­om­mend­ing this plan is Gendo Ikari, the fa­ther of the main char­ac­ter. Through “ar­ti­fi­cial evo­lu­tion­ary re­search,” he is sin­gle-mind­edly pur­su­ing the form of a hu­man who has achieved the ul­ti­mate evo­lu­tion…


Spe­cially ed­u­cated and trained from the be­gin­ning as an ex­clu­sive op­er­a­tor. A de­ter­mined girl who is apt to stretch her­self de­pend­ing on the sit­u­a­tion. Hobby is play­ing video games. Hates to lose and hates boys. As­pires only to be like Ka­ji. Quar­ter Japan­ese, also has Ger­man-Amer­i­can blood. Step mother lives in Ger­many (her fa­ther passed away).

http://wi­k­i.e­vageek­­sources:­Neon_­Ge­n­e­sis_E­van­ge­lion_Pro­pos­al_(­Trans­la­tion)#­Page_13_.28Hu­man_In­stru­men­tal­i­ty_Pro­jec­t.29; note that in episode 23, Asuka holes up in Hikar­i’s room play­ing video games (‘HIKARI (MONO): She won’t go to school and she won’t go back home. She just keeps play­ing games.’). in Re­build 2.0 trail­er, Asuka whips out a hand­held to play. TODO: how much does she play in the movie?

[Gen­do:] Grad­u­ally be­com­ing fix­ated on the re­search it­self and turn­ing into a dig­i­tal­ized hu­man who jus­ti­fies any means in or­der to achieve the goal. Be­lieves his plan will form a utopia bring­ing true equal­ity to all peo­ple.


[To­ji] Fa­ther works for the re­search cen­ter.

…[Ken­suke] Fa­ther is a civil work­er. (Mother passed away.)

…[Ry­o­ji] Child­ish but very strict. Greatly in­flu­ences Shin­ji’s de­vel­op­ment.

…[Pen­Pen] Cre­ated ar­ti­fi­cially by ge­netic ma­nip­u­la­tion. In­tel­li­gence of an in­fant. Usu­ally re­sides in a large re­frig­er­a­tor. Loves to bathe in hot springs for some rea­son.

http://wi­k­i.e­vageek­­sources:­Neon_­Ge­n­e­sis_E­van­ge­lion_Pro­pos­al_(­Trans­la­tion)#­Page_13_.28Hu­man_In­stru­men­tal­i­ty_Pro­jec­t.29 Notes: Pen­Pen has no name though he has the manga back­story (?), Keel Lorenz is de­scribed quite differ­ent­ly, noth­ing about Hikari or To­ji’s mother - but note that Ken­suke’s mother is dead

Episode 13, 14, 16 – I be­lieve the trans­la­tion for orig­i­nal planned episode 13 should say that de­feat is ex­pected be­cause Shinji is more ar­ro­gant, not that Shinji ex­pected de­feat. If you think about the de­scrip­tions of these three episodes, you can see that most of it was com­pressed into Episode 16 in the se­ries. – Shinji gets a higher sync ra­tio than Asuka, so he be­comes ar­ro­gant. He gets trapped in­side the Eva (well trapped in the Eva in the An­gel). There’s a plan to res­cue Shinji from Unit 1. Shinji has a con­ver­sa­tion with an An­gel.

Episode 17 - Asuka’s first date. The ba­sis of this was used in Lies and Si­lence. Asuka does go on a date in that episode if we re­mem­ber. An­other trans­la­tion that I think I am read­ing cor­rect­ly; it should be Mis­ato re­calls past episodes not that she re­calls her own past. In other words, the clip show would have been here.

Episode 20 - NERV’s birth - so the de­tails changed, but it was still about the his­tory of NERV

Episode 21 - the un­der­wa­ter bat­tle was moved to a differ­ent episode, and the char­ac­ter changed but there was still a men­tal at­tack from an An­gel [A­suka in­stead of Shin­ji]

… Episode 25 - I be­lieve what the trans­la­tion should read here is that as the 12 most pow­er­ful An­gels de­scend from the Moon, the UN dis­solves Hu­man In­stru­men­tal­ity to stop it and re­solves to de­stroy the Lab­o­ra­tory be­cause that’s the rea­son the An­gel­s/A­pos­tles have been com­ing (I think “de­cid­ing on de­struc­tion” is re­fer­ring to the first sen­tence where it says Aruka is held by the Lab­o­ra­to­ry. After all, why would they dis­solve the project and then con­tinue at­tack­ing the An­gel­s?] And this is pretty close to what hap­pened in Episode 25’ Air; they send in the troops to take over.

–trans­la­tion cor­rec­tions & com­ments from JoeD80 with re­gard to the cur­rent Eva wiki trans­la­tion

1992 S

1993 T

GAINAX, the stu­dio that cre­ated Gun­buster, was made up of fans who re­al­ly–I mean re­al­ly–knew ani­me. They were out to have as much fun with it as pos­si­ble, and break a few bound­aries while they were at it. They were the best anime has ever seen. Look at their short film that opened , fol­low­ing that up with the in­cred­i­ble four-minute ROYAL SPACE FORCE, the film that got them the fund­ing for their mas­ter­piece (and only fea­ture film) THE WINGS OF HONNEAMISE. With NADIA and GUNBUSTER, they demon­strated they could pro­duce clas­sics in the TV and OAV gen­res as well. In their co­da, OTAKU NO VIDEO, they made ani­me’s great ro­man a clef, clos­ing the cir­cle for anime fans and ex­it­ing in style.

–Carl Horn


1994 P

“So why did Evan­ge­lion wind up with that shape?” I fig­ure that from now on I will hear that ques­tion count­less times. The di­rec­tor in­structed me to make, “the im­age of a de­mon [oni].” A gi­ant just barely un­der the con­trol of mankind. I get the feel­ing I’ve seen that cor­re­la­tion be­fore… The im­age I had for the de­sign con­cept was the fairy tale, Gul­liv­er’s Trav­els. Enor­mous Power Re­strained.

“Ikuto Ya­mashita Dis­cusses Eva’s De­sign” (Ikuto was the mecha de­sign­er)

[Yu­taka] Izubuchi drew some de­sign pro­pos­als on the Evan­ge­lions. Anno sent him in­struc­tions and rough sketch­es, and Izubuchi drew some de­signs. Izubuchi in­tro­duced one with four eyes like what unit 02 ended up hav­ing. We don’t know how much his pro­posal in­flu­enced the fi­nal de­sign though, since he’s not cred­ited for the fi­nal de­signs.

… I’d al­ways thought Izubuchi had in­flu­enced the mecha (for lack of a bet­ter term) de­signs in Eva; there’s a good deal of re­sem­blance be­tween the Eva-01 and Izubuchi’s Kaempfer de­sign from Gun­dam 0080, par­tic­u­larly around the head. Nice to see that there is ac­tu­ally some proof to back me up on this.


For the sal­va­tion of mankind who are ap­proach­ing evo­lu­tion­ary dead­-end as liv­ing things

“The Hu­man Sup­ple­ment Project” is put in mo­tion

At­tack­ing to pre­vent that pro­ject, an uniden­ti­fied fleet of gi­gan­tic bat­tle weapons ? “The Apos­tles”

Are they, be­stowed with the name of “An­gels”,

Re­ally “mes­sen­gers of the gods” at all?

pack­et, page 02; ten­ta­tively as­signed to 1994 Pri­ma­ry, pro­mo­tional ma­te­r­ial re­lated to the Pro­pos­al? (archive)

What is the ap­peal of Gi­ant Ro­bot Ani­me?

“Gi­ant ro­bot anime” is an ex­pres­sion of chil­dren’s sub­con­scious de­sires.

That is to say, the thing called “gi­ant ro­bot anime”

Is com­pen­sa­tion for the com­plexes and var­i­ous sup­pres­sions that chil­dren hold, a means of re­sis­tance, com­pen­satory be­hav­ior.

Adults know “the diffi­culty of liv­ing.”

And, at the same time they also know “the fun of liv­ing.”

In or­der to live, even if they know it is a “lie”

They know that “hope” and the “dream” called “jus­tice and love” are nec­es­sary.

We can com­mu­ni­cate purely to chil­dren with no sense of differ­ence be­tween fic­tion and re­al­ity due to a char­ac­ter­is­tic of the means of ex­pres­sion called an­i­ma­tion, name­ly, us­age of the view of the world where every­thing are “pic­tures” drawn by peo­ple.

That is the great­est ap­peal that “gi­ant ro­bot an­i­ma­tion” holds.

pack­age, page 03 (archive)

Japan­ese Chil­dren Avert­ing Their Eyes From Re­pul­sive Things…

This con­ver­sa­tion was made pos­si­ble thanks to An­no-san ex­press­ing his wish to speak with di­rec­tor Tomino dur­ing our in­ter­view for the V Gun­dam spe­cial edi­tion, be­ing a de­voted fan of his. An­no-san con­sid­er­ing V Gun­dam as the best TV anime in re­cent years,

Tomino: …G Gun­dam is some­one else’s work, but it’s not just a work aside of mine. I’m will­ing to fol­low its re­cep­tion.

Anno: I have hope in G Gun­dam. I think kids will like it. But I think works with com­pli­cated re­la­tion­ships like V Gun­dam don’t ap­peal to chil­dren any­more. As a mat­ter of fact, even peo­ple about 20 years old pre­fer clean stuff now, and are be­com­ing more and more re­luc­tant when filthy parts are vis­i­ble.

Tomino: Even when talk­ing about va­ri­ety, we often hear things like “In re­sponse to user’s re­quire­ments” or “to re­spond cus­tomer de­mand”, but what we’re offered are only differ­en­ti­a­tions in­side a very nar­row range of pos­si­bil­i­ties, not ac­tual va­ri­ety in my opin­ion.

An­i­m­age (to An­no): When you told us about it on May’s is­sue, you said the only so­lu­tion would be di­ver­si­fi­ca­tion.

Anno: On the other hand I think anime nowa­days has gone too far into its own spe­cial­iza­tion, to the point where it’ll soon col­lapse.

Anno: I did­n’t feel like it was rel­e­vant to blind her [a V Gun­dam char­ac­ter need­ing pun­ish­ment, Kate­ji­na]. Do­ing so makes it the main fo­cus of that cli­max. If she sur­vives any­ways she could have lost an arm, or a leg…

Tomino: These all in­fringed TV codes so we turned them down. Be­sides, that’s why we lim­ited our­selves to sug­gest­ing that she may not see any­more.

Anno: In the nov­el, Kate­jina gets burned. I pre­fer that.

Tomino: I’d rather have done that, but it’s com­pletely taboo on TV. Also when we re­flected on how much of that kind of im­agery an au­di­ence who prefers clean things could take, well…

An­i­m­age: So you mean there is an is­sue with the au­di­ence’s tol­er­ance to­wards that kind of rep­re­sen­ta­tion, even be­fore think­ing about taboos in the me­dia?

Tomino: That’s ex­actly the prob­lem. In that sense it’s to­tally true that we com­pro­mised too much.

Anno: That’s what I thought.

Tomino: Yes­ter­day I ran­domly came by [a D&D-themed RPG ani­me], that’s the name, right? So I watched it. On a tech­ni­cal view­point I thought “Wow, Rin­taro-san’s very good”. Even pro­cess­ing after his di­rect­ing was fine to my mind. But as a cre­ator, when I ac­tu­ally step into that kind of work, I can’t help but re­ject­ing it in­stantly and in its en­tire­ty. What do you think about it?

An­i­m­age: Draw­ings look good, and it was a big hit as a prod­uct.

Anno: I un­der­stand very well that it sells well. But I don’t find it en­ter­tain­ing.

An­i­m­age: View­ers’ mind­set seems to be on the side of en­joy­ing its safe, pre­de­ter­mined out­come.

Tomino: Of course, they would­n’t like to face what they find the most gross or un­com­fort­able on medi­ums like video or ani­me.

Anno: Since it’s com­pen­satory be­hav­ior, sure they don’t want to pay money to see re­pul­sive things. In V Gun­dam for in­stance, many kids stopped watch­ing when Uso’s mother died, say­ing they did­n’t want to watch an anime like this. View­ers re­act to peo­ple’s death more than we ex­pect.

Tomino: No doubt there are kids like that.

An­i­m­age: But now that the bub­ble has end­ed, there’s the eco­nomic cri­sis, and cli­mate is be­com­ing more and more aus­tere, so I think there will be changes from now.

Anno: On the con­trary, I think they’re go­ing to lock them­selves up even more.

Tomino: Chil­dren nowa­days lack the en­ergy to live in these times. I think peo­ple ac­tu­ally suffer­ing from autism would­n’t be able to live in such an en­vi­ron­ment. But I’m in the kind of po­si­tion where even if there’s only dark­ness one step ahead, I want to do my best un­til I die. At least I want to show that life is not so bad, even when we don’t know what we’re liv­ing for.

Anno: I think peo­ple need a will to live to keep on liv­ing. They won’t go on liv­ing un­less they’re re­peat­edly told to. If re­li­gions teach ob­vi­ous things such as ‘peo­ple must live even if they’re suffer­ing’, it’s prob­a­bly be­cause they need to be told so and to re­al­ize it in or­der to keep on liv­ing.

Tomino: Ex­act­ly. That’s how un­for­giv­ing the world is. Our only mes­sage is: be more pre­pared to it. But for chil­dren nowa­days, par­tic­u­larly mid­dle and high­-school­ers, maybe it’s their en­tire school life which causes them trou­ble. I think that’s why they don’t want to see de­press­ing im­ages, in­clud­ing the kind of story they could live them­selves. But the other im­por­tant thing is that there are chil­dren who ac­tu­ally take things as lit­tle as this harsh­ly.

Anno: In­deed.

Tomino: Re­cently there have been rice short­ages from time to time, and it’s a very good thing in my opin­ion. It al­lows them to imag­ine a lit­tle bit more se­ri­ously a case where there re­ally is­n’t any more food. The ad­van­tage for peo­ple cre­at­ing en­ter­tain­ment in that case is to be able to say “Sorry if it’s dis­turbing, but we’re show­ing these aus­tere parts in anime you like as well”, in case it helps 10 or 20 years from now (laugh).

Anno: In­deed, we must put a bit of poi­son in­side our works (laugh), par­tic­u­larly for chil­dren.

–July 1994 is­sue of An­i­m­age; “In­ter­view: Hideaki Anno vs. Yoshiyuki Tomino (An­i­m­age - 07/1994)”/“Japan­ese Chil­dren Avert­ing Their Eyes From Re­pul­sive Things…”; trans­lated by Noh Acro for Wave Mo­tion Can­non

1994 S

1994 T

In the end, Leiqun­ni’s at­tempt to iso­late her­self from a world she re­gards as evil is no more pro­duc­tive than Shi­ro’s ini­tial re­fusal to even con­sider good and evil in the world (that’s why I pre­fer to ren­der his open­ing line as “I don’t know if it’s good or bad” al­though one could say “For bet­ter or worse”). HONNEAMISE is a film ad­vo­cat­ing an­ti-de­tach­ment.

… Ya­m­aga has not merely jerked Shi­ro’s strings to com­mit this ac­t–in­deed, the act de­rives from choice and serves to il­lus­trate that Shiro knows he has a choice–Leiqunni be­lieves she has none. Leiqunni be­lieves in orig­i­nal sin, that “all are guilty.” But if one is guilty from birth, the en­tire con­cept of “sin” as a choice be­comes mean­ing­less, for we are evil–in­deed, doomed, by na­ture and can do noth­ing but ask for grace.

But Shiro does­n’t be­lieve this is true. His prayer at the end comes only after a long string of con­scious choic­es, ac­tions, and de­ci­sions on his part. He prays not out of a be­lief that God’s mercy is the only thing that can save the help­lessly evil hu­man race–on the con­trary, his prayer is based on the care­ful ob­ser­va­tion of hu­man­i­ty’s his­tor­i­cal record: full of choices that led to slaugh­ter. And yet, he si­mul­ta­ne­ously rec­og­nizes that the same hu­man race has made it here, to “God’s space”–what used to be thought of as Heav­en. What he be­seech­es, then, is a light to mankind–“In our de­spair, give us one, fixed star.” A bea­con of truth–to re­mind us that we al­ways have a choice.

The more I look at HONNEAMISE, the more con­vinced I am that Ya­m­aga knew what he was do­ing. The film holds with [An­dre] Gide’s warn­ing: “Do not un­der­stand me too quick­ly.” Whether the ne­ces­sity for the viewer to go back again to fully com­pre­hend it, will be a li­a­bil­ity in its re­lease here–I don’t know–there is so much one can get from the first view­ing on­ly. But in that en­durance, the viewer dis­cov­ers that which en­dures: the art of THE WINGS OF HONNEAMISE. The film is Ya­m­a­ga’s choice–and al­so, still, a light to ani­me–a genre that does­n’t be­lieve in it­self as it should…

–Carl Horn, “Some more thoughts on the rape scene in HONNEAMISE; in­ci­den­tal­ly, Bochan_bird bought Hon­neamise “char­ac­ter/mecha draw­ing ref­er­ences and an­i­ma­tor sto­ry­boards”, and men­tions “The at­tempted rape scene un­folds differ­ently in the sto­ry­boards.”


1995 P

And in that world, a 14-year-old boy shrinks from hu­man con­tact. And he tries to live in a closed world where his be­hav­ior dooms him, and he has aban­doned the at­tempt to un­der­stand him­self. A cow­ardly young man who feels that his fa­ther has aban­doned him, and so he has con­vinced him­self that he is a com­pletely un­nec­es­sary per­son, so much so that he can­not even com­mit sui­cide.

And there is a 29-year-old woman who lives life so lightly as to barely al­low the pos­si­bil­ity of a hu­man touch. She pro­tects her­self by hav­ing sur­face level re­la­tion­ships, and run­ning away.

Both are ex­tremely afraid of be­ing hurt. Both are un­suit­able-lack­ing the pos­i­tive at­ti­tude-for what peo­ple call he­roes of an ad­ven­ture. But in any case, they are the he­roes of this sto­ry.

They say, “To live is to change.” [This is ap­par­ently a quote of the last line of Miyaza­k­i’s Nau­si­caa man­ga.] I started this pro­duc­tion with the wish that once the pro­duc­tion com­plete, the world, and the he­roes would change. That was my “true” de­sire. I tried to in­clude every­thing of my­self in Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion - my­self, a bro­ken man who could do noth­ing for four years. A man who ran away for four years, one who was sim­ply not dead. Then one thought. “You can’t run away,” came to me, and I restarted this pro­duc­tion. It is a pro­duc­tion where my only thought was to burn my feel­ings into film. I know my be­hav­ior was thought­less, trou­ble­some, and ar­ro­gant. But I tried. I don’t know what the re­sult will be. That is be­cause within me, the story is not yet fin­ished. I don’t know what will hap­pen to Shin­ji, Mis­ato or Rei. I don’t know where life will take them. Be­cause I don’t know where life is tak­ing the staff of the pro­duc­tion. I feel that I am be­ing ir­re­spon­si­ble. But… But it’s only nat­ural that we should syn­chro­nize our­selves with the world within the pro­duc­tion. I’ve taken on a risk: “It’s just an im­i­ta­tion.”

…July 17, 1995, In the stu­dio, a cloudy, rainy day.

…By the way, Shin­ji’s name came from a friend of mine. Mis­ato’s name came from the hero of a man­ga. The name Rit­suko came from a friend of mine in mid­dle school. I bor­rowed from every­where. Even names that have no bear­ing on any­thing ac­tu­ally came from the count­less rules that gov­ern these things. It might be fun if some­one with free time could re­search them.

“What were we try­ing to make here?” An­no, orig­i­nal manga vol 1 (for char­ac­ter name sources, see An­no’s 2000 dis­cus­sion of Char­ac­ter Name Ori­gins)

[An­no] ’“It is­n’t com­pleted yet, but in episodes one and two my re­cent ‘feel­ings’ should be faith­fully re­flect­ed. When I re­al­ized this I thought ‘Ah, well done.’”

… [An­no] “I think this will be­come a greater cult film than ‘Na­dia’, be­cause there will prob­a­bly not be an­other work with this ‘feel­ing’.”

… We vis­ited Gainax to­wards the end of Jan­u­ary. By then, they were busy re­fin­ing the first few episodes of the new TV se­ries “New Cen­tury Evan­ge­lion.” To start off our in­for­ma­tion gath­er­ing, Anno Hideaki said, “How could I think of do­ing an old-fash­ioned ro­bot ani­me?”

… Think­ing this, we won­dered why he would par­tic­i­pate in and di­rect a ro­bot anime pro­ject.

“One rea­son is that we thought it would be good to put on TV a ro­bot anime that is not spon­sored by a toy com­pa­ny.”

He said that since hav­ing an at­tached spon­sor can in­ter­rupt how the mecha is de­signed, this work was not go­ing to have one. He also said, “Ro­bot anime has been stuck in a pat­tern, and we wanted to break out of it.” They are try­ing to make a film with an en­tirely differ­ent stance than “ro­bot anime” be­ing made with tie-ins to or­di­nary toy com­pa­nies. [See the Ot­suki anec­dote in the “Shin­seiki Evan­ge­lion” chap­ter of The Notenki Mem­oirs.]

He said that orig­i­nally this was not a project that started with a psy­che­d-up feel­ing, but when they be­gan the real project it be­gan turn­ing into a fairly “hard and heavy” ro­bot ani­me.

Al­so, as he was in­volved in this work he had a thought some­thing like the fol­low­ing. “For ex­am­ple, I won­der if a per­son over the age of twenty who likes ro­bot anime is re­ally hap­py.1 He could find greater hap­pi­ness else­where. Re­gret­tably, I have my doubts about his hap­pi­ness.”

… The pro­tag­o­nist, Ikari Shin­ji, is not por­trayed as an “otaku”, but from my point of view [the re­porter’s] he is not mak­ing a pos­i­tive start in his work, and he could be con­sid­ered a de­pen­dent young man.

“As I was mak­ing this work I wanted to try to con­sider what in the world could the ‘hap­pi­ness’ of such a per­son be?”

… Ayanami Rei

Voice by: Hayashibara Megumi

Pi­lot of Evan­ge­lion de­vice #0. Ret­i­cent, rarely show­ing her emo­tions, a ni­hilist. She’s 14.

Kat­suragi Mis­ato

Voice by: Mit­su­ishi Kotono

In­tro­duced as be­ing like Shin­ji’s older sis­ter. She ap­pears to be an op­ti­mist, but she has a core of firm­ness. Her pri­vate life is quite….. She’s 29.

(Rit­suko im­age) Ak­agi Rit­suko

Voice by: Ya­m­aguchi Yuriko

The per­son re­spon­si­ble for the Evan­ge­lion de­vel­op­ment team. In­tel­lec­tu­al, firm. She and Mis­ato are close friends. 30.

(Sh­inji im­age) Ikari Shinji

Voice by: Ogata Megumi

Pro­tag­o­nist of the sto­ries. He be­comes the pi­lot of the #1 Evan­ge­lion de­vice. He’s a rel­a­tively obe­di­ent hon­or-s­tu­dent type. He’s 14.

(A­suka im­age) So­ryu Asuka Lan­g­ley

Voice by: Miya­mura Yuko

Pi­lot of the #2 Evan­ge­lion de­vice. High­-spir­ited per­son­al­i­ty, Japan­ese-Ger­man an­ces­try, from the Amer­i­can quar­ter. 14.

“Skill Up”; (“From New­type, April 4, p. 4, ar­ti­cle en­ti­tled ‘Skill Up’.” In­ter­nal ev­i­dence dates this to April 1995)

LD Liner Notes Vol.4

Voices from the Cast - Miya­mura Yuko

… Di­rec­tor An­no: “Hey, what kind of stuffed an­i­mal do you like?”

Miya­mu­ra: “Mon­keys (heart mark)”

…[Note: Asuka’s stuffed mon­key doll is a pre-Eva char­ac­ter drawn by Miya­mura Yuko, and is her trade­mark, ap­pear­ing in many of her other works and some­times her au­to­graph.]


A ques­tion from a lis­tener (for Kotono [Mit­su­ishi]), “Is there any new TV show that you will be do­ing a voice for this spring? Is there any new show that you will be do­ing with Megu­mi?”
Megumi [Hayashibara] said, “Well not this spring, but this fall. Evan­ge­lion. We will start record­ing the voices soon.”
Kotono said, “It has ro­bots, and a boy rides in it. I still don’t know much about it.”
Megumi said, “I’m sur­prised that I’m do­ing a girl who does­n’t talk much at all.”
Kotono said, “Yeah, there are three who ride the ro­bots.”
Megumi said, “The cute girl, the boy (O­gata Megu­mi), and the quiet girl (me). I have to chal­lenge some­thing new.”
Kotono said, “For me this is the first time I’m do­ing a role of some­one older than my­self.”
Megumi said, “I also au­di­tioned for that role too. But the di­rec­tor sud­denly asked me to au­di­tion for the other role too. I thought that it was­n’t me, but you never know what hap­pens.”

–1995-03-25 episode of Tokyo Boo­gie Nights ra­dio show, Hi­toshi Doi; in the same show, Megumi Hayashibara dis­cusses her sur­prise at the male ho­mo­sex­ual vil­lains in the re­cently air­ing Sailor Moon - one of which seiyuu, Ishida Aki­ra, would voice Ka­woru Nag­isa

What I read in Evan­ge­lion De­sign Work, is that, Mr. Anno asked every staff on the team to write out what the end­ing of the TV se­ries should be and in the De­sign Book Ya­mashita Ikuto (the main mecha de­sign­er) re-printed his sto­ry…

BTW, Mr. Anno ask the staff to do that as a way to gen­er­ate ideas/leads for his own end­ing.

http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/1998-Au­gust/019406.html (Ten­ta­tive guess at 1995 rather than ’94)

  • _E­van­ge­lion De­sign Work (the afore­men­tioned Ya­mashita book; par­tial trans­la­tion of his movie pro­pos­al; next to noth­ing on his TV end­ing)

Yes­ter­day I bought “Sore wo Nasu mono: Shin Seiki EVANGELION de­sign works” by YAMASHITA Ikuto and KIO Sei­ji. ISBN num­ber is 4-04-852908-0. On page 44, YAMASHITA com­ments:

Well, ‘se­ri­ous’ fans may feel anger that I got in­spi­ra­tion of EVA-02 from syn­chro­nized-swim­mer-gay(1) with gog­gles who ap­pears with cry­ing ‘SEXY DYNAMITES!’ be­fore the last stage of PC-Engine game ‘CHOU-ANIKI’(2)

(1) not a typo of “syn­chro­nized-swim­mer-guy”. (2) “Chou-ANIKI” is, IIRC, a shoot­ing game. What’s pe­cu­liar of the game is, both back­ground story and all the char­ac­ters are writ­ten/de­signed un­der the con­cept of “stereo­typ­i­cal im­age of mus­cu­lar gay” ( again, not “mus­cu­lar guy” ).


In 1995, Sadamoto told New­type mag­a­zine what led him to vol­un­teer for the manga job:

Four years after Na­dia, I be­gan to think it would be fun to write and plan a man­ga. At the time I had no ex­pe­ri­ence in that area, but it was some­thing I re­ally wanted to try. Every­one wanted to see my pre­vi­ous work or sales fig­ures, but I had noth­ing that would prove I was a bona fide comic cre­ator

The ap­proach­ing re­lease of Gainax’s new se­ries gave Sadamoto that chance to prove him­self. Re­sist­ing the doubts of his Gainax col­leagues, Sadamoto took the scripts and sto­ry­boards for the TV episodes, and be­gan pro­duc­ing 24 pages a month for Shonen Ace mag­a­zine.

‘When I started on the man­ga, we’d only plot­ted about five or six episodes, so I did­n’t have too much of an idea where we were go­ing. We had­n’t even de­cided what colour Evan­ge­lion was go­ing to be, or how to de­sign the cock­pit! Al­so, al­though I was very well ac­quainted with cer­tain char­ac­ters through my as­sign­ments as a de­sign­er, I had to im­merse my­self in the rest of the Evan­ge­lion uni­verse, in whose cre­ation I had­n’t been so closely in­volved.’

For this rea­son, the first few is­sues of the manga kept ex­tremely close to the TV sto­ry­line. But Sadamoto was al­ready us­ing the manga to play up his own in­ter­ests, ac­cen­tu­at­ing el­e­ments that might have passed the view­ing au­di­ence by. In the manga ver­sion, the first shot of the un­der­wa­ter an­gel at­tack shows it drift­ing past the sub­merged hulk of the Gainax build­ing. The char­ac­ter of Doc­tor Ikari is slightly more sym­pa­thet­ic: the Sadamoto ver­sion per­mits him a re­lieved smile when Shinji agrees to pi­lot the Evan­ge­lion. It also puts the early episodes back into chrono­log­i­cal or­der, ditch­ing the ani­me’s flash­back ap­proach which saves Shin­ji’s first bat­tle un­til the end of episode two.

‘Of course I wanted to add as much to it as I could,’ says Sadamo­to, ‘and to try and make the manga ver­sion slightly differ­ent. The TV se­ries is very much dom­i­nated by Hideaki Anno and the staff, but the manga is a “Sadamoto Brand” pro­duct, be­cause I’ve been able to de­vote my­self to it.’

Sadamoto recog­nised early that the anime team would al­ways have more suc­cess with the mov­ing, ful­l-colour bat­tle sce­nes, and so con­cen­trates more on the char­ac­ters’ thoughts and feel­ings. Con­se­quent­ly, there is more in the manga on the psy­cho­log­i­cal dam­age suffered by the pi­lots, and ex­tra scenes of Shinji re­cu­per­at­ing in the hos­pi­tal. Most no­tably, there is a cy­cle of dream se­quences in which Shinji en­coun­ters his moth­er, only to see her trans­form into a fear­some Evan­ge­lion ma­chine.

Manga Ma­nia, 1998?

Hayao Miyaza­ki, from Jan­u­ary 1995 Comic Box, “I Un­der­stand NAUSICAA a Bit More than I Did a Lit­tle While Ago” (com­pare An­no’s 2010 mem­o­ries about mak­ing new Nau­si­caa, and Miyaza­k­i’s 2013 com­ment “I’ve come to think lately that if he wanted to do it, it would be fine for him to do it”):

MIYAZAKI; Nau­si­caa and Kushana are very sim­i­lar - they are two sides of the same coin. But Kushana, whose back­ground I showed a lit­tle of, has some deep, phys­i­cal wounds. I think that she had the ca­pac­ity to be­come an ex­tremely fair ruler. But I did­n’t know if a com­pe­tent front line com­man­der was ca­pa­ble of be­ing a com­pe­tent ruler, so I did­n’t make her one. I made her a sur­ro­gate ruler, some­one who could take the place of the king. I thought that she could be lim­ited to that role. But as I wrote about her, I kept feel­ing sorry for her. Her char­ac­ter was­n’t be­ing com­mu­ni­cated through the writ­ing. I was per­plexed. I thought that I had to touch on her re­la­tion­ship with her mother and that I had to de­pict her more clear­ly, but I had only one page in which to do all that. In the end, though, I had no choice but to get to it.

  • I had­n’t thought about it that deeply. Mr. Anno (di­rec­tor of ‘Fushigi no Umi no Na­dia’) pre­vi­ously sent a note say­ing that he would like to write a story with Kushana as the hero­ine. I feel that it would be a rather in­ter­est­ing sto­ry.

MIYAZAKI: No, I don’t think so. It would be bor­ing. He just wants to play war games. I don’t dis­like play­ing war - I think that the bat­tle scene I did in vol­ume 3 was done per­fect­ly. It was done well enough that I could say “See! Told you so!!” - but that’s just over­ween­ing pride. When it comes to de­pict­ing war, I think that I can do it just as well as any­one else. But Nau­si­caa is not a manga about war.

  • But [ob­sti­nate­ly] what’s wrong with hav­ing an hour and a half long fight­ing scene with Kushana as a peer­less front line com­man­der?

MIYAZAKI: It’s use­less. Ter­ri­ble. Well, that goes with­out say­ing, does­n’t it? If that’s the only plan that’s been made then it would be much bet­ter to just give up the movie en­tire­ly. [laughs] Lots of movies about peer­less front line com­man­ders have al­ready been done in Amer­i­ca. Com­bat for ex­am­ple. [the 1962-1972 se­ries ?]

— What was the rea­son you wanted to do an orig­i­nal work, de­spite these cir­cum­stances?

An­no: Of course, for my­self (laugh­s). There is al­ways a very per­sonal rea­son for cre­at­ing [some­thing]. There is prob­a­bly no need to say any more [than that] here.

— Even so, in­sist­ing on some­thing orig­i­nal-?

An­no: It’s prob­a­bly so my self­-ex­is­tence will re­main within the film.

New­type Jan­u­ary 1995; “Cre­ator’s Talk - Anno Hideaki x Yoshiyuki Sadamoto”, un­trans­lated tran­script; ex­cerpt by Num­ber­s-kun; there is ap­par­ently an­other in­ter­view in the Jan­u­ary is­sue: “on page 14 it’s be­tween Anno and a cou­ple of the Seiyuu”

Episode 8

http://­fo­rum.e­vageek­­­p?p=289843#289843 “Did­n’t quite un­der­stand this, but might be part of a draft for episode#8?”: http://ame­­suyasan/en­try-10351913360.html Google Trans­late does­n’t help; ten­ta­tively as­signed to 1995: if episode 8, might be 1994?

Episode 24

In Au­gust & No­vem­ber 1996, Anno was ex­ten­sively in­ter­viewed by the fu­joshi-ori­ented , which was re­pub­lished as a book. From Carl Horn’s “Eight Books of Evan­ge­lion”

1143 YEN - ISBN4-906011-25-X - ABOUT 6 inches BY 8 inches

Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion JUNE Tokuhon: Zankoku-na Ten­shi no These, “The Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion JUNE Reader”–the book’s sub­ti­tle is the name of the open­ing theme of Eva, “Like a Cruel An­gel’s Premise”. The cover shot is of Ka­woru gaz­ing up smil­ing from within Shin­ji’s tightly clenched fist, and the ed­i­tors of the JUNE Reader know from whereof they speak on the top­ic; for over twenty years the bi-(­nat­u­ral­ly) monthly mag­a­zine has car­ried the flam­ing torch of shonen ai (“boy love”), the cat­e­gory of manga that in­volves gay re­la­tion­ships.

The JUNE Reader gets a 30-page in­ter­view out of Hideaki Anno (one of his longest ever), kick­ing off the book with his thoughts not only on Shinji and Ka­woru, but im­por­tant in­flu­ences on the di­rec­tor like Nau­si­caa and Dev­il­man, and his thoughts on shojo manga as a genre.

NGE episode 24 drafts overview

Draft 1:

Draft 2: Dis­cus­sion of drafts, ex­tra ma­te­r­ial

In­de­pen­dent cov­er­age of Draft 1’s in­vo­ca­tion of , also draw­ing on June

See also Patrick Yip’s com­ments on the ar­chaic and fem­i­nine nam­ing of Ka­woru.

Mor­gan Bau­man has been in­de­pen­dently trans­lat­ing parts of June (EGF com­pi­la­tion):

First half: http://av­o­cado-s­lice.­tum­blr.­com/­post/50755437341/sato-we-made-a-spe­cial-col­lec­tion-about-e­va-then

Cake-s­lice com­ments:

There are some scenes men­tioned in the JUNE book in­ter­view that does­n’t ap­pear in these drafts, or have a vari­a­tion which are prob­a­bly An­no’s do­ing when mak­ing Episode 24 him­self. For ex­am­ple:

  1. A scene at the school’s mu­sic room.
  2. The scene with them bathing at the lake, but at night. Also men­tioned here.

…Some events in sec­ond draft are sightly sim­i­lar to the manga ver­sion of Ka­woru’s episodes [post-2002]. Dare to say that the manga would have prob­a­bly turned out like this draft if Ka­woru was­n’t rewrote to be so­cially re­tarded and Shinji was­n’t so brat­ty.

  1. Shinji finds Ka­woru play­ing pi­ano on the ru­ins of what was the school gym.
  2. There is an scene of Shinji faint­ing and Ka­woru tak­ing care of him for a while.
  3. They also kiss but in Shin­ji’s room and no­body is get­ting punched or screamed at for that (lol).

This draft also im­plies hor­ri­ble things be­tween Rit­suko, Rei and Gen­do…

1995 S

1995 T

  • 1995-animer­i­ca-newdi­rec­tion­ro­b­ot­anime.pdf
  • 1995-e­bert-chicago­sun­times-hon­neamis­ere­view.txt
  • 1995-mangazine-pre­viewde­scrip­tion.pdf


1996 P

Be­cause there is no real orig­i­nal in this world but one’s life.

–An­no, Stu­dio Voice Oc­to­ber 1996; trans­lated by Num­ber­s-kun

In­ter­view­er: Is it pos­si­ble that the fates of the char­ac­ters in the manga (drawn by Sadamo­to) will differ from the ani­me?

Sadamo­to: Well, that’s pos­si­ble. I might have every­body die, for ex­am­ple. Maybe some­thing like, “This is get­ting diffi­cult to keep up… Okay, next month is the fi­nal episode!” -K­a­boom! (laugh) Third Im­pact oc­curs and it’s over! (laugh)

In­ter­view­er: (laugh) Well, I hope you won’t let that hap­pen…

–trans­lated by Bochan_bird: “The Japan­ese for this in­ter­view can be found on P64 of the Photo File”Eve“. (In­ter­viewed on Feb­ru­ary 14, 1996 - be­fore the ini­tial air­ing of the TV se­ries end­ed)”

On the unique ap­pear­ance of the Evan­ge­lion Units…

ANNO: There is a mon­ster in Japan called the oni, which has two horns stick­ing out of its head, and the over­all im­age of the EVA is based on that. I wanted also to have an im­age that be­neath the im­age of that ro­bot mon­ster is a hu­man. It’s not re­ally a ro­bot, but a gi­ant hu­man, so it’s differ­ent from other ro­bot mecha such as those in Gun­dam.

On Gun­buster’s al­ter­nate fu­ture – is it dom­i­nated by Rus­sia?

ANNO: There’s a Japan­ese Em­pire. In the year 2000, the U.S. and Japan had a war, and Japan oc­cu­pied Hawaii. Sor­ry.

On the de­ci­sion to have the fi­nal episode of Gun­buster in black­-and-white…

ANNO: When you have col­or, you have an ex­tra di­men­sion of in­for­ma­tion. Color would have got­ten in the way of the sense of scale we wanted to por­tray with the black hole bomb. Also – no one had ever done it be­fore.

On the date 2015 which fig­ures in both Gun­buster and Evan­ge­lion…

ANNO: The date is from an old show I liked as a kid, and it was also the year in which Tet­suwan Atom took place.

…On anime cre­ators who in­spired him…

ANNO: Out­side of my staff, Mr. Yoshiyuki Tomi­no. Tomi­no’s Mo­bile Suit Gun­dam and Space Run­away Ideon are my fa­vorite anime be­sides Yam­a­to. Hayao Miyaza­ki, with whom I worked on Nau­si­caa, an­i­mat­ing the scene where the God-Sol­dier fires, was also a men­tor to me.

…On how the pro­tag­o­nist of Evan­ge­lion re­flects Anno him­self…

ANNO: Shinji does re­flect my char­ac­ter, both in con­scious and un­con­scious part. In the process of mak­ing Evan­ge­lion, I found out what kind of per­son I am. I ac­knowl­edged that I’m a fool.

On his re­li­gious be­liefs…

ANNO: I don’t be­long to any kind of or­ga­nized re­li­gion, so I guess I could be con­sid­ered ag­nos­tic. Japan­ese spir­i­tu­al­ism holds that there is kami (spir­it) in every­thing, and that’s closer to my own be­liefs.

On whether he is a veg­e­tar­ian like Na­dia and Rei …

ANNO: I like to­fu. I just don’t want to eat meat or fish. It’s not for re­li­gious rea­sons.

On ex­press­ing him­self through an­i­ma­tion…

ANNO: An­i­ma­tion makes sense to peo­ple in the process of their see­ing it. So when peo­ple get con­fused by my themes, or can­not get the over­all mes­sage, the con­nec­tion is not re­ally go­ing through, be­cause it did­n’t sat­isfy that per­son. So there would be less mean­ing for that in­di­vid­ual. There has to be a re­la­tion­ship that comes into be­ing be­tween the per­son watch­ing and what the char­ac­ter’s say­ing in the an­i­ma­tion it­self.

…On Evan­ge­lion’s suc­cess…

ANNO: As for all the mer­chan­dis­ing, it’s just a mat­ter of eco­nom­ics. It’s strange that Evan­ge­lion has been a hit. Every­one in it is sick!

On his next pro­ject…

ANNO: An­other TV show, prob­a­bly some kind of space ad­ven­ture.

…On the fu­ture of the anime in­dus­try…

ANNO: The cre­ators have to change their frame of mind for the field to ad­vance. And it does­n’t look too hope­ful in to­day’s Japan. It’s in a crit­i­cal con­di­tion right now. I don’t think there’s any bright fu­ture. That’s be­cause the peo­ple who are pro­duc­ing it are not do­ing well. But there’s also prob­lems in the peo­ple who are watch­ing it. The peo­ple who make it, and the peo­ple who want it, they’re al­ways want­ing the same things. They’ve been mak­ing only sim­i­lar things for the past ten years, with no sense of ur­gency. To get it go­ing once more, you need to force peo­ple to go out­side, to go out again.

…On his hob­bies and in­ter­ests…

ANNO: My hobby is scuba div­ing, and be­sides sci­ence fic­tion, I like to read ro­mance nov­els writ­ten by women. Since I’m a male, I don’t re­ally know the emo­tions of women. And be­cause I want to un­der­stand their feel­ings, and cre­ate more re­al­is­tic fe­male char­ac­ters, this is some­thing I have to pur­sue.

To an Amer­i­can fan who boasted of hav­ing spent all his school­book money on anime goods…

ANNO: You’re a fool. Study hard­er. If I could go back in time and tell my col­lege-age self some­thing, I would tell him to study hard­er, too.

…On get­ting into the anime in­dus­try…

ANNO: If you want to get into ani­me, my best ad­vice to you as a cre­ator is to please have di­verse in­ter­ests in things be­sides an­i­ma­tion. Look out­ward, first of all. Most anime mak­ers are ba­si­cally autis­tic. They have to try and reach out, and truly com­mu­ni­cate with oth­ers. I would guess that the great­est thing anime has ever achieved is the fact that we’re hold­ing a di­a­logue right here and now.

–“Vir­tual Pan­el! Meet Hideaki An­no,” Ani­mer­ica 4:9, p. 27 http://we­­b/20020606012703/http://­mas­ter­work.ani­me­me­di­a.­com/E­van­ge­lion/an­no.html

“This was a one-page tran­script of An­no’s re­marks at Anime Expo ’96. This is hard to imag­ine to­day, but at that point (July 1996) the se­ries had been over for two months, yet many Amer­i­can fans still had­n’t seen it–not be­cause they did­n’t want to, but be­cause there was as yet no dig­i­tal dis­tri­b­u­tion of ani­me, fan or li­censed–only by get­ting a phys­i­cal copy of the tape could you watch it. This lim­ited the speed at which an au­di­ence could grow, of course, and ADV’s ver­sion was not yet on the mar­ket. Anno said a few things at the AX’96 panel that have been re­mem­bered, but what I find most in­ter­est­ing is”when asked about Evan­ge­lion’s last two episodes, which up­set many fans, Anno cooly replied, ‘I have no prob­lem with them. If there’s a prob­lem, it’s all with you guys. Too bad.’" I’m not ab­solutely sure (it may be in my tran­scrip­tion notes) but I think Anno might have said “too bad” in Eng­lish, pre­sum­ably for em­pha­sis."

Carl Horn on the AX panel

“Pen-Pen was a cre­ation of Sadamo­to, to soften the at­mos­phere. But I tended to for­get its ex­is­tence.”

“I’d say Asu­ka. She’s cute.”

“Last year I brought back some of your mir­a­cle drug, .”

– Some of Carl Horn’s (TODO: ask him for rest of 3 pages) ran­dom notes of things Anno said

This was ex­cerpted from the Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion Book Two:3’s let­ters page, fea­tur­ing Q&A with Hi­royuki Ya­m­aga from Fanime Con ’98.

And speak­ing of let­ters pages, Book One:3 had a ques­tion Widya asked Hideaki Anno at Anime Expo ’96:

WS: Would you con­sider your­self to be more of the John Lennon or Paul Mc­Cart­ney of Gainax?

HA: I don’t lis­ten to the Beat­les, so I don’t know.

Fu­uma Mo­nou

There are too many painful things for peo­ple to go on liv­ing in re­al­i­ty.

Thus, hu­mans run and hide in dreams.

They watch films as en­ter­tain­ment.

…If the di­rec­tor so de­sires, even mal­ice to­ward oth­ers could be in­tro­duced straight into film. I guess that’s one of the at­trac­tive things about ani­me. Chang­ing the tribu­la­tion of re­al­ity into dreams and con­vey­ing that to the peo­ple… is that what our work is? For the sake of peo­ple who for­get re­al­ity un­til the bill comes due, who want to de­vote them­selves to happy fal­lac­ies. I guess that’s our job in the en­ter­tain­ment and ser­vice2 sec­tor.

One of the dis­tinc­tive fea­tures of Stu­dio Ghi­b­li’s works is that, even if there are ob­ses­sive ac­tions, there are things which ap­pear to have not for­feited their goal. For­feit­ing ones goal leads to de­spair, and is a sick­ness that can prove fa­tal. I won­der if Miya-san and his peo­ple are fa­mil­iar with that feel­ing of de­spair. Per­haps they don’t want to show that an­guish to other peo­ple. I think they specifi­cally don’t want to dis­play the neg­a­tive things called self­-loathing and com­plexes to oth­ers. That’s why Stu­dio Ghi­b­li’s works can’t show any­thing but su­per­fi­cial hap­pi­ness and a re­pro­duc­tion of re­al­ity with all the dirty things omit­ted. A fic­tion that im­i­tates re­al­i­ty, and noth­ing more than a sin­gle dream. I sup­pose that is the gov­er­nance of en­ter­tain­ment

…When I helped out as an an­i­ma­tor for Nau­si­caa, there’s some­thing that Miya-san often told me. It seems to have come from a Chi­nese sage, but “There are three con­di­tions for ac­com­plish­ing some­thing. Those are: Be­ing young, Be­ing poor, and Be­ing un­known.” And, “No mat­ter what, make friends.” So I was taught. This was more than 12 years ago. Yes, I’ve known Miya-san ap­prox­i­mately 12 years. In that time, I think Miya-san has achieved var­i­ous things. How­ev­er, he also lost many things.

…Post­script. Yes­ter­day, when I was in a state of men­tal col­lapse after my lat­est work had ended [Na­dia?], I was moved deep within my heart by an en­cour­ag­ing phone call I re­ceived. The words of con­cern pro­ceed­ing from the re­ceiver be­came joy on my end as, with a ex­ul­tant face, my whole body was buoyed. In se­cret, I re­joiced in re­ceiv­ing some recog­ni­tion for my­self. Thank you from the bot­tom of my heart.

–“A Dream World That Has­n’t For­feited its Goal” –Anno Hideaki, Ghi­bli ga Ip­pai Liner Notes; ap­par­ently dates to be­fore Au­gust 1996

“Evan­ge­lion is like a puz­zle, you know. Any per­son can see it and give his/her own an­swer. In other words, we’re offer­ing view­ers to think by them­selves, so that each per­son can imag­ine his/her own world. We will never offer the an­swers, even in the the­atri­cal ver­sion. As for many Evan­ge­lion view­ers, they may ex­pect us to pro­vide the ‘al­l-about Eva’ man­u­als, but there is no such thing. Don’t ex­pect to get an­swers by some­one. Don’t ex­pect to be catered to all the time. We all have to find our own an­swers.”

“…E­van­ge­lion is my life and I have put every­thing I know into this work. This is my en­tire life. My life it­self.”

“…For [my gen­er­a­tion, after the po­lit­i­cal fail­ures of the pre­vi­ous], there was noth­ing to speak of but what was within the ‘magic box’ (tele­vi­sion). It’s pa­thet­ic, but we had no other op­tions. I think ad­mit­ting that is a start.”

…[Anno says some­thing to the effect that he (con­scious­ly) iden­ti­fies with Shin­ji, Asuka, and Mis­ato, but Ka­woru and es­pe­cially Rei be­long to his un­con­scious (Ka­woru is his “shadow”).]

Pro­to­cul­ture Ad­dicts #43; An­no, new­type in­ter­view: psy­chol­ogy (may be source of claim “Al­though ANNO Hideaki has ad­mit­ted to be­ing in­flu­enced by Jun­gian psy­chol­o­gy, this state­ment des­per­ately begs a La­can­ian read­ing of the for­ma­tion of iden­ti­ty.”), end­ing, in­ter­pre­ta­tion; but maybe it was ac­tu­ally PA63? TODO: when my back­-is­sues fi­nally come in, fig­ure this out

Pro­to­cul­ture Ad­dicts #39; Anno in New­type in­ter­view: sat­is­fac­tory end­ing, cen­sor­ship

How­ever - in Pro­to­cul­ture Ad­dicts is­sue 42, the ed­i­to­r­ial speaks of a dis­cus­sion with a Gainax em­ployee at Anime Expo 1996 (when Anno at­tend­ed). It says, “[…] did con­firm that the last episodes (from 19 on, but mainly 25-26) were cen­sored fol­low­ing pres­sure from the PTA (Par­en­t-Teacher As­so­ci­a­tion; but no men­tion of any le­gal ac­tion) and that they had been botched.”

http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/2001-Au­gust/040229.html; see also http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/2001-No­vem­ber/040705.html

Pro­to­cul­ture Ad­dicts #39 ex­cerpts

Ac­cord­ing to what he said, mak­ing EVANGELION was a very diffi­cult job, as we can imag­ine. He re­ally looked tired and his words were some­times too harsh to be re­ported here.

…“EVANGELION is my life”, Anno says, “and I have put every­thing I know into this work. This is my en­tire life. My life it­self!” As many fans want to know about the end­ing of this se­ries, episodes 25 & 26, he says that he is mak­ing a differ­ent ver­sion and those two girls (Misato and Rit­suko) are dead in the end. He says, “I truly be­lieve that sex and vi­o­lence are part of our hu­man life. These days in Japan, I think Japan­ese chil­dren need to know about those things more… in­stead of be­ing pro­tected too much from the so­ci­ety. Those mat­ters are a lit­tle like a poi­son: we need to give them to the chil­dren lit­tle by lit­tle to es­tab­lish an im­mu­ni­ty, so they would have the abil­ity and men­tal strength to re­sist. A lot of youth I know just don’t have this im­mu­ni­ty, and when some­thing ter­ri­ble hap­pens, they can’t deal with it. In a way, the poi­son can be the med­ica­tion at the same time, and I be­lieve that the more we know about those things, the more we can pro­tect our­selves against spe­cific mat­ters.”

Among Japan­ese fans, Rei is the most pop­u­lar char­ac­ter from this se­ries, and I asked him why. He says, “Rei-chan is very pop­u­lar… I think that she’s very quiet and does­n’t wish to talk very much, and does­n’t com­plain. In Japan, I sup­pose that girls like that are very much de­sired. They’re qui­et, pa­tient, and don’t com­plain and work hard. As for Rei-chan, she was cre­ated as a pi­lot for Evan­ge­lion… in other words, she is a clone of a hu­man be­ing. When we hu­mans are born, in gen­er­al, we just show up with­out hav­ing a pur­pose in our hu­man life! Lat­er, we find a pur­pose and choose our own way and de­cide how to live our life. Rei-chan’s case is not like that. She was cre­ated solely for the pur­pose of be­ing an EVA’s pi­lot and I’m not quite sure if she’s hap­py.”

…An­no-san says, “Gendo is a type of per­son who can see and think about the wel­fare of an or­ga­ni­za­tion as a whole. In other words, he’d do any­thing to suc­ceed. He takes dras­tic and ex­treme mea­sures by fair means or foul, or by hook or by crook, in or­der to ac­com­plish his own pur­pose. In some ways, he’s mean. He hardly cares about Shin­ji.”

…I asked him what kind of foods he likes, and he says, “For my daily di­et, I eat and love to­fu, and I like fish too. I’m not a strict veg­e­tar­ian but I just don’t like the taste of meat, so I end up eat­ing veg­eta­bles.”

…He also says that he has been try­ing to read ro­mance nov­els. He says, “I’m kinda shy my­self and I don’t know much about the feel­ings of young women. In or­der to write some­thing like EVANGELION, to cre­ate Mis­ato and other young wom­en, I have to un­der­stand more about feel­ings and their be­hav­iors. Read­ing ro­mance nov­els seems to help a lot.”

Ba­si­cal­ly, he says he prac­tices no re­li­gion, but he be­lieves in the hu­man spir­it. He’s very much in­ter­ested in study­ing Chris­tian­i­ty, but per­son­ally he feels he has­n’t re­ceived much in­flu­ence from it.

Now, this is An­no-san’s ques­tion: “Why has our an­i­ma­tion be­come so pop­u­lar in for­eign coun­tries?”

…To con­clude, here is an ex­tract from an in­ter­view of Hideaki Anno in the No­vem­ber is­sue of NEWTYPE mag­a­zine (1996-11, pg. 20-23):

I did­n’t have any in­ter­est in study­ing hu­man psy­chol­ogy in the past. I only took a course about it at uni­ver­si­ty, but I sup­pose I al­ways had some­thing in my mind to an­a­lyze hu­man psy­che. I thought I was­n’t in­ter­ested in hu­mans very much, but then, when I started talk­ing about my­self, I needed words to ex­plain. So, I started read­ing books on psy­chol­o­gy. From Episode #16, EVANGELION’s story went into the di­rec­tion to ask just what the hu­man mind is all about in­side. I wrote about my­self. My friend lent me a book on hu­man psy­cho­log­i­cal ill­ness and this gave me a shock, as if I fi­nally found what I needed to say.3

Late­ly, due to the end­ing of episodes #25 & 26, some peo­ple started watch­ing EVANGELION. They were not anime fans. In fact, many of them are fe­males and they tell me that they re­ally en­joyed episode #25, ob­jec­tive­ly. Most anime fans are fu­ri­ous. I un­der­stand their anger. I can’t help laugh­ing when hard-core anime fans say that we did a very lousy job, with in­ten­tional neg­li­gence. No, we did­n’t. No staff mem­bers did a lousy job. I feel sad that those fans could­n’t see our efforts. Per­son­al­ly, I think the orig­i­nal TV ver­sion we showed ended beau­ti­ful­ly.

EVANGELION is like a puz­zle, you know. Any per­son can see it and give his/her own an­swer. In other words, we’re offer­ing view­ers to think by them­selves, so that each per­son can imag­ine his/her own world. We will never offer the an­swers, even in the the­atri­cal ver­sion. As for many EVANGELION view­ers, they may ex­pect us to pro­vide the “al­l-about EVA” man­u­als, but there is no such thing. Don’t ex­pect to get an­swers by some­one. Don’t ex­pect to be catered to all the time. We all have to find our own an­swers.

–Miyako Gra­ham, Pro­to­cul­ture Ad­dicts #43 quot­ing Anno at AX96, and a New­type

The de­sign con­cept in Eva was that the char­ac­ters them­selves should lean to­wards a rel­a­tively sub­dued ap­pear­ance. But the plug suits! Gaudy as hell. Em­bar­rass­ing–I mean, they al­most look like, y’­know, body paint. Nat­u­ral­ly, I thought the cos-play­ers would­n’t even con­sider at­tempt­ing it.

But there were, at the De­cem­ber ’95 Comic Mar­ket, the Feb­ru­ary ’96 Won­der Fes­ti­val, at the… You know, I hate crowds, so or­di­nar­ily the whole cos-play scene is no more than a dis­tant re­al­i­ty. But this… this, I had to see. Specifi­cal­ly, I had to see the girls in sky-blue wigs, wear­ing white plug­suits. Mm­mm. I had to see it.

–Sadamo­to, manga vol 2 com­men­tary

[The show had] a ‘live feel­ing.’ [cf. May/June 1996 New­Type] I [An­no] was cre­at­ing every­thing in ac­cor­dance with the sit­u­a­tion at the time….The truth is, the ‘com­ple­men­ta­tion pro­ject,’ up un­til about half-way through the se­ries, I was do­ing things with­out hav­ing clearly de­cided [about] the com­ple­men­ta­tion of hu­man be­ings, [about] what is be­ing com­ple­ment­ed.

…I [An­no] re­ally hate the fact that an­i­ma­tion - or at least Evan­ge­lion, the work I’ve been do­ing - has be­come merely a “place of refuge.” Noth­ing but a place where one es­capes from re­al­ity - by be­com­ing deeply ab­sorbed in it, [peo­ple] sim­ply ran from the pain of re­al­i­ty, and from there was hardly any­thing that came back to re­al­i­ty. To that ex­tent I feel like [the work] did not ar­rive [at re­al­i­ty]. Steadily the num­ber of peo­ple tak­ing refuge [in the work] in­creas­es, and if this keeps up, in the ex­treme case, it would be­come a re­li­gion. It would be­come the same [si­t­u­a­tion as with] the Aum ad­her­ents and Shoko Asa­hara. Per­haps, if I did things cor­rect­ly, I would have had the po­ten­tial to be­come the founder of a new re­li­gion, but I hate [that idea]. For clutch­ing at straws [lit. “grasp­ing at a spi­der’s web”], one per­son is enough.

–Trans­lated by Num­ber­s-kun; first quote, sec­ond quote; from an oth­er­wise un­trans­lated July 1996 An­i­m­age in­ter­view with Anno and Yuko Miya­mu­ra: http://jo­

The sud­den aban­don­ment of the nar­ra­tive con­clu­sion and puz­zles of the fic­tional world that had been con­structed up un­til the 24th episode, brought about an in­tense shock in an­i­ma­tion fan­s….

It’s fair to say that Evan­ge­lion is a story which de­picts “anx­i­ety with­out a cause” which ex­haus­tively ends with a con­vinc­ing feel­ing of ten­sion. It’s clear that this kind of feel­ing is wide­spread when we look at the AUM in­ci­dent and its reper­cus­sions. On this point, the work has a strik­ing feel­ing of the pre­sent. How­ev­er, the thing that we should pay closer at­ten­tion to is the para­dox­i­cal whereby feel­ings of anx­i­ety are al­ways de­ter­mined ma­te­ri­al­is­ti­cal­ly, but for the peo­ple who are caught in the cen­ter of this kind of anx­i­ety, they can only ex­pe­ri­ence it ab­stract­ly….

One of my friends who is from Poland de­scribed his com­pletely ac­cu­rate im­pres­sion of Rei as be­ing re­lated to the prob­lems of post-war, in other words Rei is linked to the prob­lems of Bosni­a,etc. At the same time I thought that the room over­laps with a sci­ence lab­o­ra­to­ry, par­tic­u­larly a med­ical lab­o­ra­to­ry. There­fore, ANNO in­ter­sected im­ages of refugees/ trauma with the “sci­en­tific” – this is the only word that can ac­cu­rately ex­press the sit­u­a­tion – mo­tif of stark an­ti-dec­o­ra­tive­ness. (After all, this would be linked to ques­tions about AUM, more specifi­cally to the prob­lem of “Satyan,” AUM’s sci­en­tific lab­o­ra­to­ries) Rei’s soli­tude is grounded in a com­pletely tac­tile sub­stan­tial­ity which gives us ex­tremely re­al­is­tic im­ages of the dis­com­mu­ni­ca­tion that chil­dren of the present face. And these im­ages of dis­com­mu­ni­ca­tion be­long nei­ther to Ko­gyal(“child girl”)-like autism nor to otaku-like autism which has been de­fined in op­po­si­tion to Ko­gyal-like autism. (And these two types of autism are noth­ing more than the op­pos­ing gen­der ex­trem­i­ties of post-mod­ern dec­o­ra­tive­ness)

Mo­tifs such as charm­ing beau­ti­ful girls and hi-tech ma­chines which has strength­ened the bar­ren­ness of ani­me, and in the end be­came im­por­tant el­e­ments in his [Hideaki An­no’s] work. It be­came cru­cial to ar­tic­u­late 90’s-like prob­lems through stereo­types and ab­stract mo­tifs. To be­gin with “Evan­ge­lion” is an ex­tremely otaku-like work which was by lots of de­tails ref­er­enced from for­mer anime and sci­ence fic­tion films, from the de­sign con­cept of cock­pit to the brand of beer (Here in this as­pect I don’t have time to treat it, al­though it’s im­por­tant) In other words, it can be said that ANNO broke through the lit­er­ary imag­i­na­tion of the 1980’s by strongly mix­ing and re-edit­ting the mo­tifs of the ani­me-like imag­i­na­tion, which had been com­pletely bar­ren for some ten years….

In the open­ing scene of “Evan­ge­lion” he al­ready in­serts a cut of a char­ac­ter which had ini­tially been in­tro­duced in the 24th episode. The count­less de­vices of this type means that Anno started the broad­cast after con­ceiv­ing the to­tal struc­ture pretty clearly [in­deed?]. Ac­tu­al­ly, the speed of the nar­ra­tive de­vel­op­ment of nu­mer­ous fore­shad­ow­ing in the first few episodes in­di­cates that his work was made by re­verse cal­cu­la­tion of a pre­cise, to­tal con­struc­tion. The fla­vor of the episodes of the first half is con­sis­tently the same. (Some com­i­cal episodes after the 8th episode are con­sid­ered within this con­sis­ten­cy). This story re­vived the genre of an­i­ma­tion and at the same time, clar­i­fied the lim­its of the lit­er­ary imag­i­na­tion…

In the open­ing scene of “Evan­ge­lion” he al­ready in­serts a cut of a char­ac­ter which had ini­tially been in­tro­duced in the 24th episode. The count­less de­vices of this type means that Anno started the broad­cast after con­ceiv­ing the to­tal struc­ture pretty clear­ly. Ac­tu­al­ly, the speed of the nar­ra­tive de­vel­op­ment of nu­mer­ous fore­shad­ow­ing in the first few episodes in­di­cates that his work was made by re­verse cal­cu­la­tion of a pre­cise, to­tal con­struc­tion. The fla­vor of the episodes of the first half is con­sis­tently the same. (Some com­i­cal episodes after the 8th episode are con­sid­ered within this con­sis­ten­cy). This story re­vived the genre of an­i­ma­tion and at the same time, clar­i­fied the lim­its of the lit­er­ary imag­i­na­tion.

Ac­cord­ing to Anno him­self, this change of at­ti­tude came about while cre­at­ing and pro­duc­ing the work. “Evan­ge­lion” was re­ceived en­thu­si­as­ti­cally among anime fans. He said that in notic­ing that autis­tic, en­thu­si­ast re­cep­tion, he thought he should changed the en­tire con­cep­tual struc­ture of the work, and in the end that’s what he did. After all of the episodes were broad­cast, in what looks like a self­-tor­ment­ing, au­to-de­struc­tive cri­tique of anime fans that ANNO would re­peat many times in ra­dio in­ter­views, spe­cialty anime mag­a­zi­nes, etc., he would clearly re­it­er­ate the per­sonal in­tel­lec­tual his­tory of MIYAZAKI and OSHII. All three of them iso­lated them­selves from “ani­me-like things” ow­ing to their hate of the autism after they achieved over­whelm­ing suc­cess among anime fans. But ANNO is com­pletely differ­ent from them on two crit­i­cal points. The first differ­ence oc­curs in “Evan­ge­lion” with its si­mul­ta­ne­ous deep ab­sorp­tion in the ani­me-like and it’s dis­tance from it. In An­no’s case the change was ter­ri­bly com­pressed. In Miyaza­k­i’s case, the change oc­curred be­tween the time of the suc­cess of “Lupin the Third, The Cas­tle of Cagliostro” (1979) and “To­toro,” and in Os­hi­i’s case he took about ten years be­tween the time of the tele­vi­sion ver­sion of “Uru­sei Yat­sura” and “Mo­bile Po­lice, Pat­la­bor 2.”

In the sec­ond differ­ence, as per­haps an in­evitable re­sult of that tem­po­ral com­pres­sion, in ANNO the suc­cess­ful cri­tique of anime was brought about by the logic of ac­cel­er­a­tion and mul­ti­pli­ca­tion, while in the case of MIYAZAKI and OSHII the cri­tique of anime suc­ceeded be­cause of the logic of re­moval. The last half of “Evan­ge­lion” takes the form of a cri­tique of pre­vi­ous anime works through de­vel­op­ing all the nar­ra­tive pos­si­bil­i­ties and ani­me-like ex­pres­sions and push­ing them to their lim­its; in other words pro­duc­ing a to­tal­ity of the ani­me-like. Sim­ply put, in the sec­ond half of “Evan­ge­lion” ANNO pro­duces a su­per-com­pli­cated and su­per-high speed anime and thereby achieved a qual­i­ta­tive change. Sev­eral com­po­si­tions were made for the pur­poses of con­struct­ing a 90’s sav­ior nar­ra­tive were rapidly in­verted and were in­stead em­ployed to tear to shreds the in­ter­ac­tive com­mu­ni­ca­tion among the char­ac­ters. This means that for ANNO, he de­lib­er­ately cut off com­mu­ni­ca­tion with anime fans who sup­pos­edly can only ap­pre­ci­ate works by iden­ti­fy­ing them­selves with and in­vest­ing their emo­tions into the char­ac­ter­s….

There are no com­pro­mises in An­no’s sec­ond half. By em­ploy­ing diffi­cult lines and the omis­sion of mis­e-en-scene , quick scene shifts, and busy cuts with few frames (in an­i­ma­tion this is ex­tremely lux­u­ri­ous be­cause it re­quires a new il­lus­tra­tion for speeds less than one frame-per-sec­ond) he man­ages to con­dense the nar­ra­tive which would usu­ally have re­quired sev­eral episodes into one. For ex­am­ple, Rei dies in the time of just two min­utes. We are over­whelmed by its speed. On the other hand si­mul­ta­ne­ously Anno will one after an­other in­vert rid­dles in the sec­ond part of the story that had been solved in the first half. There­fore, if we only watch an episode only one time, the plot will be al­most im­pos­si­ble to fol­low. (In other words this means that ANNO com­pletely dis­re­garded the age of the view­ers who would have been ex­pected to be watch­ing at that broad­cast time fol­low­ing the rules of the tele­vi­sual medi­um. ) Nev­er­the­less, in the last half of “Evan­ge­lion” in a di­men­sion com­pletely sep­a­rate from that of the nar­ra­tive log­ic, he was fairly suc­cess­ful at com­mu­ni­cat­ing the feel­ing of anx­i­ety and the mis­ery of the char­ac­ters who are one after an­other wounded to the point of death. How did he ac­com­plish that?

The last half of “Evan­ge­lion” grad­u­ally loses the co-or­di­na­tion with the com­pli­cated fore­shad­ow­ing that was in­stalled in the first half and loses the sci­ence-fic­tion­al, sim­u­la­tional rea­son­able­ness of the com­po­si­tion of the fic­tional world. (Which is nat­ural given by the change of di­rec­tion) How­ev­er, it does­n’t mean that the struc­ture be­came care­less. In­stead a den­sity and strange ne­ces­sity aris­es. For ex­am­ple in episode #22 there is the un­fold­ing of an in­com­pre­hen­si­ble story as Eva brings down the an­gel on a satel­lite or­bit only by the throw of a spe­cial spear. A ra­tio­nal ex­pla­na­tion is not even pro­vided in­side the sto­ry. But cer­tainly the un­fold­ing of the story pos­sesses a cer­tain in­evitabil­ity with the flow of the scenes. That “in­evitabil­ity” which ex­ists es­pe­cially in­de­pen­dent from the nar­ra­tive strat­egy is the true worth of the last half of “Evan­ge­lion.” That in­evitabil­ity al­lows for the dis­sem­i­na­tion of de­spair and ten­sion….

To put it bold­ly, from episode 17 un­til episode 24 (but es­pe­cially in episode 18, 19, 22, and 23) at the mo­ment when that con­densed un­fold­ing reaches its high­est point, he sev­eral times makes me thing of GODARD. That is not an ex­pla­na­tion re­lated to the qual­ity of cin­ema it­self. That does­n’t mean that ANNO tried to cite or par­ody GODARD. Any­body can bor­row stereo­typ­i­cal “Go­dard­-like” im­ages. (Of course ANNO him­self does it. For in­stance us­ing lots of sub­ti­tles)

“Anime or some­thing like it: Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion”, Hi­roki Azu­ma; the quotes from Anno are from an un­trans­lated Hi­roki Azuma in­ter­view with An­no: http://jo­ Num­ber­s-kun trans­lates part of the in­ter­view:

Azu­ma: Fi­nal­ly, only one ques­tion about the “set up” of the work. The en­emy called “An­gel” has no con­crete im­age. It might be a pyra­mid, a ring of light, a virus…. in what way did you in­tend that?

An­no: They were para­dox­i­cally pre­sented as things with­out form. For me the idea of an “en­emy” is am­bigu­ous, be­cause my re­la­tion­ship to “so­ci­ety” is am­bigu­ous….. The adults of the pre­vi­ous gen­er­a­tion taught us that, de­spite fight­ing against the sys­tem, they were not able to ac­com­plish any­thing.

Azu­ma: I felt it was aw­fully close to the im­age of the en­emy [p­re­sent­ed] by Aum Shin­rikyo.

An­no: Aum is part of my gen­er­a­tion. I un­der­stand them well.4

Azu­ma: Al­though I’m roughly ten years your ju­nior, from my per­spec­tive there seems to be a strong sym­pa­thy with Aum from peo­ple of your gen­er­a­tion. But if you say “an Aum-like thing,” you have to dis­tin­guish it from the re­al­ity of Aum, right?

An­no: We cre­ate works that “ra­tio­nal­ize” or “sub­li­mate” our “Aum-like” parts. The peo­ple who joined Aum did not do this. Hat­ing so­ci­ety, they cut them­selves off by their own vo­li­tion. I wish Aum it­self had “sub­li­mat­ed,” but I think in­stead it steadily came apart and fi­nally col­lapsed, end­ing with this act of self­-de­struc­tion. Even though there was, to a cer­tain ex­tent, some tal­ent there, over­all I had no sym­pa­thy for the or­ga­ni­za­tion.

Omori: How­ev­er, [Ryu] Mit­suse-san is more gov­erned by some­thing like an East­ern sense of the tran­sience of things, but the world of Evan­ge­lion is more along the lines of West­ern civ­i­liza­tion……

An­no: I dis­like West­ern civ­i­liza­tion. I don’t place much trust in West­ern civ­i­liza­tion.

Omori: That is, [you con­sider it] as some­thing one must re­pu­di­ate? Not pos­i­tive -

An­no: No, it’s some­thing like, be­cause I don’t care that much about it, I can make use of it. If I were a Chris­t­ian be­liever I could­n’t have in­serted Chris­t­ian el­e­ments [into Eva] in that way. I would have been scared to.

Omori: No ques­tion. Be­cause you have no at­tach­ment to [Chris­tian­i­ty], you can make use of the names of the an­gels with­out be­ing con­cerned. Ah, [you can use] these names be­cause the word makes a strong im­pres­sion, for ex­am­ple. [You can use them] as you think ap­pro­pri­ate.

An­no: Even if I re­ceived com­plaints from the per­spec­tive of West­ern­ers about the equa­tion of [the terms] ‘apos­tle’ and ‘an­gel’, I don’t think it would make any differ­ence [to me?]. Well, there is a sin­gle Amer­i­can [see the Michael House in­ter­view for his ver­sion] in our com­pa­ny, and he scolded me about var­i­ous things. “You can’t do this.” As I had ex­pect­ed. But I did those things [any­way], I think, with­out tak­ing any no­tice of that.

–ex­cerpt from dis­cus­sion be­tween Hideaki Anno and SF crit­ic/­trans­la­tor No­zomi Omori; trans­la­tion by Num­ber­s-kun (full orig­i­nal)

The first film will be a fea­ture-length edit of the first 24 episodes, the sec­ond, an al­l-new ver­sion of the fi­nal two which will provide, ac­cord­ing to An­no, “the same end­ing, but from a differ­ent per­spec­tive.”

The Anime Guide

Check the sec­ond last color page of the film­book Vol.9. There it says “the smile of Shinji – who is com­ple­ment­ed. And then this is one end­ing, out of many pos­si­ble ones”.

Patrick Yip

…here is the lit­eral trans­la­tion: [TV Film­book Vol.9 (Ep26), p.95, se­q.19 check­point]

“Con­grat­u­la­tions” “Con­grat­u­la­tions” “Con­grat­u­la­tions” Shin­ji’s friends, ac­quain­tances and par­ents unan­i­mously con­grat­u­late him. Amidst the many words of con­grat­u­la­tions, a smile ap­pears at the cor­ners of Shin­ji’s mouth. A hap­py/­con­tented smile – that is the fig­ure of the com­ple­ment­ed/in­stru­men­tal­ized Shin­ji. This end­ing is just one shape, one pos­si­bil­ity out of many.


…that par­tic­u­lar check­point at the bot­tom of New­type TV film­book #9 p25 has a big “maybe” at­tached. This is not the usual “ap­pears” or “seems”, but in­stead an ex­plicit “maybe” (ka mo shire­nai). The lit­eral trans­la­tion is:

Mis­ato stretched out her hand to Shin­ji. At this time she may have in­tended to offer her body to com­fort Shin­ji. How­ev­er, this was merely sub­sti­tu­tive be­hav­ior in or­der to as­suage her own lone­li­ness.


Be­com­ing more and more emo­tion­ally in­tense in later episodes, the clever and in­tri­cate de­sign work, otaku in­-jokes and bouncey “fan ser­vice” ex­pected from Gainax are in EVANGELION in­ter­leaved with bizarre, bru­tal, sur­re­al­is­tic and shock­ing scenes which caused much con­tro­versy and even calls for a boy­cott against the show. Pub­lic out­rage over the am­bigu­ous, mock­ing con­clu­sion of the se­ries - com­bined with the fac­tor of EVANGELION’s vast pop­u­lar­ity - led to the an­nounce­ment from Gainax that a dou­ble-fea­ture EVA “movie” would be re­leased in the spring of 1997. The first film will be a fea­ture-length edit of the first 24 episodes, the sec­ond, an al­l-new ver­sion of the fi­nal two which will provide, ac­cord­ing to An­no, “the same end­ing, but from a differ­ent per­spec­tive.”

The Com­plete Anime Guide: Japan­ese An­i­ma­tion Film Di­rec­tory & Re­source Guide (sec­ond edi­tion) (1997-02-01)

Okamoto (O) said that he watched Evan­ge­lion twice though he watched the end­ing first. He said the ref­er­ence ma­te­r­ial he re­ceived along with the video has “con­tro­ver­sial” writ­ten in it. He did not un­der­stand at first but later knew why once he watched the whole se­ries.

O - Gun­buster is eas­ier to un­der­stand. The fi­nal episode in the sec­ond video is black­-and-white. I think it might be done to make it stand out - I mean the “Okari­na­sai” at the end.

A (An­no) - My gen­er­a­tion was the age when black and white moved to col­or. I would like peo­ple liv­ing now to see how great to have col­or. That was 35 mono­chrome.

O - I love black and white. Per­haps nearly half of my works are black and white?

A - Re­cently there are more black and white CM on TV. Poster too. Some­how it is get­ting pop­u­lar.

O - And then there is par­tial col­or­ing.

A - “Part Color”… Every­one is now so fa­mil­iar with beau­ti­ful full col­or, so on the con­trary they see that as un­usu­al.

O - But de­vel­op­ment cost is high. In the past de­vel­op­ment so­lu­tion for black­-and-white was al­ways avail­able. Now you need to or­der it first and then they make the de­vel­op­ment so­lu­tion.

A - If it’s color de­vel­op­ment can be done in the same day. For black and white, they told me to give them 2 days and it be­came a prob­lem to me sched­ule-wise. If there is a rush, they would not get it done un­less they have 2 days.

O - But that thing does not fade. Print is easy to fade as time passes by.

A - It be­comes red­dish…

Then some talk about Okamo­to’s Niku­dan. Anno watched it twice and Okamoto said it’s more than enough…Anno said he still re­mem­bered a lot of the scenes and how they are edited and linked.

But the ones he watched most are The longest day of Japan and Bat­tle of Ok­i­nawa5. He even played it as BGV [back­ground video] when he was do­ing sto­ry­board­ing at one time, and then slowly his at­ten­tion was drawn to the video and ended up spend­ing 3 hours watch­ing it.

Then Okamoto talked about his film­ing Bat­tle of Ok­i­nawa in Ok­i­nawa and the prob­lem with lack of man­power and re­source, ended up do­ing one of the char­ac­ters.

Then Anno said it’s eas­ier in anime – if one more char­ac­ter is needed just draw him. But Anno said anime and real life both have as­pects that the other side may en­vy. For ex­am­ple in ani­me, the cam­era does not move, and the shadow and body mo­tion needs to be made re­al­is­tic. Even with CG it has be­come eas­ier, it still has that CG feel. Anno then said for anime the main work is still about fix­ing the mo­tion. Scrolling and wrap­ping the back­ground is par­tic­u­larly in­effi­cient.

Then more flat­tery from Anno about how Okamo­to’s tempo and scene cut­ting is suit­able for ani­me. And then Anno talked about frame as­pect ra­tio – love Cinescope and miss its dis­ap­pear­ance. Hate stan­dard ra­tio and also not like Vista. He loves the way when Cinescope as­pect is used au­di­ence have to fol­low the scene by mov­ing their heads which is some­thing not pos­si­ble with TV watch­ing.

Skipped the part that talks about Blood and Sand [血と砂 (No Eng­lish re­lease - reads “Chi to suna”), 1965] and Sen­goku yarou [1963], and use of long shots. Ex­cept that Anno men­tioned the fun thing with anime is that the pho­tog­ra­pher dou­bles as the ac­tor in anime and in re­al-life you never see cam­era­man dou­bles as ac­tor.

Very tech­ni­cal talk about how many frames of films to use for one blink. Anno said 6-7 frames, if he does not want the scene to get no­ticed, he put 6, if he wants to make sure it gets no­ticed he put at least 9 frames. And he said that if it is fa­mil­iar and sta­tic scene, even 2 frames can leave an im­pres­sion. 3 frames may al­ready make it too slow. But if it is fight­ing it needs 7-8 frames. Took 12 frames in film, cut may be 5-6, de­pend­ing on how the pic­tures look. And of course in di­a­logue how to cut is al­ready pre­de­ter­mined. He said he spent 12 hours to cut 20 min of an­i­ma­tion. The longest time took him 24 hours.

Skipped the part about talk­ing with the au­di­ence.

About line of eye sight:

A - In the case of ani­me, the act­ing and per­for­mance usu­ally does not take that much into ac­count. One rea­son could be the char­ac­ter de­sign. The eyes of the char­ac­ters usu­ally stress on the de­tails of the eyes and this make it diffi­cult to put act­ing by us­ing line of sight. How­ev­er, in Eva the char­ac­ter de­sign is com­par­a­tively eas­ier to do such act­ing, so I put some effort into that. Like where the char­ac­ter is look­ing at in that scene, or whether the au­di­ence are go­ing to see the eyes or not…

Be­cause it is so fun­da­men­tal I took great care about it. So un­usu­ally I put in­struc­tions in the sto­ry­board like “Eyes are look­ing here”. As I am in­flu­enced by di­rec­tor Okamo­to, I used cam­era line of sight more than usual

O - if pos­si­ble, line of sight should be on some­where close. And on di­rec­tion, A would look at B and then speak, and B would look back at A in re­ac­tion. It has to be like that…

A - for me, cam­era line of sight is often on the front. The draw­ing staff usu­ally hates it. Draw­ing frontal face is more diffi­cult and often it could not be done well. But if the line of sight goes the other way, it be­comes hard to use it to act.

O - There is power if the guy’s sight is close to you

A - yes, that’s it. That has en­ergy in it.

A - I don’t like switch­ing be­tween front and side. It is eas­ier to frame the po­si­tion of eyes of the char­ac­ters if it is a front to front ex­changes be­tween the lines of sights of two per­sons. Anime is at the end a 2D thing so the amount of in­for­ma­tion is lim­it­ed.

When it is cut to a new scene, the au­di­ence will try to search for some­thing to fo­cus, and if it is a face, it will be the eyes they look first. So when the eyes have ex­pressed the in­for­ma­tion, you can cut to an­other scene al­ready. In TV ani­me, sta­tic scenes are many.

I think this is the proper way to go. Al­though I think act­ing by eyes is very im­por­tant it is also very te­dious. I don’t mind putting effort into do­ing it but some­how when I look at it later I have a feel­ing that it won’t get no­ticed, or no­body cares. And then I get a bit ir­ri­tat­ed.

O - Per­haps be­cause eyes in anime char­ac­ters are so big…

A - That has many phys­i­cal rea­sons. If we do not make the eyes big and treat it as a sym­bol for the char­ac­ters, it will be­come diffi­cult for many to draw.

O - but one can act just by eyes. Like the po­si­tion of the iris…

A - true, but as the end we only have the draw­ings to fall back on. If we overdo that kind of se­ri­ous act­ing, it car­ries a risk of look­ing ridicu­lous. Char­ac­ter De­sign is a diffi­cult thing.

About Di­rec­tor: Skipped the part about old time di­rec­tors and strug­gles with stu­dio about rights to ed­it. Ex­cept Anno said that for anime some­times it needs to do edit­ing with­out hav­ing all draw­ings. But he thinks edit­ing is fun. Gather ex­tra cuts and then try to ex­per­i­ment by switch­ing the cuts or re­ar­rang­ing or­der and that is in­ter­est­ing. And even the ques­tion of whether to cut 2 frames or not can make a differ­ence.

About Sto­ry­board­ing: More flat­tery from Anno about watch­ing Ghost Train and Okamoto said be­cause of AD’s mis­take he once needed to take 140-150 cuts in one day.

A - for movies, con­sen­sus is im­pos­si­ble

O - Di­rec­tor must be a dic­ta­tor

A - He is a despot. Noth­ing can move for­ward if we have to wait un­til some­one else makes a de­ci­sion and ap­proves. Also the per­sonal char­ac­ter would not come out. In ani­me, a over­all de­sign called sto­ry­board is made from the very be­gin­ning. And the pro­duc­tion sys­tem is based on that de­sign, so it is eas­ier to unify opin­ions. On the other hand, there is an im­age that the di­rec­tor’s job is over once the sto­ry­board is de­cid­ed.

O - since we are on it, in Gun­buster and Eva last episode, there are parts in black and white, that flash­back, that kind of stood out. It used quite a bit of sketch like draw­ings. Did the sto­ry­board also cover that?

A - It was put in there.

O - Oh, those sketches were in­ter­est­ing. It some­how feels it’s mov­ing.

Anime vs re­al-life film: Okamoto said re­al-life is not nec­es­sar­ily bet­ter. Anno said many anime di­rec­tors want to do re­al-life. Many sim­ply put draw­ings in place of re­al-life im­ages and they seem to want to push anime to look closer to real life film. And both think it is not a good idea.

Fi­nal com­ment by Anno - An­i­ma­tion is a kind of sta­tic world, but there is a yearn for thrill when it switches from one sta­tic world to an­other sta­tic world and that cut to new scene is a most effi­cient way to get such thrill. And he thinks Okamo­to’s style of film cut­ting has sim­i­lar effect

A - in a TV ani­me, 30 min of video has a limit of 3500 pic­tures. So the im­ages can­not move as much as I want. And how to squeeze out the best from the im­age in such lack of mo­tion, it is all in the cut­ting.

–Jan­u­ary 1997 An­i­m­age in­ter­view/dis­cus­sion be­tween Anno and film-maker ; Japan­ese source; trans­lated by Patrick Yip/symbv; “In fact at the end of the ar­ti­cle, it was stated the talk took place at the home of Okamoto in Iku­ta-ku Kawasak­i-shi Kana­gawa Pre­fec­ture on Wednes­day 1996 Oct 16th.”

Nobi No­bita: “Evan­ge­lion re­duced me to tears many times. It was truly the first time I cried out and my shoul­ders shook from weep­ing due to an ani­me. The first time it struck me was episode 14. I found the sum­mary part well made too, but, after the com­mer­cial end­ed, there was the point when Rei’s mono­logue sud­denly be­gan. I was like, uwaaaaaa…. cry­ing (laugh­s). It was like that was the first time it hit me. Up to that point I had thought it was just an en­ter­tain­ing ani­me, but I felt that this was my own is­sue.”

Num­ber­s-kun, June (orig­i­nal scan)

— No­bi-san was re­duced to tears by Episode 14. How [did you com­pose] Rei’s mono­logue?

Anno: I had in­tended to re­cap the se­ries in the first half of the episode. When I did the sec­ond half, I had long for­got­ten to ex­plore what sort of per­son Rei was, so [I be­lieved] it was nec­es­sary to de­velop her.

The script for episode 16 had been writ­ten be­fore that. At first I had planned [a sce­nario where] Shinji and the an­gel would make “first con­tact,” but I was­n’t able to pull it off.

In the orig­i­nal con­cep­tion, the lan­guages of var­i­ous coun­tries and the cries of var­i­ous an­i­mals and mis­cel­la­neous noises would ap­pear on the screen; [s­e­lect­ing from] among the­se, the an­gel would fi­nally hit upon Japan­ese. When this hap­pens, there is a sharp noise, an im­age [sud­den­ly] fills [the screen], and [the an­gel] asks if this is right for [Sh­in­ji’s] thought-lan­guage or thought-pat­terns; it would have started from there.

— That’s re­ally cool.

Anno: As far as that goes, I thought it was fine, but then when [the an­gel] speaks Japan­ese that was the end [of my con­cep­tion]. Ka­woru-kun had been pre­pared as a “hu­man type” [an­gel] from the start, and I wanted to hold on to the idea of [an an­gel] con­vers­ing in hu­man lan­guage un­til then. When I won­dered, well, what will [Sh­in­ji] do after he gets taken into the an­gel, I won­dered if this might be [his] chance for self­-re­flec­tion. Episode 16’s “in­ner space”-like en­vi­ron­ment was the first [of that sort]. That went rel­a­tively smooth­ly.

When it came to Rei, I was com­pletely blocked. I could­n’t write any­thing at all. I had in­tended to make Rei a schiz­o­phrenic (分裂症的) char­ac­ter6, but when I tried to write, I could­n’t think of any­thing - noth­ing at all. Fi­nal­ly, I thought, when writ­ing mad­ness, one has no choice but to be­come mad. At that time I con­sulted a bit with my friends. When I asked if there was some­thing com­posed by a mad­man, I was loaned a “Bessatsu Takara­jima”7 vol­ume on men­tal ill­ness. It was an “easy and rea­son­able” book [イージーでリーズナブルな本] (laugh­s), but in­side it there was a poem writ­ten by a mad­man.8 That was ex­tremely good. When I read the poem I had a strong im­pres­sion, as though this was the first time that I had come close. I had a feel­ing like a light glint­ing upon the tip of a sharp knife. It was cer­tainly not the feel­ing of an or­di­nary man. That was good. If I think about it now, this sort of ‘ca­pac­ity’ was [al­ready] within me (laugh­s). 9 It’s mad to be­lieve that the writ­ings of a mad­man are of the high­est qual­i­ty. I read that [po­em] and was filled with im­ages; I was able to write [Rei’s mono­logue] in one sit­ting.10

It’s al­leged that [the mono­logue] was based upon an­other text, but in all hon­esty, that’s not so. There was some­thing that in­spired it, but it was com­pletely differ­ent. It’s al­leged that it strongly re­sem­bles some­one’s po­em, and it that it was prob­a­bly copied from it, but, “Ah, well, that man is prob­a­bly crazy too” (laugh­s). It seems to be a fa­mous po­em. Be­ing able to write some­thing to the ex­tent that it’s said to be the same, I can’t help think­ing, “Don’t I have tal­ent, too?” (laughs)11

After the tele­vi­sion broad­cast fin­ished, I be­came worse and worse, and went to see a doc­tor. I even se­ri­ously con­tem­plated death. It’s like [I] was emp­ty, with no mean­ing to [my] ex­is­tence. With­out the slight­est ex­ag­ger­a­tion, I had put every­thing I had [into Evan­ge­lion]. Re­al­ly. After that fin­ished I re­al­ized that there was noth­ing [left] in­side of me. When I asked [the doc­tor?] about it after­wards, [he said?] “Ah, that is an ‘iden­tity cri­sis’ (self-col­lapse) [自我崩壊].”12 It was a sen­sa­tion as though I had taken some­thing like ex­tremely bad LSD. I was told, “It’s amaz­ing that you were able to do that with­out med­ica­tion.” Yeah, now, I feel very for­tu­nate (laugh­s).13 In or­der to de­ter­mine whether or not I re­ally wanted to die, I went up to the rooftop of this build­ing (the GAINAX build­ing) and stuck my foot out, wait­ing to lose my bal­ance and fall for­ward. I did it to per­son­ally de­ter­mine [whether I wanted to live or die], [think­ing,] if I re­ally want to die, I should die here, and if I don’t want to die, I’ll step back. Well, it did­n’t lead to my death, and so I’m here.

At first I was man­ic, but I rapidly de­vel­oped a se­vere de­pres­sion. I would­n’t leave my office at work; I would leave only to use the bath­room, and I would al­most never eat meals. A dilemma sud­denly arose: I did­n’t want to en­counter other peo­ple, and yet I did want to en­counter other peo­ple.

I don’t re­turn home [at the end of the day], be­cause the time and effort spent re­turn­ing is both­er­some. I just stay overnight here all the time; I don’t re­turn home more than a few times in a year. At work, when I go to the bath­room, I go across the stu­dio, I have to en­counter peo­ple. I just wanted to think by my­self, so I re­turned home for the first time in many months. My bed is never made, so there’s noth­ing to do but crawl into it. When I took my clothes off and lay down - I can’t put it any other way than ex­tra­or­di­nar­ily ter­ri­fy­ing, ter­ri­fy­ing thoughts [怖い考え] - I had a sen­sa­tion like my whole body was en­veloped in such [thought­s]. When I was en­veloped by this, I sud­denly leapt to my feet and, in a pan­icked state, threw on my clothes, grabbed my bag, and went out onto the street, [cry­ing,] “Taxi!” I went back to my work­place, I went back to my office at my work­place and slept. This is the “iden­tity cri­sis.” I don’t have the feel­ing that I want to die, or any­thing like that. There’s noth­ing I can say [that can ex­plain things]. On the other hand, that was how se­ri­ously I took “Evan­ge­lion.”

— I won­der why hu­man be­ings re­quire a mean­ing to their ex­is­tence. [The lack of such] pro­duces anx­i­ety.

Anno: I think it’s more nat­ural for hu­man be­ings to be anx­ious. I think hap­pi­ness is noth­ing but an il­lu­sion [錯覚].

–1996-08-22; first in­ter­view in June; scans (1 2 3) hosted by Lili & trans­lated by Num­ber­s-kun

[Num­ber­s-kun’s para­phrases fol­low] This in­ter­view con­tains No­bita Nobi as a spe­cial guest. Nobi is a man­ga/­dou­jin­shi au­thor and critic who writes dou­jin­shi, shon­en-ai, and crit­i­cism un­der the name No­bita Nobi and writes else­where un­der the name Nariko Enomoto (I as­sume, but I’m not cer­tain, that this is her real name). She be­gan work­ing on Eva dou­jin­shi dur­ing the se­ries.

… 1. An­no’s Love of Shojo Manga

Anno wept a lit­tle when he read No­bi’s con­tri­bu­tion to Kara­sawa’s book. Nobi cried many times dur­ing Evan­ge­lion, be­gin­ning with Rei’s mono­logue in Episode 14. Nobi is asked about her the­ory that the artists and view­ers are locked in bat­tle. She felt that she was in a bat­tle with An­no. Anno thinks his first bat­tle was with his staff14. In ju­nior high school, Anno had a friend - nowa­days, he says, you would call her a girl­friend - named Rit­suko15, who had a ma­jor im­pact on his life and in­tro­duced him to sci-fi and shojo man­ga. Aside from ti­tles like “Dev­il­man” and “Team As­tro,” Anno was largely un­in­ter­ested in shonen man­ga. How­ev­er, Anno does­n’t think he would be able to do jus­tice to a shojo manga in an anime adap­ta­tion16. Anno would read “Bessatsu Mar­garet,” “Ri­bon,” “Hana to Yume,” “Bet­su­comi,” and, at one point, even “Ciao.” Among the au­thors he likes, he men­tions Fusako Ku­ramochi, Jun Ichikawa, Shinji Wada, Yu Azuki, Mariko Iwa­date, Hideko Tachikake, Yukari Taka­hashi, Yu­miko Os­hi­ma, and Taeko Watan­abe. 2. Dev­il­man and Evan­ge­lion

Nobi sees sim­i­lar­i­ties be­tween Dev­il­man and Evan­ge­lion. This is due to the fact that Shin­ji’s mother is ul­ti­mate­ly, or ul­ti­mately be­comes, a kind of an­gel. As a re­sult Shinji ques­tions his self­-i­den­ti­ty. In the end, the foun­da­tions of hu­man iden­tity are over­thrown. Anno says that the sim­i­lar­i­ties to Dev­il­man in this sense were un­con­scious; he no­ticed them after­wards. Evan­ge­lion fol­lows the pat­tern of Ul­tra­man and Dev­il­man, in the sense that an en­emy is de­feat­ed, but the power of that en­emy is ab­sorbed. Hu­man be­ings make a copy of the an­gels, and then com­bine it with the hu­man heart or mind. 3. Anno and Miyazaki

Anno was asked to write a com­men­tary for the Stu­dio Ghi­bli box set; how­ev­er, in it, he crit­i­cized Miyaza­ki. Anno and Miyazaki are ba­si­cally at one in their ap­proach­es; how­ev­er, Miyazaki aims for a broad ap­peal, and Anno does not. Miyazaki risks end­ing up at “”. In An­no’s view, Miyaza­k­i’s great­est work is vol­ume seven of the Nau­si­caa man­ga. If I un­der­stood the next part cor­rectly (Anno laughs a lot telling this), when Nau­si­caa was be­ing se­ri­al­ized in An­i­m­age Anno used to visit Miyaza­k­i’s office and ask to see the part of Nau­si­caa cur­rently in pro­gress; Miyazaki would­n’t let him, so he would go in and look at them when Miyazaki was­n’t there. Anno wished that Miyazaki would stop mak­ing anime and fo­cus on the Nau­si­caa man­ga. Miyazaki strug­gled greatly with how to end the man­ga; now, Anno com­pletely un­der­stands how Miyazaki felt. Ac­cord­ing to An­no, Evan­ge­lion ended up be­ing a cross be­tween Dev­il­man and vol­ume seven of the Nau­si­caa man­ga. At an “ide­o­log­i­cal” lev­el, Anno had to ar­rive at the same an­swers. Nobi was deeply moved by the Nau­si­caa movie when she first saw it, but less im­pressed after read­ing vol­ume 7 of the man­ga. The dark­ness of the manga is elim­i­nated in the film. How­ev­er, for No­bi, Anno goes in the op­po­site di­rec­tion, and is a kind of “black Miyaza­ki.” 4. The “Onanii Show”

Anno only makes works for him­self, and not for an au­di­ence. How­ev­er, mak­ing works is still the only way he can re­late to other peo­ple. This re­la­tion­ship is like a “mas­tur­ba­tion show,” be­cause other peo­ple are watch­ing him act to please him­self. They de­cide by them­selves how they re­act to it. He does not di­rectly “plea­sure” oth­ers. It re­quires some nar­cis­sism to be an au­thor; some­one en­tirely lack­ing self­-con­fi­dence would­n’t “ex­pose” them­selves. 5. An­no’s Veg­e­tar­i­an­ism

An­no’s veg­e­tar­i­an­ism is the re­sult of the fact that he has no in­ter­est in or­di­nary life, in­clud­ing eat­ing. When he was young his ideal sort of food was what as­tro­nauts would take into space. To­day he reg­u­larly uses “En­ergy In”. He stopped eat­ing meat at a young age. He would­n’t eat school meals. When he was in his sec­ond year of el­e­men­tary school, a teacher made him stay be­hind un­til he ate his meal. At 8PM the teacher gave up. Anno won’t do things oth­ers force him to do. He would rather have died than eat that meal. His par­ents could­n’t affect him, ei­ther. His body is no longer ac­cus­tomed to eat­ing meat, and now the taste makes him phys­i­cally sick. He has few “worldly” de­sires. He has very lit­tle de­sire for food or mon­ey. His sex­ual de­sire is av­er­age. 6. Cel Anime and Ex­pres­sion

The in­ter­viewer feels that, be­hind the de­sire of women for “June”-like manga and sto­ries, lies the prob­lem of the fam­i­ly, and this is some­thing Eva por­trays. How­ev­er, Anno feels he could not por­tray hu­man re­la­tion­ships well be­cause of the lim­i­ta­tions of the medi­um, which he dis­cuss­es. Pre­cisely be­cause of those lim­i­ta­tions one must try to re­main fix­ated on “hu­man dra­ma.” 7. The Pro­duc­tion of Eva

When Anno thought of Eva, he wanted to cre­ate an anime that would sur­pass “Gun­dam” and “Yam­a­to.” How­ev­er, he be­came dis­sat­is­fied with his early ideas. The script for the first episode took half a year to com­plete17. He was stuck after that, so he wrote episodes 5 and 6, and then came back to episode 3. He felt he had to go be­yond reg­u­lar TV anime in de­vel­op­ing re­al­is­tic char­ac­ters in episodes 3 and 4. How­ev­er, the first six episodes left the staff drained and feel­ing weighed down by the heavy mood, so he felt it nec­es­sary to lighten the feel­ing of the se­ries for episodes 7, 8, and 9. This early stage of pro­duc­tion took 4 or 5 months in to­tal; the sto­ry­boards were done in two months. How­ev­er, the sched­ule be­came more and more con­strained. The se­ries was only fin­ished thanks to the supreme efforts and tal­ents of the staff. Episode 26 was com­pleted in only three days18. Episode 24 was put to­gether al­most en­tirely by Masayuki alone in the space of three weeks.

  1. Rei’s Mono­logue / An­no’s De­pres­sion

I made at­tempt at a trans­la­tion here [Num­ber­s-kun’s trans­la­tion is quoted pre­vi­ously in this sec­tion]. When Anno was work­ing on Rei’s mono­logue in Episode 14, he wanted to de­velop her in a “schiz­o­phrenic” di­rec­tion, and won­dered how to por­tray a kind of mad­ness. He was loaned a mag­a­zine-like book on men­tal ill­ness that con­tained a poem by some­one who suffered from a men­tal dis­or­der, and that trig­gered his imag­i­na­tion. Anno ex­pe­ri­enced a kind of ner­vous break­down fol­low­ing Eva’s con­clu­sion. He no longer wanted to see peo­ple, and climbed up onto the roof of the Gainax build­ing to see if he re­ally wanted to live or to die. In the end he wanted to live, but after mak­ing Eva he felt he had noth­ing left in­side of him. 9. Asuka’s Pe­riod

Nobi is not sure that fe­male manga writ­ers will be able to match the imag­i­na­tion of the male au­thors. Anno wanted to do a longer story in­volv­ing Asuka’s men­stru­a­tion, but be­cause he felt it was im­pos­si­ble for a man to write, he aban­doned it. Only a sin­gle scene re­mained. He feels he can’t match the way Nobi por­trayed Asuka in the dou­jin­shi “Ab­solute Safety Ra­zor” (or “Ab­solutely Safe Ra­zor” - “Zettai Anzen Kamisori”)19. 10. Group Men­tal­ity

Nobi was ir­ri­tated by male Rei otaku at Comiket. Anno em­pha­sizes with her ir­ri­ta­tion. Anno says that Aum demon­strated that some peo­ple are dri­ven to be a part of a group. Anno re­al­ized how easy it is to be­come a cult leader. How­ev­er, the prob­lem is that hu­man be­ings also can­not live alone and must some­how de­pend on oth­ers. In ad­di­tion, peo­ple nowa­days, in­clud­ing Anno and Gainax, make and use film and anime as a kind of drug.

. The AT-Field At the bot­tom of one sec­tion of the in­ter­view there are a few quotes be­sides im­ages of AT-Fields. I as­sume these quotes are from An­no, and also came from the in­ter­view. There Anno says that the im­age of open­ing an AT field is one of vi­o­la­tion. It is based on the tear­ing of clothes. Clothes are the most ba­sic form of pro­tec­tion for hu­man be­ings. Orig­i­nally the AT-Field was used to ex­plain why only Evas could dam­age An­gels. Later on Anno won­dered what the mean­ing of it was. He later felt it was the bar­rier of the heart or mind. It pro­tects what is most valu­able to hu­man be­ings.

– 1996-08-22; sec­ond in­ter­view in June; para­phrased by Num­ber­s-kun

The diffi­cult thing [when cre­at­ing film­books] is to es­tab­lish rules as to how much to write – How much in­for­ma­tion which is not ex­plic­itly stated in the work (se­cret set­tings, etc.) can be re­leased? How far is al­lowed? This is be­cause these cri­te­rion are rather sub­tle and vague. For ex­am­ple, there are cases where it is okay to pub­lish facts (set­tings) [set­tai?] that are pub­lic knowl­edge among staff, and other cases where these facts ab­solutely must not be made pub­lic. This in­for­ma­tion con­trol was par­tic­u­larly diffi­cult with Eva, be­cause the copy­right hold­er’s (GAINAX’s) checks were much stricter than for anime works pro­duced by other com­pa­nies….

–trans­lated by Bochan_bird, who gives the source as: “Os­amu Kishikawa – Ed­i­tor (struc­ture/­tex­t), New­type Eva TV/­movie film­books and Eva Remix film­books Ex­cerpted from com­ments at the end of Film­book Remix, Vol.II”

Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion OST II book­let has a state­ment by Ot­suki? Asked on EGF

Bochan_bird, res­i­dent in Japan dur­ing NGE’s air­ing, in­cluded a par­tial time­line of the after­math as back­ground ma­te­r­ial for his trans­la­tion of the Kai­bun­sho; the time­line is not sourced from the Kai­bun­sho, and all trans­la­tions seem to be his own:

  • 1996/04/14: Di­rec­tor Anno ap­pears live as a guest on Megumi Hayashibara’s ra­dio pro­gram “Tokyo Boo­gie Night” and says that fans should “re­turn to re­al­i­ty.”
  • 1996/04/26: Shonen Ace-A June is­sue ar­ti­cle states that: “The video/LD vol.13 (Ep25-26) re­lease will be a com­plete re­make of the TV end­ing and will fo­cus on the story el­e­ments. In ad­di­tion, a com­plete and new cin­ema edi­tion that differs from the video ver­sion is sched­uled for re­lease in sum­mer 1997.”
  • 1996/04/27: MEGU June is­sue be­comes the first anime mag­a­zine to re­view the TV end­ing, and brands it a “be­trayal” and “night­mare”.
  • 1996/05/10: New­type Mag­a­zine June is­sue con­tains the first in­-depth in­ter­view with Di­rec­tor Anno fol­low­ing the con­clu­sion of the TV air­ing, in which Anno crit­i­cizes anime fans and otaku in par­tic­u­lar. [See ex­cerpts later from of this in­ter­view.]
  • 1996/05~06: Eva re­mains a sub­ject of in­ter­est, and var­i­ous in­ci­dents of Eva fan ob­ses­sion and “otaku-ness” oc­cur such as the Mi­taka City “Rei in ki­mono” posters and pen­cil boards men­tioned in the kai­bun­sho.
  • 1996/06/10: An­i­m­age (Anime Mag­a­zine) July is­sue in­cludes a di­a­log be­tween Di­rec­tor Anno and Yuko Miya­mura (A­suka voice ac­tress) in which Anno again crit­i­cizes anime fans (al­beit tem­pered by self­-dep­re­ca­tion and some jests by Miya­mu­ra) and makes a num­ber of other frank re­marks and crit­i­cisms.
  • 1996/06~1997/02: Nu­mer­ous re­view ar­ti­cles and in­ter­views ap­pear in anime mag­a­zi­nes, some pos­i­tive and some not so pos­i­tive. Among the­se, the Quick Japan (mu­sic and sub­-cul­ture mag­a­zine) #9 is­sue fea­tures a lengthy Anno in­ter­view in which he once again crit­i­cizes the fans, but also makes some frank crit­i­cisms and ob­ser­va­tions about him­self. He also men­tions the har­ried pro­duc­tion sched­ule and other be­hind-the-scenes talk. Var­i­ous an­nounce­ments are also made re­gard­ing the movie re­lease sched­ule dur­ing this pe­ri­od.

This un­der­stand­ably can’t be used as a ref­er­ence, be­cause there is noth­ing to sup­port it but my word, but I have men­tioned be­fore that I re­ceived a phone call from a Gainax staffer while episode #25 and #26 were in pro­duc­tion, ask­ing me to con­firm where in the Book of Rev­e­la­tion the part about “I am the Al­pha and the Omega” ap­pears. I men­tioned that it ac­tu­ally ap­pears three times in differ­ent forms, and gave the ci­ta­tions. The im­pli­ca­tion was that they were con­sid­er­ing quot­ing it in the fi­nal episodes. In any case, they did not use those vers­es, but if you’re skep­ti­cal that they would have con­sid­ered such a thing, note that the book­lets that ac­com­pa­nied the Japan­ese Evan­ge­lion I, II, and III sound­tracks ac­tu­ally do have Bib­li­cal quotes as epi­grams. These were some of the very first things ever re­leased on the show; I be­lieve “Eva I” hit the mar­ket even be­fore the TV se­ries had fin­ished its ini­tial air­ing. “Eva III,” as you might know (that’s the one with all the remixes of “Fly Me To The Moon”) would be­come the first anime sound­track to go #1 in Japan since GALAXY EXPRESS 999.

Carl Horn

Hideaki An­no: Orig­i­nal­ly, and even to­day, Japan­ese an­i­ma­tion are prod­ucts of or­di­nary [ha­bit­u­al/­com­mon] con­sump­tion, cre­ated for the Japan­ese pub­lic. It is in­deed amus­ing to see the suc­cess of an­i­ma­tion abroad, but I think that fans every­where have the same tastes. An­i­ma­tion is a uni­ver­sal lan­guage.

HA: Of course, it’s the same for­mula which made “Idols” just as pop­u­lar. They are not re­ally hu­mans, they are only a sketch on a piece of pa­per, in­ca­pable of do­ing any­thing re­al­ly, and [they are] out of the reach of their fans. For ex­am­ple, when a boy makes love with a woman in an ani­me, it is only part of a sce­nar­io, it is noth­ing more, and the fan knows, he steps back from what he sees.

Ani­me­Land: Yet, there are some fans that no longer go out with real girls…

HA: It is true that some fans of an­i­ma­tion dis­play un­for­tu­nate be­hav­ior.

AL: And yet you con­tinue to cre­ate this kind of char­ac­ters for them.

HA: You need to un­der­stand that Japan­ese an­i­ma­tion is an in­dus­try that is, for the most part, male, and as is quite ev­i­dent, every­thing is made for their grat­i­fi­ca­tion. Fur­ther, it is more grat­i­fy­ing for us to draw this sort of char­ac­ter, rather than old grand­moth­ers.

AL: So ac­tu­al­ly, an­i­ma­tors draw their ideal woman on cel­lu­loid?

HA: It’s much eas­i­er. Char­ac­ters in an­i­ma­tion do not cheat. They do not let you go for an­oth­er. An­i­ma­tion is on cer­tain points, very close to the pornog­ra­phy in­dus­try. All your phys­i­cal needs are met. You can watch differ­ent an­i­ma­tions and find any­thing you de­sire.

AL: Have you re­ceived any com­plaints for us­ing Chris­t­ian con­cepts in your work? The an­gels are sup­posed to rep­re­sent some­thing good, be­nign, which does­n’t seem to be the case in Evan­ge­lion.

HA: I am not fa­mil­iar with many things in Chris­tian­i­ty, and I have no in­ten­tion of ap­proach­ing it or crit­i­ciz­ing it ei­ther. Is­n’t it said that Lu­cifer was an an­gel him­self be­fore hav­ing fal­l­en?

AL: Imag­ine that a Eu­ro­pean com­pany de­cided to buy the rights to Evan­ge­lion, and to change cer­tain scenes be­cause of re­li­gious con­cerns. Would you agree with cen­sor­ing these sce­nes?

HA: I don’t know, it would de­pend on the cir­cum­stances. After all, this se­ries was made for a Japan­ese au­di­ence.

AL: Amer­i­can and Eu­ro­pean an­i­ma­tion seem more and more smoth­ered by their laws and codes of dis­ci­pline, whereas Japan­ese an­i­ma­tion offers more adult sub­jects and char­ac­ters. Don’t you be­lieve that the con­tro­versy and the prob­lems that meet Japan­ese an­i­ma­tion come from here?

HA: Ac­tu­al­ly, I think that some cen­sor­ship is nec­es­sary, but it is not nor­mal that we should be or­dered by a con­ven­tional [lit­er­al­ly, bi­en-pen­sant] mi­nor­i­ty. I do not think you can get away with any­thing for the so-called well-be­ing and pro­tec­tion of chil­dren.

AL: Vi­o­lence seems to be more ad­mis­si­ble for these peo­ple than the no­tion of sex. Does­n’t it seem back­wards to you?

HA: The le­gal con­text ob­vi­ously differs be­tween na­tions and eras. The only uni­ver­sal con­stant is the thirst of hu­mans for sex and vi­o­lence. We need to try to man­age this with­out falling into the op­po­site ex­treme, and brain­wash­ing. Films are ex­tremely in­flu­en­tial and pow­er­ful, es­pe­cially as pro­pa­ganda tools.

HA: No, Gainax ex­am­ined my project for Evan­ge­lion and told me, “OK, you have carte blanche.” I have never been lim­ited on any­thing, ex­cept per­haps time and mon­ey.

HA: I don’t know. I used com­po­nents that I liked and that ap­peared to me nec­es­sary to ad­vance the sto­ry. I also worked in con­cepts that were pop­u­lar at the time. When I hear the crit­i­cism from fans about the end of Evan­ge­lion, I re­ally won­der if we can say that I have as good a knowl­edge of the en­vi­ron­ment as you seem to say.

AL: Where did you get the idea of the EVAs?

HA: I was in­spired by Japan­ese demons [oni]. I gave them a mod­ern ap­pear­ance, but such char­ac­ters have been around a long time.

AL: It seems that there ex­ists a sort of re­cur­ring mes­sage in your se­ries, that one can­not live alone, or even sep­a­rated from a group or eth­nic iden­ti­ty. Why this mes­sage, ad­dressed to otaku, who live at the same time in a rel­a­tively sep­a­rate world?

HA: You can find what­ever mes­sage you want to find in any film or se­ries. I have not wanted to pass on this or that mes­sage in par­tic­u­lar, but the fact that you re­flect on this is a good one. I made Evan­ge­lion to make me happy and to make anime lovers hap­py, in try­ing to bring to­gether the broad­est au­di­ence pos­si­ble.

– 1996-10-04? in­ter­view with Pierre Gin­er; pub­lished Ani­me­Land #32 (May 1997); orig­i­nal ex­cerp­t/­trans­la­tion Sep­tem­ber 1997; full sources: scan//. (The fi­nal Q/A pair has also been ex­cerpted & trans­lated from an in­ter­view pub­lished 1997-07-18 (“the day be­fore the re­lease of EoE”) in the Ital­ian mag­a­zine Man-ga! #3. The con­nec­tion is un­clear - did Man-ga! trans­late into Ital­ian & reprint Ani­me­Land’s in­ter­view?)

Our aim was to be the an­tithe­sis of all the gi­ant ro­bot an­i­mated shows around us. It’s not a world where the wind blows through your hair while you de­clare your pur­pose in a boom­ing voice. Es­pe­cially in the past one or two years, this type of re­frac­tive, fem­i­nine char­ac­ter has not been seen.

Yoshiyuki Sadamoto Taken from Viz Comics’ Col­lected Evan­ge­lion Man­ga, Vol. 2

The New­type Film­book de­scrip­tion for the scene states (lit­er­al­ly):

Amidst the many words of con­grat­u­la­tions, a faint smile starts at the cor­ners of Shin­ji’s mouth (and spreads across his face). A happy face – that is the fig­ure of the Com­ple­mented Shin­ji. This con­clu­sion is also one form, one pos­si­bil­ity among many.

Eva FAQ; trans­lated by Bochan Bird

New­type Film­book 8 rather straight­for­wardly says, “She [Naoko] throws her body down from the Com­mand Cen­ter” (Kanojo wa mizukara no karada o, hat­sureijo kara nage-o­tosu).


Ad­di­tion au­dio-drama; hu­mor­ous au­dio dra­ma, ap­par­ently with in­put from Anno; good for sar­cas­tic com­men­tary, such as Asuka call­ing Ka­woru ‘ho­moboy’ - good for bad ex­pla­na­tions of the an­gels?

Anno com­mented in var­i­ous in­ter­views after the con­clu­sion of the se­ries that “anime fans need to have more self­-re­spect” and to “come back to re­al­ity”; in a New­type in­ter­view on 10 May, after the an­nounce­ment on 26 April of a new movie and re-edited ver­sions of the TV se­ries, he also stated that “com­puter net­work­ing is graffiti on toi­let walls.”

–Fu­jie 2004 TODO: Fu­jie is un­re­li­able; I’d rather use the Pro­to­cul­ture Ad­dicts is­sues

When I heard that EVANGELION was cen­sored (see our ar­ti­cle “Evan­ge­lion Con­tro­versy” on page 45), I was to­tally out­raged. How this could be pos­si­ble in our mod­ern world? And all this (we spec­u­lat­ed) in the name of re­li­gious be­lief? What about free speech? How could a le­gal sys­tem go along with this? Well, maybe it did not and the TV sta­tion cen­sored the show it­self to avoid offend­ing cer­tain sen­si­bil­i­ties. We can­not re­ally know where the truth lies. I was par­tic­u­larly con­fused when my friend Miyako read me Hideaki An­no’s in­ter­view in NEWTYPE of June. He avoided the sub­ject of cen­sor­ship and skill­fully de­fended his work. His point of view made sense and he made some in­ter­est­ing com­ments about the In­ter­net fans who ex­ces­sively crit­i­cized the show.

“I think the peo­ple who are very much in­volved with the Net,” Mr. Anno said, “have very nar­row views to­ward life and the world. They’re al­ways in their rooms and don’t go out very often to com­mu­ni­cate in per­son. Be­cause of their in­for­ma­tion on the Net, they feel they know every­thing with­out search­ing the real truths.” They eas­ily and anony­mously say things that they would never say in per­son. “Their mes­sages are like graffiti in a pub­lic toi­let.” They at­tack other while they are stay­ing in a safe place. “They don’t have any­thing cer­tain to hold on… that’s prob­a­bly why they watch anime shows. (…) I would like to add and say to those fans, hey, go out and visit towns. I am 35 now and I am re­al­iz­ing the im­por­tance of hu­man con­tact lit­tle by lit­tle…”

(This in­ter­view, pub­lished in the June is­sue of NEWTYPE, was made by Mr. Shinichiro In­oue. He en­cour­ages peo­ple to send com­ments and ques­tions to An­no-san by writ­ing to: Mr. Hideaki An­no, Monthly NEWTYPE Mag­a­zine, Kadokawa Shoten, Tokyo, 162-77, Japan.)

Pro­to­cul­ture Ad­dicts #41 Ju­ly–Au­gust 1996, Claude Pel­letier ed­i­to­ri­als

The de­vel­op­ment of Evan­ge­lion gives me the feel­ing of a ‘Live’ con­cert. What­ever the story or the de­vel­op­ment of the char­ac­ters, I made them with­out a plan. Dur­ing the pro­duc­tion, whether lis­ten­ing to var­i­ous opin­ions or analysing my own state of mind, I kept ques­tion­ing my­self. I got the con­cepts from this per­sonal stock­tak­ing [self-assess­men­t]. At first I had in­tended to make a sim­ple work fea­tur­ing ro­bots. But even when the main scene be­came a high school, it did not differ com­pared to other pro­duc­tions in the same style. At this point, I did not re­ally think of cre­at­ing a char­ac­ter with two faces, two iden­ti­ties: one shown at school, and the other in­side the or­ga­ni­za­tion he be­longs to [N­erv]. The im­pres­sion of ‘Live’ con­cert that gives me the birth of Eva, was the team join­ing me in de­vel­op­ing it, in the man­ner of an im­pro­vi­sa­tion: some­one plays the gui­tar and, in re­spon­se, the drums and bass are added. The per­for­mance ended with the TV broad­cast­ing end­ing. We only started work­ing on the next script once the pre­vi­ous one was done. It took longer than usu­al. When we fin­ished a screen­play, we went back and checked it against the pre­vi­ous ones. When we said: ‘Ah, I thought so, that’s wrong there’, we made cor­rec­tions to the sto­ry­board. In fact, with the last episode ap­proach­ing, we have not even been able to fin­ish on time.

…The rea­son why the main char­ac­ter is four­teen years is that he is no longer a child but not yet an adult. He lives alone, but is at­tached to oth­ers. In past cen­turies, he would soon cel­e­brate his com­ing of age. Back then, life ex­pectancy was fifty years, so peo­ple had to grow up in four­teen years. To­day, we live more than sev­enty years, and al­though the age of ma­jor­ity in Japan is twenty years, most peo­ple still de­pend on their par­ents at that age.

…S­peak­ing of im­pro­vi­sa­tion, when I added the ‘Hu­man Com­ple­men­ta­tion Project’ that ap­pears in the sec­ond episode, and which was go­ing to be­come the ful­crum/pivot of the plot, I still had no idea about what it was go­ing to ‘com­ple­ment’. It’s just a ver­bal bluff [laugh­s]. In the world of Eva, the hu­man pop­u­la­tion was cut by half, but as a rule, we can say that the worlds where the pop­u­la­tion has been dec­i­mated are typ­i­cal of car­toons. I think worlds iso­lated and torn to shreds, where be­cause of a past dis­as­ter hu­man­ity has been dec­i­mat­ed, are char­ac­ter­is­tic of Japan­ese an­i­ma­tion.

…what­ever the view­point, Nerv is a group of am­a­teurs. It looks like an army, but it is not one. I did not want to make a mil­i­tary group. I found it odd that anime mag­a­zines read­just the im­age of Mis­ato in writ­ing that she is a ‘skilled sol­dier’. I think she is more adept at many other things…Hence when we look at them, her strate­gies are a lit­tle hap­haz­ard. Noth­ing but luck. Hon­est­ly, the only per­son who plans her strate­gies a lit­tle bit is Rit­suko.

…About the prob­lem of the heart, I did not re­al­ize it im­me­di­ate­ly, but part of Japan and Amer­ica can meet most of their de­sires, right?…­For ex­am­ple, some ex­tremely ma­te­ri­al­is­tic peo­ple do not bother to con­sider whether they make them­selves dis­liked by oth­ers or not. I think we should live more fun­da­men­tally [essen­tial­ly]. In our cur­rent ma­te­r­ial se­cu­ri­ty, the prob­lem of the heart be­comes a very cur­rent top­ic.

…in the course of mak­ing Eva, I got where I got for a num­ber of rea­sons I could never re­ally ex­plain. But as far as the orig­i­nal sto­ries of episodes 25 and 26 (the last ones), I man­aged to fin­ish episode 25 as far as the script was con­cerned. Un­for­tu­nate­ly, I had to aban­don episode 26 while it was still at a very early plan­ning stage. I’m re­work­ing the episodes 25 and 26 that will be sold on LD [LaserDisc] and video next year, but as far as episode 26 goes, that’ll be a com­plete re­vi­sion, so that it’ll be more ‘vi­sual’. I’ll do it again by de­con­struct­ing the orig­i­nal plan. Episodes 25 and 26 as broad­cast on TV ac­cu­rately re­flect my mood at the time. I am very sat­is­fied. I re­gret noth­ing.

…At that point, the script for the last episode was not yet com­plete. It would be the fol­low­ing week. In essence, there re­mained three days in the sched­ule. But in the end/as a mat­ter of fact, I did­n’t need draw­ings to rep­re­sent my vi­sion of things. In truth, I would’ve been just as happy to ex­plain my­self by spo­ken word. I would’ve done it, but alas, it was re­jected. With­out cels, we made do by us­ing the sketches of the sto­ry­board in their place. It was­n’t a mat­ter of hav­ing time to make them or not. In any event, we ended up do­ing with­out an­i­ma­tion on cel. Cels are sym­bolic rep­re­sen­ta­tions. After hav­ing drawn Asuka with a mark­er, as soon as Yuko Miya­mura gave it her voice, it was more Asuka than ever. I even came to de­test my­self for hav­ing wasted time on cels at all [un­til then]. But that does­n’t mean never go­ing through com­put­er-aided draw­ing. I just wanted to show that, as far as an­i­mated draw­ings as a means of ex­pres­sion went, us­ing sketches could work. I meant a mes­sage to those mis­guided fools who have ex­pres­sions like: ‘since it is not on cel­lu­loid, it is un­fin­ished’ or ‘be­cause it’s not on cel­lu­loid, it is slap­dash’. To de­stroy at all costs the kind of ideas that I my­self had held. Once you hold the prej­u­dice that you can’t use any­thing but cels to rep­re­sent char­ac­ters, you’ve fi­nally be­come a fetishist… the first time we showed this was through what the ‘lines’ in episode 16 nar­rat­ed. A car­toon is com­posed of sim­ple signs and there­fore from the out­set, it is a fake world, right? Noth­ing but an op­ti­cal il­lu­sion. No­body would imag­ine that it’s a doc­u­men­tary. Try­ing to in­te­grate a doc­u­men­tary as­pect into the film, that’s my per­sonal feel­ing of be­ing ‘Live’. I think the de­con­struc­tion of these signs is rare in car­toons that are shown on TV. When we aired our line draw­ings, some peo­ple in the in­dus­try called our work shod­dy, even though it was im­pos­si­ble to con­sider it such. Dis­re­gard­ing the in­tent of mak­ing that linework into a ‘rep­re­sen­ta­tion’ [of some­thing] im­plies that it does­n’t com­mu­ni­cate any idea at all, any con­cept at all. Un­der these con­di­tions, the last episode would­n’t be any bet­ter than a jum­ble of slo­gans [apho­rism­s/sen­tences]… Me, I think that, by look­ing at it me­thod­i­cal­ly, one can find other things in it, too.

…A­mong the peo­ple who use the In­ter­net, many are ob­tuse. Be­cause they are locked in their rooms, they hang on to that vi­sion which is spread­ing across the world…On the mes­sage boards [In­ter­net] some­one can still make a re­but­tal, but this re­mains at the stan­dard of toi­let graffi­ti. One does not need to sign it. It qui­etly ar­rives di­rectly at your door. It’s so con­ve­nient that care­less peo­ple use it with­out re­morse, with­out stop­ping [for con­sid­er­a­tion]. Ob­vi­ous­ly, not all In­ter­net users are not like that…I just want to say ‘come back to real life [réal­ité] and get to know the world’. For ex­am­ple, when it was de­cided to redo episodes 25 and 26, the news spread quickly from Gainax’s server across the In­ter­net. If we had not set the tone, com­pletely out­landish ru­mors would have emerged. But by re­veal­ing the in­for­ma­tion, plenty of in­co­her­ent state­ments like ‘they make it for the money’ were thrown in our faces. I re­al­ized my own hypocrisy when I let my­self be con­vinced that, not know­ing our fi­nan­cial sit­u­a­tion, this kind of talk was only fair. What­ever they say, I do not think you can see other neg­a­tives in Evan­ge­lion! (Laugh­ter) By not pay­ing at­ten­tion to child­ish ideas which they are sub­jected to, we take the ani­me-fans for be­ing stu­pid. They do not leave their [com­fort­able lit­tle] world. They feel safe. They have noth­ing solid in them­selves on which to re­ly. That’s why I tried to go to the res­cue of Japan­ese an­i­ma­tion. I do not say, like [Shu­ji] Ter­aya­ma, to ‘throw away your books and flee the city’, but to go to town and meet peo­ple. Why can I say that? Well, I no­ticed what I was miss­ing for me, in my heart. For twen­ty-one years I have been an ani­me-fan, and now, thir­ty-five years old, I no­tice with sor­row: I’m noth­ing but an hon­est fool (laugh­s).

of May/June 1996 in­ter­view by my­self and oth­ers

To up­date on the EVANGELION con­tro­ver­sy, noth­ing re­ally came out from An­no-san at Anime Ex­po. He seemed em­bit­tered, and quickly lost pa­tience with the fans. “If you don’t un­der­stand, it is your prob­lem”, he said! He made many com­ments in such terms that our re­porter on lo­ca­tion could­n’t put them on pa­per. For more de­tails, check our re­port on Anime Expo in the next is­sue. Any­way, some­one who worked on EVANGELION did con­firm that the last episodes (from 19 and on, but mainly 25-26) were cen­sored fol­low­ing pres­sure from the PTA (Par­en­t-Teacher As­so­ci­a­tion; but no men­tion of any le­gal ac­tion) and that they had been botched. To be con­tin­ued.­to­cul­ture.­ca/­PA/ed­i­to42.htm (Mir­ror; PA #43 does­n’t men­tion the PTA…)

Anno in­ter­view in June, men­tion­ing draft ma­te­r­ial of Ka­woru episode 24 (see pre­vi­ous sec­tion):


  1. Evan­ge­lion Orig­i­nal I ISBN 4-8291-7321-1 C0076 P980E (episodes #1–#9)
  2. Evan­ge­lion Orig­i­nal II ISBN 4-8291-7322-x C0076 P980E (#10–#18)
  3. Evan­ge­lion Orig­i­nal III ISBN 4-8291-7323-8 C0076 P980E (#19–#26)

These 3 books were pub­lished 1996–1997; they seem to be near­ly-fi­nal draft­s—they in­clude a num­ber of di­a­logue changes and oc­ca­sional deleted scenes. They were used by the Lit­eral Trans­la­tion Project, but un­for­tu­nately LTP seems to have edited their tran­scrip­tion to con­form to the fi­nal aired anime episodes & omit­ted all the in­ter­est­ing differ­ences such as the deleted scenes. (This is a pity be­cause some changes are quite in­ter­est­ing, like Rei I sur­viv­ing.) Parts of ORIGINAL have been trans­lat­ed:

  • The in­tro­duc­tions:

    1. “Be­tween the Char­ac­ters (Let­ters) and the Film”

    2. “In­di­vid­u­als, Groups, and the Sys­tem”

      How­ev­er, de­spite be­ing made as a group op­er­a­tion, there are TV se­ries that are col­ored al­most en­tirely by the per­son­al­ity of one in­di­vid­ual. Hayao Miyaza­k­i’s “Co­nan, Boy of the Fu­ture” is that way, and many of the se­ries where Yoshiyuki Tomino served as chief di­rec­tor are also the same.

      “Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion” is also a se­ries that was shaped by the per­son­al­ity of its one cre­ator, Hideaki An­no. The world­view, char­ac­ter cre­ation, cre­ation of Mecha, the gad­gets, the di­vi­sion of cuts, and even to the point of each line of di­a­logue, every­thing is in­scribed with the name of “Hideaki An­no.” For ex­am­ple, the men­tal land­scape of Anno is, of course, re­flected in the sto­ry, be­hav­ior pat­terns of the char­ac­ters and the like. An­no’s mood is re­flected and his in­tent is clear even in triv­ial places like the name of a de­part­ment store or the brand of can coffee that ap­pears.

      “In­di­vid­u­als, Groups, and the Sys­tem”; from the TV film­books by Gainax? (archived)

    3. “The Abil­ity to Think and At­trac­tion”

      Those “thoughts” about a piece of work are, for the view­er, a bit of a so­phis­ti­cated way of en­joy­ing it. After view­ing a piece of work, that work is as­sim­i­lated in the view­er’s head through think­ing, “Did that mean this?” and “Is that right?” and will go on to be­come the build­ing block of thought. Be­ing able to come across works that can be con­tem­plated is an ir­re­place­able en­counter.

      How­ev­er, re­cently I feel that these en­coun­ters are scarce. I won­der if I’m just imag­in­ing this?

      … Think­ing re­quires effort. When anime is thought of as “en­ter­tain­ment”, I’m not deny­ing that there is also a pol­icy that the au­di­ence not be made to use un­nec­es­sary effort. Works that are just to been seen and en­joyed. Those are also prob­a­bly nec­es­sary. How­ev­er, weren’t there too many of those types of works? Among those, “Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion” was clearly a work that could be thought about. While keep­ing its en­ter­tain­ment value as a piece of work, it also offers en­joy­ment that the au­di­ence thinks about. The Eva Boom that you all know about proves that. Every­one is starv­ing for think­ing.

      And the story preg­nant with rid­dles con­clud­ed, for many of the au­di­ence mem­bers, still preg­nant with those rid­dles. There were also fans who screamed, “I was be­trayed” by that end­ing. How­ev­er, this is also cer­tain proof that Eva draws peo­ple in.

      … In reach­ing the film’s com­ple­tion, it might also be in­ter­est­ing to try read­ing about things like how the drama was put to­gether and cor­rected and how the im­pli­ca­tions con­tin­ued to change.

      http://we­bc­i­ta­­owk­BjV; (archived)

  • Sev­enth Mes­sen­ger, episode 1 (? guess from first men­tion of N^2 be­ing first episode), “In EVANGELION ORIGINAL, the N^2 mine was orig­i­nally called P-type mine. I won­der why.”

  • Sev­enth Mes­sen­ger, episode 1, Mis­ato’s line: “Did­n’t even Rei take seven months to sync with the EVA? He’s just ar­rived. He can’t pos­si­bly con­trol it!”

  • Bochan_bird, episode 2, scene vari­ant: SEELE scene dis­cussing the first An­gel at­tack; differ­ent from ADV or LTP trans­la­tion (ORIGINAL ver­sion dis­cusses how it was ex­pected and SEELE’s con­tempt for the rest of hu­man­i­ty; aired ver­sion dis­cusses how their prepa­ra­tions may not pay off and the need for NERV to be very care­ful)

  • Shin-seiki says episode 03, “Hedge­hog’s Dilem­ma: Rain, after run­ning away”, was orig­i­nally ti­tled “Hedge­hog’s Dilem­ma: The Wan­der­ing Third Chil­dren” (TODO: was this con­firmed in the Plat­inum com­men­tary?)

  • Bochan_bird, episode 3 & episode 7, changed lines:

    In EVANGELION ORIGINAL I, p. 3-11, Touji said his fa­ther and mother worked at the re­search in­sti­tute (NERV?), but this was changed in the ac­tual se­ries to his fa­ther and un­cle [Bochan seems mis­taken here - Lit­eral & ADV both say fa­ther and grand­fa­ther; Pro­posal only men­tions fa­ther], thus elim­i­nat­ing his moth­er. The girl’s line about her mother [episode 7, “My mother is dec­o­rat­ing a lot for the dis­cus­sion of post-grad­u­ate life. She’s so sil­ly!”] does not ap­pear in EVANGELION ORIGINAL, so it was added at a later date (dur­ing the record­ing?) and may have slipped through the edit­ing process.

    Sev­enth Mes­sen­ger notes this lat­ter line is not men­tioned in any foot­note ei­ther, in­di­cat­ing it was added very late in pro­duc­tion.

  • Nanashi, as part of a NGE TV chronol­o­gy, copies out the dates Episode 4 spec­i­fied be­fore they were cut from broad­cast (pos­si­bly con­tra­dict­ing other chronolo­gies like the Rei Ayanami Rais­ing Project cal­en­dar):

    • "Day b+2 - Sat­ur­day, 7-15-2015

    • Day b+3 - Sun­day, 7-16-2015

    • Day b+4 - Mon­day, 7-17-2015

      • Night in the movie the­ater.
    • Day b+5 - Tues­day, 7-18-2015

      • Night in Ken­suke’s camp.
      • Episode 4 end­s."
  • Sa­vant dis­cusses the Chi­nese ver­sion of ORIGINAL I, con­firm­ing Re­ichu’s de­scrip­tion of the mar­gin­a­lia and quotes one such com­ment: “This script por­trays Shinji as be­ing more ‘soft’ than in the fin­ished se­ries.”

  • Seven Mes­sen­ger, episode 12, Mis­ato-Sh­inji dis­cus­sion of her fa­ther (seems same as TV)

  • Cu­SO4 con­firms that episodes 13 and 14 were mis­tak­enly swapped

  • Sev­enth Mes­sen­ger, episode 14, vari­ant synch-ra­tio line by Rit­suko Ak­a­gi. (Sev­enth Mes­sen­ger tran­scribes this as episode 13 with episode 14’s ti­tles but as noted above by Cu­SO4, ORIGINAL swaps them)

  • Re­ichu men­tions that episode 17 orig­i­nally men­tions an ‘Es­sene’ or­ga­ni­za­tion rather than ‘Seele’, fit­ting in with the sto­ry­board; Bochan_bird says “…SEELE is the rem­nant of the Es­sene branch that wrote the DSS (based on in­for­ma­tion in EVANGELION ORIGINAL)…” and NAv­eryW spots of the word Es­sene in a ‘Project Meet­ing’ doc­u­ment (a brain­storm­ing ses­sion ap­par­ently pre­dat­ing the Evan­ge­lion Pro­pos­al; see Project Meet­ing.)

  • Sev­enth Mes­sen­ger trans­lates a deleted scene in episode 18 where Touji vis­its his sis­ter in the hos­pi­tal, a mod­i­fied scene be­tween Rit­suko & Mis­ato, and a mod­i­fied scene in episode 3.

  • Sev­enth Mes­sen­ger, episode 19, some tech jar­gon

  • Bochan_bird para­phrases a sec­tion in episode 19 where Eva-01 eats the S2 En­gine of an an­gel; in ORIGINAL, Eva-01 at­taches the An­gel’s arm to it­self and then pushes the S2 en­gine into its own stom­ach

  • Sev­enth Mes­sen­ger pro­vides the Tou­ji-Hikari hos­pi­tal scene in episode 19, and Yui’s flash­back plugtest scene in episode 21

  • Nanashi trans­lates the episode 20 scene notes for Shinji re­form­ing out of LCL

  • Sev­enth Mes­sen­ger, episode 21, vari­ant tech­no-bab­ble line by Naoko Ak­agi

  • NAv­eryW (trans­la­tion by Eric Blair in #e­vageek­s), episode 21, deleted Mis­ato line: “I know the An­gels aren’t just bat­tle weapons left by the First Root Race.” Re­ichu tran­scribes the kanji and trans­lates them as “I know the An­gels aren’t just weapons left be­hind by the First In­dige­nous Race.” This is im­por­tant - it is one of the few solid leads (a­side from the Project Meet­ing and the Pro­pos­al) that the First An­ces­tral Race was not in­vented for the video games but were part of the back­story early on.

  • Bochan_bird, episode 21, changed scene de­scrip­tion; Rei I sur­vives! This is worth quot­ing in full:

    Dr. Ak­agi glimpses Yui in Rei’s leer­ing face. She im­pul­sively clutches at Rei’s throat and be­gins to stran­gle her. Muffled cries es­cape from Rei’s throat and Dr. Ak­agi re­gains her sens­es. Rei’s arms dan­gle limply…The loud ‘thud’ of a falling ob­ject is heard. Rei’s breath rasps in her throat as she tries to breathe again. She looks around but Dr. Ak­agi is nowhere to be seen. Ex­pres­sion­less, she gets up and stag­gers out of the con­trol cen­ter…Ex­te­rior view of com­pleted NERV Head­quar­ters (pyra­mid) with the blood­-red NERV logo on its front.

  • Sev­enth Mes­sen­ger, episode 21, scene de­scrip­tion: “Analy­sis plat­form. Noth­ing re­mained where the corpse of Dr. [Naoko] Ak­agi had fallen ex­cept a white out­line. There was blood on the cover of Gas­par.”

  • Sev­enth Mes­sen­ger, episode 21, cut scene: “At the bot­tom of the page that Bochan quot­ed, there’s a lit­tle foot­note that says GAINAX ex­cluded the scene of Rei wak­ing up.”

  • Sev­enth Mes­sen­ger ex­cerpts 3 Rit­suko scenes from episode 23: the dis­posal of Rei’s re­mains, Rit­suko be­fore the SEELE mono­liths, and Rit­suko en­ter­ing Cen­tral Dogma with Mis­ato & Shinji

  • Bochan_bird, episode 24, trans­la­tion dis­cus­sion - did Ka­woru say “It means I like you” or “It means I love you”?

    The am­bigu­ous word is “suki” which can be in­ter­preted as ‘like’ or ‘love’. I in­ter­pret it here is ‘like’ be­cause of the pre­ced­ing word “koui”, which has prob­a­bly been mis­trans­lat­ed, thus deep­en­ing the mis­un­der­stand­ing. “Koi” (short ‘o’) means ‘love’. “Koui” (long ‘o’) means ‘friend­ship/affin­i­ty/­good­will’. While the long and short ‘o’ are diffi­cult to hear, the kanji in the writ­ten script are those for “koui”.

  • Sev­enth Mes­sen­ger, episode 24, Ka­woru’s or­der to Unit-02: “Ok, bet­ter get go­ing. Come, [clone?] of Adam, slave of Lilith.”

  • Bochan_bird (sec­ond trans­la­tion) trans­lates a cut episode 24 scene fits per­fectly in EoE but not EoTV, in which SEELE dis­cusses Ka­woru’s death; Re­ichu trans­lates her copy, Keele’s line in this one runs

    Keel: The An­gels who were the Chil­dren of Adam have all per­ished. Only the fi­nal An­gel - hu­man­i­ty, us - re­mains. The promised day has come. When Lilith is en­wombed with a soul*, this im­pure world shall be cleansed.

  • Sev­enth Mes­sen­ger trans­lates the open­ing from episode 26; pri­mary differ­ence is “Every­one has lost some­thing. Be­cause of this, the com­ple­men­ta­tion of the heart and soul con­tin­ues.”, as op­posed to “The thing that peo­ple lost, in other words, the com­ple­men­ta­tion of the mind has be­gun.” or “The thing that peo­ple had lost / In other words, the in­stru­men­tal­ity of souls was still on­go­ing”.

Director’s Cut (EoTV)

Pre­view for D&R/EoE, in­cluded on the LD re­leases for the TV, which oth­er­wise was NGE+DC; tran­script of voice-over (pre­view for 25’, on episode 24):

TEXT: Pre­view

MISATO (OFF): Shinji de­feated the fi­nal an­gel,

but un­able to deal with re­al­i­ty, he shuts the world out.

And the promised time comes.

The im­pend­ing an­ni­hi­la­tion of Nerv.

Asuka is dri­ven to the brink of death.

The Hu­man In­stru­men­tal­ity Project

is about to be ac­ti­vated along with Rei.

Over the heads of the peo­ple re­belling against their own re­al­ity

and feed­ing their dreams, the Eva se­ries de­scends

as if mock­ing the de­cep­tion that is about to be un­cov­ered.

Next time: “Air.”

TEXT: Next time

Pre­view for episode 26’

Text: Pre­view

Mis­ato (Off): Fi­nal­ly, Shinji Ikari faces the Pan­de­mo­nium that is re­al­i­ty.

Un­able to cope with the trau­ma, he re­signs him­self to a fan­tasy world.

Where there is no pain called ‘re­al­ity’.

Where there is no fic­tion called ‘my­self’.

Where there is no fear called ‘other peo­ple’.

Where there is no hope called ‘oth­ers’.

Where there is no ex­is­tence called ‘the self’.

Next time, the fi­nale: “My Pure Heart for You”

End of Evangelion

From the Re­newal box-set ex­tras, a pre-pro­duc­tion im­age of the scrapped orig­i­nal TV episode 25, show­ing that the EoE sce­nario was not an after­thought:

Mis­ato ex­e­cut­ing JSSDF sol­diers

“The Many Worlds of Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion”

The EoE screen­plays that we have archived on the site were writ­ten after the TV show, in its orig­i­nal form, was com­plet­ed, and ap­par­ently in tan­dem with the de­vel­op­ment of the DC ad­di­tions. (You can see a note mak­ing ref­er­ence to po­ten­tial TV re­vi­sions at the be­gin­ning of the 26’ screen­play.)


It was more ab­bre­vi­ated than Patrick­’s. Also wished they used that last line in the hos­pi­tal scene that was trans­lated from the Evan­ge­lion: THE MOVIE page - “I’m fucked up”

It’s ac­tu­ally - “Ore wa saitei da” (I’m the low­est, with all the irony Shin­ji’s shift from “boku” to “ore” im­plies) but yes, that’s prob­a­bly the best trans­la­tion.

Zhou Tai An; ‘boku’ is a boy ‘I’ pro­noun, while ‘ore’ is stereo­typ­i­cally manly

The cover by Karel Thole of one edi­tion of the ob­scure & mediocre SF col­lec­tion, The Gen­eral Zapped an An­gel, bears an ex­tra­or­di­nary re­sem­blance to the fi­nal scene of EoE; this may con­sti­tute an­other SF ref­er­ence by Anno in EoE along with the Tip­tree al­lu­sion.

1996 S

The tele­vi­sion broad­casts were fin­ished two months ago. But “Eva fever” has not yet cooled down. As a mat­ter of course, there was also a big re­ac­tion to the in­ter­view with Anno Hideaki in the June is­sue of NT (New­type). It seems like bunches of let­ters are de­liv­ered to the ed­i­to­r­ial office daily for Di­rec­tor An­no, which he is read­ing lit­tle by lit­tle as his busy sched­ule per­mits

‘From New­type, July 7, 1996 is­sue’ (“Note: this is still a rough trans­la­tion.”)

Here’s part of a Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion Wiz­ard Manga Scene ar­ti­cle by Carl Gus­tav Horn(the same guy in charge of the Viz EVA manga trans­la­tion BTW.) It may give a glimpse into An­no’s per­son­al­i­ty.

Hav­ing gam­bled and won on ‘Evan­ge­lion,’ Anno can afford to dis­miss his crit­ics. But this ul­ti­mate ‘fan­boy,’ who breaks into ‘Ul­tra­man’ poses when in front of the cam­era, is as hard on him­self as he is on his in­dus­try and its fans. ‘Evan­ge­lion’ was a strug­gle against four of his own cow­ardice - a hia­tus from work where ‘all I was do­ing was sim­ply not dy­ing,’ said Anno to the Amer­i­can au­di­ence. ‘If I talk about the ’lim­i­ta­tions of the in­dus­try, after all, what does that mean? Aren’t I re­ally talk­ing about the lim­i­ta­tions in­side my­self? It is the cre­ators who have to change their frame of mind .’­Most peo­ple who make anime ,Anno said,have the kind of ’autism’ he him­self has suffered from. ‘They have to try and reach out with their work, and com­mu­ni­cate to oth­ers. What’s the great­est thing anime has ever achieved? The fact that we’re hold­ing a di­a­logue right now. ’When a fan of the mas­ter asked for ad­vice to those who’d like to break into ani­me, he shot back, ’Be in­ter­ested in other things be­sides an­i­ma­tion.’


It’s the words of An­no’s trans­la­tor at 1996’s Anime Ex­po.


Pos­si­ble NERV acronym:

The New­type 100% col­lec­tion has a sketch of the NERV logo with the words “NEO EARTH RETURN V……?” team. Can’t quite make out the V word.


From the New­type 100% col­lec­tion book, i can barely make out in one draw­ing…“Neo Eath of Re­tarn Ver­era­sion ….” (those of you who have it its on page 168)


“I just looked at the book for the spelling, and the full ti­tle says”Neo Eath of Re­tarn Vercera­sion team" which prob­a­bly does­n’t mean a thing. I think the de­signer was just rough­ing out the NERV logo and per­haps at the time they were think­ing of mak­ing an acronym, for an ad­di­tional dou­ble mean­ing. In its place, they used the quote “God’s in his heav­en, al­l’s right in the world” which (to me, any­way) works bet­ter than an acronym."


Scan of the rel­e­vant New­Type 100% page

“Neo Eath Of Re­tariv Vercera­sion Team-Term” –http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/1998-Oc­to­ber/022081.html

[first email] I have a cou­ple of friends who work in the Anime in­dus­try. They told me about the in­flu­ence of “Evan­ge­lion.”

The most sig­nifi­cant is­sue is that be­cause “Evan­ge­lion” se­ries had ex­ces­sively atro­cious and erotic sce­nes, and GAINAX pre­sent­ed/de­liver in­com­plete prod­ucts to the TV sta­tion, as the re­sult, TV sta­tions be­gan to re­view the scripts be­fore an­i­mated and also they be­gan to or­der anime pro­duc­ers to pre­sen­t/de­liver the prod­ucts one week be­fore on air. Not only TV-Toky­o*1 but also most of TV sta­tions in Tokyo be­gan these acts.

# TV-Tokyo broad­cast “Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion.”

In some sense, the re­la­tion­ships of mu­tual trust be­tween Anime pro­duc­ers and TV sta­tions were de­stroyed by “Evan­ge­lion,” and con­se­quent­ly, TV sta­tions set up more strict rules for anime pro­duc­tion to make it safer.

Due to the be­fore-an­i­mat­ed-re­view by TV-S­ta­tions, now that Anime pro­duc­ers have to re­vise scripts a lot. As the re­sult, some anime pro­duc­tions suffer from the too tight sched­ule which had been car­ried out with­out prob­lems be­fore.

The friends of mine in the Anime in­dus­try say, “if GAINAX wished to make an atro­cious and erotic Anime or an ex­per­i­men­tal Ani­me, it could have make OVA. More over, they must rec­og­nize the sig­nifi­cant in­flu­ence to the en­tire Anime in­dus­try by the fact that the coarse man­ner in the pro­duc­tion re­sulted those two episodes” (They mean the last two episodes).

…[sec­ond email] Any­how, the friend of mine who often tell me the story about the Anime in­dus­try are di­rec­tors of draw­ings, and sce­nario writ­ers who do the se­ries con­struc­tion and main-writ­ing. They are at Toei Do­ga, Tokyo Movie, or at Sun­rise, and are en­gaged in the TV Anime presently on air.

In or­der to prove my sto­ry, I think I have to show at least one fact. OK. You know the TV Anime se­ries “Fa­mous De­tec­tive Co­nan.” [Case Closed] By the in­flu­ence from Evan­ge­lion, Nip­pon TV checked the scripts be­fore aired which has never been done be­fore. And the sta­tion or­dered to re­take the script be­cause “The way of the mur­der is not ap­pro­pri­ate.” As the re­sult, the hon­or­able sched­ule was much dis­turbed. (I sym­pa­thy with those staffs.)

Which part, do you say, has the ques­tion­able sce­nes? I watched each episode, 2,3 times, but I can’t fig­ure out which.

Is that so? Don’t you think it is ques­tion­able if a wom­an’s voice at sex is aired in the TV anime around early evening. If you don’t think so, you have a very differ­ent point of view from mine, thus, I don’t want to dis­cuss fur­ther.

What does not make sense even more is the part con­cern­ing “The in­com­plete film”. How can TV Sta­tions eval­u­ate the “in­com­plete­ness”?

It is hard to eval­u­ate the “in­com­plete­ness” quan­ti­ta­tive­ly. How­ev­er, from the point of view of com­mon sense, don’t you think it is nat­ural to think that the pic­ture-show like( or less than that in some sce­nes) last two episodes would be re­garded as “in­com­plete.” It is their ex­cuse that the sched­ule was too tight. GAINAX is re­spon­si­ble of the tight sched­ule. For the TV sta­tion, the de­liv­ered film is the only ob­ject to eval­u­ated the show’s qual­i­ty. That is the con­tract be­tween com­pa­nies.

I ask you a ques­tion. If GAINAX had had enough time for the mak­ing (in gen­eral it takes about one month to make a 30-minute TV anime show) and had enough man­pow­er, had GAINAX made that kind a film?

–Ju­nichi Toy­ouchi, post­ing to the­i­ma­tion Usenet news­group; orig­i­nal Usenet post­ing. Both emails trans­lated by Ken­taro Onizuka (also of Lit­eral Trans­la­tion Pro­ject) in­s.ani­me.misc; the emails are con­sis­tent with the Kai­bun­sho

Toshio Okada

“Conscience of the Otaking”

“This was part one of a four-part in­ter­view with the found­ing pres­i­dent of Gainax, Toshio Okada, con­ducted at Otakon ’95, and should cer­tainly be read as an al­ter­nate view­point to many of the events de­scribed in . It ran in Ani­mer­ica 4:2 through 4:5, al­though Okada only touches on Eva in 4:2. At the time the in­ter­view was con­duct­ed, Evan­ge­lion was in pro­duc­tion but had not yet aired, and Okada men­tions episode 5 in the con­text of how Gainax (s­ince he left) has gained more con­trol over its sched­ul­ing. He also makes the in­ter­est­ing as­ser­tion that he was talk­ing about”the base story of Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion" with Anno back when he was still at the com­pany (he dates his de­par­ture to 1992). Hi­royuki Ya­m­aga would later re­spond to some of Okada’s re­marks in Ani­mer­ica 6:5, but not those re­lated to Eva (I don’t be­lieve Ya­m­a­ga’s 1997 and 1998 Fanime re­marks on Eva ever ap­peared in Ani­mer­i­ca, al­though I think Miyako Mat­su­da-Gra­ham may have cov­ered it for Pro­to­cul­ture Ad­dicts)."

Carl Horn

See the with PDF & Mark­down links; the fol­low­ing are ex­cerpts:

“Conscience” part 1

Okada: Well, then, when the Gainax staff asked me what we should make next, I said we should­n’t make any more anime for two years. Hi­royuki Ya­m­aga thought that maybe we should do some­thing else. But Hideaki Anno dis­agreed. As he put it, we al­ready had the staff, so he felt we should keep go­ing with anime pro­jects. So I then de­cided we should con­tin­ue. But I did­n’t re­ally have any feel­ings from deep in­side, and I did­n’t re­ally think we should con­tinue in this kind of work if we did­n’t have any­thing in­side of us to sup­port it.

O: And so, I guess I’ve otakuized the com­puter game genre as well as ani­me, with such games as Denno Gakuen (“Cy­ber­netic High School”) and Bat­tle Skin Panic, and soft­ware ver­sions of SILENT MOEBIUS and NADIA. But that was enough for me, and then I had noth­ing more to do with com­puter games ei­ther. [LAUGHS] By that time, it had been two years since I had been able to de­cide on any­thing to do with ani­me. At that point, Takami Akai told me I should change my job. Be­cause we’re friends - not ‘pres­i­dents’, not ‘pro­duc­ers’ - Ya­m­aga is not a ‘di­rec­tor’. In the be­gin­ning of Gainax, we were all just friends. So, just like a role-play­ing game, the idea was that we’d switch jobs. Akai told me, “I’ll be the pro­duc­er, you can be the cre­ator, and Anno can be the di­rec­tor.” About then, Anno and I started talk­ing about the base story of NEON GENESIS EVANGELION. But Ya­m­aga had an­other plan. He wanted to make AOKI URU (BLUE URU), part two of HONNEAMISE. I could­n’t un­der­stand why it should be made at all. So I said to Ya­m­a­ga, Okay, this is your plan…I can have noth­ing to do with it. So he was go­ing to pro­duce it on his own, and Anno was go­ing to di­rect. But then the plan crashed, due to prob­lems with money and staff. Fi­nal­ly, after all this, I was talk­ing with my wife, and I asked her what she thought of the whole thing and how she felt. And she said, “I think you’re a stu­pid man, be­cause you’re still pres­i­dent of Gainax, yet you’ve made noth­ing for two years. It’s not your way.” I was very sur­prised to hear that. [LAUGHS] And so I de­cided to leave Gainax.

ANIMERICA: Was this in 1993?

O: 1993…1992, I think. And then lat­er, back in Os­aka, I gave my friend Takeshi Sawa­mura a call, be­cause I’d heard that he was now pres­i­dent of Gainax. And then I heard my friend Ya­m­aga is pres­i­dent of Gainax, Huh? Ya­m­a­ga? He’s a di­rec­tor! [LAUGHS] I start think­ing to my­self, he’s not that good at or­der­ing around a staff, or a com­pa­ny. So I asked my friend Ya­suhiro Takeda to call me up and ex­plain, and he says, “Uh, I’m not on the main staff of Gainax now.” Huh? What’s hap­pened in my - what used to be my com­pa­ny? And then the main staff ex­plained it to me: “Okay, it’s just that now there are two pres­i­dents of Gainax, Mr. Sawa­mura and Mr. Ya­m­a­ga. To the press, Ya­m­aga will say, ‘I am pres­i­dent of Gainax’, and to the bankers and fi­nanciers, Sawa­mura will say, ‘I am pres­i­dent of Gainax’.”

A: Why, for the pur­poses of the me­di­a’s view of Gainax, would Ya­m­aga be pres­i­dent?

O: I don’t know, be­cause it’s very hard for me to ask Ya­m­a­ga. If I asked him, he could­n’t re­ally ex­plain any­thing to me. [LAUGHS] So I can only won­der about it, but many peo­ple have said that Gainax has changed these last three or four years. Three months after I left, many other peo­ple left as well: Mahiro Maeda, Mr. Kan­da, Mr. Mu­ra­hama, and Shinji Higuchi - right now Shin­ji’s the SFX di­rec­tor of the new GAMERA film; he’s a very tal­ented man. In those days, many tal­ented and pow­er­ful peo­ple left Gainax. It used to be that we worked to­geth­er, we talked to­geth­er, we never got enough sleep - it was very hard, but we were like a fam­i­ly. That was Gainax. It was no or­di­nary com­pa­ny, and no bankers would fi­nance such a com­pa­ny. But things have changed. Princess Maker 1 and 2 made a lot of money for Gainax, and it’s al­most an or­di­nary com­pany now.

A: They’ve got their fi­nances un­der con­trol?

O: Yes, and they’ve got con­trol of their work. They’ll say, “This month we’ve got to do the DOS/V ver­sion of that game, next mon­th, that screen saver, this mon­th’s for Princess Maker 3, and that month of EVANGELION episode 5.” [LAUGHS] They’re very con­trolled, and I think it’s a good thing for the Gainax staff, be­cause now their cre­ative plans can be un­der con­trol too. In my day, one year we would make so much mon­ey, and - ha, ha, ha - next year, very poor. One month we’d be mak­ing films [BERSERKER SCREAM] every, every, every day! But next month we would­n’t have any work [CRY OF DESPAIR]. That’s the way it was. But now, things are un­der con­trol. And I re­ally think it’s very good for the staff. But… it’s not my way.

“Conscience” part 2

Okada: He was on the staff of the Daicon III Open­ing Ani­me. At first, Hideaki Anno and Takami Akai were the only two peo­ple on its main staff–Anno drew the mecha and the spe­cial effects, and Akai drew the char­ac­ters and most of the mo­tion. But then Ya­m­aga ap­peared, and said he’d do the back­grounds. Then they all went off to Art­land to study pro­fes­sional film­mak­ing, and worked on the orig­i­nal MACROSS TV se­ries. Anno stud­ied mecha de­sign, and Akai had wanted to do char­ac­ters, but he could­n’t be­cause Haruhiko Miki­moto al­ready had such an ad­vanced tech­nique. So when Akai re­al­ized he would­n’t get the op­por­tu­nity to do any­thing on MACROSS, he went back to Os­a­ka. And it was there that Ya­m­aga learned how to di­rec­t–his teacher was Noboru Ishig­uro [see ANIMERICA, Vol. 3, No. 8, for de­tails on Ishig­uro’s leg­endary ca­reer in ani­me–Ed.], Ya­m­aga de­signed the sto­ry­boards for the open­ing cred­its of MACROSS…They went back to Os­aka, in 1983, to make the Daicon IV Open­ing An­i­ma­tion. Of course, those peo­ple on the MACROSS staff, who would later be­come very im­por­tant peo­ple in the in­dus­try, were quite an­gry with them. But, as Anno and Ya­m­aga ex­plained to Ishig­uro and Shoji Kawamori, they had to go back to Os­aka so they could make am­a­teur films again. [LAUGHS] At first, the plan for Daicon IV Open­ing Anime was to make a fifteen-minute short in 16mm. I liked the screen­play–no di­a­logue–but the idea of por­tray­ing an orig­i­nal world, well, that was the be­gin­ning of what would even­tu­ally be­come THE WINGS OF HONNEAMISE. We thought we were strong enough to take on such a pro­ject, but Ya­m­aga could­n’t deal with the sto­ry­boards, and Anno could­n’t deal with the an­i­ma­tion–in the end, it was just im­pos­si­ble. So we quit, and de­cided to make the five-min­ute, 8mm film that be­came the Daicon IV Open­ing An­i­ma­tion. But when that was done, it was quite nat­ural that Ya­m­aga and I be­gan to talk about the orig­i­nal plan, with the idea of mak­ing that film in a pro­fes­sional way. At that time, we were think­ing of WINGS as a 30-minute movie.

ANIMERICA: Did you write the screen­play for the next Gainax pro­duc­tion, AIM FOR THE TOP! GUNBUSTER?

O: I wrote the base sto­ry, then I gave it to Ya­m­aga and told him to write the screen­play. And Ya­m­aga said, “Okay, this is my kind of work! But don’t hope for a good screen­play. I’m go­ing to make a stu­pid ro­bot­-girl ani­me.” [LAUGHS] I said, like…okay, okay, okay! Then he asked me what I would like. And I told him that I like space best as the set­ting for every­thing. We talked for more than three month­s…I talked, he asked, he talked, and I’d say no…no…no. Then he went back to Ni­igata, and about a week later he sent me his screen­play–and when I read it, I was laugh­ing all over the place. And I called up Ya­m­a­ga, and told him “You’re a good screen­writer!” And he said, “No! That screen­play is stu­pid!” [LAUGHS]

A: So did Ya­m­aga end up writ­ing the screen­play?

O: Yes, but Anno changed every­thing! [LAUGHS]…To me, GUNBUSTER was a sci­ence-fic­tion film. But to Ya­m­a­ga, it was a stu­pid ro­bot­-ac­tion girl film. [LAUGHS] So he sent the script to An­no. And Anno thought, “Ah! This is a real mecha ani­me!” And he cut up Ya­m­a­ga’s screen­play, then asked me, “How do you want to make it?” But every­one else on the staff was telling him, “Make it this way! That way! This way! That way!” Anno was so con­fused, he gave it to Higuchi and told him, “You can draw the sto­ry­boards any way you like!” So, Higuchi drew the sto­ry­board­s…with no screen­play. Noth­ing but a the­me: sci­ence-fic­tion-s­tu­pid­-girl-ac­tion-ro­bot­-mecha! [LAUGHS]

A: Is that why it’s a com­edy at the start, and a drama at the end? It’s so differ­ent, Part One from Part Six.

O: Part Six was the very first idea I had for the film–and it would be at the very end, I told Ya­m­a­ga. That last scene, “Wel­come Back”–it’s so far from the idea of a stu­pid­-com­e­dy-ac­tion-par­o­dy-girl-ro­bot­-film. At that point, every fan is sob­bing–Ya­m­aga was so ashamed of him­self! [LAUGHS]

A: Maybe GUNBUSTER was so suc­cess­ful be­cause it had a lit­tle some­thing of every­thing.

O: Yes. Some­how, I thought the ‘chaos strat­egy’ ended up giv­ing the screen­play a stronger struc­ture. That’s why I think maybe we could have changed WINGS. But that was all ten years ago. [LAUGHS]

A: OTAKU NO VIDEO seems to have a pretty strong struc­ture. It’s chrono­log­i­cal, and you more or less wrote it by your­self. Is it true that in OTAKU NO VIDEO, the char­ac­ters of both Tanaka and Kubo sym­bol­ize you?

O: Yeah. They’re two sides of my mind. Some­times I think just like a Tanaka, and some­times just like a Kubo. Some­times I’ve taken peo­ple aside and told them, “You must be­come otaku…o­taku…o­taku…” But other times it’s been peo­ple telling me, “You must see this…see this…see this!”

A: But in com­par­ing, say, OTAKU NO VIDEO’s struc­ture to NADIA, you might say…

O: NADIA was true chaos, good chaos and bad chaos! [LAUGHS] On NADIA, Anno did­n’t di­rect the mid­dle episodes, Shinji Higuchi did. And some episodes were di­rected in Ko­re­a–why, no one knows ex­act­ly. [LAUGHS] That’s real chaos, not good! What I mean to say is, con­trolled chaos–that’s good. Con­trolled chaos is where you’ve got all the staff in the same room, look­ing at each oth­er. But on NADIA you had Higuchi say­ing, “Oh, I’ll sur­prise Anno”, hide, and change the screen­play! Screen­plays and sto­ry­boards got changed when peo­ple went home, and the next morn­ing, if no one could find the orig­i­nal, I au­tho­rized them to go ahead with the changes. No one can be a real di­rec­tor or a real scriptwriter in such a chaos sit­u­a­tion. But on GUNBUSTER, that chaos was con­trolled, be­cause we were all friends, and all work­ing in the same place. But on NADIA, half our staff was Ko­re­an, liv­ing over­seas. We never met them. No con­trol.

A: Was NADIA the first Gainax film to have Ko­rean an­i­ma­tors?

O: No, we used Ko­rean an­i­ma­tors even on GUNBUSTER. But we had never be­fore used a Ko­rean di­rec­tor or an­i­ma­tion di­rec­tor. It was real chaos, just like hell.

“Conscience” part 3

Okada: Japan­ese movie crit­ics only re­view live-ac­tion movies. The Japan­ese art scene does­n’t ad­dress ani­me, and its crit­ics have noth­ing to say about it. And when it comes to the anime mag­a­zi­nes, all they ever say is “It’s good, it’s good, it’s good!” That’s all. ANIMAGE, NEWTYPE - they’re all the same. They’re just mer­chan­dis­ing mag­a­zines. They do have a “Read­er’s Voice Cor­ner”, where peo­ple write in their opin­ions. Some read­ers liked WINGS, but in those days PROJECT A-KO was what most anime fans thought of as good, and such mon­ey-mak­ing anime was the type that was pro­moted in the in­dus­try, which put WINGS in a very diffi­cult place. Some peo­ple said “It’s very good!” But al­most all said, “I can’t un­der­stand it.” And I can’t…I can’t un­der­stand why they can’t un­der­stand. It is a very sim­ple film. Maybe it’s diffi­cult for them.

ANIMERICA: Prob­a­bly the one thing peo­ple dis­cuss most about the movie in Amer­ica is the at­tempted rape scene - what does it mean, why did he do it…there are all kinds of the­o­ries. I think it’s be­cause it’s so very shock­ing, so sud­den.

O: That scene was­n’t good tech­nique. When I said the screen­play was weak, I was re­fer­ring to such things. If WINGS had a stronger struc­ture, the au­di­ence could al­ways fol­low Shi­ro’s mind, his heart, his feel­ings. But some­times the film is un­der­cut by a weak screen­play, and the au­di­ence ends up say­ing, “Oh, why, why, why? I can’t un­der­stand Shiro - and of course, Leiqunni [LAUGHS] - what am I miss­ing?” I think the au­di­ence gets con­fused at three points in the film: the first scene, which is Shi­ro’s open­ing mono­logue, the rape scene, and the prayer from space. Why? The film needed a stronger struc­ture. A lit­tle more. A few changes, and the au­di­ence would be able to fol­low Shi­ro’s thoughts. But right now, they miss it, and that’s a weak­ness. It’s true that there will be 10 or 20% of the au­di­ence who can fol­low it as it is, and say, “Oh, it’s a great film! I can un­der­stand every­thing!” But 80% of the au­di­ence is think­ing, “I lost Shi­ro’s thoughts two or three times, or maybe four or five.” Those are the kind of peo­ple who will say, “The art is great, and the an­i­ma­tion is very good, but the sto­ry—mmmm…”

A: Well, as an ‘art’ film, if you com­pare WINGS to, say, the an­i­mated ver­sion of Miyaza­k­i’s NAUSICAA OF THE VALLEY OF WIND - which com­presses a very long manga into a movie, and an end­ing where the pro­tag­o­nist be­comes a mes­si­ah…I un­der­stand Ya­m­aga has said specifi­cally that he did not want an end­ing like that - that he did not want Shiro to be­come some kind of higher be­ing. He would still be a hu­man be­ing. Even though he’d gone into space, he’d be the same per­son.

O: I know that we wanted to make it a very re­al­is­tic film, so Shi­ro’s speech from or­bit never hurt any­one, and he came back from space to the plan­et, lived a long time, and died as an or­di­nary per­son. That was his only sto­ry. The film was Gainax’s call to the world, of how we would be. The story of the anime is ex­plain­ing why we are mak­ing anime in the first place. The lift-off of the rocket was only a pre­view of our fu­ture, when we were say­ing to our­selves, “Oh, we will do some­thing!” But those feel­ings are mostly gone, just like mem­o­ries, just like the per­son you were when you were young. It has al­most gone away. But there is still the real thing, the film we made, that tells our sto­ry.

A: Ya­m­aga has said (in AILE DE HONNEAMISE) that he was in a coffee shop in Au­gust of 1984 and heard some­one or­der­ing “Royal Milk Tea”, and the ti­tle “Royal Space Force” just clicked for him.

O: Even Gainax’s staff can get con­fused about this sto­ry. There’s also a woman at Gainax who says it was she who got the idea for the ti­tle, and I think I found the con­cept. And Ya­m­aga says it was he. No one knows what’s the real sto­ry. In the end, we all just thought about the ti­tle “Oh, that’s it! That’s it.” So, no prob­lem. But in­ter­view­ers al­ways think, the di­rec­tor’s the di­rec­tor. They never re­al­ize that at Daicon Film, or Gainax, there is no di­rec­tor, and no pro­duc­er, and no an­i­ma­tors, and no ac­coun­tants20. Every­one did those jobs, in the good old days of Gainax. So, what Ya­m­aga says, the me­dia likes to think these things are the facts, and so ‘his­tory’ is made. But, in truth - no one knows, be­cause WINGS was made in that kind of chaos.

A: But - even though you are, as you say, ‘am­a­teurs’, you still made WINGS. There are many anime films which you can see once or twice, and you’ll never get any­thing more out of it. But WINGS you can see again and again, and no­tice more de­tails - not just in the art­work, but in the po­lit­i­cal, the so­cial, the eco­nomic - you find more and more lay­ers.

O: Yeah. Well, ac­tu­al­ly, there’s an­other rea­son for the de­sign com­plex­i­ty. Take, for ex­am­ple, Hayao Miyaza­k­i’s films. They’re very sim­ple to un­der­stand, yet very in­ter­est­ing and very good. That’s be­cause Miyazaki is a strong con­troller. One man does all the sto­ry­board, the screen­play, di­rects the an­i­ma­tion - he main­tains con­trol over every­thing. But in WINGS, or even GUNBUSTER, we did­n’t have that kind of con­trol, be­cause nei­ther Ya­m­aga nor Anno are that kind of strong di­rec­tor, as Miyazaki is. On a Gainax anime pro­ject, every­one has to be a di­rec­tor. There­fore, every­one’s feel­ings and every­one’s knowl­edge are go­ing into it, cre­at­ing all that de­tail. That’s the good side of how Gainax’s films are differ­ent from oth­ers. But we have no strong di­rec­tor, and that’s the weak side.

“Conscience” part 4
  • “The Con­science of the Otak­ing: The Stu­dio Gainax Saga in Four Parts: Part Four”. Ani­mer­ica 4:5, pg 8-9, 24-27

ANIMERICA: Where did “Hon­neamise” come from? I’ve al­ways won­dered why they chose some­thing that sounds French.

O: Yes, it’s French, but it does­n’t mean any­thing. [LAUGHS] When they or­dered us to come up with an­other ti­tle, all we could think was that we were go­ing to make an ut­terly mean­ing­less ti­tle, “Hon­neamise”–mean­ing noth­ing.

A: Well, was­n’t the name of Shi­ro’s king­dom, “Hon­nea­mano”?

O: Yes, but we came up with that after the new ani­me. –“Oh, THE WINGS OF HONNEAMISE…? What is Hon­neamise? Ah! Oh yes, it’s the coun­try’s name!” [LAUGHS]

A: You just liked the sound of “Hon­neamise”?

O: It was­n’t that it sounded right to us, but that it was a mean­ing­less sound–­so, we liked it. [LAUGHS]

A: I like the lit­tle leg­end that was made up about “Hon­neamise”, to ex­plain it–about a bird who one day tried to fly to heaven and was turned by God into a fish for his temer­i­ty.

O: Yeah. Mr. Ya­m­aga was drink­ing some whiskey, and think­ing, “Oh, yes,–the mean­ing!” The pub­lic­ity peo­ple had told him that his new ti­tle had to have some kind of story be­hind it. He said to them, “Oh, yes–but–but–I’ll have to have some drinks be­fore I can come up with one!” [LAUGHS] And they said “Ohh­h­hhkay!” That’s all.

A: So you chose that mean­ing­less ti­tle be­cause you did­n’t want to call it any­thing else in the first place?

O: Yes. On the LD box set, it’s fi­nally called THE ROYAL SPACE FORCE.

O: Back dur­ing the 1987 pre­miere, Ya­m­aga and I were talk­ing about the next story of WINGS. It would be that world, a hun­dred years lat­er. A space­ship from the world of WINGS then jour­neys to our pre­sen­t-day Earth, from their home­world, four light-years from us.

A: Wow! In­ter­est­ing! So they’d be ahead of us tech­no­log­i­cal­ly. Four light-years…so the world of WINGS is around Al­pha Cen­tau­ri?

O: Yeah. Four light-years away.

A: But you never pur­sued that idea se­ri­ous­ly?

O: Well, no one asked me. [LAUGHS] But when we’d fin­ished WINGS, and were at the “pre­miere” in L.A., Ya­m­aga and I were al­ways talk­ing about what the next stage of the story would be, one-hun­dred years after the orig­i­nal. On Earth, it would be ei­ther the present day, or the near-fu­ture.

A: You could set it in the GUNBUSTER uni­verse and re­ally screw up the time­line. [LAUGHS] Is it true, by the way, that GUNBUSTER is the fu­ture of NADIA?

O: No, not re­al­ly. The sim­i­lar­i­ties are be­cause Anno was try­ing to get an idea… “Ohh­h­h­h…I’m not get­ting any­thing…” [LAUGHS] “I need a name for a space­ship…how about…­some­thing from…GUNBUSTER!” [LAUGHS] “How about El­treum or Ex­e­lion?”

A: Oc­ca­sion­al­ly, I’ve asked Gainax’s trans­la­tor [Michael House?] to ask Ya­m­aga ques­tions for me about WINGS, and Ya­m­aga has re­spond­ed, “You know, I don’t re­mem­ber–it was ten years ago.”

O: That’s prob­a­bly the truth. I al­most for­get my­self, be­cause we saw the film two or three hun­dred times, and had so many differ­ent ideas about it. So you for­get.

“Return of the Otaking”

OKADA: I had a lot of fun mak­ing GUNBUSTER, but I did­n’t have that burn­ing sen­sa­tion when I made OTAKU NO VIDEO. It was some­thing that I lightly made. I made it that way be­cause I thought the peo­ple who watched it were like the peo­ple in the live-ac­tion por­tion–not the peo­ple who made it. 1983 was the turn­ing point for my­self and my friends. Ba­si­cally what I wanted to do was set the stage for 1983 be­cause that was when every­thing was chang­ing; I wanted to show peo­ple what it was like dur­ing that pe­riod back in 1983, how we lived, ba­si­cal­ly, what our life was as otaku.

PANEL: I’d like one more ques­tion, and then I’m go­ing to open it up to every­body: There are many themes…I go back to OTAKU NO VIDEO–you talk a lot about, and it seems like you pre­dicted in that film, a lot of the com­mer­cial­iza­tion and prod­uct man­age­ment that is now very, very com­mon in the an­i­ma­tion in­dus­try. Do you feel more strongly now about the way things have to be processed, and man­aged, and shoved out the door–you see all around you the sell­ing of cre­ativ­i­ty?

OKADA: That world we made in OTAKU NO VIDEO, it was not a pre­dic­tion: it was an otaku’s dream. Maybe we can be more ma­jor, or a big­ger group, or maybe we can make our own theme parks! But in these days, I can’t be­lieve all of the things that are hap­pen­ing–our otaku’s dreams are be­gin­ning to be­come a re­al­ity in the United States. I am very sur­prised, and very glad.

“Re­turn of the Otak­ing”, part 2; Anime Amer­ica 1996 panel

[OKADA:] Mr. Miyaza­k­i’s new movie, MONONOKE-HIME, is go­ing to be us­ing 80 cuts of com­puter graph­ics in it. If there were more op­por­tu­ni­ty, time, or avail­abil­i­ty, he would have wanted to use 120 cuts in it. So Mr. Miyazaki is also one of the peo­ple start­ing to use com­puter graph­ics, too. And, al­so, Mr. Miyazaki says, “If we’d had a com­puter sys­tem when we made LAPUTA, there’s half of it I’d like to re­make.” So there’s great pos­si­bil­i­ties with com­puter graph­ics. And Mr. Anno has said, in re­mak­ing the last two episodes of EVANGELION, he’s go­ing to Stu­dio Ghi­bli to study Mr. Miyaza­k­i’s sys­tem. And that stu­dio has a big sys­tem for com­put­er-graph­ics im­ages. I’ve heard they’ve got five, or sev­en, Sil­i­con Graph­ics work­sta­tions. What Anno wants to make is a “snow world”– the Eva units fight­ing the en­emy amidst a world of snow, on a snow- cov­ered moun­tain. But it’s very diffi­cult to por­tray snow falling and pil­ing, and the ro­bots walk­ing through the snow–it’s very diffi­cult to draw by the hu­man hand. Mr. Anno wants to make a mas­ter­ful scene of a bat­tle amongst the snow.21

AUDIENCE: Many Amer­i­cans be­lieve the line Kubo [OTAKU NO VIDEO] has con­cern­ing want­ing to be­come the tyran­ni­cal king to be a ref­er­ence to Nos­tradamus. We were won­der­ing if it re­ally is, and if Gainax was into other forms of West­ern oc­cultism, like Ma­son­ry, or the Knights of Mal­ta.

OKADA: No, no! (waves dis­mis­sively at au­di­ence).

PANEL: [TO AUDIENCE MEMBER] You’re a bad boy!

OKADA: The set­ting of 1983 is still the pri­mary fo­cus of OTAKU NO VIDEO, and the char­ac­ters in that video dur­ing the time had seen the movie, NOSTRADAMUS: THE MAN WHO SAW THE FUTURE [nar­rated by Or­son Welles-ed.]. Any­way, what it was, is that, their idea–that vi­sion was so strong in their minds that they pre­sented that sto­ry. And what I wanted to do was for peo­ple to see it, and make that, and say, “Oh, there are still peo­ple like this!” or, “Yes, that was the way it was back then.”

“Re­turn of the Otak­ing”, part 4

AUDIENCE: Many Japan­ese in­tel­lec­tu­als are Chris­tians. Sim­i­lar­ly, the char­ac­ters in OTAKU NO VIDEO were clearly out­casts. Do you be­lieve that lim­i­nal­ity is nec­es­sary for cre­ativ­i­ty? [sotto vo­ce] Try and trans­late that one, pal…O.K….Do you feel it is eas­ier for so­cial out­casts to be cre­ative, to in­vent orig­i­nal ideas?

OKADA: That’s right. Ba­si­cal­ly, cre­ativ­ity will not come out of happy lives, but from peo­ple who be­come out­casts. There is no rea­son for you to be­come pur­posely un­hap­py. ’Cause every­body who watches anime is hap­py–the peo­ple who watch it who are not hap­py, are the peo­ple who make it [LAUGHS]. It’s not too good of a thing to make ani­me. I think a peace­ful life is to take anime mer­chan­dise cheap from Japan, and then sell it ex­pen­sively over here and/or work at Viz and make some weird Amer­i­can anime mag­a­zine. Very hap­py! [LAUGHS]

“Re­turn of the Otak­ing”, part 5

OKADA: In THE WINGS OF HONNEAMISE’s sto­ry, that planet is six light years from our Earth. So, I told Mr. Ya­m­a­ga, we should make a con­tin­u­a­tion story where their space­ship, not in­ter­plan­e­tary, but in­ter­stel­lar, ar­rives here 100 years after the time of HONNEAMISE. So, they come to our Earth, and make con­tact with Earth. So, it is a con­ti­nu­ity of that sto­ry. But it is very diffi­cult to make. The plot I want to have, if I am to make a con­tin­u­a­tion of THE WINGS OF HONNEAMISE, is to have the story of them mak­ing their own in­ter­stel­lar ship, And that ship will ar­rive in our so­lar sys­tem right about the time Earth is able to col­o­nize Mars. Not a warp dri­ve, but an ac­cel­er­a­tion ship.

OKADA: Yes. It would take 30 or 40 years. And then I’d try to show the con­flict be­tween the two cul­tures, the two plan­ets. I would be re­ally en­thu­si­as­tic were I able to make a war be­tween the two plan­ets.

“Re­turn of the Otak­ing”, part 6; this may be con­nected to the weird cut EoE scenes (see my ar­gu­ment)

…[OKADA:] The differ­ence I see is that it’s be­com­ing mer­chan­dis­e-based. And if they see some­thing wrong with it, they don’t have this burn­ing sen­sa­tion in­side of them to ba­si­cally say, “Well, if I made it like this–” For ex­am­ple, if you watch RANMA 1/2, and say, “Well, there’s some­thing wrong here, but if I made it like this, it’s go­ing to be like this…” But I don’t see that burn­ing sen­sa­tion as much in the United States or Japan as I did back in 1983 or 1985. What I first started learn­ing in my high school years, when I saw STAR BLAZERS, UCHU SENKAN YAMATO, it was like, “If I had made it like this, it would have been like this.” So there’s not too much of that any­more, so I guess it’s like, “Oh, well, then, I guess every­body’s hap­py–that’s fine, then.”

OKADA: Right now, he’s an ex­ec­u­tive at Bandai Vi­su­al. And he still has a re­li­gion: he be­lieves in Mamoru Os­hii, just like Je­sus Christ [PRAYS TO HEAVEN]. In those days, in 1983 or 1984, he asked of every­thing to Mr. Os­hii: “Is it good, or is it bad?” And if Mr. Os­hii said, “Oh, it’s good!,” so Mr. Watan­abe would think, “Oh, it’s good, it’s good, I must make it, I must make it!” And then I told Mr. Watan­abe, “I want to make this film, THE WINGS OF HONNEAMISE,” and he thinks, “I think it’s a good idea, but I can’t de­cide if it’s re­ally good. So–just a mo­ment, I must go to Mr. Os­hi­i’s house” [RUNS IN PLACE; LAUGHS]. And Mr. Os­hii says, “Oh– it’s in­ter­est­ing!” So, he thought, “It’s good, it’s good, it’s good!” [LAUGHS] And it’s a very pow­er­ful mo­ti­va­tion for him, in­side. So, he works very hard, and gets a very large bud­get for our film from the pres­i­dent of Bandai. So Mr. Os­hii, he is a very good per­son for me, or for Stu­dio Gainax, but…but…it is very strange to say, “Maybe it is good, but maybe it is not so good.” It was a re­li­gion. But just now, Mr. Watan­abe, he’s come out of his brain­wash­ing. So, he some­times says: “May­be…­may­be, maybe, Mr. Os­hii is some­times wrong.” [LAUGHS]

“Re­turn of the Otak­ing”, part 7

OKADA: Not so. It’s al­most the same, from what I said to you at Otakon. You must re­mem­ber that EVANGELION is pro­duced at Tat­sunoko, so the sched­ule is out of the con­trol of Gainax–it’s the re­spon­si­bil­ity of Tat­sunoko. Tat­sunoko al­most rules, when it comes to con­trol. So, I think, the re­spon­si­bil­ity was not with Gainax. Peo­ple say, “It’s the re­spon­si­bil­ity of Mr. An­no,” but they’re wrong. Con­trol over sched­ule is the re­spon­si­bil­ity of the pro­duc­er. But Tat­sunoko and T.V. Tokyo could­n’t han­dle it. It was out of Gainax’s con­trol.

AUDIENCE: I talked to a per­son from Tat­sunoko. He said he does not blame Mr. An­no, but he blames other peo­ple at Gainax, who might be telling Anno about his sched­ule, and–

OKADA: Oh! I think pro­duc­ers al­ways say that. But I talked with Mr. Anno about this a month ago, and then he said, “I’m al­most the pro­ducer of EVANGELION, but I must be so, be­cause Tat­sunoko did not do any­thing for EVANGELION.” See, he is very dis­ap­pointed with Tat­sunoko, and some ru­mors have said that Tat­sunoko lost the film, or cels be­fore they were shot.22


OKADA: And I asked Mr. An­no, “Is it the truth?” And he says, in a dark voice, “Yes.”

AUDIENCE: Oh, wow.

OKADA: But that was in the mid­dle of the episodes. That was­n’t the trou­ble with the last two episodes, the con­fu­sion. It was just Mr. An­no’s tele­play. He said to me, “I can make a sched­ule on my own.” At that time, I heard from Mr. Anno about his new plans, so maybe you want to–?

AUDIENCE: Of course.

OKADA: After EVANGELION, his next plan is to make a STAR TREK. Not that STAR TREK–a sort of anime like STAR TREK, a crew in a space­ship, who go to every plan­et, and each planet has its own cul­ture. For ex­am­ple, one planet will have a very de­mo­c­ra­tic cul­ture, and every­one will ap­prove, so they’ll board, or they say, “no,” and they talk with the crew about every­thing. And the space­ship crew will some­times fall in love in some way on the plan­et, or some­thing will hap­pen–maybe some ro­bots fight [LAUGHS]. He wants to make that film, be­cause Mr. Anno thinks it will be a very good ex­pe­ri­ence for the Japan­ese an­i­ma­tion world. But the spon­sor says, “It’s not so good.” be­cause, in Japan these days…of course, you know, sev­eral years ago, it was the toy mak­ers, like Bandai, who had a very strong con­trol over the pro­duc­tion of ani­me, and what they would want would be some­thing like, “We need three new ro­bots in this film,” and so the anime was made with the three new ro­bots. But right now, it’s the record com­pa­nies, like King, Poly­dor, or Sony Mu­sic En­ter­tain­ment, who have very strong con­trol over the pro­duc­tion of ani­me. And what they want, is, “O.K., we’ve got two new idol singers, and we want to pro­mote them.” And so the anime is made with two new char­ac­ters. [A dig at the Macross fran­chise?]

“Re­turn of the Otak­ing”; the lost cel anec­dote is in­ter­est­ing as cel-col­lec­tor Mike Toole claims that “A lot of Evan­ge­lion cels were stolen.” Was there cor­po­rate con­flict? Ani­mEigo al­ludes darkly to their ob­tain­ing cels from a Miyazaki and an­other un­named anime un­der highly sus­pi­cious cir­cum­stances23, and Ani­mEigo was fairly well-con­nected to Gainax through Toshio Okada & Michael House… Bochan_bird says Bandai/Sega (ma­jor Eva spon­sor per Notenki Mem­oirs) made the lim­ited ma­chine/hand-painted re­pro­duc­tions which the real cels would have com­peted with. Carl Horn points to Okada’s men­tion of Tat­sunoko as a cel source, and dis­cusses prices/de­scrip­tions of le­git­i­mate cels auc­tioned on Man­darake24. Bochan_bird then claimed it was an ‘in­side job’ - Tat­sunoko de­lib­er­ately sold off the cels and most of them are still in dealer stock­piles. Bochan_bird also men­tions sit­ting in on high­-s­takes back­-room cel deals, which cer­tainly would fit sell­ing batches of stolen Eva cels… There was only one con­test for le­git­i­mate real cels. And in the , Tsu­ru­maki drops a bomb­shell: “As far as the sev­enth An­gel is con­cerned, the truth is that the orig­i­nal rea­son [for the change in de­sign] was that the genga for that episode had been en­tirely lost, and we could­n’t use the ‘BANK’. If the genga had re­mained, even if the key an­i­ma­tion di­rec­tor de­cided to redo them, episode eight would prob­a­bly have re­mained [in the film] in its en­tire­ty. [We thought,] if we can’t make use of the gen­ga, let’s com­pletely change Asuka’s in­tro­duc­tory scene.” They lost the genga for an en­tire episode of one of the most pop­u­lar anime of all time, the episode whose cels any Asuka fan would covet most‽ The STAR TREK plan is a lit­tle odd; may be a ver­sion of the scrapped Olympia project (see the Olympia - the phan­tom project” chap­ter in The Notenki Mem­oirs).

OKADA: Right now, I think there’s more than fifty peo­ple who work at Gainax. Most of these peo­ple work on mak­ing com­puter games, and half of them work on mak­ing CD-ROMs, such as the CD-ROM fea­tur­ing Yoshiyuki Sadamo­to’s art­work. And there’s maybe only two or three peo­ple who work on ani­me. The anime part of Gainax, I think, is Mr. Anno and Mr. Suzuki, and one other per­son. So, the an­i­ma­tion de­part­ment is very, very small. Most of the peo­ple in Gainax just now work on art­work CD-ROMs. When they make ani­me, they must join forces with an­other stu­dio. It’s a bad case of a com­pany that’s grown larger and larg­er–they have to make a lot of money every year, every mon­th, so they have to make and sell a lot of CD-ROMs, be­cause an­i­ma­tion loses mon­ey. The case of EVANGELION, where they’re ac­tu­ally mak­ing mon­ey, is some­thing of a mir­a­cle, in the opin­ion of Gainax ex­ec­u­tives such as Hi­royuki Ya­m­aga and Mr. Sadamo­to, and not some­thing they can ex­pect as nor­mal. They want to keep on mak­ing ani­me, but since it’s un­profitable, they must make more CD-ROMs and com­puter games to bal­ance things out. And so the com­puter game de­part­ment gets larger and larg­er, and the an­i­ma­tion de­part­ment gets smaller and small­er. It’s not good.

“Re­turn of the Otak­ing”, part 9

OKADA: I think the style, or mood, of EVANGELION, is not so far, not so differ­ent, from the se­ri­ous side of GUNBUSTER or NADIA. The biggest differ­ence would have been in the style of plan­ning the last episode. My style is to al­ways plan the end­ing first, as I did with GUNBUSTER–everything then fol­lows from that. In NADIA, Mr. Anno could­n’t de­cide on the end­ing–it was­n’t fixed un­til only three months be­fore the fi­nal episode was shown. [Com­pare Okada’s com­ments about Anno & de­cid­ing NGE’s end­ing!] So sub­se­quent­ly, I was con­fused about NADIA, and there was a lack of con­trol over the var­i­ous episodes. EVANGELION is a very great se­ries–I think it’s one of the top anime ever made. But–the last scenes were never fixed. When I talked to Mr. Anno a month ago, he said he could­n’t de­cide the end­ing un­til the time came. That’s his style. So, if I had made EVANGELION with him, I could­n’t do such a thing. I’d think I’d have to fix the end­ing, what would hap­pen with every char­ac­ter. Then, every­thing would fol­low: the first episode, the sec­ond episode…If I wanted to show a boy’s com­ing-of-age sto­ry, a bil­dungsro­man, the last scene would show the grown-up man; the first scene, a boy who hates every­thing about the adult world. That would be the struc­ture; I’m very care­ful about a reg­u­lar con­struc­tion. But Mr. An­no’s style on EVANGELION was not so. He wants to put it to­gether episode-by-episode. It’s just like the style of a man­ga. In your typ­i­cal man­ga, the artist does­n’t have any pic­ture of the last scene, or the last episode. They just think of build­ing up on past episodes. And fi­nal­ly, the manga artist, and his as­sis­tants, and editor…[BURIES HEAD IN HANDS], they work out an idea about the last se­quence. If it’s a good idea, the whole episode is very good. If they can’t make a good idea, the whole episode is not so good. It’s an un­happy sto­ry. And I think that’s what hap­pened with the last two episodes of EVANGELION. Mr. Anno and his staff could­n’t make a good idea for it. He told an anime mag­a­zine in Japan that he could­n’t make what he wanted be­cause of sched­ule or bud­get. But that’s not cor­rect. I talked with Mr. Ya­m­aga and Mr. An­no. They said, “It’s not only a prob­lem of sched­ule or bud­get. It’s a prob­lem of what the end­ing is go­ing to be.” Mr. Anno could­n’t de­cide. Mr. An­no’s and my own style of pro­duc­tion are very differ­ent.

… Be­cause many anime and seiyuu mag­a­zines are ask­ing Mr. Anno that ques­tion, and every time his an­swer changes. It’s “con­fused, con­fuse-er, con­fuse-est.” He’s not happy right now. Maybe you know that back in Jan­u­ary, or Feb­ru­ary, he shaved his head25. It’s a Japan­ese ges­ture of con­tri­tion. Peo­ple said, “Oh, he’s feel­ing a lot of re­spon­si­bil­ity to­wards the pro­duc­er, or T.V. Tokyo, or the spon­sor.” Not so. He felt a very strong re­spon­si­bil­ity about his stuff. “Sor­ry, I can’t do it!” So he shaved his head. This sum­mer, he hates anime fans. I think he’ll feel hap­pier by au­tumn.

“Re­turn of the Otak­ing”, part 10; NAv­eryW high­lights how Okada’s ac­count of Ya­m­aga & Anno still not know­ing what the end­ing was di­rectly con­tra­dicts Ya­m­a­ga’s later 2010 state­ments, and Anno know­ingly ly­ing to the pub­lic with differ­ent an­swers.

This re­minds me of Takeshi Honda at Kat­su­con many years back. He said that Anno con­stantly changed things. He changed many of the later episodes at the last min­ute, and that was so frus­trat­ing for him that he did not speak to Anno un­til after The End of Evan­ge­lion was com­plet­ed….In­deed, Takeshi Honda gave me the im­pres­sion that to­wards the end, Anno was rewrit­ing the episodes the day be­fore they were sched­uled to sit down and start do­ing the key an­i­ma­tion.

Aaron Clark after read­ing above thread; part 2

OKADA: Yeah, maybe that’s right. Right now, many anime fans in Japan are fight­ing each other over whether that end­ing was good or bad. Some say, “Anno must feel no oblig­a­tion to­wards the fan­s–he must make some­thing true to him­self.” Many fans are fight­ing over this. Your ques­tion has come up in these de­bates. In my per­sonal opin­ion, if he wanted to make such a state­ment, to say, “this is just fic­tion, and you should go back to the real world,” he could do it a bet­ter way. If that’s what he wanted to say, it’s not nec­es­sary to make an anime to do it. But he’s still an an­i­ma­tor, and he wants to make an­other anime se­ries. So his true mind does not say, “it’s only an­i­ma­tion, and I should go back to the real world.” So I think Mr. An­no’s con­fused just now.

…My style is to look for a good idea, or a good scene, in the midst of a not-so-good man­ga. If I make it into an ani­me, maybe it can be bet­ter than it was. I heard that Mr. Miyazaki thinks the same way. In FUTURE BOY CONAN, he took the ba­sic novel THE INCREDIBLE TIDE, by Alexan­der Key–not a very good sto­ry, in Mr. Miyaza­k­i’s view. But he said, “I can take that sto­ry, and make a good anime out of it.” He has the power to turn a not-so-good story into a good ani­me. I think he’s a not-so-good per­son­–just like me.

“Re­turn of the Otak­ing”

In 1970, in Japan, the world Expo was held in Os­a­ka. The theme was hu­man progress. I was only an eleven year-old boy back then, and I thought, sci­ence can do every­thing, and make every­thing bet­ter. Man has gone to the Moon, and he’ll go to Mars, and Plu­to, and to other so­lar sys­tems. Every­thing can hap­pen, and every­one will be hap­py. And I thought the United States could do any­thing; every­one there is hap­py. We Japan­ese will fol­low them. So we be­lieved then. Of course I can’t say that now, in these con­fused times, but the 1970 Os­aka Expo had a tremen­dous in­flu­ence on me then, as a young man–that hu­man­ity shall progress to­wards every­thing, and progress is good. I don’t think so, right now…but deep in my mind, there’s still a lit­tle voice say­ing, “Hu­man progress is very good! Trust the United States!” [LAUGHS]

“Re­turn of the Otak­ing”

1996 T

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If you’re a diehard EVA fan you might want to buy this mon­th’s is­sue of Ani­mer­i­ca,Anime and Manga Month­ly(Vol­ume 5 Num­ber 11).

… There’s also a page long AV In­ter­face ar­ti­cle on the four-disc Girl­friend of Steel CD-Rom game set ,an Ani­m­Ex­press col­umn for Gen­e­sis 0:8:Lies and Si­lence,and an End of Evan­ge­lion CD Com­pact View re­view.This is­sue also has that hi­lar­i­ous Planet Anime ad with the faces of Asuka,Sh­in­ji,and Rei su­per­im­posed on real life mod­el­s.Y­ou’ve gotta see it to be­lieve it.^_^O­h,and there’s an ad from Ris­ing Sun Cre­ations for a Tsukuda Hobby life size(ap­prox­i­mately 3 foot tall) pre-painted Pen-Pen model with stand! http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/1996-De­cem­ber/005205.html

Let us study in de­tail one by one and try to piece to­gether the per­sonal re­la­tion­ships these fright­ened adults and chil­dren are fated to fence each other in­to. Let us also study how these small, or­di­nary re­la­tion­ships grow to be the power that changes the world.

… It would seem that all is clear be­tween Shinji and Asu­ka. The sit­u­a­tion with them has changed so they can ex­press their feel­ings and, so to speak, be­come as close as child­hood friends.

Asuka yells “Hot!”, splash­ing the morn­ing bath wa­ter, rages over for­get­ting her lunch box, and openly states her feel­ing, like an in­can­ta­tion, of be­ing frus­trated with want­ing Shinji as her part­ner; from these facts we may in­fer that her feel­ings for him as a man are less than they ap­pear to be.

Shinji ap­pears to be hen­pecked by Asu­ka. How­ev­er, since he got very flus­tered when she slipped into his fu­ton one night, and since he could­n’t look straight at her fig­ure in a sexy bathing suit, we may read be­tween the lines that Shinji has feel­ings for her as a woman. Be­fore the split be­tween Asuka and Shin­ji, when their friend­ship was turn­ing into pas­sion, pos­si­bil­i­ties for Shinji seemed good.


Where do bro­ken dreams and wishes go?

… How­ev­er, Touji was se­lected as the fourth can­di­date, and when EVA de­vice #1 at­tacked Tou­ji’s EVA de­vice #3, this re­la­tion­ship was bro­ken. Ken­suke’s dream of be­ing an EVA pi­lot was also bro­ken, and Hikar­i’s feel­ings for Touji too…

The ‘promise’ of a per­sonal re­la­tion­ship was sel­dom made in “Evan­ge­lion” and it made a touch­ing pic­ture that Hikari, an honor stu­dent and class pres­i­dent, was charmed by Tou­ji, who had a bit of an im­age as a delin­quent. Hikari was por­trayed as a girl who was wish­ing, “I’m not yet able to con­fess my feel­ings, but I want to trans­mit them some­how,” and Tou­ji, ei­ther know­ing or not know­ing about her feel­ings, promised to eat the left­overs of her box lunch. Tou­ji, Hikari, and Ken­suke; from here on we will not be able to take our eyes off of them.


… Con­cern­ing ac­tual blood rel­a­tives in­tro­duced in this sto­ry, the only pair is the pro­tag­o­nist, Ikari Shin­ji, who meets with his fa­ther, NERV Com­man­der Gen­do. How­ev­er, one very rarely sees “fam­ily feel­ings” be­tween these two. Rather, we can ob­serve more cases where un­re­lated com­pan­ions form fam­i­ly-like ties.

… That Kat­suragi Mis­ato lets Shinji live in her apart­ment is also not merely from sym­pa­thy. If Rei and Gendo have ex­changed smiles with the same mu­tual warmth, as peace­fully as in a “hus­band and wife” re­la­tion­ship, Mis­ato and Shinji have some­thing spir­i­tu­ally like an “older sis­ter/y­ounger brother” re­la­tion­ship.

Shinji ap­pears to be afraid of con­tact with oth­ers, and Mis­ato can iden­tify with this, since she con­tin­ues to be trou­bled by the loss of her fa­ther in the Sec­ond Im­pact. Mis­ato surely has ex­pe­ri­enced Shin­ji’s feel­ings of hes­i­ta­tion and pain. There­fore, she blames her­self for not giv­ing his feel­ings enough sup­port at this im­por­tant stage.

Hav­ing just come through such a path her­self, Mis­ato is ca­pa­ble of throw­ing Shinji off with­out hes­i­ta­tion when his heart is in tor­ment. Mis­ato is shown in this story to be the one with the great­est un­der­stand­ing of Shin­ji, the one who wants to be his guid­ing hand. Al­so, Shinji is the one who truly un­der­stands her pain.

‘From New­type, March 3 1996 p.4, cover sto­ry: Stray Chil­dren.’

There’s a pe­cu­liar thing Shinji does with his Su­per - DAT Walk­man as early as the sec­ond episode of EVANGELION: he keeps switch­ing back and forth be­tween tracks 25 and 26 - the num­bers of the fi­nal two episodes - and when those two episodes ar­rived, they were un­doubt­edly the most con­tro­ver­sial hour of anime tele­vi­sion in re­cent mem­o­ry. The up­roar over #25, “Do You Love Me?” and #26, “Take Care of Your­self”, was some­what rem­i­nis­cent of that over the fi­nal two episodes of the British 1960s TV clas­sic THE PRISONER - a se­ries which EVA had al­ready made ref­er­ence to in episode 4, when Shinji re­signs tem­porar­ily from NERV. Like the con­clu­sion of THE PRISONER, EVA’s end­ing had a jerk­ing, in­ter­rog­a­tive style, and seemed to sug­gest the show was about some­thing else than what it ap­peared to be at the be­gin­ning - and even that the show’s le­gions of fans should re - ex­am­ine their mo­tives for lik­ing EVA in the first place. Com­plaints were so nu­mer­ous over the con­clu­sion that even many Japan­ese who did­n’t fol­low anime heard about the sit­u­a­tion, and that this Gainax was a bunch of “bad boys.”


No sooner did EVA have its con­tro­ver­sial TV end­ing that Gainax an­nounced it would pro­duce two more end­ings by the spring and sum­mer of 1997: for the video and LD re­lease, it would en­tirely re­make the last two episodes, re­leas­ing them as a four­teenth two - episode vol­ume after the first thir­teen (as well as re­make for the on­go­ing video re­lease se­lected scenes in the lat­ter part of the se­ries it was dis­sat­is­fied with). There will be a two - part the­atri­cal re­lease to ac­com­pany it; one movie will be a com­pressed “di­gest” of the se­ries’ plot - the other will be the two new episodes. In ad­di­tion to this, there will be an EVA the­atri­cal movie with an en­tirely orig­i­nal plot and a third end­ing. Anno in­di­cated at the Expo that these “ad­di­tional” two end­ings would in fact re­ally be the same end­ing as the fi­nal TV episode, but from differ­ent view­points.

… In­deed, there seems to be ev­i­dence that An­no’s dis­sat­is­fac­tion with the orig­i­nal con­clu­sion was more with its often min­i­mal­ist (if in­ter­est­ingly - han­dled) vi­su­als, a re­sult of run­ning out of time and bud­get, than its writ­ing per se: Toshio Okada, in last is­sue’s “Re­turn of the Otak­ing”, [LINK HERE - SUNDAY MORNING SECTION] spoke of An­no’s am­bi­tious plans for a CG-en­hanced bat­tle se­quence in the re­make. Okada also pointed out that Anno has tended to give differ­ent ra­tio­nales con­cern­ing the re­make, and of late Gainax’s own pub­lic­ity has rather coyly spo­ken of fan in­ter­est be­ing the cause.



1997 P

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  • Com­pared with your [other] works thus far, Eva was a work where your own thoughts were strongly pro­jected onto it.

Anno: I think that, seen from the per­spec­tive of those who value sup­press­ing one’s self and de­pict­ing other peo­ple, there is noth­ing more fool­ish than what I have done. But, we who have lived in the midst of a vague feel­ing of “block­age” for ten, twen­ty, or thirty years, can do noth­ing but call at­ten­tion to our­selves. I think we are a lonely gen­er­a­tion who can do noth­ing but get oth­ers to rec­og­nize [our?] in­di­vid­ual ex­is­tences, be­ing un­able to rec­og­nize our own ex­is­tences.

Sep­tem­ber 1997 New­type; snip­pet trans­lated by Num­ber­s-kun

The re­al­ity within the fic­tion
The hope within the “block­age”
In short, the dream
All I was do­ing was search­ing
For some­thing with the same feel­ing.

–An­no’s Love & Pop post­script; snip­pet trans­lated by Num­ber­s-kun

As a mat­ter of fact, Anno is a stu­dent of Leni Riefen­stahl, and par­o­died her Tri­umph of the Will in the Na­dia omake. In the spring 1997 is­sue of Tokion he said re­gard­ing the dan­ger­ous po­ten­tial of art: “Nazi Ger­many was a per­fect ex­am­ple. Those guys were mak­ing great movies! Even the an­ti-Nazi pro­pa­ganda films Dis­ney pro­duced, por­trayed Nazis as be­ing fash­ion­able” (He also said of Evan­ge­lion in that same in­ter­view, “I’m ob­vi­ously not from a Chris­t­ian up­bring­ing, so they will have to ex­cuse me for bor­row­ing cer­tain Chris­t­ian words and im­ages.” He did­n’t say, “They will have to ig­nore my bor­row­ing them, be­cause they have no mean­ing what­so­ever within the story”).


There’s also both Gen­e­sis 0:0 fea­tures (0:0 - IN THE BEGINNING and 0:0’ - THE LIGHT FROM THE DARKNESS) which are re­cap and mak­ing of pieces, nei­ther very in­ter­est­ing al­though the first has very brief in­ter­views with Sadamoto Yoshiyuki and Anno Hidea­ki. There’s also a se­ries of brief ques­tions asked of the voices of the three main fe­male char­ac­ters, Mit­su­ishi Kotono (Misato), Miya­mura Yuko (A­suka), and Hayashibara Megumi (Rei). Also in­cluded is a sep­a­rate col­lec­tion of short TV spots for the End of Evan­ge­lion movie I’d never seen be­fore which were QUITE in­ter­est­ing, I’ll put it that way.

http://www.­ma­ni­a.­com/­neon-ge­n­e­sis-e­van­ge­lion-re­newal-e­van­ge­lion-d­vd­box_ar­ti­cle_75523.html; TODO find out what this was about; ten­ta­tive as­sign­ment of Gen­e­sis 0:0 to ’96 or ’97

…in an in­ter­view, di­rec­tor Anno in­di­cated that Mis­ato’s char­ac­ter de­sign is mod­eled after Tsukino Us­a­gi. The hair style (sans odan­go), es­pe­cially the front, is al­most an ex­act du­pli­ca­tion of Us­a­gi. He has even used the words “Mis­ato is Us­agi in her 29th years” (I am not quot­ing the words here, as I for­got the ex­act word­ing).

Ref: Shin­seiki Evan­ge­lion Kanzen Kouryaku Tokuhon, by Shin­seiki Fukuin Ky­oukai, ISBN4-380-97219-4


The part about Mis­ato be­ing in­spired by Us­agi was men­tioned by Sadamoto in the bonus disc of the Re­newal as well but only in the re­gards of her hairs; in that in­ter­view he also said that he was in­spired by Fu­jiko Mine from Lupin, he liked the fact that at the same time she seems to be in her 20s and in her 30s.


In the notes ac­com­pa­ny­ing LD 0:2, it was stated that dur­ing the sto­ry­board stage of episode 4, a staff asked Anno what Mis­ato is like, and Anno replied that Mis­ato is just like Tsukino Mis­ato. [er­ror; should be ‘Tsukino Us­agi’]

Anno is a Sailor Moon fans, and he had par­tic­i­pated in draw­ing some cells in episode 46. [see al­so: “I re­call read­ing one time that Anno him­self worked some on Sailor Moon, an­i­mated the Outer Sen­shi’s trans­for­ma­tion sce­nes, but I don’t know if that is re­ally true or not.” http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/1999-Jan­u­ary/024692.html]

In the spe­cial EVA video dated be­fore the TV se­ries, Sadamoto stated that Mis­ato’s front bangs was mod­eled after Sailor Moon.


Some other in­ter­est­ing tid­bit that Ya­mashita Ikuto put to­geth­er:

Evan­ge­lion was first pro­posed as a project by Mr. Anno on Sept. 20 1993.

Al­most 5 years ago.

The unique look and feel of Toky­o-03 was strongly in­flu­enced by the fact that in 1994 GAiNAX re­lo­cated their office to the city of Mi­taka (3 Ea­gles) which gave them a new en­vi­ron­ment to vi­su­al­ized the world of Evan­ge­lion. “Eva LD Movie Box Set”


I’ve got­ten cu­ri­ous enough to ask. Pre­cisely what is Rei do­ing in that tank in cen­tral dog­ma? (I think it’s episode 15 or in that neigh­bor­hood).

Mak­ing back­ups of Rei’s mem­o­ry. A mem­ber of GAINAX said that in an in­ter­view.

http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/1997-De­cem­ber/003255.html; from some anime mag­a­zine (TODO: but which & when?)

This was from Shonen A’s Sadamoto Yoshiyuki in­ter­view:

…there were a lot of holes in the plot. For ex­am­ple, I asked (Hideaki An­no) why only chil­dren pi­lot EVAs. His im­me­di­ate re­sponse was ‘Right, I must get this sorted out.’, then he got all worked up.

Leonard Tai; TODO was this re­ally from 1997? Maybe there was an in­ter­view in 1998 be­fore Tai wrote in May 1998 and I am un­duly pes­simistic about how old his in­for­ma­tion is?

Miyaza­ki: Any­way, I think it’s good that you had suc­cess with Evan­ge­lion. It gives you an op­por­tu­nity to work and an in­flu­en­tial voice. Be­sides that, es­cape from the ghost of Evan­ge­lion as fast as pos­si­ble. You can’t be “that Mr. Anno who made Evan­ge­lion” 10 or 20 years from now.

An­no: I know!

Miyaza­ki: So, I think you should keep your hands off Evan­ge­lion en­tirely from here on out.

Don’t worry about that. The evil spirit has al­ready gone. So, I’m go­ing to do shoujo manga (His and Her Cir­cum­stances) for now. (laughs)

…Miyaza­ki: Is­n’t that film (Love & Pop) some­thing like an ex­or­cism of Evan­ge­lion? (laughs)

An­no: To put it blunt­ly, yes, it is. (laughs)

“もののけ姫 vs エヴァンゲリオン (宮崎監督と庵野監督:97年夏の師弟対決を中心に)”; ex­cerpts from an in­ter­view ap­par­ently dur­ing their Sa­hara trip

Carl Horn’s de­scrip­tion: “Miyazaki and Anno took a spe­cial plane jour­ney through the Sa­hara to­gether in the late 1990s in a vin­tage [red] plane, re­trac­ing the route of An­toine de Sain­t-Ex­u­pery (a book was writ­ten about their trip)”; Cu­SO4 dis­cusses it a lit­tle & Patrick Yip de­scribes it ex­ten­sively and also pro­vides a photo & video. Lu­na1883:

> ...the north African itinerary and attendant snapshots was documented in "quick japan" (or a sister publication). the feature basically says that Anno and Miyazaki wanted to follow the final flight of the author of the "little prince", Antoine de saint-Exupery, who died in 1943;  and also pay their respects to a certain Oscar-winning epic (and Booker prize-winning novel) about the high-flying life of adulterous mapmakers in the Sahara during WW2--a quietly beautiful film that asked very pointed  questions about the concept of identity (national and otherwise)...what is extraordinary is that Miyazaki and Anno flew a vintage plane (a 2-seat Sopwith-camel biplane like the English patient's, i hope) across the  desert. (lets hope Anno wasn't the pilot). anyway, there is a picture on top of a dune with Miyazaki wearing a sensible hat and grey suit, pointing straight ahead, and Anno in a black pullover, no hat, doing an Ultraman pose!


> I have a shot I found in an Italian anime mag which is quite similar: there are Anno and Miyazaki again, the setup is an airport runway with desert landscape all around, there actually is a biplane, but it's big, with some windows for passengers (say 15 mt overall length), it's red, with a sign on the side which says "O.K - K.O", and Miyazaki is wearing a mechanic suit, leaning on the plane, while Anno stands on top of it (around 4 mt above) in a red 'tunic' and sunglasses doing the Ultraman pose. BTW, Studio Ghibli did the drawings for episode 12 of can see that they did draw episode 12 looking at the hairstyle of the speaker of the propaganda-van for candidate Nozoku Takahashi (the name is derived by Nozomu Takahashi, producer of Studio Ghibli).^[<> for second quote]

From Bochan_bird’s back­ground Kai­bun­sho ma­te­r­ial (see pre­vi­ous 1996 quo­ta­tion for dis­cus­sion):

  • 1997/03/10~: Quick Japan #9 and #10 is­sues con­tain in­ter­views and a round­table dis­cus­sion by Gainax fig­ures Toshimichi Ot­suki (Pro­duc­er), Yoshiyuki Sadamoto (Eva char­ac­ter de­signer and manga artist), Hi­roki Sato (PR Man­ager), Kazuyshi Tsu­ru­maki (As­sis­tant Di­rec­tor) and Masayuki (As­sis­tant Di­rec­tor). The round­table dis­cus­sion cov­ers top­ics rang­ing from Eva story con­tents to be­hind-the-scenes hap­pen­ings, past ac­tiv­i­ties, a per­sonal cri­tique/char­ac­ter­i­za­tion of Di­rec­tor An­no, and so on.

In Oc­to­ber 1983, Anno saw an ad­ver­tise­ment in the mag­a­zine An­i­m­age. The anime film of Nau­si­caa was falling be­hind sched­ule, and an­i­ma­tors were need­ed. On the Nau­si­caa DVD, Toshio Suzuki re­called An­no’s ap­pear­ance: “One day he just showed up. After­wards I re­alised how much guts it must have taken to walk right in and hand Miyazaki sam­ples of his work.” Anno was hired, and set to an­i­mat­ing the God War­rior. Ac­cord­ing to Suzuki, “Miyazaki wanted some­thing with im­pact, very de­tailed, with a unique sense of move­ment.” Among the sto­ries of An­no’s time on Nau­si­caa, it’s said that he suffered from ter­ri­ble di­ar­rhea, which his col­leagues joked was the God War­rior’s curse. Miyazaki sent him a memo say­ing, “Use two colours for the smoke. If you use three col­ors, I kill you!” The di­rec­tor also forced Anno to re­strict the num­ber of frames in the God War­rior se­quence. Anno wanted to die when he saw the fi­nal re­sult. That the ter­rific scene did­n’t sat­isfy him speaks vol­umes about An­no’s dri­ve, his ob­ses­sion with bring­ing ti­tanic im­ages to ani­me.

–quoted in “An­no’s Domi­nus: An­drew Os­mond on the odd­est cast­ing de­ci­sion in re­cent mem­o­ry… or is it…?”; orig­i­nal: “The Birth of Stu­dio Ghi­bli”, 1997? TV pro­gram in­cluded on the 2005 DVD re­lease

Theatrical pamphlets

Back­ground: http://wi­k­i.e­vageek­­Movie_­Pam­phlets


The se­ries [NGE] fea­tured at­trac­tive SF set­tings, dy­namic bat­tle sce­nes, a pedan­tic fla­vor from in­cor­po­rat­ing Chris­t­ian mo­tifs and psy­cho­an­a­lyt­i­cal jar­gon into a dra­matic work, and a su­per-in­ten­sive amount of in­for­ma­tion. Evan­ge­lion ex­ceeded the bounds of con­ven­tional anime on all these counts, mak­ing it truly wor­thy of the ti­tle “Neon Gen­e­sis”. The se­ries en­joyed the en­thu­si­as­tic sup­port of nu­mer­ous fans, and also spawned dis­cus­sions on var­i­ous top­ics.

The TV se­ries ended in a man­ner that could be con­sid­ered in­com­plete. This be­came an in­tense is­sue, and by that mean­ing could be said to have spurred on Evan­ge­lion’s pop­u­lar­i­ty. The voice of the fans grew stronger and stronger as they de­manded a proper end­ing to the dra­ma, ex­pla­na­tions of the mys­ter­ies, or even a new sto­ry. In or­der to meet these ex­pec­ta­tions, a cin­ema edi­tion was planned – this is “EVANGELION DEATH AND REBIRTH”.

… “REBIRTH” is Part 1 of the “Con­clu­sion” which retells TV episodes 25 and 26 as a new sto­ry. Evan­ge­lion will con­clude by show­ing this Part 1 to­gether with Part 2 of the Cin­ema Edi­tion which is sched­uled for re­lease this sum­mer.


2001: Yui and Gendo Ikari have their first child, Shin­ji. Had the child been a girl, Gendo in­tended to name her “Rei”.

2003: Fuyut­suki, through his in­de­pen­dent re­search, draws closer to a mas­sive de­cep­tion sur­round­ing Sec­ond Im­pact, at the fore of which is Gendo Ikari, Chief of Re­search at the U.N. Ar­ti­fi­cial Evo­lu­tion Lab­o­ra­to­ries (AEL). When Fuyut­suki vis­its the AEL and threat­ens Gendo with a pub­lic ex­posé of the truth, Gendo guides Fuyut­suki to Cen­tral Dogma – a gi­gan­tic cav­ity sprawl­ing deep un­der­ground the Lab­o­ra­to­ries. There Fuyut­suki meets Dr. Naoko Ak­agi, a fore­most au­thor­ity on bio-com­put­ers, who calls their or­ga­ni­za­tion “Gehirn”. Stand­ing be­fore the in­com­plete EVA-00, Gendo tempts Fuyut­suki, say­ing, “Won’t you cre­ate a new fu­ture for hu­mankind to­gether with me?” After care­ful con­sid­er­a­tion, Fuyut­suki ac­cepts Gen­do’s offer…

2010: Rei Ayanami (the 1st) vis­its Gehirn. Gen­do, who is ac­com­pa­ny­ing her, ex­plains that she is the child of an ac­quain­tance.

MAGI is com­pleted through the efforts of Dr. Naoko Ak­a­gi. That same night, Naoko learns from Rei that she is merely a tool for achiev­ing Gen­do’s plans. In a rage of pas­sion, she stran­gles Rei and then throws her­self from the Com­mand Cen­ter and dies.

  • http://www.e­vao­taku.­com/htm­l/­dr1-time­line.html; the in­ter­est of 2001 lies in the sib­ling (and un­ro­man­tic!) re­la­tion­ship be­tween Shinji & Rei, the in­ter­est of 2003 in the ‘Lab­o­ra­to­ries’ con­nec­tion to the Black Moon/­Cen­tral Dogma and the Pro­pos­al’s fi­nal episode; the in­ter­est of 2010 in con­firm­ing that Naoko com­mit­ted sui­cide

She [A­suka So­ryu Lan­g­ley] is one quar­ter Japan­ese and Ger­man, but her na­tion­al­ity is Amer­i­can. In con­trast to Shinji and Rei, she is a bright and ac­tive young girl. She hates to lose, and is full of pride. As the bat­tles against the An­gels con­tin­ue, she grad­u­ally loses her self­-con­fi­dence as a pi­lot, be­com­ing both men­tally and phys­i­cally ex­haust­ed.

… His [Ka­woru Nag­isa] birth­date is given as Sep­tem­ber 13, 2000 – the same date as Sec­ond Im­pact.

… Nor­mally ca­sual and in­di­rect, he [Ka­ji] rarely shows his true col­ors. He un­der­stands Shinji and Mis­ato, and oc­ca­sion­ally offers them ad­vice.

… She [Misato] lives with Shin­ji, and acts as his guardian. Dur­ing strate­gic op­er­a­tions she is a bold and dar­ing com­man­der, but nor­mally she is a cheer­ful op­ti­mist who looks after Shinji and the other pi­lots in the ca­pac­ity of an older sis­ter. How­ev­er, she also car­ries about a past of los­ing her fa­ther due to an An­gel, and thus joined NERV to take her re­venge on the An­gels.

… Shinji is an in­tro­verted young boy who is awk­ward at com­mu­ni­cat­ing with other peo­ple, and har­bors doubts as to the value of his own ex­is­tence. Or­dered by his fa­ther from whom he had lived apart for over ten years, he pi­loted EVA-01 and fought against the An­gels. He con­tin­ues to search for his place in life amidst the fierce bat­tles with the An­gels.

… He [Gendo Ikari] ap­pears cold-blooded and ruth­less – ca­pa­ble of do­ing any­thing to achieve his aims – but there are many mys­ter­ies sur­round­ing his con­duct.

… He [Fuyut­suki Ko­zo] is cur­rently a mem­ber of NERV as a will­ing col­lab­o­ra­tor with Gen­do, but his true in­ten­tions are un­known.

… He [Hyuga Mako­to] has an easy-go­ing per­son­al­i­ty, and ap­pears to har­bor some affec­tion to­ward Mis­ato.

… She [Ho­raki Hikari] has a very down-to-earth char­ac­ter, and takes her re­spon­si­bil­i­ties as Class Pres­i­dent se­ri­ous­ly. For this rea­son she is some­what shunned by the boys in the class. While out­wardly ap­palled at Tou­ji’s un­man­nerly char­ac­ter, she se­cretly har­bors affec­tion to­ward him, but never says so open­ly. She is one of Asuka’s few friends in Japan.

… There ap­pear to be some se­crets con­cern­ing her [Ikari Yui] death. She met Gendo while in uni­ver­si­ty, and mar­ried him soon after grad­u­at­ing. She is also the one who brought to­gether Fuyut­suki and Gen­do.


The re­la­tion be­tween the ac­tual “Dead Sea Scrolls” and SEELE’s “Se­cret Dead Sea Scrolls” is un­clear.

… [In­stru­men­tal­ity Pro­jec­t/Hu­man Com­ple­men­ta­tion Project (HCP) (JINRUI HOKAN KEIKAKU)] Like the name im­plies, this is a project to com­ple­ment hu­mankind’s want­ing parts and achieve a “per­fect ex­is­tence”. This project was be­ing ad­vanced by the In­stru­men­tal­ity Com­mit­tee as well as Gendo Ikari and NERV.

In “REBIRTH”, Mis­ato says that it is a project to “ar­ti­fi­cially evolve Hu­mankind, which has reached its limit as a colony of flawed and sep­a­rate en­ti­ties, into a per­fect sin­gle be­ing.” How­ev­er, it ap­pears that the com­ple­men­ta­tion of hu­mankind en­vi­sioned by the el­ders of SEELE does not equal the com­ple­men­ta­tion aimed for by Gendo and Fuyut­su­ki.

Chil­dren Evan­ge­lion pi­lots who are lim­ited to 14-year old boys and girls. These pi­lots are called “Chil­dren” (qual­i­fied per­son­s), and are iden­ti­fied as First, Sec­ond and so on ac­cord­ing to the or­der of their se­lec­tion. Of the­se, the First (Rei) and Third (Sh­in­ji) Chil­dren have ex­tremely sim­i­lar per­sonal pat­terns, and Eva crossover tests are even per­formed be­tween the two. All the can­di­dates for Chil­dren are gath­ered in the New-Toky­o-3 First Mu­nic­i­pal Ju­nior High School which Shinji at­tends, and all mem­bers of Class 2-A are in fact can­di­dates. It is not clear why the plural form (CHILDREN) is used in­stead of the sin­gu­lar form (CHILD). In­ci­den­tal­ly, the word CHILD in­cludes var­i­ous ad­di­tional mean­ings such as: em­bryo, fe­tus, de­scen­dant, pro­duct, and even a per­son who has emerged from a spe­cial en­vi­ron­ment.


I was torn apart by a new pain.

Even though they were fresh wounds, with fresh blood spilling out, it felt like I was peel­ing off old scabs which re­mained on my skin.

Some­times slow­ly, some­times with a quick jerk,

The claws of a mer­ci­less ‘Cre­ator’ peeled away the lay­ers of my heart…

I would be happy if I were able to touch the ‘Shinji’ in­side every­one.

The ‘Shinji’ in­side me is wait­ing for the time of com­ple­men­ta­tion.

… [Yuko Miya­mu­ra, Asuka’s seiyu­u]: Please, peo­ple – Let’s try to be a lit­tle hap­pier!!

… [Kotono Mit­su­ishi, Mis­ato’s seiyu­u]: I am truly glad to have met the woman named Mis­ato. Al­though she does­n’t eas­ily speak her true feel­ings, which often gave me some trou­ble, I truly like her bright man­ner by which she hides the lone­li­ness and dark­ness deep within her heart. After the TV se­ries had end­ed, I lis­tened to “Cruel An­gel’s The­sis” again and was struck by the phrase “Al­though I can­not be­come a god­dess, I will live on.” Surely this must be the voice of Mis­ato’s heart. I look for­ward to watch­ing Mis­ato in this cin­ema edi­tion, as well as see­ing who and how Shinji fights.

… [Fu­mi­hiko Tat­suki, Gen­do’s seiyu­u]: Al­though the an­swer to most of the ru­mors is “YES”, I vac­il­late be­tween ! and ? with each episode on whether I like or hate Evan­ge­lion and Gendo Ikari. How­ev­er, I can’t help but feel an end­less fas­ci­na­tion at the way Eva’s story un­folds, tinted by an in­fi­nite amount of in­for­ma­tion amidst drama with need­lessly ex­ces­sive ‘fan-ser­vice’…


“Peo­ple found a God, and in their folly tried to ac­quire it. Thus ret­ri­bu­tion was vis­ited upon mankind.”

Rit­suko Ak­agi thus ridiculed Sec­ond Im­pact – the great­est calamity since the dawn of his­tory which was vis­ited upon hu­mankind in the fi­nal year of the 20th cen­tu­ry.

… An­other “Chil­dren”, Rei Ayanami, was a man­u­fac­tured girl – man­u­fac­tured to carry out a cer­tain task. She shed the first tears of her life upon re­al­iz­ing that she was “lonely”, but then died in bat­tle im­me­di­ately there­after. A third Rei was pre­pared at once – a new Rei who knew not the rea­son for her tears.

“Pi­lot­ing Eva is all I have.”

The ded­i­cated pi­lot of EVA-02, Sohryu Asuka Lan­g­ley’s pride was sus­tained by pi­lot­ing Eva. Los­ing her mother at a young age had made her choose “strength” as her rai­son d’être. The strength of be­ing needed by those around her, and yet not need­ing any­one around her.

But Asuka had been beaten – by Shin­ji, by the An­gels, and by her­self.

Hav­ing lost the abil­ity to pi­lot Eva, she lost her sense of worth – a bro­ken per­son.

… “Yes, wor­thy of friend­ship.”

The Fifth Chil­dren, Ka­woru Nag­isa, achieved a chance meet­ing with Shin­ji, and con­veyed his friend­ship. Ka­woru’s words gen­tly opened up Shin­ji’s heart, which had shut it­self away in its shell. But Ka­woru’s true iden­tity was that of the fi­nal An­gel – the en­emy of hu­mankind.

… The An­gel’s name was Ka­woru Nag­isa – The first per­son to ever tell Shinji that he liked him. And the first per­son to whom Shinji ever opened up his heart. Hav­ing killed Ka­woru by his own hand, Shinji shut away his heart once again and im­plored Asuka to help him. Asuka - the spir­ited young girl who had al­ways made fun of him. But Asuka’s pride had been shat­tered, and she did not re­spond. On the other hand, the death of the last An­gel meant the com­ple­tion of SEELE’s sce­nario. To ar­ti­fi­cially evolve Hu­mankind which has reached its limit as a colony of flawed and sep­a­rate en­ti­ties into a per­fect sin­gle be­ing – that was the true mean­ing of the In­stru­men­tal­ity Project (HCP), and was also syn­ony­mous with Third Im­pact.

… What does Gendo plan in the midst of this hope­less sit­u­a­tion. What will SEELE’s sce­nario bring to pass? Is there a fu­ture for Asuka, ly­ing curled up like an un­born child in­side the un­mov­ing EVA-02? What runs through Rit­suko’s head as she smiles coldly in­side MAGI? And Mis­ato dash­ing through the bat­tle­field that was once NERV HQ – will she make it in time? The clash­ing of var­i­ous peo­ple’s wills amidst a com­plex bat­tle re­sem­bles a coun­cil that will de­cide hu­man­i­ty’s fu­ture. Evo­lu­tion and death, stag­na­tion and birth, truth and lies – and the fu­ture cho­sen by hu­mankind?

D&R Special Edition (2)

From the ini­tial plan­ning stages, this se­ries has evolved around its di­rec­tor Hideaki An­no, and it could be said that all as­pects from the ba­sic con­cept to the con­clu­sion bear the mark of An­no’s cre­ative in­di­vid­u­al­i­ty.

… Evan­ge­lion be­came cen­tered on the theme of “peo­ple’s hearts” from around the mid­dle of the TV se­ries. As the cul­mi­na­tion of this trend, the cli­max of the se­ries, episodes 25 “Owaru sekai (End­ing World)” and 26 “Sekai no chu­ushin de ai wo sak­enda ke­mono (The Beast who Shouted”I/Love" at the Cen­ter of the World)", took an ex­per­i­men­tal and shock­ing ap­proach in that the story de­vel­oped within the in­ner worlds of the main char­ac­ters. While this cli­max may have ful­filled the ba­sic the­matic re­quire­ments, it left the mys­ter­ies pre­sented thus far mostly un­solved, and gave a strong im­pres­sion of hav­ing ended with the story in­com­plete.

This end­ing be­came an in­tense is­sue, and by that mean­ing could be said to have spurred on Evan­ge­lion’s pop­u­lar­i­ty. The voice of the fans grew stronger and stronger as they de­manded a proper end­ing to the dra­ma, ex­pla­na­tions of the mys­ter­ies, or even a new sto­ry. In or­der to meet these ex­pec­ta­tions, a cin­ema edi­tion was planned – this is “EVANGELION DEATH AND REBIRTH”.

… “REBIRTH” is Part 1 of the “Con­clu­sion” which retells TV episodes 25 and 26 as a new sto­ry. It was orig­i­nally in­tended that Evan­ge­lion would con­clude only with “REBIRTH”, but the story con­tent in­creased as pro­duc­tion pro­gressed, so “REBIRTH” is be­ing re­leased as only Part 1 of the con­clu­sion. Evan­ge­lion will con­clude by show­ing “REBIRTH” to­gether with Part 2 of the Cin­ema Edi­tion which is sched­uled for re­lease this sum­mer.


A cow­ardly soul. A want­ing heart. The de­sire to be loved.

Shinji Ikari.

… Rei Ayanami – Ban­dages. Mys­ter­ies. In­differ­ence. An ob­ject of in­ter­est. Moth­er.

Sohryu Asuka Lan­g­ley – Girl. Per­plex­ing. For­mi­da­ble. In­de­ci­pher­able. Sex.

Mis­ato Kat­suragi – Adult. Su­pe­ri­or. Med­dle­some. Sol­dier. Fam­i­ly.

… But the word “like” swept away his [Sh­in­ji’s] dark­ness.

Ka­woru Nag­isa.

The Fifth Chil­dren.

A gen­tle boy.

The first per­son to whom Shinji ever opened his heart.

… Pi­lot­ing Eva-01, Shinji strains un­der these com­plex emo­tions, and kills Ka­woru.

The first per­son to ever tell him he “liked” him.

The first per­son to whom he ever opened his heart.

By his own hand….


A Sul­lied Heart

A high but frag­ile wall. A tightly stretched thread. The fear of not be­ing need­ed.

Sohryu Asuka Lan­g­ley.

She lost her mother at a ten­der age.

Her mother killed her within her heart by giv­ing her love to a doll in­stead.

So, she sought after strength.

The strength to beat any­one.

The strength to be able to live alone.

The strength that could be­come her rai­son d’être.

… But there were al­ready oth­ers be­fore her.

Shinji Ikari. And Rei Ayana­mi.

These two must be be­neath her.

Sor­tie. Soar­ing. Vic­to­ry. Ac­tion. Mil­i­tary prowess. Achieve­ment. De­feat of the en­e­my. Mis­takes. De­feat. Rear guard. Dis­missal.

“I lost to stu­pid Shin­ji…”

Her pride col­lapsed, and she ran away. But the or­ga­ni­za­tion found her and brought her back, con­fin­ing her in a white soli­tary cell called a sick­room. Asuka slum­bers amidst the sheets, but her heart is shut away.

“Nein [No]… Stop… Tod [Death]… Pain… Schmach [Shame]… Moth­er… er­hän­gen [hang]…”

Her dreams within that white dark­ness are bit­ter…

… As the sce­nario pro­gress­es, he [Sh­in­ji] changes her [Rei Ayanami].

Smiles. Wor­ry­ing. Words of thanks.

These were all for him.

Smiles di­rected to­ward him. Wor­ry­ing about him.

“Thank you” said to him.

And with her first tears, she fi­nally re­al­ized.

“This is my heart. I want to be with Ikari.”

But death en­gulfed her be­fore she could con­vey her heart.

Al­ter­nate trans­la­tion, un­known 4chan poster: (mir­ror)


Their Eng­lish name is not APOSTLE (= SHITO), but ANGEL (= TENSHI). To be sure, Sachiel, Shamshel, Ramiel and the other names given to the An­gels ex­cept for the 1st An­gel Adam are all an­gel names. Fur­ther, just as the name of the 6th An­gel which ap­peared from the ocean is that of “fish” an­gel, Gaghiel, and the name of the 10th An­gel which plum­meted down from satel­lite or­bit is that of “sky” an­gel, Sa­haquiel, the names of the An­gels bear a mys­te­ri­ous sym­bol­ism with the at­trib­ut­es, place of ini­tial con­fir­ma­tion, and con­di­tions of ap­pear­ance of each An­gel. Un­like the style of the an­gels recorded in the Bible. which are gen­er­ally be­lieved to “have wings, wear white robes, and have an an­gelic halo about their heads,” these An­gels come in vary­ing shapes and sizes in­clud­ing hu­manoid and an­i­mal-like forms, giv­ing rise to the spec­u­la­tion that the An­gels do not have a spe­cific form, or are amor­phous.

… In­ci­den­tal­ly, the widely cir­cu­lated idea that L.C.L is the ab­bre­vi­a­tion of “Link Con­nected Liq­uid” is in­cor­rect.

… S2 en­gine mount­ing tests were re­peated in var­i­ous lo­ca­tions, but this brought about the tragic re­sult of the dis­ap­pear­ance of the 2nd US NERV Branch.

… The he­lix of light An­gel. When dis­cov­ered it was a dou­ble he­lix loop rem­i­nis­cent of DNA float­ing in the sky.

… This same red sphere was con­firmed in the chest of Eva-01, but it is un­clear whether one also ex­ists in the other Eva. How­ev­er, when se­lect­ing the Fourth Chil­dren, Dr. Rit­suko Ak­agi re­ferred to Touji Suzuhara as “a child for whom a core can be pre­pared.” This sug­gests the fact that NERV can “pre­pare” cores, and fur­ther that an in­di­vid­ual core is pre­pared for each pi­lot.

… The Fourth Chil­dren = Touji Suzuhara, who was pi­lot­ing the Eva at the time, suffered the loss of a part of his leg, but was oth­er­wise res­cued un­harmed.

… It is un­clear whether SEELE drew up its “sce­nario” as a set of plans based on these “Dead Sea Scrolls”, or whether the two are one and the same. These same doc­u­ments de­scribed the in­vad­ing An­gels and other in­for­ma­tion.

… Many cross-like im­ages are used in Evan­ge­lion: the ex­plo­sions caused by the An­gels, Mis­ato’s pen­dant, the stop sig­nal plug in­serted into the berserked EVA-00, the cross used to trans­port Eva-03, the pil­lar on which Lilith is cru­ci­fied un­der­ground, etc. The cross is widely known as the sym­bol of Chris­tian­i­ty, but be­fore Christ it was noth­ing more than an im­ple­ment of pun­ish­ment used to bring about a painful death, and it was the death of Je­sus Christ that trans­formed it into the em­bod­i­ment of love and for­give­ness and the sym­bol of self­-sac­ri­fice. How­ev­er, in pre­his­toric times the cross was widely used to sym­bol­ize the sun, the heav­ens and the wind. So, is the mean­ing of the cross in Evan­ge­lion de­rived from Christ or from be­fore Christ?

… This fig­ure [Tree of Life] is com­prised of ten spheres linked by 22 paths, and can be in­ter­preted in var­i­ous ways: as a step-by-step di­a­gram for med­i­ta­tion, a map lead­ing to wis­dom, or a pre­dic­tion of hu­mankind’s fu­ture, etc.

… This area [Ter­mi­nal Dog­ma] was prob­a­bly the ob­jec­tive of the An­gel in­va­sions. Al­though An­gel in­tru­sion was pre­vented for a long time, the area was fi­nally pen­e­trated by a hu­manoid An­gel = Ka­woru Nag­isa.

… There are the­o­ries which place Lilith, con­fined in the depths of Ter­mi­nal Dog­ma, as the 2nd An­gel, but the truth is un­known.

… These three are all en­rolled in Class 2-A, but this is be­cause all the mem­bers of Class 2-A were can­di­dates for Chil­dren. Touji Suzuhara, also a mem­ber of this class, was se­lected as the Fourth Chil­dren with the trans­fer of com­mand of Eva-03 to Japan. This ju­nior high school is re­ferred to as “code 707” within NERV. It is nes­tled in the foothills near Gate No. 20 in or­der to fa­cil­i­tate Evan­ge­lion sor­ties.

… In­ci­den­tal­ly, the Eva se­ries units from Eva-05 on­ward use dummy plugs into which the per­son­al­ity of Ka­woru Nag­isa has been trans­plant­ed. [But whose souls are in the Mass Pro­duc­tion Evas them­selves? Shin­ji’s class­mates? There’s sug­ges­tive ev­i­dence…]

… Spe­cial Agency NERV has a mark which con­sists of three parts. The first of these is the or­ga­ni­za­tion name, “NERV”. Writ­ten be­low that are the words, “God is in his heav­en. Al­l’s right with the world,” a phrase taken from “Pippa Passes”, writ­ten by 19th cen­tury poet Robert Brown­ing. The third part is the fig­ure of a fig leaf. It hardly needs be said that the fig leaf sym­bol­izes the orig­i­nal sin en­tan­gling Adam and Eve. [RCB glos­sary ex­tends this with “and brings to mind the hu­mans who ate of the Fruit of Wis­dom.”] It is un­clear why NERV’s mark uses only half of a fig leaf.

… In­ci­den­tal­ly, this [Yashima] strat­egy comes from a leg­end in which Na­suno Yoichi shot an ar­row from horse­back which pierced a fan on a ship dur­ing the Bat­tle of Yashima in 1185. Be­cause this strat­egy also gath­ered elec­tric power from through­out Japan, it also in­cludes the mean­ing of Yashuu Strat­egy (in an­cient times Japan was re­ferred to as “Yashuu” [8 states/­coun­tries]).

… The Eva units which were built out­side NERV HQ. [RCB glos­sary clar­i­fies that they were built at ‘the var­i­ous NERV branches’. Not that there are that many…]

… Ac­cord­ing to SEELE, it seems that hu­man com­ple­men­ta­tion orig­i­nally planned to use Lilith, and Eva-01 is also said to be the clone of Lilith.

Production notes

In ad­di­tion to se­lect­ing the used episodes and sce­nes, the se­ries of im­age scenes where Shinji and the oth­ers play in­stru­ments in the school gym­na­si­um, and link­ing the var­i­ous scenes in a shuffled man­ner rather than sim­ply ar­rang­ing them in or­der were also the ideas of Akio Sat­sukawa.

… Ap­prox­i­mately 30 min­utes of “DEATH” were newly pro­duced. These con­tents can be di­vided into the fol­low­ing three pat­terns. First is the se­ries of im­age scenes where Shinji and the oth­ers play in­stru­ments in the school gym­na­si­um. This is orig­i­nal film shown only in “DEATH”. Sec­ond is re­takes of the TV se­ries film. Third are the scenes sched­uled to be added as new cuts to the video re­lease ver­sions of episodes 22 to 24.

… The third type was the scenes sched­uled to be added as new cuts to the video re­lease ver­sions of episodes 22 to 24. Work pro­ceeded on these cuts sep­a­rately from this cin­ema edi­tion. These in­clude the scene where Yui talks with Fuyut­suki while ap­peas­ing the in­fant Shin­ji, Asuka’s mono­logue in the bath­room, Kaji and Asuka’s di­a­log be­fore meet­ing Shinji and the oth­ers, etc.

… Pro­duc­tion of “REBIRTH” ini­tially started as a re­make of episodes 25 and 26 of the TV se­ries Evan­ge­lion, that is to say as the con­clu­sion to Evan­ge­lion. How­ev­er, the con­tent grew much larger than planned dur­ing the course of pro­duc­tion, with the two episodes to­gether to­tal­ing al­most 70 min­utes in length. There­fore, it was de­cided to start with a the­ater re­lease of the first half cor­re­spond­ing to episode 25.

… After the sto­ry­board work for “REBIRTH” had been fin­ished, Chief Di­rec­tor Anno started work on Part 2 of the movie edi­tion cor­re­spond­ing to TV episode 26. A sep­a­rate team was also as­sem­bled for the art­work of episode 26, and work pro­ceeded in par­al­lel with episode 25.


Episode 25’ “Air” is based on the orig­i­nal episode 25 script which was com­pleted dur­ing pro­duc­tion of the TV se­ries. Due to pro­duc­tion time lim­its and other prob­lems, this script was not used and the TV episode 25 “Owaru sekai (The End­ing World)” in­stead be­came a drama which un­folded within an in­ner uni­verse like episode 26. In this sense, episode 25’ could be con­sid­ered a re­turn to the orig­i­nally in­tended con­tents. In con­trast, episode 26’ adds much more story and dra­matic con­tent to TV episode 26, thus deep­en­ing the theme.

This movie was cre­ated as the re­make of the last two TV episodes, so the TV episode for­mat is fol­lowed, with each episode hav­ing its own sub­ti­tle and eye­catch scenes.

… Some re­al-life shots were used to de­pict the in­ner uni­verse of Shinji in episode 26’, and a team called the “Spe­cial Pro­duc­tion Team” was formed to film these shots. Hideaki Anno also wrote the script and served as chief di­rec­tor for these parts, with Shinji Higuchi par­tic­i­pat­ing in the role of spe­cial effects di­rec­tor. “Spe­cial effects di­rec­tor” in this con­text means di­rect­ing the film­ing of spe­cial effects. The ac­tual film­ing pro­ceeded with Hideaki Anno and Shinji Higuchi mu­tu­ally dis­cussing their ideas and opin­ions of each shot.

… The other song is the in­sert song “Komm, süsser Tod” used in episode 26’. The lyrics are the Eng­lish trans­la­tion of words com­posed by Chief Di­rec­tor An­no. The ti­tle is Ger­man, mean­ing “Come, Sweet Death”. The vo­cal­ist is Ar­i­anne [Schreiber], and com­po­si­tion and arrange­ment are by Shiro Sag­isu.

Red Cross Book

For the TV se­ries, episodes 25 “Owaru sekai (The End­ing World)” and 26 “Sekai no chu­ushin de ai wo sak­enda ke­mono (The Beast who Shouted”I/Love" at the Cen­ter of the World)" were shown fol­low­ing episode 24 to con­clude the se­ries. Thus, the story of Evan­ge­lion branches into two after the last scene of episode 24. There is one end­ing as shown in TV episodes 25 and 26, while episodes 25’ and 26’ as shown in “THE END OF EVANGELION” are an­other end­ing. (Here, plain num­bers are used to in­di­cate the TV episodes, and num­bers with apos­tro­phes for the movie episodes)

… From the ini­tial plan­ning stages through this cin­ema edi­tion, Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion has evolved around its di­rec­tor Hideaki An­no. All as­pects from the over­all theme and frame­work of the story down to each in­di­vid­ual draw­ing and line of di­a­logue bear the mark of An­no’s cre­ative in­di­vid­u­al­i­ty.

… The show’s soar­ing pop­u­lar­ity ri­valed the biggest hits of the past such as “Star Blaz­ers (Space Bat­tle­ship Yam­a­to)” and “Mo­bile Suit Gun­dam (Ki­dou Sen­shi Gun­damu)”, giv­ing rise to the phrase “the Eva phe­nom­e­non”.

… Episodes 25’ (Air) and 26’ (Magokoro wo, kimi ni) are packed with breath­tak­ing cin­e­matic sce­nes: the drama of the char­ac­ters, ac­tion sce­nes, so­lu­tions to mys­ter­ies, etc. On the other hand the movie also takes an ex­per­i­men­tal ap­proach which deals squarely with the is­sue of “peo­ple’s hearts” in the same man­ner as the cli­max to the TV se­ries. Thus, in both name and fact, this is the com­plete con­clu­sion to Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion.


Al­though the per­son­al­i­ties of these three Rei differ from one an­oth­er, this is due to en­vi­ron­men­tal fac­tors. Their soul is one and the same, and it ap­pears to have been that of Lilith. At the fi­nal stage of the In­stru­men­tal­ity Pro­ject, Rei be­trayed Gen­do, re­turned to Lilith of her own judg­ment and en­trusted the fu­ture to Gen­do’s son – Shinji Ikari.

… In­tro­verted in char­ac­ter, he is con­cerned about how he is viewed by oth­ers. Fur­ther, he is awk­ward at ex­press­ing him­self and com­mu­ni­cat­ing with oth­ers, so he re­peat­edly evades con­fronta­tion and dis­obeys or­ders. At the time of the JSSDF at­tack on NERV, he had fallen into a state of self­-loss, which is also the rea­son why his coun­ter-at­tack was de­layed.

… She died in an ac­ci­dent dur­ing a test in 2004, but her soul re­mained in­side Eva-01. Fur­ther, it seems that this ac­ci­dent was ac­tu­ally in­tended by her.

… The name Eva is thought to de­rive from “Eva”, wife of Adam in the Old Tes­ta­ment, and “Evan­gel”, the Eng­lish word for “gospel”.

… His [Ka­ji] cu­rios­ity proved his ru­in, and al­though he was con­se­quently shot to death, he left the re­sults of his in­ves­ti­ga­tions to Mis­ato.26

… Mis­ato said that, viewed from the In­stru­men­tal­ity Pro­ject, hu­mankind is “a colony of flawed and sep­a­rate en­ti­ties”. Colony means a group of in­di­vid­ual or­gan­isms linked to each oth­er, with new in­di­vid­ual or­gan­isms pro­duced by split­ting or bud­ding. Each in­di­vid­ual or­gan­ism within the colony has the ca­pa­bil­ity to live in­de­pen­dent­ly.

… Be­ings orig­i­nated from the source of life called Lilith. They take var­i­ous sizes and shapes: from a gi­ant oc­ta­he­dron to a minute An­gel the size of bac­te­ria, or even a “shadow” An­gel with­out tan­gi­ble form. Bor­row­ing Fuyut­suk­i’s words in episode 26’, it seems that An­gels are be­ings which got the “Fruit of Life” whereas hu­man­ity got the “Fruit of Wis­dom”. In other words, “An­gels” are an­other form of hu­mankind with the same po­ten­tial as hu­mans. Thus, hu­mans are the 18th An­gel.

… Al­so, the phys­i­cal body of Eva-01 was ap­par­ently cre­ated from Lilith. This is why when the Lance of Long­i­nus was lost, Eva-01 be­came the sole sub­sti­tute for Lilith as the medium for In­stru­men­tal­ity (Hu­man Com­ple­men­ta­tion).

… A plan to ar­ti­fi­cially evolve hu­man­i­ty, which had reached its limit as a colony of flawed and sep­a­rate en­ti­ties, into a per­fect sin­gle be­ing. It was pro­moted un­der the di­rec­tion of SEELE, with Spe­cial Agency NERV as the im­ple­ment­ing or­ga­ni­za­tion. How­ev­er, it seems that SEELE’s ob­jec­tive differed from that of NERV – that is to say of Gendo and Fuyut­su­ki. Eva was not ac­tu­ally built as a weapon, but in­stead with the aim of re­al­iz­ing this pro­ject. Specifi­cal­ly, this ap­pears to have been a project to ar­ti­fi­cially ini­ti­ate Third Im­pact, thus elim­i­nat­ing all of hu­man­ity who, after shed­ding their hu­man forms, would then evolve to a new stage.

SEELE’s In­stru­men­tal­ity Project pro­ceeded ac­cord­ing to the ac­count writ­ten in the “Se­cret Dead Sea Scrolls”, and aimed to move hu­mankind to the next level of evo­lu­tion. How­ev­er, the loss of the Lance of Long­i­nus and then the fur­ther re­bel­lion of NERV Com­man­der Gendo Ikari forced SEELE to mod­ify the plan at the fi­nal stage.

… An in­signia con­sist­ing of seven eyes on an in­verted tri­an­gle. The same pat­tern was painted on the mask that cov­ered Lilith’s face, but its re­la­tion to Yah­weh, the ab­solute God of the Old Tes­ta­ment who is said to have seven eyes, is un­clear.

… Called so be­cause the cat­a­stro­phe was the largest since an as­ter­oid col­lided with Earth 4 bil­lion years ago (= Gi­ant Im­pact).

… The Sec­ond Chil­dren, and ded­i­cated pi­lot of Eva-02. She is one quar­ter Ger­man and Japan­ese, but her na­tion­al­ity is Amer­i­can. Highly in­tel­li­gent, she grad­u­ated from uni­ver­sity at the age of 14 and boasted a higher syn­chro­niza­tion rate than the Third Chil­dren in the early stages of ac­tual com­bat. The sui­cide of her mother led her to de­velop an over­ly-ag­gres­sive char­ac­ter, and she main­tained her men­tal bal­ance by out­wardly pub­li­ciz­ing her su­pe­ri­or­i­ty. Birth­date: De­cem­ber 4, Blood type: O, Age: 14

… The real mother of Sohryu Asuka Lan­g­ley. She suffered men­tal break­down due to an ac­ci­dent dur­ing an ex­per­i­ment, and there­after lived in a dream world un­til com­mit­ting sui­cide. Her soul ap­pears to have been used in the core of Eva-02.

… The ob­jec­tive of the In­stru­men­tal­ity Project was the ar­ti­fi­cial evo­lu­tion of hu­mankind into a “per­fect sin­gle be­ing”. This sin­gle be­ing means a life form which ends as a sin­gle in­di­vid­u­al, and is used to differ­en­ti­ate from “colony” – a life form com­prised of mul­ti­ple in­di­vid­u­als.

… What is com­mon to these Chil­dren is that they are all young boys and girls who have lost their moth­ers. In­ci­den­tal­ly, the can­di­dates for Chil­dren were grouped into Class 2-A of the First Mu­nic­i­pal Ju­nior High School of New-Toky­o-3.

… It is likely that he [Ka­woru] was an An­gel which had been cap­tured by SEELE in the em­bryo stage.

… He [Makoto Hyu­ga] har­bors affec­tion to­ward Mis­ato Kat­suragi, his su­pe­ri­or, and as­sisted with her ob­jec­tives, in­clud­ing the oc­ca­sional gath­er­ing of in­for­ma­tion.

… He [Fuyut­suki] ap­pears to have har­bored more than a lit­tle affec­tion to­wards Yui Ikari.

… Al­though its lower body was miss­ing while pierced by the Lance of Long­i­nus, its lower body grew back as soon as the Lance was pulled out. The In­stru­men­tal­ity Project orig­i­nally planned to use Lilith, but the loss of the Lance caused SEELE to change the plan and at­tempt com­ple­men­ta­tion us­ing Eva-01 in­stead. At that time, Keel Lorentz says that Eva-01 is “Lilith’s clone”, which ap­par­ently in­di­cates that Eva-01 was made by copy­ing Lilith.

Tsurumaki interview

I hon­estly think it would have been best sim­ply to end it with the TV se­ries. Frankly speak­ing, I feel that every­thing after that was a bit of un­nec­es­sary work, al­though I guess nor­mally one should feel happy about hav­ing their work made into a movie.

… It felt re­ally good to­ward the end – after fin­ish­ing the work for episode 16, and es­pe­cially from episode 20 on­ward. Of course, phys­i­cally I was dead tired, but my mind was still sharp as a knife. I felt that I was uti­liz­ing my nat­ural abil­i­ties to their max­i­mum po­ten­tial.

… – Episode 16 made quite an im­pres­sion, and seemed to mark a turn­ing point for Evan­ge­lion.

KT - That’s be­cause it was the first episode where the di­rec­tion of draw­ing from the in­side like that ap­peared.

– I see.

KT - The first draft of the sce­nario was ac­tu­ally a di­a­log be­tween Shinji and the An­gel. How­ev­er, we felt it would be too an­ti-cli­mac­tic to have an An­gel start talk­ing like some pulp fic­tion alien (s­peaks while tap­ping his Adam’s ap­ple with his hand) “Your ana­log mode of thought is in­cor­rect.” So we came up with the idea ac­tu­ally used in this episode, which was to have Shinji con­verse with him­self.

– There was a line in that di­a­logue – some­thing like, “We can’t weave our lives only out of things we like….” That line was pretty in­tense. I would have thought it would strike right to the heart of anime fans, but there was al­most no re­ac­tion from any­one. (laugh)

KT - Well, most peo­ple don’t pay close at­ten­tion to the di­a­log when watch­ing a TV ani­me. That is to say, we hear the words, but they don’t en­ter our minds. I’m that way too. Hideaki Anno un­der­stands this, and started to in­cor­po­rate ex­pres­sions that con­vey the mes­sage to the view­ers in a more di­rect man­ner. Thus, el­e­ments which at­tempted to some­how con­vey the mes­sage within the bounds of the story grad­u­ally be­came few­er, and ex­pres­sions which were more in­tro­spec­tive or emo­tion­ally ex­pres­sive be­came more fre­quent.

… It was prob­a­bly about then that we be­gan to see the di­rec­tion of “Eva” – that we were mov­ing to­ward that kind of in­tro­spec­tive sto­ry. That’s why we made Part A of episode 16 like a nor­mal sto­ry. By this mean­ing, the bound­ary be­tween Parts A and B of episode 16 could be con­sid­ered the di­vid­ing line be­tween the front and back of “Evan­ge­lion”.

… KT - I did­n’t mind it. The sched­ule was an ut­ter dis­as­ter and the num­ber of cels plum­met­ed, so there were some places where un­for­tu­nately the qual­ity suffered. How­ev­er, the ten­sion of the staff as we all be­came more des­per­ate and fren­zied cer­tainly showed up in the film.

… KT - About the time that the pro­duc­tion sys­tem was com­pletely falling apart, there were some opin­ions to the effect that, “If we can’t do sat­is­fac­tory work, then what’s the point of con­tin­u­ing?” How­ev­er, I did­n’t feel that way. My opin­ion was, “Why don’t we show them the en­tire process in­clud­ing our break­down.” You know – make it a work that shows every­thing in­clud­ing our in­abil­ity to cre­ate a sat­is­fac­tory prod­uct. I fig­ured that, “In 10 years or so, if we look back on some­thing that we made while we were drunk out of our minds, we would­n’t feel bad even if the qual­ity was­n’t so good.”

… – I see. Then, it’s true that Shin­ji’s feel­ings are Di­rec­tor An­no’s feel­ings?

KT - To tell the truth I’m not sure, but at the very least I tried to work on the project from that view­point. That’s why in the sce­nario plan­ning ses­sions I was al­ways say­ing some­thing like, “Is­n’t that a lit­tle too hero-like for Shinji to say? Hideaki Anno is­n’t that much of a hero.”

– In episode 25’ Shinji be­comes com­pletely de­spon­dent. Does this mean that Di­rec­tor Anno had also ex­pe­ri­enced that?

KT - I think Hideaki An­no’s ten­sion after the TV se­ries had ended had prob­a­bly fallen to about that lev­el.

… – Was this cin­ema edi­tion made to match Di­rec­tor An­no’s state of mind?

KT - I be­lieve so. There was a time when Hideaki Anno clearly wanted to at­tempt a more cathar­tic de­vel­op­ment. It did­n’t end up that way, but I don’t think we lied.

– When you say “lie”, do you mean to sud­denly con­clude with some­thing like “love saved the world”?

KT - Ex­act­ly. And we did­n’t do that with this movie. I feel no dis­sat­is­fac­tion at the end­ing. I re­ally like it.

– At the end of this movie, Shinji seems to have reached a sort of set­tle­ment re­gard­ing trou­bles of the heart.

KT - Well, my per­sonal view is, “Do we re­ally need to com­ple­ment these trou­bles of the heart?” Re­gard­less of whether or not we are com­ple­ment­ed, have trou­bles, or find our an­swers, in­ter­per­sonal re­la­tions ex­ist, and the world goes on. I thought the last scene meant to say that life goes on, but I could be wrong.

– In the end, Evan­ge­lion was a story about com­mu­ni­ca­tion – at least judg­ing from that last scene.

KT - That was the in­tent from the start of the TV se­ries. That was what I tried to pro­duce from episode 2 on­ward.

– Yes, that was the scene where Mis­ato and Shinji talk while mea­sur­ing dis­tances from each other in Mis­ato’s apart­ment, right? Al­though they ap­peared to be get­ting along fine with each oth­er, Shinji was think­ing, “She seems okay, but….”, while Mis­ato was think­ing “I won­der if he sees through me?”

KT - there were other scenes in episode 2 as well. For in­stance, when Mis­ato talks to Shinji but does­n’t en­ter his room. Even in episode 3, they are hav­ing a ca­sual morn­ing con­ver­sa­tion, but are not look­ing at each oth­er. Like they look­ing through a slightly opened door, but not con­nect­ing. This is the same be­tween Shinji and Rei, and be­tween Shinji and his fa­ther. It’s no won­der there was a lot of dis­tant, awk­ward com­mu­ni­ca­tion.

– I see. So, the theme re­mained the same through­out the se­ries?

KT - That’s right.

… – Now even busi­ness­men are de­bat­ing the mys­ter­ies of “Eva” in bars. (laugh)

KT - (laugh) For ex­am­ple, Hideaki Anno says that, “Anime fans are too in­tro­vert­ed, and need to get out more.” Fur­ther, he should be happy that non-anime fans are watch­ing his work, right? But when all is said and done, Hideaki An­no’s com­ments on “Evan­ge­lion” + “Evan­ge­lion” are that it is a mes­sage aimed at anime fans in­clud­ing him­self, and of course, me too. In other words, it’s use­less for non-anime fans to watch it. If a per­son who can al­ready live and com­mu­ni­cate nor­mally watches it, they won’t learn any­thing.

– But, don’t all the peo­ple watch­ing “Evan­ge­lion” now ac­tu­ally have this type of ani­me-fan com­plex? Does­n’t every­one share some feel­ings of un­easi­ness at not be­ing able to get along with the world.

KT - Yes, maybe that’s so. Hideaki An­no’s state­ments cer­tainly are true when look­ing at the small cir­cle of anime fans, but step­ping back and look­ing at the much wider cir­cle of Japan­ese peo­ple in gen­er­al, we may find many of the same types of prob­lems. They’re not prob­lems spe­cific to just anime fans.

Seiyuu comments

[Megumi Ogata (Sh­inji Ikar­i)] I some­times felt a loathing when I held the script.

And was shocked to re­al­ize that this loathing was to­wards a part of me.

Pain as I peeled away the scabs from my heart one after an­oth­er.

The fear of break­ing down.

Re­jec­tion, de­spair, plea­sure, rap­ture, aver­sion….

It was all so real – it was live.

A strip show that was more em­bar­rass­ing than ac­tu­ally tak­ing off my clothes.

3 years dur­ing which I un­mis­tak­ably faced “Me”.

I thought that when the story was over, I would be able to view it some­what ob­jec­tively – but I could­n’t. Be­cause it was still con­tin­u­ing – be­cause I am alive – be­cause the peo­ple I like are alive. So I think that I will surely re­peat over and over as I gasp for breath amidst a cer­tain peace of sorts. Fool­ish pur­suits – and the pur­suit of an ir­re­sistible love.

… [Kotono Mit­su­ishi (Misato Kat­surag­i)] I am truly glad to have met her. It was diffi­cult play­ing Mis­ato Kat­suragi even dur­ing the TV se­ries – be­cause she is a per­son who does­n’t eas­ily speak her true feel­ings. Dur­ing scenes where her feel­ings ex­ploded or she poured out her heart, I also be­came a bit over-e­mo­tional and after­wards could­n’t re­mem­ber ex­actly what kind of per­for­mance I had given (- not a good thing). My hands shook and it took all my might to keep the script I was hold­ing from rustling and mak­ing noise. (Times like these make me feel that voice act­ing is a bit re­strict­ing.) I have fo­cused ex­clu­sively on Mis­ato for so long – want­ing to know her, to get close to her – con­cen­trat­ing all of my five senses on her. That’s the way I am, so I am un­able to ob­jec­tively look at “Eva” right now after fin­ish­ing the voice-over work. My per­spec­tive is still on the same level as Mis­ato, but I feel that’s fine. In episode 25’ “Air” she was strong, brave and a woman. The sole sur­vivor of Sec­ond Im­pact 15 years ear­lier, her cross neck­lace is the keep­sake of her fa­ther. I won­der if it’s just me who feels that she alone sur­vived in or­der to give that cross to Shin­ji?

… [Yuko Miya­mura (Sohryu Asuka Lan­g­ley)] Evan­ge­lion has fi­nally reached its con­clu­sion…. Con­grat­u­la­tions, every­one, on a job well done. No, re­ally – Thank you very much. 24 years ago as I gave my birthing cries in Kobe, surely not even Ad­mi­ral Isoroku Ya­mamoto of the com­bined fleet or Nos­tradamus could have pre­dicted that I would par­tic­i­pate in the project called Evan­ge­lion. Evan­ge­lion’s pop­u­lar­ity is un­stop­pable – like the raid on Pearl Har­bor. I’m sure that every Eva fan with a Japan­ese Spirit will feel like singing none other than “Off to Sea” from “Sally Forth” as they watch this con­clu­sion. If so, then I’d like to send every­one to the the­ater with a big cheer of “Ban­zai!” In case you could­n’t tell, I think I had a “Kamikaze” feel­ing dur­ing the voice-over. (heart) Ha­ha… (heart) Well done every­one.

… [Yuriko Ya­m­aguchi (Rit­suko Ak­ag­i)] Rit­suko fades away with her fi­nal word, “Liar.” But what was this “Liar” in ref­er­ence to? The script for this last scene only has Gendo say­ing: “Rit­suko Ak­agi, I tru­ly….” fol­lowed by Rit­suko say­ing: “Liar (gets shot)”. I can imag­ine many words that might fol­low “I tru­ly….”, but I can’t de­cide on any in par­tic­u­lar. That is the com­plex­ity of Gendo and Rit­suko’s re­la­tion­ship.

From Rit­suko Ak­ag­i’s in­ner feel­ings as a sci­en­tist, she could be con­sid­ered a woman who blindly gave her love to Gendo Ikari, and also a fool­ish woman that walked the same path as her mother Naoko who com­mit­ted sui­cide after be­ing be­trayed by Ikari. I per­son­ally wanted her to end as a con­ve­nient, sub­mis­sive woman who sim­ply wanted to die right­eous­ly. But in the pre­vi­ous movie (D&R) she ended as a deeply jeal­ous woman filled with noth­ing but ha­tred to­ward Ikari.

Feel­ing un­sat­is­fied with this, I looked for a way to ac­cept her death at the hands of Ikari. This made the in­ter­pre­ta­tion of “Liar” very im­por­tant. But the voice-over grew nearer and near­er….

Di­rec­tor Anno must have no­ticed how I felt. When it came time to do the voice-over, he showed me a sin­gle, hid­den hint at the last mo­ment. With that one in­cred­i­ble hint, I, and Rit­suko Ak­agi, were ut­terly de­feat­ed. It hardly needs say­ing, but Di­rec­tor Anno is in­cred­i­ble. Truly awe­some – a ge­nius.

… [Fu­mi­hiko Tat­suki (Gendo Ikar­i)] I feel that the more I say about Evan­ge­lion, the more I am “liv­ing the wrong way.” How­ev­er, as long as I can lib­er­ate the feel­ings in my heart, I feel that my per­for­mances as a “voice ac­tor in­volved with Eva” might not be merely a bunch of fine plays and bloop­ers, but rather a se­ries of mys­te­ri­ous and con­cealed per­for­mances. Al­though I took the ap­proach of not ex­ag­ger­at­ing emo­tional ex­pres­sion in play­ing the role of Gendo Ikari, I did my best to squeeze out every ounce of power I could given my present abil­i­ties so as not to be over­shad­owed by the in­cred­i­ble de­tail and over­all high level of this ani­me.

I can­not find words enough to thank Di­rec­tor Anno for stolidly watch­ing over this for­lorn role…

… [Mo­tomu Kiyokawa (Kozo Fuyut­suk­i)] I was rid­ing the sub­way about the time of the spring the­ater re­lease (D&R), and over­heard three ju­nior high school aged kids dis­cussing Evan­ge­lion. The dis­cus­sion ba­si­cally took the course of: “That part means such and such,” “No, I dis­agree,” and so on. There haven’t been very many anime works that peo­ple have re­ally dis­cussed, and I think this is one of the great things about Eva.

I feel that even when act­ing on stage, the type of drama that makes the au­di­ence feel and think var­i­ous things is in­ter­est­ing dra­ma, and also good dra­ma. Of course, the au­di­ence won’t imag­ine any­thing if the drama is de­void of con­tent. Di­rec­tor Anno cre­ated many such places in Evan­ge­lion where the au­di­ence can imag­ine things. That’s why I think it is great. Be­ing able to in­ter­pret some­thing in var­i­ous ways means that much effort has been put into the pic­tures and sto­ry.

… [Akira Ishida (Ka­woru Nag­isa)] Start­ing from noth­ing more than this per­cep­tion, the char­ac­ter of Ka­woru Nag­isa be­gan to ex­press it­self with each pass­ing day. The cir­cum­stances sur­round­ing Ka­woru Nag­isa es­tab­lished him as a nav­i­ga­tor for delv­ing into the labyrinth of Evan­ge­lion, and give new in­sight into its un­spo­ken mean­ing.

… Luck­i­ly, how­ev­er, this time I was able to as­so­ciate my­self with Evan­ge­lion as Ka­woru to the very end. Was Ka­woru’s choice cor­rect? Did Ka­woru re­ally “keep on liv­ing”? While this an­swer ap­pears to have been en­trusted to Shin­ji, I am hon­estly happy to have been lucky enough to see it through to the end with my own eyes.


Episode 25’ - Air

SEELE im­me­di­ately in­structs Gendo and Fuyut­suki to com­plete the Project us­ing Eva-01, but the two are re­luc­tant to carry out a plan that will bring about the death of all peo­ple, and they re­but SEELE’s wish­es.

… Sohryu Asuka Lan­g­ley had lost every­thing. Her moth­er, her con­fi­dence, her pride, and even the will to live

… In­side Eva’s womb, Asuka re­al­izes that she is with her mother – that her mother is by her side. The swarm­ing en­emy are no longer a match for Asuka, and even the nine Eva se­ries units can­not stop her. Eva-02 ca­reens valiantly across the bat­tle­field, soar­ing, crush­ing, top­pling, stab­bing, stran­gling, kick­ing, sweep­ing, shoot­ing, strik­ing, run­ning, stop­ping, and stopped… its op­er­a­tional limit reached. The nine Eva se­ries units alight on top of the mo­tion­less Eva-02 – and the vi­o­la­tion of Eva by Eva be­gins.

… Mis­ato and Shinji rush through gun­fire and smoke; two peo­ple with a del­i­cate re­la­tion­ship: mother and son, older sis­ter and younger broth­er, lovers, adult and child, su­pe­rior and sub­or­di­nate…. Shots ring out! As Mis­ato cov­ers Shin­ji, her legs buckle and the two tum­ble to­ward the back of the pas­sage­way. Tears and anger mix, and naked emo­tions clash. Choked words, ex­as­per­a­tion, the bar­ing of one’s heart, affec­tion, and the meet­ing of two peo­ple’s lips – pass­ing from a mere brush­ing of lips to an adult kiss. In many ways, Mis­ato was Shin­ji’s first woman.

“We’ll do the rest when you get back…” were her words, but Shinji knew there would be no “rest”, for Mis­ato’s still warm hands and lips were cov­ered with blood…

Episode 26’ - Magokoro wo, kimi ni

Shinji screamed at see­ing the bru­tally vi­o­lated form of Eva-02. The howls of Eva-01 cre­ate mael­stroms in­side the Ge­ofront, and Shin­ji’s rage calls back the Lance of Long­i­nus from the Moon. This was also the trig­ger for start­ing the two Projects – the In­stru­men­tal­ity Projects of SEELE and of Gen­do. Hav­ing re­gained the Lance, SEELE aims to achieve the In­stru­men­tal­ity (Com­ple­men­ta­tion) of hu­mankind through the in­dis­crim­i­nate death of all life and prayer

… On the other hand, deep un­der­ground NERV Head­quar­ters which is be­ing laid bare by the JSSDF’s at­tack, Gendo Ikari stands to­gether with Rei be­fore Lilith in Ter­mi­nal Dog­ma. Gendo has brought Rei to Lilith to at­tempt the for­bid­den join­ing of Adam and Lilith. Two In­stru­men­tal­ity Projects be­ing ex­e­cuted si­mul­ta­ne­ously in the heav­ens and in the bow­els of the earth. Will peo­ple achieve com­ple­men­ta­tion in ei­ther case…? The an­swer lies within Eva-01….

… On the other hand, there were also hu­mans who took the Fruit of Life at that time. These are the An­gels – a differ­ent pos­si­bil­ity who will fight for the fu­ture; an­other form of hu­man.

… Peo­ple are sur­rounded by empti­ness… And lone­li­ness fills their hearts. And when hu­mans’ his­tory reaches its con­clu­sion, Gendo Ikari will be re­united with his wife. Yui Ikari – the woman who loved a man un­wor­thy of love. Did the In­stru­men­tal­ity Project ex­ist to bring her back? In­stru­men­tal­ity (Com­ple­men­ta­tion) for Gendo could only mean the res­ur­rec­tion of Yui. Hav­ing achieved this ea­gerly awaited re­union, Gendo con­fesses that he was “afraid” – afraid that con­tact with his son would only hurt his son. The hedge­hog’s dilemma whereby the nearer we draw to one an­oth­er, the more we hurt each oth­er. This may be the na­ture of peo­ple who es­trange them­selves from each other us­ing bar­ri­ers of the heart. Gendo was also this type of weak per­son. Like his son, Shin­ji, he was noth­ing more than a cow­ard­ly, weak man. With his last words “For­give me… Shin­ji,” Gendo is crushed by the jaws of Eva-01. Was this the ret­ri­bu­tion to­ward a man who kept run­ning from the world, or was it also his sal­va­tion…?

… “Do you re­ally think you un­der­stand me‽ It makes me un­easy! That’s the eas­i­est way not to get hurt. Let me hear your voice! You’re all you have! Care about me! You don’t un­der­stand any­thing, you IDIOT! I’m afraid this way. Don’t come near me any­more… But am­bi­gu­ity only makes me in­se­cure. No. Help me! I think you can save me. Maybe I won’t be needed again some­day. How pa­thet­ic… It un­set­tles me. That is so ARROGANT! I tried to un­der­stand… I get so pissed off when­ever I look at you! Then be nice to me. If you want to do it with me, get down on your knees and beg! You’re all just hid­ing be­hind a smile! You’re only us­ing me as an es­cape… Don’t leave me alone! You’ve never re­ally liked any­one! Don’t kill me! …….. No…” [Mostly quoted from the “Komm Susser Tod” scene; a mix of Asuka & Shinji lines.]


[The Door Into Sum­mer] It’s the ten­ta­tive ti­tle for episode 25’ in the sto­ry­boards as well (board No. 7C).

Olivier Hagué

Gainax ini­tially pro­posed EVANGELION: REBIRTH 2 as the ti­tle:

The End of Evan­ge­lion Movie Poster The poster reads: “Would­n’t it be nice if every­one would just die?” (Im­age © 1997 Gainax/Eva Pro­duc­tion Com­mit­tee)

THE END OF EVANGELION is nigh on 19 July

Toei an­nounced 19 July as sched­uled pre­miere date for the eclec­tic SF drama NEON GENESIS EVANGELION’s the­atri­cal fi­nale, THE END OF EVANGELION (Japan­ese ti­tle: “SHIN SEIKI EVANGELION GEKIJOUBAN: Air/MAGOKORO O, KIMI NI.” Gainax ini­tially pro­posed EVANGELION: REBIRTH 2 as the ti­tle). This planned 70-minute fea­ture will be­gin with the in­com­plete 27-minute Re­birth por­tion from March’s NEON GENESIS EVANGELION: DEATH AND REBIRTH (SHIN SEIKI EVANGELION GEKIJOUBAN: SHI TO SHINSEI) film and fin­ish with new an­i­ma­tion.

The full poster reads:

Wouldn't it be nice if everyone would just die?

ocean of hopelessness
fragile souls
devious smiles
morbid objects
cruel strangers
replacement of the opposite sex
immediate cure
spreading enfeeblement
wish for nothingness
imprisoned ego
fear for separation
one-sided mistakes
fright of strangers
dangerous thoughts
denial with strangers
aversion to harmony
arrogant understanding
pity for the weak
uneasy photographs
scars from the past
blurred borders
divergence of common sense
lonely people
question of value
fusion with desire
return into the womb
empty time
decline of yearning
needless me

beginning of fabrications
continuation of reality
that's the end of the dream

why are you here? you really want to stay here?
The End of Evangelion Neon Genesis Evangelion The Movie Air/My Purest Heart for You

George Chen (TODO: link the poster scans, orig­i­nal & trans­lat­ed)

(Screen text:  So, everybody just go and die...)

Staff (in Japanese alphabetical order)

Random women's voices:
You don't really know if it's love until after the infatuation stops.
Men just want a mother figure who'll spoil them.
Men...You do it with them once and they think they own you.
Yeah, that's okay,too.
You'll be sorry for that.
That's not romantic in the least.
Men are all scum...
Don't think I'm going to forgive you!
Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion Cin­ema Edi­tion - Air/S­in­cerely Yours (My Pure Heart For You)
 (Screen text:  Then, why are you here?)
(Screen text:  ...Is it okay for me to be here?)

Premiering July 19 (Sat.) Advance tickets including original poster on sale.
General admission: 1500 yen Students: 1200 yen
Created by the EVA Production Committee (Project EVA)
Distributed by Toei Studios, Inc.
This film is animated.

Neon Genesis Evangelion Cinema Edition - Air/Sincerely Yours (My Pure Heart For You)
Premiering July 19 (Sat.)
Created by the EVA Production Committee (Project EVA)
Distributed by Toei Studios, Inc.

Toei Studios, Inc. logo in triangle

Eirin (Eiga Rinri Kitei Kanri Iinkai = Motion Picture Code of Ethics Committee) registration in circle

(Vertical screen text:  Neon Genesis Evangelion Cinema Edition)

–EoE pro­mo­tional trail­er; trans­lated Bochan_bird

The ten­ta­tive ti­tle for episode 26, in the first drafts of the over­all sto­ry, was “Tatta Hi­totsu no, Saeta Yarikata”. “Tatta Hi­totsu no Saeta Yarikata” is the Japan­ese ti­tle of “the Only Neat Thing to Do” by James Tip­tree Jr.


‘Al­ice Shel­don, writ­ing as James Tip­tree Jr., wrote a clear lin­eal de­scen­dant of “The Cold Equa­tions,” called “The Only Neat Thing to Do”, (not avail­able on­line) in 1985. The 1950s had made way for the 1980s and in this story the young fe­male pro­tag­o­nist makes the de­ci­sion for her­self. The sit­u­a­tion is some­what differ­ent; she is alone in a space­ship with a par­a­sit­i­cal alien that could be a dan­ger to her world if she re­turns, so she does the “only neat thing” by head­ing out­ward forever, in effect com­mit­ting sui­cide by even­tual diminu­tion of re­sources. As God­win did, Tip­tree stacked the deck to make only one neat thing avail­able to her pro­tag­o­nist.’


In short, while I can un­der­stand why the Japan­ese trans­lated Flow­ers for Al­ger­non to some­thing like “Hon­estly for You” or “Yours Tru­ly,” I can’t un­der­stand why some­one would trans­late it back to Eng­lish as “My Purest Heart for You.”

But Gainax states on their web­page that it trans­lates as “For you, my heart and soul” so, just deal with it. Pure heart for you, IS a trans­la­tion of the Kan­ji. Spo­ken Japan­ese, and Writ­ten Japan­ese are differ­ent!


“Magokoro o kimine” is the Japan­ese ti­tle for “Flow­ers for Al­ger­non” when it was trans­lated and pub­lished in Japan27. Project Eva/Mr. Anno de­cided to use the “Magokoro o kimine” as the movie ti­tle stated in the liner note.


Ti­tle “Do you love me” (episode 25) came from British Psy­chol­o­gist R.D. Ren’s (?) es­say ti­tle. [Also based on liner notes]


This week is an “The End of Evan­ge­lion” spe­cial on Geruge. (About 45 to 50 min­utes of the first 90 min­utes of the ra­dio show were de­voted to Evan­ge­lion and the guest­s.)…The “Evan­ge­lion Story” was by Ho­raki Hikari (I­wao Junko). Hikari talked about her­self and the stu­dents in her class (Rei, Asuka, Shin­ji, Ken­suke, Tou­ji). This mono­logue was about 4 min­utes long.The sec­ond guest was Mr. Ot­suki, pro­ducer of Evan­ge­lion. He an­swered a lot of ques­tions from lis­ten­ers and the Geruge per­son­al­i­ties.

Q: Who is go­ing to sing the song for the new movie?
Ot­suki: A gai­jin.
Q: Who?
Ot­suki: I can’t say yet.
Q: Male or fe­male?
Ot­suki: Fe­male, a black fe­male.
Q: What type of song?
Ot­suki: Gospel. It’s great. We will re­lease a sin­gle of it too. We are dub­bing it in Lon­don right now.28

…Q: Have you done the after record­ing?
Ot­suki: We are do­ing it now. Yes­ter­day, to­day, and the day after to­mor­row. It will take about four days.

…Q: What is that pic­ture with Mis­ato, Asuka, Maya, and Hikari go­ing into a pool of blood? Are they go­ing to die?29 Ot­suki: There will be some peo­ple who die.
Q: Will there be peo­ple who don’t die.
Ot­suki: Yes.
Q: Are there any char­ac­ters who did­n’t do voic­es?
Ot­suki: Tou­ji, Ken­suke, Hikari.

…Q: Who is your fa­vorite char­ac­ter in Evan­ge­lion?
Ot­suki: All of them.
Q: But what if you had to choose just one?
Ot­suki: Fuyut­su­ki.30

…Q: What will you do after Evan­ge­lion?
Ot­suki: We have al­ready started work­ing on the next one. I was think­ing about say­ing some­thing, but it’s still too ear­ly.
Q: Can you tell use when it will come out?
Ot­suki: Next year.
Q: TV?
Ot­suki: Movie.31
Q: Is it ani­me?
Ot­suki: Can’t say right now.

Q: Will there be any live ac­tion scenes in the Evan­ge­lion movie?
Ot­suki: Can’t say right now.32

…There will a show­ing of movie pre­views. There will be a 2000 yen pam­phlet, which only had 10000 copies printed33.

ゲルゲトショッキングセンター - 1997.06.09, par­tial trans­la­tion by Hi­toshi Doi of the 1997-06-09 Geruge ra­dio show

Q: How was the record­ing.
[Na­ga­sawa] Miki [seiyuu, Maya Ibuk­i]: It was diffi­cult.
Q: The pic­ture was there.
Miki: Yes.
Q: How was Mr. An­no?
Miki: He was very picky.

… Q: Who do you think Maya likes?
Miki: Aoba, may­be?
Q: Was there some­thing with Rit­suko in the movie?
Miki: No… I don’t think. [Is that so?]

…The “Evan­ge­lion Story” was by Nag­isa Kaoru (Ishida Aki­ra). Kaoru talked about meet­ing Shinji and Rei, his true iden­tity as the 17th shi­to, and the bat­tle against Shin­ji. This mono­logue was about 3 min­utes 30 sec­onds long.

…Ishida Akira [seiyuu, Ka­woru Nag­isa] an­swered some ques­tions.

Q: Was the record­ing diffi­cult?
Aki­ra: Very diffi­cult. It was yes­ter­day and the day be­fore. Yes­ter­day, we started at 10 AM, and I was there un­til 9:45 PM. I was the last one, with Ogata Megu­mi, Hayashibara Megu­mi, and Kiyokawa Mo­to­mu.
Q: Which scene was that?
Aki­ra: The very last scene was done be­fore that, so this was the scene be­fore the last scene.

Q: Kaoru is a key per­son?
Aki­ra: Sort of..

Q: Was Kaoru in the emo­tional sce­nes?
Aki­ra: Ka­woru’s scenes weren’t that emo­tion­al.

Aki­ra: It re­leased a lot of pres­sure off of my back when I fin­ished. If Evan­ge­lion had ended with the TV, I only ap­peared once and it was all over. But with the movie, there was a lot of pres­sure on me. When I found out that the movie would be split, it added more pres­sure.

Q: What do you think was the best scene with Kaoru?
Aki­ra: I would say the scene in episode 24 of the TV se­ries..
Q: What about in the movie?
Aki­ra: He does­n’t ap­pear as a per­son (with a phys­i­cal body) in the movie. The only per­son that Kaoru in­ter­acts with is Shin­ji.

– 1997-06-10, Geruge ra­dio show, trans­la­tion Hi­toshi Doi

Tachiki Fu­mi­hiko [seiyuu, Gendo Ikari] an­swered ques­tions by lis­ten­ers (and the Geruge per­son­al­i­ties).

Q: Are there any live ac­tion scenes for you?
Fu­mi­hiko: No. Girls on­ly. The male fans will be hap­py.34

Q: Can you say any of the new lines from the movie?
Fu­mi­hiko [in a voice like he is dy­ing]: Rei!
Q: Is Gendo go­ing to die?
Fu­mi­hiko: Maybe.

…Q: How was the record­ing for Gen­do’s voice?
Fu­mi­hiko: It took two days, and there are more lines than usu­al.

Q: If you did­n’t do Gen­do, which char­ac­ter would you like to do?
Fu­mi­hiko: Rei. I like the char­ac­ter Rei, and I also like the way she talks, from a seiyuu point of view.

…The “Evan­ge­lion Story” was by Ikari Shinji (O­gata Megu­mi). Shinji talked about him­self, and some of the char­ac­ters around him. The BGM were a lot of songs and mu­sic from Evan­ge­lion. This mono­logue was about 2 min­utes 40 sec­onds long.

The sec­ond guest was Ogata Megu­mi, who said that her throat was sore from the Evan­ge­lion record­ing on Sun­day and Mon­day. She played the quiz game with a lis­ten­er, and they got 8 ques­tions cor­rect.

Ogata Megumi an­swered some ques­tions.

Q: Was there a lot of scream­ing?
Megu­mi: Yes.

Q: Who does Shinji like? Rei or Asuka?
Megu­mi: Both.. but I don’t think he re­ally likes ei­ther.
Q: Is there any­thing in the movie re­gard­ing the re­la­tion­ships?
Megu­mi: It’s just like the usual Shin­ji. But with Rei.. there was that shock­ing scene in the Re­birth movie (in the spring). This time that same scene was made longer.
Q: Did you re­take the voices of the Re­birth part?
Megu­mi: Yes, all scenes were re­done.

Q: What is the black moon?
Megu­mi: I don’t know about it too well. Shinji does­n’t have to know.. Kaoru and Rei are the ones who ex­plain things. The last scene, which is about 5 pages in the script, took one and a half hours to record. The scene is only about 2 or 3 min­utes.35
Q: Were there a lot of lines for Shinji in that scene?
Megu­mi: None. It was only ad lib.

–1997-06-11, Geruge ra­dio show, trans­la­tion Hi­toshi Doi

The song Komm Susser Todd (Ger­man for “Come Sweet Death”) used for the film, The End of Evan­ge­lion: Episode 26’ - Sin­cerely Yours, is an Eng­lish trans­la­tion of Di­rec­tor Hideaki An­no’s orig­i­nal Japan­ese lyrics.


From the be­gin­ning, every­one has been say­ing that the “Death” part of “Death and Re­birth” is a “per­fect col­lec­tion” of the TV se­ries, but it was­n’t an easy-to-un­der­stand di­gest edi­tion, as in “Space Bat­tle­ship Yam­ato” and “Mo­bile Sol­dier Gun­dam.”

Ig­nor­ing the time­line of the TV se­ries, the psy­cho­log­i­cal con­di­tion of the main char­ac­ters is shown…. Shock­ing and ex­cit­ing scenes are put to­gether as if just ran­domly shuffled, and nowhere do we see the in­tro­duc­tion, de­vel­op­ment, turn, and con­clu­sion [as in a well-com­posed Chi­nese po­em]. This is a some­what un­kind thing to do to peo­ple who have never seen the TV se­ries. “Death and Re­birth” could be la­beled “No first-time cus­tomers” be­cause of this.

[Note: “No first-time cus­tomers” is a sign on some very con­ser­v­a­tive restau­rants in Japan that only take reg­u­lar cus­tomers and peo­ple in­tro­duced by reg­u­lars.]

The com­pletely new sec­tion “Re­birth”, is a 24 part con­tin­u­a­tion – a story that re­places the fi­nal two episodes which gave rise to all sorts of pub­lic crit­i­cism.

… An an­i­mated TV se­ries (with 26 episodes) broad­cast on TV Tokyo Chan­nel from Oc­to­ber ’95 to March ’96. The rat­ings were only 7.1%, but bit by bit from the sec­ond half on it moved up to a cen­tral place by word of mouth, and after the broad­casts ended it ex­tended into even more of a boom. The movie is a con­tin­u­a­tion of the TV se­ries.

… This story is told pri­mar­ily from the point of view of Shinji Ikari, who was sud­denly called to be­come an Eva pi­lot against his will by his fa­ther, Gendo Ikari, who is the com­man­der of Nerve. Shinji is con­vinced that he was aban­doned by his fa­ther when he was very young, and he is ex­tremely fright­ened by con­tact with strangers. Al­so, every­one around him at Nerve like­wise car­ries a wound in their heart and a sick­ness in their soul.

… The fi­nal two episodes of the TV se­ries were 25 and 26. The story sud­denly to­tally aban­dons what had been fore­shad­owed up to that point, its SF-style de­vel­op­ment, etc., and ends by de­pict­ing only the in­ner world of the pro­tag­o­nist, Shinji Ikari. Shinji gets a psy­cho­log­i­cal break­through, and the cur­tain closes with the other char­ac­ters say­ing “Con­grat­u­la­tions” to him. It also in­cludes things like rough, graffi­ti-like art, and forms of ex­pres­sion so far from nor­mal you can’t even call it “ex­per­i­men­tal”; this kind of end­ing, with fans in­stantly spout­ing out ar­gu­ments pro and con, be­came one rea­son for the in­creas­ingly wide­spread pop­u­lar­ity of Eva.

A 30-bil­lion yen ani­me?

At any rate, re­lated soft­ware was sell­ing and sell­ing. The video LD has to­taled over 2.5 mil­lion in sets of 10 disks, the sound-track edi­tion (al­bum) has sold over one mil­lion in sets of three, the three­-vol­ume col­lected comics and the nine-vol­ume film­books have to­taled 7.7 mil­lion copies, and 1.23 mil­lion peo­ple have gone to see the movie “Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion Movie: Death and Re­birth” from when it was re­leased in March.

Be­sides this, if we add in the plas­tic mod­els and re­lated goods, it eas­ily breaks through the 30 bil­lion yen mark. Fur­ther­more, the TV se­ries video LDs are not yet all sold and the movie edi­tion pack­ages are not yet on sale. Who can say how long the sales will con­tin­ue?

… Some­one con­nected to the con­sumer elec­tron­ics in­dus­try said they are hop­ing “it will be­come a trig­ger for the spread of DVD,” and so on July 19th vol­ume 1 of the Eva videos will be offered for sale. In the first pe­riod of five vol­umes, episodes 1-20 of the TV se­ries will be recorded four to a vol­ume, and they will be re­leased one per month.

… If it re­ally be­comes a “trig­ger,” this will be one more thing to in­crease the leg­end of Eva.

… As with Megumi Hayashibara of “Ranma 1/2,” and Kotono Mit­su­ishi and Aya Hisakawa of “Pretty Sol­dier Sailor Moon” be­fore, a group of new, nearly “un­touched” voice ac­tors have grown along with their pro­duc­tion and have been en­joy­ing im­mense pop­u­lar­i­ty.

Among the ranks of the “Eva” play­ers, one could say that Yuko Miya­mura matches this pat­tern. As al­most the only “new per­son”, she has made her break in the role of Asuka Lan­g­ley Souryuu in a diffi­cult lone bat­tle. It could well be said that her en­ergy had no small part in bring­ing about Eva’s pop­u­lar­i­ty.

… Miya­mu­ra: I’m still re­ally new to tele­vi­sion se­ries and there were al­ways more ex­pe­ri­enced ac­tors around me. Es­pe­cially in Eva with its adult dra­ma, I have learned a lot from the act­ing and many tal­ents of the ex­pe­ri­enced ac­tors.

Al­so, be­cause Asuka was com­pletely fin­ished by los­ing her mind in the TV se­ries, I also got into a sim­i­lar men­tal state; the stress built up and I suffered from bu­limia for a while.

“The fol­low­ing is a set of ar­ti­cles from Nikkei En­ter­tain­ment, the Au­gust 1997 is­sue. I am in the process of trans­lat­ing the whole set.”

Di­rec­tor’s Cut ad­di­tions to episodes 21-24; orig­i­nally were part of Death:

EoE scrip­t/­trans­la­tion:

Pro­duc­tion IG’s trans­la­tion was the most in­ter­est­ing item…they trans­lated the last line as “You dis­gust me!”

Gregg Turek, Otakon 1999

  • End of Evan­ge­lion pre­lim­i­nary drafts; these ap­pear to be ‘black’, stolen or leaked from Gainax, but they seem to be gen­uine (Olivier Hagué, Bochan_bird, and my­self all agree):

    • cut scenes: real SEELE plan? Gen­do/Yui wanted to col­o­nize other plan­ets?

    Gen­do: “Hu­mans should evolve into a new world. That is the pur­pose of the Eva se­ries.”

    Keel and Seele: “We don’t have to give up our hu­man forms to en­ter an Ark called Eva. We don’t have to aim for new lands ei­ther. Hu­mans can be called hu­mans be­cause of their ac­tual shape. That shape [E­va’s shape, I’d as­sume?] is not that of hu­man­i­ty. We’ll bring equal­ity to all life forms. And we’ll pro­ceed by the means of a”death" con­ferred to all hu­mans [no, I’m not sure I un­der­stand that one… this sen­tence could be trans­lated in var­i­ous ways, I think, but none of them seems to make a lot of sense to me ^^;]. It is a rite of pas­sage. To bring about the re­birth of a blocked [clogged? ^_^;] life. If every­thing does­n’t come to an end, noth­ing can truly be­gin. The fate of de­struc­tion is also the joy of re­birth. So God, hu­mans, all life forms can be united un­der Lilith."

    The fi­nal scrip­t’s di­a­logue does­n’t help:

    SEELE: God, man and all life will use death to be­come one.

    Gen­do: Death gives birth to noth­ing.

    Lorenz: We will gift you with death.

    –Fi­nal script trans­la­tion by Num­ber­s-kun (com­pare other trans­la­tion­s); he also com­ments of the opaque lines, “There they seem to be de­bat­ing whether or not the new life form will have a”hu­man shape," or whether or not Eva-01 will be the new life it­self or merely the means for a “sea of LCL” sce­nario. I don’t know why one would cause “death” and not the oth­er, es­pe­cially after Rit­suko’s “horo­biru” com­men­t."

cut sto­ry­boards, as­sault on Ge­ofront by JSSDF (in trail­ers) (“There are also ex­tended cuts of the as­sault on NERV.”)

japan.ani­me.e­van­ge­lion news­group; orig­i­nal post­ing of 2 end­ings and live ac­tion http://­group­s.­google.­com/­group/­japan.ani­me.e­van­ge­lion/browse_thread­/thread­/3fc12c1f9f33ed­d/e9888baf7d­d332b3 http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/2001-Oc­to­ber/040587.html http://e­va.o­­mail/e­van­ge­lion/2003-No­vem­ber/000714.html cut anime scene in EoE; ex­plains why Hikari & Touji & Ken­suke never showed up; can be read to show that Ken­suke was to be the pi­lot of Eva-04. good also for show­ing Shin­ji’s bad men­tal state

Cut 39 Sound:

Tou­ji: And I re­ally mean it, Shin­ji. Thanks.

Shin­ji: ……

Ken­suke: See you lat­er, Ikari. You take care.

Shin­ji: ……


  • Dis­tant shot – long, drawn-out pause.
  • (as if to cheer Shinji up) Touji passes the bas­ket­ball to Shinji with­out say­ing any­thing, but Shinji drops the ball.

PAGE 509…­Cut 40

Sound: (Ball bounc­ing sound grow­ing fainter)


  • Shin­ji’s hands re­main where he failed to catch the bas­ket­ball.
  • Shin­ji’s hands quiv­er/­con­vulse slight­ly.

Bren­dan Jamieson con­firms bas­ket­ball court scene:

I would say that scene was scrapped be­cause it over­looked that Tou­ji, Hikari and Ken­suke were out of Toky­o-3 in EoE (IIRC, aren’t they watch­ing fighter jets fly­ing over­head to NERV?). There are also ex­tended cuts of the as­sault on NERV.

In­de­pen­dent source about Tou­ji/Ken­suke scene, and also the SEELE con­ver­sa­tion about arks and other worlds:

Cut live-ac­tion Asuka scene; cov­ers 2 un­used EoE end­ings:

Last A

You al­ready know the be­gin­ning of this one (a beach, pet­ri­fied head­less Evas, etc).

Thew, we see the graves[­mark­ers]36 Shinji made (it’s stated by Anno it was he who made them). The names of all main Eva char­ac­ters are writ­ten on them, ex­cept for “Ayanami Rei”.

We then see Asuka’s grave.

And Asuka’s foot kick­ing it to the ground. ^^;

(you can still see these graves in the ac­tual end­ing… no names, but there is Mis­ato’s pen­dant nailed on one of them, and an other has been kicked down37 ^^ )

We then see Shinji and Asuka on the beach… and you know that scene, too (but this draft demon­strates that Shinji and Asuka did­n’t just wake up there after Third Im­pact… they’ve been liv­ing here for some times… mean­ing they could be the two only hu­mans will­ing to re­turn, after all… ^^; )

When Shinji starts cry­ing, Asuka was sup­posed to say some­thing like “Id­iot. No way I’ll let you kill me” (“id­iot” was re­moved in the sto­ry­boards… and the whole line was mod­i­fied, even­tu­al­ly).

Then, the end­ing mu­sic (so, there was one… ^^ ) was sup­posed to be­gin, and the staff cred­its were to ap­pear (Anno sug­gests a hor­i­zon­tal scrolling, like in Gun­buster, I guess).

We were to see Eva-01 ly­ing on the Moon, and wom­an’s hair show­ing from its bro­ken mask (but her face re­mains un­seen).

Be­hind Eva-01, you could see Earth, en­tirely red.

And the Black Moon, de­stroyed.

The cam­era goes to the sun, then to the stars.

Cred­its end.

“Shûgeki” (“the end”).

Now the true end­ing is based upon Last A. Last B is slightly differ­ent.

Last B

It be­gins like the pre­vi­ous one, but Asuka does­n’t show up in the “graves scene”.

We then see Shinji ly­ing on the beach.

His right hand is hold­ing a white one.

“I’ll never see them again.”

“It’s bet­ter to think of it this way.”

“I’m still alive, so I’ll keep on liv­ing.”

He squeezes the hand hard­er.

Then, he sees Rei (like in the ac­tual episode and Last A).

We even­tu­ally see that there is no­body ly­ing near Shin­ji. Just a white arm with­out the rest of the body.

The cam­era then shows the full moon.

The end­ing cred­its are the same as in Last A.


The last line in the EoE Sto­ry­board book is:

“… Anta nanka ni ko­rosareru no wa map­pira yo.”

Which I trans­late as:

“… (I’ll be) damned if I’ll be killed by the likes of you.”

The di­rec­tion to the VA is:

“Kore ijou naku tsumetai koe de”

Which is lit­er­al­ly:

“In the cold­est voice pos­si­ble”


So no Gen­e­sis 0:0 In the Be­gin­ning. Shame, as it has Anno talk­ing about the show, & an­other Gainax guy in a row­boat. Is there any chance of a trans­la­tion please?


PS. By the way the TV CM (com­mer­cial) for the EoE movie is quite strange….. a mish-mash of re­al-life video show­ing the hum­drum of a few young wom­en’s day-to-day life. The video is done in the doc­u­men­tary way, with thick par­ti­cles and slightly blurred fo­cus. The names of all the pro­duc­tion staff ap­pears con­tin­u­ously through­out the CM, with one name last­ing only for 0.1s (my guess) and you can’t even read the names at all. At the be­gin­ning it asks “So, it’d be good if every­body die…” and at the end it asks “Then, why are you here?”

Patrick Yip

Sea of LCL is also the “Source of Life” (film­book pg. 88), and “the wish of Shinji” (film book pg. 91.)

George Chen

…“blank screen”: In the orig­i­nal Japan­ese re­lease of the film, after the screen text, ‘Fin.’ is shown, the screen goes com­pletely black and no end­ing cred­its are shown. Au­di­ences waited in the cin­ema for around 5 min­utes to make sure the film was re­ally over.

Bochan_bird on au­di­ences watch­ing EoE


Schizo & Prano, were 2 re­lated books of ‘in­ter­views’ pub­lished 1997; ISBN 4872333152 & 4872333160 (book cov­ers). While pre­sented as in­ter­views, ap­par­ently they (but not the char­ac­ter pro­files, ac­cord­ing to Num­ber­s-kun) were heav­ily edited after­wards by Anno ac­cord­ing Tokyo Otaku Mode, 2014-11-07:

The event “The World of Hideaki Anno” was held at the Tokyo In­ter­na­tional Film Fes­ti­val, where ex­cel­lent works from all over the world are gath­ered and screened. Con­tin­u­ing from our pre­vi­ous re­port on the “Live-Ac­tion Edi­tion” of the event, we now re­port on the “Di­rec­tor Edi­tion” in which he dis­cusses the an­i­ma­tion he has di­rect­ed…It seems that for the movie pro­duced after the end of the TV se­ries there was a plan to cre­ate an en­tirely new story in ad­di­tion to re­makes of Episodes 25 and 26. Anno also used his motto for this al­l-new pro­ject, and he gave him­self up emo­tion­ally and phys­i­cal­ly. The sce­nario was sim­i­lar to At­tack on Ti­tan, as Anno ex­plained: “There is a city sur­rounded by an A.T. Field, and in that city live only hu­mans. There is only one bridge in or out of the city. Out­side the walls of the A.T. Field live An­gels who prey on hu­mans.” “What we could­n’t do on TV was show hu­mans be­ing eaten be­cause be­ing eaten is ex­tremely ter­ri­fy­ing to peo­ple,” said Anno re­gard­ing this com­pleted work that would be­come a phan­tom. Even the Evan­ge­lion that the main char­ac­ters pi­lot were cre­ated with very hu­man-like fea­tures, and fresh con­cepts were used, like a sur­gi­cal pro­ce­dure be­ing re­quired to pi­lot them.

One other new Evan­ge­lion truth was re­vealed. Two books con­tain­ing long in­ter­views with An­no, Schizo Evan­ge­lion and Parano Evan­ge­lion, were pub­lished after the end of the broad­cast of Evan­ge­lion. This is a mon­u­men­tal in­ter­view col­lec­tion in which An­no’s raw thoughts from that time can be read. The truth, how­ev­er, is that these books aren’t ac­tu­ally long in­ter­views but rather as Anno said with­out di­vulging any­thing fur­ther, he wrote them him­self. Fans who have known of Evan­ge­lion for years were given a huge shock with this news.


[Rei’s] body in­her­its half each of Yui and Adam’s ge­net­ics.

Sadamo­to, pg 180; Sadamo­to; http://­fo­rum.e­vageek­­­p?p=403905#403905

Anno: Ai to Gen­sou no Fas­cism. [Mu­rakami’s The Fas­cism of Love and Fan­tasy or The Fas­cism of Love and Il­lu­sion] I like “Zero” [from that nov­el]. He is a highly de­pen­dent per­son­al­i­ty. I think Ryuu Mu­rakami and I are the same [as Ze­ro]: empty peo­ple. Re­ally pa­thetic peo­ple.

Takekuma: His writ­ing style is very styl­ish. [His books are] the type you keep read­ing be­cause of the style.

Anno: In the end, there’s noth­ing else. It’s pa­thetic peo­ple try­ing to main­tain them­selves, liv­ing de­pen­dently on women.

Takekuma: So, the char­ac­ter Zero is Mu­rakami’s own self­-pro­jec­tion.

An­no: He re­mains un­able to re­ject Ze­ro. That also re­veals a pa­thetic qual­i­ty; the man him­self aims at the op­po­site, but in the end part of his true feel­ings come out through Ze­ro. It’s an amaz­ingly good nov­el. I think Mu­rakami is also an “oral stage” de­pen­dent type. He is overly fix­ated on the moth­er, and overly fix­ated on women. He is also fix­ated on the idea of cry­ing into a wom­an’s chest. Fi­nal­ly, he is al­ways think­ing of do­ing away with his fa­ther. I think it’s a story of the Oedi­pus Com­plex.

Takekuma: In the de­sire to de­stroy the sys­tem, the orig­i­nal de­sire is there, right?

Anno: Yes. It’s a story of the Oedi­pus Com­plex, where one kills one’s fa­ther and vi­o­lates one’s moth­er. How­ev­er, when I started [E­va], I thought I was the same. Be­cause it [was?] a story where Shinji kills his fa­ther and steals his mother from him.

Takekuma: A mother who has be­come a gi­ant (laugh­s).

Anno: There was this re­place­ment by a ro­bot, so the orig­i­nal mother is the ro­bot, but then there is a mother of the same age, Rei Ayanami, by [Sh­in­ji’s] side. [She is] also by the side of the real fa­ther. There is also an­other fa­ther there, Adam, who gov­erns the over­all course of events. An Oedi­pus Com­plex within these mul­ti­ple struc­tures; that’s what I wanted to do. Ai to Gen­sou no Fas­cism. I think there are ide­o­log­i­cal el­e­ments that are the same as those in the nov­el. […] The thing that most moved me was [the fact that] when the pro­tag­o­nist, Touji Suzuhara, at­tempted to kill the cur­rent Prime Min­is­ter, he felt [the Prime Min­is­ter] was a lot like his fa­ther. I think he kills his fa­ther and vi­o­lates the mother “Japan.” That’s why he goes on to de­stroy Japan. I re­ally like that pas­sage. I like that Ryuu Mu­rakami’s real feel­ings are com­ing out. In a big way. The novel it­self is ex­tremely bor­ing, how­ever (laugh­s).


Anno: I un­der­stood the mo­ment Toji [Suzuhara] felt con­tempt for his staff. I once had such a mo­ment my­self. At that point, I felt like for the first time I un­der­stood the po­si­tion of a di­rec­tor. As I am in the po­si­tion of both pro­ducer and di­rec­tor, my staff have to de­pend on me. That’s an in­evitable part of the sys­tem. There’s no other per­son who can place them­selves in my po­si­tion. In­evitably, a pro­duc­er/di­rec­tor is a dic­ta­tor, but [be­ing a dic­ta­tor] is its own kind of iso­la­tion.

Oizumi: At that point Zero alone is in the same po­si­tion, and [To­ji] feels a bond with him.

Anno: Right. To those on the out­side, it looks like an il­lu­sion, but when it comes down to it I be­lieve that hap­pi­ness it­self is an il­lu­sion. Hu­man be­ings can­not es­cape from their soli­tude. All they can do is for­get it. At that mo­ment [of for­get­ful­ness], they will be hap­py. That’s my re­cent con­clu­sion. In or­der [to for­get], you can watch ani­me, or sleep with a girl, and if you can es­cape from your lone­li­ness while do­ing it, then per­haps you will be hap­py. If, when I get to­tally drunk, I feel like I am not alone, that’s an il­lu­sion, but it’s hap­pi­ness.

It’s a work that mir­rors the self of each and every per­son that watches it. That’s be­cause [the show con­tains] an ex­ces­sive amount of in­for­ma­tion, and the pro­jec­tions of the view­ers sim­ply re­turn to them. For each per­son, the ap­peal [of the show] is also differ­ent.

–“Hap­pi­ness is an Il­lu­sion”; Num­ber­s-kun

[For hu­man be­ings?], there is no ‘orig­i­nal.’ … When those like me, who don’t watch any­thing but anime and man­ga, sud­denly hit upon some­thing, what we dis­cov­ered will only be some­thing within us we for­got about, there will nec­es­sar­ily be some orig­i­nal [else­where]. … I feel a bit bad [about it].

Fun­da­men­tal­ly, Eva is just my life copied out onto film. I’m [still] alive, so the story has­n’t fin­ished.

The char­ac­ters of ‘Eva’ are all com­pos­ite per­son­al­i­ties based around my own per­son­al­i­ty.

Shin­ji-kun is the cur­rent me.

I think that [one?] has to be more cog­nizant of that. The fact that we have noth­ing.

I think [Mu­rakami] is the same as me, an empty per­son.

If we as­sume that an ‘orig­i­nal’ ex­ists, it’s noth­ing but my life. … I can’t deny that every­thing else may be coun­ter­feit.


The fi­nale of Eva will end up be­ing [like] Dev­il­man. That’s what the story has to be. I guess I’m do­ing it un­con­scious­ly. [E­va] al­ready com­pletely con­tains the “taste” of Go Na­gai. I can’t wipe it away. I can no longer deny the im­pact of Dev­il­man. If I were to deny it, I feel that I would end up com­pletely over­turn­ing my own life.

–trans­lated by Num­ber­s-kun; Japan­ese a com­bi­na­tion of a 2chan and Wikipedia ex­cerpt. Num­ber­s-kun points out the un­canny re­sem­blance of the Dev­il­man fi­nale with the Last B sce­nario (half a torso ver­sus half an ar­m):

…I will note, though, that there is a prece­dent for ‘se­quel the­ory’ that might have in­flu­enced An­no. Go Na­gai’s was re­vealed in its fi­nal chap­ters to have been a se­quel to Dev­il­man. In Vi­o­lence Jack, it turns out that, after its de­struc­tion, the world was recre­ated by the fallen an­gel Ryo Asuka for the sake of try­ing to res­ur­rect Akira Fu­do, whom he had fallen in love with. How­ev­er, the recre­ation was not en­tirely suc­cess­ful.

With­out ques­tion, Anno is fa­mil­iar with Vi­o­lence Jack (ac­cord­ing to the Japan­ese wikipedia, in Schizo, Anno men­tions the Slum King as one source of in­spi­ra­tion for the de­sign of the Evan­ge­lion­s). In ad­di­tion, some Eva fans have noted par­al­lels be­tween Ryo Asuka and Ka­woru Nag­isa (in­clud­ing Hal­i­cat and Synap­sid on EGF). Ka­woru’s ap­pear­ances in NME es­pe­cially seem rem­i­nis­cent of both Ryo Asuka and the sto­ry­line of Vi­o­lence Jack.

From “Yoshiyuki Sadamo­to’s First Meet­ing With Di­rec­tor Anno” (Schizo); Num­ber­s-kun’s trans­la­tion:

Sadamoto: [I first met him when] I worked part-time draw­ing genga for the Macross tele­vi­sion se­ries as a Uni­ver­sity stu­dent. I would help out a lit­tle in be­tween at­tend­ing school. So I think the first [en­coun­ter] was when I caught sight of An­no-san at Art­land. There was a unit called the “Mecha Squad,” which in­cluded (Ichi­ro) Itano-san among its mem­bers, who were all liv­ing there [at Art­land] (laugh­ing). The story would take some time to re­coun­t…I was at­tend­ing the manga stud­ies pro­gram at the Tokyo Uni­ver­sity of Art and De­sign. Mahiro Maeda was a stu­dent there, and he in­vited me to work to­gether with him on Macross. When Maeda was in high school, (Takami) Akai-san had been an older stu­dent [at his school], and [Akai’s lat­er] class­mates at the Os­aka Uni­ver­sity of Arts were Hi­royuki Ya­m­aga and Hideaki An­no. In the be­gin­ning those three were all work­ing on Macross. Akai-san quickly gave up on it and re­turned to Os­aka, but Ya­m­a­ga-san and An­no-san re­mained be­hind at Art­land and helped out with Macross. Ya­m­a­ga-san was placed in charge of di­rect­ing an episode for the first time with episode nine…

Sato: The sto­ry­boards as well?

Sadamoto: Yeah, he ended up do­ing the sto­ry­boards and the di­rec­tion, and [saw] he did­n’t have enough peo­ple. Ya­m­a­ga-san be­gan search­ing for tal­ented peo­ple in Tokyo, and when he asked Akai-san about it, [Akai] told him to use [an old] school­mate of his in the manga stud­ies pro­gram at the Tokyo Uni­ver­sity of Art and De­sign. So Mahiro Maeda, seem­ing not to want to go by him­self, in­vited me to go with him. I had an in­ter­est in an­i­ma­tion, so I as­sisted [on Macross] for about a year. Dur­ing that pe­ri­od, I would from time to time catch sight of An­no-san. [I no­ticed,] “there is this tall fel­low who some­times walks around in his bare feet” (laugh­ing).

Takekuma: At that time, he did­n’t give off a sense that you could ap­proach him very eas­i­ly, right?

Sadamoto: I did­n’t ap­proach him. An­no-san, he was al­ways talk­ing to him­self in a loud voice. You could un­der­stand what he was say­ing even from far away. You would hear this loud voice from the other side of the hall­way: “I’ve got it! The tim­ing of Itano’s ex­plo­sions - !” [the Itano cir­cus] (laugh­ing loud­ly)

Sato: That’s the same as he is now.

Sadamoto: He would say “I’ve got it!” and sud­denly be­gin draw­ing, and go to (Sho­jo) Kawamor­i-san, or some other di­rec­tor - my own im­me­di­ate [su­per­vis­ing] di­rec­tor was Fu­mi­hiko Takaya­ma-san - he would go to Takaya­ma-san and ex­plain the draw­ing in minute de­tail, say­ing how many frames it should take, and how things were to be arranged, and how it would dis­ap­pear. So, when, see­ing his in­ten­si­ty, I won­dered who he was, Mahiro Maeda told me “That’s An­no-san; he worked on Daicon III.” “Ah, I see,” I thought. “He loves to draw mecha.”

From “The AT-Field”, Num­ber­s-kun:

Oizumi: I find that both An­no-san and Takeku­ma-san [pro­duce] in­cred­i­bly self­-ref­er­en­tial works.

Takekuma: Is­n’t that the ten­dency of our gen­er­a­tion?

Anno: Well, we want to un­der­stand our­selves.

Takekuma: We have in­defi­nite selves with­out mod­els or norms, so we re­fer back to our selves [in our work­s].

Anno: So­ci­ety is in­defi­nite as well. There are count­less in­defi­nite as­pects [of our sit­u­a­tion]. That in­defi­nite­ness dis­gusts me. Every­one and every­thing - in­clud­ing anime fans, and even Aum - is hazy and un­cer­tain. It’s the so­ci­ety that sets those val­ues. Even Aum was some­thing hazy and un­cer­tain prior to the in­ci­dent.

Oizumi: [As part of my re­search [Oizumi wrote one of the early & stil­l-cited works on Aum]] I’m a mem­ber of Aum now, and even now it’s ex­tra­or­di­nar­ily in­defi­nite. Every mem­ber is differ­ent. [It’s com­posed of] a va­ri­ety of differ­ent peo­ple, but the so­ci­ety has de­clared it to be this [par­tic­u­lar sort of] or­ga­ni­za­tion.

Anno: Anime fans and the anime in­dus­try are also in­defi­nite. In a man­ner of speak­ing all of Japan is in­defi­nite. I hated this, and I wanted to con­struct a bar­rier be­tween my­self and so­ci­ety. Ex­press­ing it in terms of the show, it was an “AT Field,” a pat­tern [of be­hav­ior] where I would tear apart or re­ject any­thing that crossed the bound­ary line be­tween my­self and oth­ers. Per­haps [that was the] “bar­rier of the heart.”

From “Dev­il­man”, Num­ber­s-kun:

Anno: An­other [ma­jor in­flu­ence] was the sev­enth vol­ume of the Nau­si­caa man­ga.

Takekuma: That [vol­ume] is in­cred­i­ble. It re­versed all the val­ues [that had been in place].

Anno: I felt like it was the same as what I [was do­ing]. After that I could­n’t help but make [the work in­to] Nau­si­caa, to treat the same themes as the sev­enth vol­ume of Nau­si­caa.

Oizumi: Nau­si­caa was un­able to live as one of the an­cients.

Anno: She re­jected co­ex­is­tence [with them]. She blood­ied her hands so that her own peo­ple would sur­vive. That was good. This karmic pun­ish­ment that re­quired [her] to de­stroy [them] with the ab­horred fire of the God War­riors - that was good (laugh­ing). [Good] be­cause the true views of Hayao Miyazaki were ex­pressed, and there, at least, he took off his un­der­wear [and showed him­self naked]. In the manga he took off his un­der­wear, and his pe­nis was erect (laugh­ing). I am hop­ing that he will do the same in Princess Mononoke.

Mit­sunari Oizu­mi’s In­tro­duc­tion to Schizo

Sep­tem­ber, 1995. The Aum train­ing fa­cil­ity at Sug­i­na­mi. A ser­mon be­ing deivered by Fu­mi­hiro Joyu. “At this mo­ment I am re­search­ing ani­me. [The mem­bers of] Aum are the so-called ‘New­types.’ The chil­dren who watch anime are un­con­sciously choos­ing and en­vi­sion­ing the form of their own fu­ture. In the fu­ture, many peo­ple will come to pos­sess psy­chic pow­ers. Ar­maged­don is com­ing.” This is what Fu­mi­hiro Joyu said. … [A mem­ber of] the non-fic­tion in­dus­try, I spent al­most all of 1995 gath­er­ing in­for­ma­tion on Aum (e­spe­cially through in­ter­views and di­rect ex­pe­ri­ence of their spir­i­tual train­ing), while se­ri­al­iz­ing “The Dis­ap­pear­ance of the Man­gaka” in Quick Japan; I was a com­plete stranger to the anime in­dus­try. On the other hand, Mr. Anno was some­one who had lived his whole life in the anime in­dus­try. With the two of us hav­ing no point of con­tact at all aside from be­ing ab­sorbed in Eva, Takeku­ma-san splen­didly served as a trans­la­tor be­tween the two of us, and ex­hib­ited a match­less ca­pa­bil­ity as an in­ter­viewer as well. I want to ex­press my grat­i­tude to him in writ­ing. More than any­thing, I want to ex­press my sin­cere grat­i­tude to Mr. Hideaki Anno for ac­cept­ing this in­ter­view and open­ing him­self up to us.

From “Aum Shin­rikyo and Eva.” This sec­tion ac­tu­ally deals with Oizumi and Takeku­ma’s in­tro­duc­tions to and ini­tial im­pres­sions of Evan­ge­lion, and con­tains lit­tle con­tri­bu­tion from An­no.

Oizumi: I my­self have been en­gaged in gath­er­ing in­for­ma­tion on Aum since around Jan­u­ary of last year. Since I had did­n’t know what kind of or­ga­ni­za­tion they were, in the end I joined them, and, col­lect­ing in­for­ma­tion the whole time on what kind of peo­ple were at­tracted by the pull of Shoko Asa­hara, put [my find­ings] into a book. When I first saw Evan­ge­lion last year, I was shocked, won­der­ing if a show like this should be air­ing, since [the ti­tle] con­tained the same phrase as Aum’s ra­dio pro­gram [broad­cast] from Rus­sia, “Evan­ge­lion Tes Basileias.”

Anno: A si­mul­ta­ne­ous oc­cur­rence. I did­n’t know any­thing at all [about the ra­dio pro­gram].

Oizumi: So that made a strong im­pres­sion on me. After that there was an­other thing, the im­ages of a Kab­bal­is­tic de­sign in the open­ing se­quence. Asa­hara had also plunged into a va­ri­ety of differ­ent re­li­gions, but he had not gone into Kab­balah (laugh­ing). I re­laxed a lit­tle be­cause of that.

Takekuma: But it was [still] dan­ger­ous enough, since in its later pe­riod Aum had gone so far as to steal [ele­ments from] Chris­tian­i­ty.

Oizumi: Kab­balah is an es­o­teric form of Ju­daism, so it was mar­ginal [to Aum’s use of Chris­tian­i­ty]. When I first watched Evan­ge­lion, I thought that it was based upon Kab­bal­is­tic thought.

Anno: That was quite a mis­con­cep­tion (laugh­ing).

This is the un­ti­tled open­ing pas­sage of Chap­ter 2, “How to Fin­ish A Sto­ry.”

Takekuma: I heard that the sec­ond half of the pro­duc­tion of Eva was dread­ful in terms of the sched­ul­ing…

Anno: That’s true. We held out well, I think. I don’t think that peo­ple out­side [of the pro­duc­tion] re­al­ize this, but it was a mir­a­cle that we held out as long as we did. To fin­ish that sched­ule with so few peo­ple. Al­though [you could] also [say] we did it be­cause we were an elite few. To do some­thing like that, with so few peo­ple, in such a short amount of time - in this sense, we did very well. There were many points where I de­pended upon the pas­sion or the men­tal­ity of the staff. But these are things that peo­ple out­side [of the pro­duc­tion] are un­able to see. The great ma­jor­ity of peo­ple judge only the fi­nal re­sult. From my per­spec­tive, we did every­thing that we were able to do. Of course, do­ing some­thing like this is im­pos­si­ble for some­one who won’t shed their own blood. Peo­ple who don’t shed their own blood won’t be able to un­der­stand it at a deep lev­el.

Takekuma: A lit­tle while ago you de­scribed this sort of work as a ser­vice in­dus­try, but you car­ried out some­thing like a be­trayal of this [prin­ci­ple of] ser­vice (in aban­don­ing the sto­ry); did­n’t you feel that to be a self­-con­tra­dic­tion?

Anno: No, that was my ser­vice (laugh­ing).

Takekuma: Of course (laugh­ing).

Anno: It may not have looked like ser­vice, but it was ser­vice. It was ser­vice that could­n’t be rec­og­nized [as such]. One as­pect of it was, if [the au­di­ence was] go­ing to be an­gry, then I was re­ally go­ing to make [them] an­gry. Rather than be­ing an­gry about the [qual­ity of] an­i­ma­tion, it would be cleaner if they had a feel­ing that made them want to flip over the ta­ble in front of them.

Anno: I also [thought] it would be a topic of dis­cus­sion, even after it was fin­ished. A part of it was that, for me, pro­vid­ing that dis­cus­sion would be [a form of] ser­vice. [An] un­prece­dented [ser­vice]. Work­ing as­sid­u­ously at it, we got that kind of end­ing. [?]

Oizumi: This has to do with the fact that you ended up spend­ing all your mon­ey… From an eco­nomic stand­point, it’s a well-known story that lit­tle money re­mains to be passed down to the an­i­ma­tors, or those oc­cu­py­ing the low­est po­si­tions [a­mong the staff].

Anno: Right. [What they get] is not at all pro­por­tion­ate to the [amount of] con­tent [they cre­ate]. All they get to com­pen­sate for that [in­suffi­cient amount of mon­ey] is some­thing psy­cho­log­i­cal. [I can] only have them be pleased with the fact, when they see the fin­ished work, that it is in­ter­est­ing and they are glad to have worked on it. I could only arrange for them to re­ceive a psy­cho­log­i­cal [form of] re­mu­ner­a­tion. But that be­comes a kind of pres­sure in its own way, be­cause they may stop work­ing on it if it be­comes un­in­ter­est­ing. I al­ways have to pro­vide some­thing in­ter­est­ing. It was a game played in earnest.

Takekuma: What did the other staff mem­bers say about the fi­nal two episodes?

Anno: There were some who were sat­is­fied with it, and some who thought that it was ac­cept­able.

Takekuma: So there was­n’t any­one who was dis­sat­is­fied with it?

Anno: Hardly any­one. I did­n’t feel that I could do the fi­nal two episodes any other way. [The lack of dis­sat­is­fac­tion] also had to do with the fact that I said we would “re­take” [the fi­nal two episodes].

Takekuma: If you [had said you] were un­able to “re­take” [the fi­nal two episodes], the re­ac­tion would prob­a­bly have been a lit­tle bit differ­ent.

From “At First Glance, a ‘Happy End’”

Anno: That’s the same thing as I [my­self] be­com­ing an adult. I’m often asked if Shin­ji-kun [rep­re­sents] an old ver­sion of my­self, but that’s not the case. Shin­ji-kun is my cur­rent self (laugh­ing). I act like a four­teen-year-old boy; I’m still child­ish. No mat­ter how you look at it, in psy­cho­log­i­cal terms, I’m [still] in the Oral Stage. A melan­cholic oral-de­pen­dent type. Well, this is a truth I can’t deny; I can’t do any­thing about it. I wanted to move for­ward from there, but the re­sult was that I ended up re­gress­ing back to my­self. A dead end.

Takekuma: Then in a cer­tain sense the fi­nal episode of Eva is an un­happy end­ing.

Anno: Right, in a cer­tain sense. If you take mov­ing be­yond that as be­ing hap­py, then it’s an un­happy end­ing. If you think it’s fine, then it’s a happy end­ing.

Takekuma: At first glance, it takes the form of a happy end­ing.

Anno: I made [the idea?] the ti­tle of the last song on the sound­track CD. “Good, or Don’t Be.” OK, or don’t live. Good or bad. [Or] is it both? I re­vealed a lit­tle bit of my feel­ings there. How­ev­er, I be­lieve that we have stopped grow­ing where we are and are go­ing around in cir­cles un­der a [kind of] mora­to­ri­um, but one [rea­son] is that we have lost our [ca­pac­ity for] mod­el­ing. There is noth­ing orig­i­nal in hu­man be­ings. If I don’t know Japan­ese at least, I can’t com­mu­ni­cate. Since my par­ents spoke this way, that’s how I speak. If my par­ents spoke Eng­lish I would speak Eng­lish, even if I was in Japan. If my friends spoke Japan­ese, and I did­n’t know what [they were say­ing], then I would go over to speak­ing in Japan­ese. I can’t in­vent the Japan­ese lan­guage my­self. I’m only ca­pa­ble of do­ing things through im­i­ta­tion. At that time I be­gin to im­i­tate my par­ents and sib­lings, those clos­est to me. I can ei­ther honor my par­ents and suc­ceed them, or rebel and fol­low a differ­ent path from my par­ents. Ei­ther way, if I don’t have a mod­el, then I can do nei­ther one. No mat­ter how much of a ge­nius one is, there is some­thing that awakes in­spi­ra­tion. If, like me, you look at noth­ing but manga and ani­me, when you have thought up some­thing and cre­ated it, what you have thought up will only be some­thing that you have for­got­ten; with­out ques­tion there will be some pre­vi­ous source for it. Then you will re­al­ize it, and rec­og­nize what it was, and feel a lit­tle bad. Since that was all you looked at, well, it was in­evitable, be­cause you are just un­con­sciously draw­ing out those things that have sed­i­mented in­side of you. No mat­ter how much of a ge­nius you are, if you are trans­lat­ing the emo­tions of see­ing a [cer­tain] flower into a song or a nov­el, if you were not re­ally cog­nizant of that flow­er, you will not get the novel or the song. Hu­man be­ings can­not cre­ate some­thing out of noth­ing. With so much in­for­ma­tion flood­ing [us], we don’t know what we should be mod­el­ing. Even if I don’t know my class­mate’s birth date, I’ll know on what day Mo­moe Ya­m­aguchi was born (laugh­ing). I’ll know the minute [de­tails of] an idol’s pro­file, like her bust, waist, and hip mea­sure­ments. It’s a world, I think, where you feel closer to Mo­moe Ya­m­aguchi than to your class­mate. Char­ac­ters on tele­vi­sion have a stronger feel­ing of re­al­ity than your class­mates who re­ally ex­ist. It’s in­cred­i­ble, the aware­ness that the vir­tual is higher than the re­al. Grow­ing up in such an en­vi­ron­ment, we aren’t sure if things that are well done have been cre­ated or not. [?] When we get old­er, even if we rec­og­nize that those things are false, we take what the an­nouncer on NHK news says to be true. The Japan­ese have a strong ten­dency in this di­rec­tion.

From “An At­tach­ment to De­for­mity”

Oizumi: About the com­plex you have be­cause of your fa­ther’s body… you said, for in­stance, in an in­ter­view with An­i­m­age that even when draw­ing a ro­bot you’re not sat­is­fied un­til you’ve erased some part of it.

Anno: Prob­a­bly I have an at­tach­ment to­wards de­for­mi­ty. I can’t love [some­thing] if it’s not bro­ken some­where. I be­lieve that’s [due to] the in­flu­ence of my fa­ther[’s con­di­tion].

Takekuma: Toji lost his leg. Why did­n’t he die there?

Anno: I could­n’t kill him.

Takekuma: Of course.

Anno: No, um, I made a cer­tain promise, though I think now I should have bro­ken it. At the very be­gin­ning, when [we] drew up the plan [for Eva], [I met] with the pro­duc­er, from King Records, who told me, “I will ap­prove the plan you sub­mit, what­ever it is, be­cause I have faith in you. How­ev­er, there will be two con­di­tions. The first one is that you will re­main with me for five years. You can­not, for ex­am­ple, do a film ver­sion with an­other [pro­duc­er]. The ad­di­tional con­di­tion is that you will not kill any chil­dren. The adults can die, but I don’t want chil­dren dy­ing.” Be­cause of that con­di­tion I could­n’t kill [To­ji].

“Ga­ianx, the Am­a­teur Group”

Anno: I’m not sure that it’s a real fa­ther [that Gendo rep­re­sents]. Well, not a fa­ther in the sense of a par­ent with a blood re­la­tion to his child, but more, I think, [in the sense of be­ing] a rep­re­sen­ta­tive of so­ci­ety or the sys­tem. That’s why he has that ex­pres­sion.

Takekuma: So, he’s kind of amor­phous.

Anno: The an­gels are the same. I made them ap­pear amor­phous in that way be­cause, for me, so­ci­ety is un­clear, the en­emy is un­clear.


Sadamoto: In the end [the us­age of the Dead Sea Scrolls and so on in Eva] is an after­effect from Na­dia. In the fi­nal episode there is a scene where Gar­goyle38, the vil­lain, comes into con­tact with the light [from the Blue Wa­ter] and turns into a pil­lar of salt. So, in the ini­tial pro­posal for Eva, the huge ex­plo­sion that was caused in Antarc­tica [in the fi­nal se­ries] was [in­stead] an ex­plo­sion at the Dead Sea.

Tsu­ru­maki: The “Dead Sea Evap­o­ra­tion In­ci­dent.”

Sadamoto: It was the “Dead Sea Evap­o­ra­tion In­ci­dent,” in the ini­tial pro­pos­al. So it was con­nect­ing up with the world view of Na­dia. I be­lieve that An­no-san was think­ing about that.

Sato: [Eva tak­ing place] in a par­al­lel [world].

Takekuma: [Eva would have been] some­thing like a con­tin­u­a­tion of Na­dia, in ac­tu­al­i­ty.

Sadamoto: I be­lieve that [An­no] was think­ing of some­thing like that at the be­gin­ning. I think [it was go­ing to be] a bit more of a man­ga-esque world.


In 1997, a pair of com­pan­ion books about Evan­ge­lion, fea­tur­ing in­ter­views with cre­ator An­no, were re­leased in Japan. One of the books, Hideaki Anno Parano Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion, opens with a sec­tion of char­ac­ter de­scrip­tions, one of which de­scribes Ka­woru’s re­la­tion­ship to Shin­ji. I con­tacted four peo­ple flu­ent in Japan­ese, in­clud­ing a na­tive Japan­ese speak­er, who all trans­lated this pas­sage in the same way: “To Shin­ji, Ka­woru was the first friend he could open up to, and he could also be some­one that could be a same-sex part­ner.” The key phrase “same-sex part­ner” also trans­lates to “same-sex lover” and “some­one he could love ro­man­ti­cal­ly.” Each of the peo­ple I spoke to was adamant that there is no room for in­ter­pre­ta­tion in this para­graph.

This is a sec­tion of the book that is sep­a­rate from An­no’s in­ter­views, and per­haps was writ­ten by its ed­i­tor, Ken­taro Takeku­ma, and not taken from Anno him­self. But the in­clu­sion of this ref­er­ence to the love be­tween the two char­ac­ters makes it clear, at least, that an ex­plic­itly queer read­ing of the char­ac­ters was offi­cially on the radar as early as 1997.

In his email, how­ev­er, Kane­mitsu noted that Anno makes no ref­er­ence to the char­ac­ters’ sex­u­al­ity in the in­ter­views that ap­pear in the two books. He shared with us quotes from An­no, taken from the other com­pan­ion book. (Vox has ver­i­fied Kane­mit­su’s trans­la­tion.) In that book, Hideaki Anno Schizo Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion, Anno re­peats sev­eral times in his in­ter­view that the se­ries is meant to be am­bigu­ous, some­thing of “a Rorschach test.” As trans­lated by Kane­mitsu in his email, one pas­sage in par­tic­u­lar im­plies that Anno in­tended for every­thing to be up for de­bate:

Anno: [Eva is a work] where the re­main­ing process [of com­plet­ing the work] is in the hands of the au­di­ence. I place strong em­pha­sis in that re­la­tion­ship. After you get to a cer­tain point, I want them to make their own judg­ment. There are por­tions where things are left am­bigu­ous, so it all de­pends on how you view [and judge it for your­self.] I think the char­ac­ter of the per­son [e.g. a per­son­al­i­ty] re­veals it­self in that process. [Eva is a work] where if ten peo­ple watch it, not all of the ten will [com­pli­ment] it. In that sense, it’s very Japan­ese.

Trans­la­tion by Dan Kane­mitsu, 2019-06-24

Schizo table of contents

Num­ber­s-kun trans­la­tion of Japan­ese web­page:

  • Part One: Long In­ter­view with Hideaki Anno (by Mit­sunari Oizu­mi)

  • Chap­ter One: We are empty

    • Aum Shin­rikyo and Eva39
    • I had got­ten tired of Anime fans
    • Tele­vi­sion de­pen­dency
    • Eva is a pri­vate film
    • An un­prece­dented ser­vice40
  • Chap­ter Two: How to fin­ish [a?] story

    • How to fin­ish [a?] story
    • A ten­ta­tive “happy end”
    • Not merely a copy
    • One should mix in poi­son41
    • A new track
    • The in­flu­ence of Yam­ato
  • Chap­ter Three: Cre­ation is a mas­tur­ba­tion show

    • An at­tach­ment to de­for­mity
    • The first episode of Gun­dam is the ul­ti­mate
    • The work and other peo­ple
    • Pic­turesque mas­tur­ba­tion
    • Gainax, the am­a­teur col­lec­tive
    • A taste of Go Na­gai
  • Chap­ter Four: Dev­il­man and the Oedi­pus Com­plex

    • Hap­pi­ness is an il­lu­sion
    • To­wards Cere­brism42
    • The Dead Sea Scrolls
    • We have no time
    • Dev­il­man
    • The AT Field
    • Anx­i­ety after the end of the broad­cast
  • Columns: Story Di­gest

    1. Episode 1 - Episode 7
    2. Episode 8 - Episode 15
    3. Episode 16 - Episode 19
    4. Episode 20 - Episode 22
    5. Episode 23 - Episode 26
  • Part Two: Hideaki Anno “tried in ab­sen­tia” by the staff of Evan­ge­lion (First Part)

  • Yoshiyuki Sadamo­to’s first meet­ing with Di­rec­tor Anno

  • Masayuk­i’s first meet­ing with Di­rec­tor Anno

  • Hi­roki Sato’s first meet­ing with Di­rec­tor Anno

  • Toshimichi Ot­suk­i’s first meet­ing with Di­rec­tor Anno

  • Kazuya Tsu­ru­mak­i’s first meet­ing with Di­rec­tor Anno

  • The “ter­ror” of Hideaki Anno

  • Pick­ing up girls [?] us­ing the “God War­rior”

  • Hideaki Anno as an an­i­ma­tor

  • Hideaki Anno as a di­rec­tor

  • The be­gin­ning of Eva (1)

  • On Rei Ayanami (1)

  • On Rei Ayanami (2)

  • The be­gin­ning of Eva (2)

  • On Rei Ayanami (3)

  • On Ka­woru

  • On Rei Ayanami (4)

  • On Rei Ayanami (5)

  • Part Three: What is Rei Ayanami? (Mit­sunari Oizu­mi)


Oizumi: When I look at Rei Ayanami, I’m re­minded of the girls in Aum. In short, they’re all de­pen­dent upon their Gu­ru, Asa­hara.

Takekuma: [She de­votes her­self] whole­heart­ed­ly, with a heart like a hard shell.

Oizumi: Ex­act­ly. And, on the topic of sub­sti­tu­tions, can we think of Rei Ayanami as be­ing a per­son like your moth­er?

Anno: That’s not quite right.

Takekuma: There’s also noth­ing like the im­age of a girl you pre­vi­ously dated [in her], right?

Anno: No. Well, Rei is prob­a­bly [the char­ac­ter] clos­est to my deep psy­che. I don’t re­ally un­der­stand her. … The truth is, I have no emo­tional at­tach­ment to her at all.

Takekuma: Huh? Is that right?

Anno: Yeah. I have no emo­tional at­tach­ment to her. Well, No­bita-san wrote [about her] as be­ing a sym­bol of schiz­o­phre­nia. There were parts where that was ac­tu­ally what I wanted to do [with her].

Anno: But Rei is [the char­ac­ter] I least un­der­stand. In ad­di­tion, I’m not re­ally that in­ter­ested in her. There were parts where that’s what I was con­sciously do­ing, ac­tively try­ing to put aside my pre­sup­po­si­tions, try­ing to bring out the most prim­i­tive, the most core, the purest parts within me.

Oizumi: So Rei is per­haps [some­thing] em­bed­ded in your un­con­scious [that] can’t be ex­pressed in words.

Anno: Even in the midst of mak­ing Eva, I sud­denly re­al­ized I had for­got­ten her. Her very ex­is­tence. In episode sev­en, I re­mem­bered, and added a sin­gle shot with Rei. I had no emo­tional at­tach­ment to her at all. I think that was fine, be­cause she did­n’t ap­pear in episode eight, not even for a sin­gle shot.

“From the In­tro­duc­tion to Chap­ter Four / Parano”

…In the midst of mak­ing Eva, I sud­denly re­al­ized that I had for­got­ten her. Her very ex­is­tence. For ex­am­ple, in episode sev­en, I re­mem­bered and added one shot with Rei. I had no at­tach­ment to her at all, right? I think that was okay, be­cause in episode eight, she does­n’t ap­pear, right? Not even in a sin­gle shot.

Episode 6 was too ear­ly.

At the end Rei says “I don’t know what to do,” and Shinji says, “I think you should smile,” and Rei smiles. … After­wards, when I thought about it, I cursed. In short, if she and Shinji com­pletely “com­mu­ni­cated” there, then is­n’t she over with? At that mo­ment, Rei, for me, was fin­ished.

When she smiled, she was al­ready fin­ished, this char­ac­ter.

from page ~95-96; http://­fo­rum.e­vageek­­­p?p=414209#414209

Nag­isa Ka­woru The fifth Eva pi­lot whom Seele sent in. To Shin­ji, he was both the very first friend he could con­fide in as well as a same-sex ro­man­tic in­ter­est. On the ac­count of his true na­ture as an “An­gel”, he at­tempts to merge with the First An­gel, Adam, en­sconced in Nerv’s un­der­ground, to trig­ger Third Im­pact. Dri­ven at the far end of his an­guish, Shinji kills that beloved friend of his with Eva Unit-01.

Un­known trans­la­tor; posted on 4chan & 17th An­gel. Page num­ber (107) con­sis­tent with be­ing half-way through Prano in “In­tro­duc­tion to the main char­ac­ters of Eva” since Prano has 190 pages.

Anno: [Mak­ing the last two episodes] it felt like my brain kept on pro­duc­ing all these chem­i­cals. When I saw episode 25 after first putting it to­geth­er, I thought, “I’m a ge­nius.” How­ev­er, when I re-edited and re-watched it after­wards, I was crushed. It was no good at all. I was em­bar­rassed my lack of abil­i­ty. I apol­o­gize to the staff.

Takekuma: Well, but, the last scene in the fi­nal episode was quite some­thing, where the screen cracks and every­one is ap­plaud­ing and con­grat­u­lat­ing the main char­ac­ter. Watch­ing that, I felt like I was go­ing crazy. It was like, how far are you go­ing with this…?

Anno: Well, there were a lot of things I was think­ing about there. The biggest rea­son [for that scene], I have no in­ten­tion of re­veal­ing. The heart of it, I won’t tell any­one. The most cru­cial part of the rea­son why I made episode 26 like that - I still haven’t re­vealed that any­where, in­clud­ing in [this mag­a­zine,] Quick Japan. That part at least, I won’t tell any­one.

Oizumi: You mean, some per­son­al, for­ma­tive ex­pe­ri­ence you can’t tell any­one?

Anno: Some­thing a bit more ide­o­log­i­cal. …

From “Epi­logue”

Sadamoto: (Kotono Mit­su­ishi) cried read­ing a script, for ex­am­ple. When An­no-san heard that - ! (laugh­ing)

Masayuki: What episode was that?

Sadamoto: 25.

Takekuma: Mis­ato’s voice ac­tress cried read­ing the script?

Sadamoto: So Anno did a guts pose. The su­per­vi­sor of the manga also cried [read­ing it], and when Anno heard that, he did an­other guts pose (laugh­ing). He was vic­to­ri­ous, be­cause two mem­bers of so­ci­ety had been re­duced to tears. How­ev­er, after it was fin­ished, peo­ple told him var­i­ous things, and he went into a state of col­lapse. What hap­pened to the guts pose? (laugh­ing)

Masayuki: When he was mak­ing episode 25 he was say­ing, “I’m a ge­nius.” Then after it had broad­cast, he came out of his room look­ing dazed. “Why did I make such a strange thing?” (laugh­ing)

Sato: The last episode was the same, was­n’t it?

Masayuki: Well, he did­n’t say any­thing about the last episode. Just with episode 25, he seemed to be ex­tremely pleased with it. Then when he saw the broad­cast, it was like, “I’m an id­iot…” (laugh­ing)

Sato: After­wards he was look­ing at the re­ac­tions on mes­sage boards from a dis­tance (laugh­ing). Al­though he was say­ing he was go­ing to ig­nore them, he was still look­ing out of the cor­ner of his eye at the mon­i­tor. “I’m prob­a­bly not go­ing to look….” he said. “Right, I’m not go­ing to look.”

Sadamoto: But I thought that the fi­nal two episodes were fine. I thought it was sim­ply a mat­ter of the con­nect­ing episode be­tween episodes 24 and 25 be­ing miss­ing. That’s why we’re do­ing the orig­i­nal episode 25 (the re­make ver­sion) now. I think it’s just that that episode was miss­ing. I saw the ini­tial script. If the orig­i­nal episode 25 had been there, then there would have been a clear link lead­ing up to the tele­vi­sion ver­sions of episodes 25 and 26. Just one episode was miss­ing. So I thought [the end­ing] was fine.

Masayuki: We know that be­cause we’re the peo­ple who worked on [the se­ries].

Sadamoto: So in my mind there’s a clear link [bridg­ing episode 24 and 25]. But the or­di­nary view­ers, al­though they wanted to see the con­tin­u­a­tion of episode 24, it was omit­ted. So, they got mad at it.

Oizumi: That’s com­pletely right.

Sadamoto: They could­n’t see the re­la­tion­ship [be­tween 24 and 25].

Tsu­ru­maki: Well, it’s be­cause the orig­i­nal episode 25 script was com­pleted [but not used].

Sadamoto: Be­cause I’ve seen [that scrip­t], I thought, [watch­ing the end­ing], well, even this much is fine.

From “On the Fi­nal Two Episodes”

From “What’s so great about Gen­do?” (Xard trans­la­tion):

Oizumi: My wife loves Rit­suko Ak­a­gi. At times, she says sim­i­lar things to her and if I men­tion the re­sem­blance she be­comes elat­ed. “It’s tough hav­ing a fas­tid­i­ous na­ture”, for ex­am­ple.

Takekuma: In the end I was sur­prised when she was re­vealed to be Gen­do’s lover. What’s good about old man like him?

Anno: Hmm, I won­der what it is in­deed.

Takekuma: His wife Ikari Yui also says things like “but he also has a cute side”, does­n’t she?

Oizumi: That be­came a ba­sis for so many gags.

Anno: I won­der what’s good about him. Hmm. Well, on one hand, there is some­thing. Even say­ing that is un­seem­ly.

Takekuma: To sum it up, is­n’t this the case with Anno too, right? (laugh)

Anno: Well, that is partly the case.

Takekuma: Is­n’t the gist here “though he is this kind of per­son, he also has a cute side”?

Anno: Maybe it’s about pe­nis. (laugh) My pe­nis is the only cute part of me. “Oh my, how tiny!” and the like.

Takekuma: Do you lack con­fi­dence that bad­ly?

Anno: I lack a pe­nis.

Takekuma: It’s not like I have much to talk about ei­ther. (laugh)

Oizumi: What if your sizes match. This is be­com­ing ter­ri­ble. (laugh)

Anno: Well, I guess mine would be about the av­er­age size for Japan­ese. Slightly smaller than av­er­age.

Oizumi: How­ev­er, be­ing too big is also a prob­lem. My friend has one like a beer bot­tle, and pros­ti­tutes hate it.

Anno: That is also a tragedy in its own way.

Oizumi: It truly is a tragedy.

Anno: Well, if you’re small and hear “oh, it’s al­ready in?” the shock will last a life­time.

Takekuma: But women don’t re­ally care that much, do they? In re­al­i­ty.

Oizumi: Well how are you hung, Oizu­mi? (laugh)

Takekuma: This is not a brag but I have a phi­mo­sis. (laugh) Re­verse­ly, I guess peo­ple who fix­ate on breast size care about boobs be­ing small or big, but I don’t re­ally mind the size much.

Oizumi: I can’t stand big boobs. How about you, An­no? In terms of pref­er­ences.

Anno: Hmm, well, small ones are no good. Too big is no good ei­ther. There’s a lot Gi­ant Tits manga out there, right. That’s com­pletely out of ques­tion. They don’t even look like breasts any­more.

Takekuma: It’s a world of cows or the like.

Anno: Well no, it’s bet­ter to have some rather than none at all but I do won­der if hav­ing too much is good ei­ther.

Oizumi: Speak­ing for my­self, Mis­ato and the like might be slightly too big.

Takekuma: Mis­ato, what is up with her sexy body? Es­pe­cially with those eat­ing habits and she’s al­ready 3X years old, right?

Anno: But her boobs have started to sag. Even Mis­ato has lost re­silience of her skin.

Prano table of contents

Num­ber­s-kun trans­la­tion of Japan­ese web­page:

  • Part One: Long In­ter­view with Hideaki Anno (by Ken­taro Takeku­ma)

  • Chap­ter One: I won’t study any­more

    • An honor stu­dent in my home­town
    • My fam­ily
    • The first work I saw
    • The mon­ster and the hero
    • Yam­ato on a black­-and-white TV
    • I won’t study any­more
    • The leg­endary Yam­ato fea­ture
    • Farewell Yam­ato
    • Ab­sorbed in 8-mm film
  • Chap­ter Two: The birth of Daicon Film

    • Meet­ing Hi­royuki Ya­m­aga
    • Gun­dam starts broad­cast­ing!
    • Be­gin­ning on Ul­tra­man
    • The birth of Daicon Film
    • The rea­son I be­came Ul­tra­man
    • Set­back and sep­a­ra­tion
  • Chap­ter Three: The long road to Eva

    • Se­lected for Nau­si­caa of the Val­ley of the Wind

    • An in­so­lent new­comer

    • A sec­ond mas­ter

    • Grave of the Fire­flies

    • The di­rec­tor Isao Taka­hata

    • Hayao Miyaza­k­i’s view of Royal Space Force

    • The for­ma­tion of Gainax

    • Gainax did­n’t break up

    • Aim for the Top!

    • Anime loses money

    • The sus­pen­sion of Blue Uru Chap­ter Four: Feel­ing de­spair, but that point was the be­gin­ning

    • Con­flict

    • What’s so great about Gen­do?

    • To “de­pict a hu­man be­ing”

    • Noth­ing changes in the world

    • On ro­man­tic love

    • Cry­ing in the arms of a woman

    • The true mean­ing of words

    • Look­ing for one’s mother in a woman

    • What would be mad­ness?

    • Epi­logue

  • Columns: Hideaki An­no’s am­a­teur pe­riod (1) (2)

  • From Nau­si­caa to Na­dia

  • In­tro­duc­tion to the main char­ac­ters of Eva

  • Part Two: Hideaki Anno “tried in ab­sen­tia” by the staff of Evan­ge­lion (Sec­ond Part)

  • Why is the main char­ac­ter a boy?

  • On “I must­n’t run away”

  • Fa­ther and Mother (1) - (5)

  • Can Hideaki Anno “change”? (1) (2)

  • Why did Shinji pi­lot? (1) (2)

  • Rei Ayanami’s smile

  • On the last two episodes

  • Cri­tique of Otaku

  • Sui­ci­dal de­sires (1)

  • Psy­cho­log­i­cal at­tack

  • Sui­ci­dal de­sires (2)

  • At the end

  • Part Three: Me and Evan­ge­lion (Ken­taro Takeku­ma)

1997 S

The re-run for Evan­ge­lion were aired on Sat­ur­day nights from 1997.02.01 to 1997.03.15, at 26:55 (2:55 AM Sun­day). They aired four episodes in a row, and after that they had some live clips. They were as fol­lows.

Date Ep Ex­tras
1997.02.01 1-4 press con­fer­ence of the Evan­ge­lion movie
1997.02.08 5-8 otaku in lines wait­ing to buy tick­ets for the Eva movie
1997.02.15 9-12 main seiyuu com­ment­ing on the Eva movie: Ogata Megu­mi, Hayashibara Megu­mi, Mit­su­ishi Kotono, Miya­mura Yuko
1997.02.22 13-16 video clips from some Evan­ge­lion events: Miya­mura Yuko, Mit­su­ishi Kotono, Hayashibara Megumi
1997.03.01 17-20 in­side Gainax stu­dios: staff, cels, CG room
1997.03.08 21-23 30 minute spe­cial (nar­ra­tion by Tachiki Fu­mi­hiko)
1997.03.15 24-26


The 30 minute spe­cial that was aired on 1997.03.08 gave in­for­ma­tion about how big a hit Evan­ge­lion was: 200,000 ad­vance tick­ets for the movie were sold, 2,420,000 LDs and videos were sold, 880,000 CD sin­gles were sold, 1,240,000 CDs were sold, (the 3rd sound­track reached num­ber 1 in the Ori­con chart­s), 3,500,000 comics were sold.

There were high­lights from the TV se­ries, live video of Anno Hideaki (cre­ator and di­rec­tor of Evan­ge­lion), some clips of the main seiyuu (same clips that were used in the pre­vi­ous week­s), some in­ter­views with fans.

“Evan­ge­lion re-runs” (last up­dated 1997-03-03 by Hi­toshi Doi); they ran on TV Tokyo

The cult anime named Evan­ge­lion. A for­bid­den anime about how a group led by moral­ly/spir­i­tu­ally bank­rupt in­di­vid­u­als uses an autis­tic boy to wage pitched bat­tles against in­com­pre­hen­si­ble crea­tures, and how through con­tact with the hearts of a men­tally frag­ile, ban­daged girl and an overly self­-con­scious, trau­ma­tized girl, that boy ul­ti­mately at­tains de­liv­er­ance/sal­va­tion him­self in the fi­nal episode. Some view­ers be­came en­raged, some de­spon­dent, some lost friends as a re­sult of hys­ter­i­cal dis­putes, and some at­tained de­liv­er­ance/sal­va­tion them­selves.

… If mem­ory serves cor­rect­ly, when the plan arose they made up to Ep6 (de­spite Anno ap­par­ently say­ing in Quick Japan mag­a­zine that they had “made up to Ep7 in ad­vance”) and sent out feel­ers in all di­rec­tions, but were given the cold shoul­der by every com­pa­ny. (laugh) Even Bandai snubbed them based on the past re­sults of the huge fail­ure of “Wings of Hon­neamise (Royal Space Force)”. (laugh) They had con­nec­tions with a TV Tokyo pro­duc­er, but if you can’t get spon­sors it does­n’t mat­ter. So after wan­der­ing lost by the way­side for a bit, Kadokawa Shoten fi­nally picked them up. But the truth is that even Kadokawa just barely picked them up, and flatly re­jected their bud­get re­quests, say­ing that they only in­tended to bud­get the same level and not a yen more than other anime Kadokawa had spon­sored in the past (Tenchi Muyo, etc.).

… Anno him­self also replied in an in­ter­view that, “We com­pletely ran out of time part­way through….” How­ev­er, the di­rect cause was not the PTA or a lack of time, but the more press­ing is­sue of “bud­get”.

… …fi­nally mov­ing his heavy ar­se, Anno vastly re­struc­tured the pro­duc­tion sys­tem. First, 75% or more of the pro­duc­tion staff from Ep16 on­ward were out­sourced South Ko­rean staff43. In terms of the an­i­ma­tion as well, when reusing se­quences other than bank se­quences or for still shots, in­stead of us­ing the film, these se­quences were in­stead dubbed in at the end us­ing a video deck. This is why char­ac­ter close-ups and other shots that seemed to jig­gle in­creased part­way through the se­ries. They even mixed stu­pid pho­tographs and other stuff into the men­tal im­age scenes. In the worst cases some scenes just showed a still screen that lasted for a minute or more. But no mat­ter how much they strug­gled, they had al­ready ex­ceeded their bud­get and time lim­its. And then to top it all off were those last two episodes.

Al­though bud­get is­sues were the main prob­lem, Gainax had also quar­reled con­stantly with TV Tokyo since be­fore the TV air­ing over moral is­sues such as how the show would end and other de­tails. These ranged from triv­ial points such as it be­ing im­proper to show wom­en’s un­der­wear in the hang­ing laun­dry, to ma­jor items such as the bru­tal scene at the end of Ep18 “The Choice of Life”. It’s kind of let­ting the cat out of the bag now, but the truth is that “Asuka dies from mad­ness (she lives in the TV ver­sion),” “Shinji dis­solves but re­forms,” and “Rei also dies” were al­ready de­ter­mined be­fore the TV air­ing start­ed, and Gainax had quar­reled a num­ber of times with the TV Tokyo pro­ducer and re­lated par­ties over these plot de­vices. Fur­ther­more, the end­ing was sup­posed to have been “The main char­ac­ters die one after an­oth­er, and the fi­nal bat­tle is Ikari Shinji vs. Ikari Gen­do,” al­though there prob­a­bly is­n’t any ev­i­dence left to sup­port that now. (laugh) Well, ex­cept it seems that Hayashibara Megumi (voice ac­tress for Ayanami Rei) said on a ra­dio pro­gram some­thing like: “I might end up fight­ing against Shin­ji.” I also heard talk that “Mis­ato and Rit­suko both die fight­ing each oth­er, and Mis­ato’s death awak­ens Shin­ji(?)” Sur­pris­ing­ly, it seems the char­ac­ter who was the key to the cli­max was not Rei, but Mis­ato. But then I guess it does­n’t mat­ter what is said now. (laugh)

… When Ep20 aired, com­plaints poured in from the PTA. This in­fu­ri­ated TV Tokyo all the way up to the up­per man­age­ment, which made it im­pos­si­ble for Gainax to take any bold mea­sures. Nowa­days it’s pretty much taken for granted that the only peo­ple who com­plain over every lit­tle thing in chil­dren’s TV anime or manga are peo­ple like Ko­fuku-no-K­a­gaku* pulling a pub­lic­ity stunt for their “evil book ban­ning move­ment”…. Still, at that point the TV Tokyo up­per man­age­ment is­sued the se­vere no­tice that “Any anime that is del­uged with com­plaints from the PTA even once from now on will be can­celed re­gard­less of the rea­son.” The anime “Bakuretsu Hunters” and “Fushigi Yugi” were air­ing on the same chan­nel at the time, and these also caught flak and re­ceived strict warn­ings even though they had not done any­thing. (laugh) That’s why there were so many un­nat­ural changes in the story con­tents from Ep20 on­ward.44

So for these rea­sons, the Eva [TV] end­ing was made un­der con­di­tions with Gainax’s hands tied in terms of bud­get, time and con­tent. Con­sid­er­ing that the last two episodes were made un­der those con­di­tions, Di­rec­tor Anno might even be viewed as amaz­ing…. Nope, I just can’t view him like that. (laugh) After all it was his own damn fault that things turned out that way.

… Anno said in some anime mag­a­zine that “Kat­suragi Mis­ato is mod­eled in part on my first love,” but do you know who he was talk­ing about? It’s Hi­daka Noriko, the voice ac­tress for Jean in “Na­dia and the Se­cret of Blue Wa­ter”. (laugh) When the TV ver­sion of “Na­dia” launched, Anno con­fessed his feel­ings to Hi­daka Noriko. This is a fa­mous story in the in­dus­try. Ap­par­ently Anno told her that he “looked at her not as an ob­ject of ado­ra­tion/­long­ing, but as a se­ri­ous love in­ter­est!” (ROTFL!) Ap­par­ently he was even se­ri­ously think­ing of mar­riage. How­ev­er, Hi­daka Noriko re­fused him flat­ly, say­ing “I have no in­ten­tion of mar­ry­ing some­one in the anime in­dus­try.” Wait, what? Don’t we know now that she was mar­ried to some ani­me-re­lated pro­ducer at the time? (ROTFL!) But Anno would not give up, and told her, “Well, watch my next work, and then de­cide!” In other words Anno was propos­ing an affair to the al­ready mar­ried Hi­daka Noriko. (laugh) Any­way, Anno next work was “Evan­ge­lion”, so… Evan­ge­lion might be con­sid­ered a work that em­bod­ies some­thing of a stalker ob­ses­sion.

… But it looks like there is no short­age of peo­ple will­ing to get paid and be­come fa­mous for writ­ing mag­a­zine ar­ti­cles on the sub­ject. Is­n’t that right? Okada-san? Takeku­ma-san? Ot­suki Ken­ji-san?45 (ROTFL!)

The Kai­bun­sho; Carl Horn’s crit­i­cism of the above Kai­bun­sho (but see his ar­ti­cle men­tion­ing ‘gos­sip’ link­ing Anno & Miya­mu­ra): http://e­va.o­­mail/e­van­ge­lion/2006-Sep­tem­ber/003726.html http://e­va.o­­mail/e­van­ge­lion/2006-Sep­tem­ber/003730.html. Olivier Hagué gave in 2001 the same story about Anno & Noriko, but it’s un­clear whether he’s draw­ing on the Kai­bun­sho or whether that story had been cir­cu­lat­ing in­de­pen­dent­ly.

Mari Kotani’s Im­mac­u­late Vir­gin:

Dec. is­sue of New­Type has an in­ter­view with Sadamoto Yoshiyu­ki. With my very lim­ited skill in Japan­ese, I think Sadamoto talked about the fact that the differ­ences be­tween the TV and manga is some­thing he did very de­lib­er­ate­ly-with a more tra­di­tional Shonen Manga ap­proach . Maybe Patrick should trans­late that in­ter­view for us which I find will be much valu­able… [wink to Patrick]

1997 T

  • 1997-an­i­ma­tion­plan­et-nge01.pdf
  • 1997-an­i­ma­tion­plan­et-nge04.pdf
  • 1997-animer­i­ca-a­mand­win­nin­ter­view.pdf
  • 1997-animer­i­ca-gener­icde­scrip­tion.pdf
  • 1997-animer­i­ca-in­ter­views19921997.pdf
  • 1997-animer­i­ca-masko­r­face.pdf
  • 1997-animer­i­ca-spike­spencer­in­ter­view.pdf
  • 1997-marikotani-newmil­len­ni­al­ist.txt
  • 1997-newswire-car­toonevavoidy­outh.txt

The end­ing scene has burnt in my mind. It is a scene that is hard to for­get…. I ac­tu­ally saw peo­ple sob­bing at the end when I was at the cin­ema watch­ing EoE. http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/1997-Oc­to­ber/006527.html

An­no, as late as the No­vem­ber ’96 is­sue of New­type mag­a­zine, still de­nied that the last two episodes were a “lousy job” and ar­gued that the Gainax crew worked in­cred­i­bly hard to fin­ish the se­ries, which he thinks “ended beau­ti­ful­ly.” He re­gret­ted that fans can­not ap­pre­ci­ate Gainax’s efforts.

Asked about the vi­o­lence and un­char­ac­ter­is­tic sex scene in episodes 18 and 19, Anno said that the scenes were nec­es­sary to de­velop the story and “to un­der­stand real life.” He felt that chil­dren should be ex­posed early to the re­al­i­ties of life so that they do not grow up weak and shel­tered and so that they will be­come im­mune to some of the harsh sit­u­a­tions they will even­tu­ally ex­pe­ri­ence. Many fans at the con­ven­tion thought that this was an in­ter­est­ing view­point on his part.

Do you won­der why Eva got so dark and psy­cho­log­i­cal near the end? After all, Anno is the guy who di­rected Na­dia of the Mys­te­ri­ous Seas, one of the liveli­est and fun­ni­est anime I’ve ever watched. Ac­cord­ing to An­no, from episode 16 on, he be­gan read­ing books about hu­man psy­chol­ogy and be­came very in­ter­est­ed. He wanted to ex­plore “what the hu­man mind is all about in­side.”

“I wrote about my­self. My friend lent me a book on psy­cho­log­i­cal ill­ness and this gave me a shock, as if I fi­nally found what I needed to say,” he says in the No­vem­ber New­type.46

http://www.c­­ti­cles/spring97/05_03b.html / http://www.e­vao­taku.­com/o­make/an­no.html

The orig­i­nal show ended in April, but EVA’s suc­cess has con­tin­ued un­abat­ed, with best­selling sales on laserdisc and video- even its mu­sic has gone through the roof, with vol­ume 3 of the EVA sound­track be­ing the first anime al­bum to hit #1 on the Japan­ese pop charts since GALAXY EXPRESS 999, sev­en­teen years be­fore.

but its non­tra­di­tional struc­ture, nar­ra­tive tech­niques, and an end­ing that over ten mil­lion Japan­ese tuned in to, only to raise a na­tional howl of protest by the time the clos­ing cred­its rolled.

‘Anno Mirabil­is: The Tri­umph and Con­tro­versy of Gainax’s NEON GENESIS; part 1

Much of the premise and many of the early el­e­ments of EVA are fa­mil­iar, in­deed stereo­typed el­e­ments of Japan­ese TV sci­ence fic­tion: teenage boy is cho­sen to pi­lot a ro­bot his fa­ther built and fight against the en­e­my. It’s rem­i­nis­cent of anime from GIGANTOR to GIANT ROBO ( on which Anno was spe­cial - effects di­rec­tor ) , and the weird or­ganic forms of the en­e­my, who at­tack one at a time, are rem­i­nis­cent of the “mon­ster of the week” tokusatsu shows such as ULTRAMAN ( An­no’s fa­vorite tele­vi­sion show ) . The di­rec­tor of EVANGELION be­gan from an im­me­di­ately fa­mil­iar and rec­og­niz­able tem­plate, but in an in­ter­view be­fore the show first aired, put the ques­tion up front: “If a per­son likes ro­bot or cute girl an­i­ma­tion, can they still be happy with it after the age of twen­ty?” It may seem like an odd ques­tion for An­no, 36 year - old su­per - otaku, who cre­ated in EVA an anime full of ro­bots and cute girls, to pose.

But the di­rec­tor was quite se­ri­ous: his stu­dio, Gainax is known as the otaku who ex­am­ine them­selves. The per­son­al, al­le­gor­i­cal na­ture of their work was treated se­ri­ously in HONNEAMISE and hu­mor­ously in OTAKU NO VIDEO, and it emerges through­out the length of EVANGELION, many of whose multi - gen­er­a­tional cast of char­ac­ters are painted masks for the show’s staff and most es­pe­cially for Hideaki Anno him­self.

… but Gainax’s con­tin­u­ing chal­lenge to the in­dus­try is in some ways more in­trigu­ing, as it at­tempts to effect a rev­o­lu­tion from deep in­sid­e-its otaku build­ing their in­tri­cate fan­tasy cas­tles in a su­per - de­tailed style of ob­ses­sive de­tail, then dis­man­tling them brick by brick to show their sense of an un­der­ly­ing and in­escapable re­al­i­ty.

part 2

Scott Rid­er, EoE re­view

If you’re on the news­group and read this, could you per­haps an­swer a ques­tion about End of Evan­ge­lion?

What ac­tu­ally hap­pens in the movie is that as Nine Inch Nails’ “March of the Pigs” blares, An­no, backed by strobe lights, nude ex­cept for a tip of the hat to William Bur­roughs, and vis­i­bly aroused, blows away suc­ces­sive EVA char­ac­ters with a 12-gauge Moss­berg air­soft, the six mil­lime­ter pel­lets shred­ding ac­etate avatars. At the end, cov­ered by flecked and filmy rem­nants, he in­serts the gun into his own mouth, only to find the bore choked by wads of mer­chan­dis­ing cash.

–Carl “I wear this crown of shit/Upon my liar’s chair” Horn



1998 P

  • 1998-animer­i­ca-sadamo­toin­t­er­view-fr-open­ing.txt
  • 1998-animer­i­ca-sadamo­toin­t­er­view.pdf

“Feb/98 is­sue of An­i­m­age fea­tures Anno Hideak­i…The Love & Pop fea­ture in An­i­m­age is re­ally wide-rang­ing: There are in­ter­views with all 4 ac­tress­es, in­ter­view with Anno Hideaki (He got a spe­cial in­ter­view­er, who is a woman manga artist), in­ter­view with Ryuu Mu­rakami (the orig­i­nal au­thor of the epony­mous nov­el), in­ter­view with Miyuki Nanri (the pro­ducer of the movie), in­ter­view with Yuki Masa (the cast­ing of the movie, also di­rec­tor of Death and Re­birth: Evan­ge­lion), in­ter­view with Takahide Shibanushi (the film pho­tog­ra­pher of the movie), and ex­cerpts of feed­back from peo­ple (aged from 16 to 30) who saw the pre­miere show of the movie. Fi­nally there is a re­port of Anno win­ning the 18th SF Award of Japan. Al­to­gether there are 26 pages cov­er­ing the movie, a real trib­ute to An­no, es­pe­cially one com­ing from an anime mag­a­zine.”


from the May 1998 is­sue of EVANGELION:

On An­no’s se­vere de­pres­sion, his “cri­sis of the soul,” as a mo­tive in the de­vel­op­ment of Evan­ge­lion.

YAMAGA: Well, I think Anno may have ap­peared in the Japan­ese me­dia as you sug­gest; he’s made com­ments about want­ing to die, and so forth, but at least from my per­spec­tive, things were never as se­ri­ous as they ap­peared in the press. [LAUGHS]

On the rea­sons for use of Judeo-Chris­t­ian sym­bol­ogy in Eva

YAMAGA: I don’t know ex­actly why. I sus­pect that Mr. Anno may have read some book on it, and there was some thoughts he wanted to ex­press on it. I per­son­ally am glad that, rather than Chris­tian­i­ty, he did­n’t ex­press some ob­scure Bud­dhist the­me, be­cause then it would have been linked more with Aum Shin­rikyo. [LAUGHS]

On whether Anno and Ya­m­aga are fans of David Lynch, and whether Anno is “the Kurt Cobain of ani­me.”

YAMAGA: As far as Mr. Anno com­mit­ting sui­cide or any­thing like that [LAUGHS], I’m not re­ally sure how to say this, but, while some­times he might seem very emo­tion­al, when you get to know him, he does­n’t come off like that at all. [LAUGHS] As far as David Lynch is con­cerned, I don’t dis­like David Lynch, but on the other hand, he’s not some­one I’m a huge fan of, ei­ther. As far as An­no, there have been peo­ple who have called Evan­ge­lion the anime equiv­a­lent of Twin Peaks. [LAUGHS]

http://e­va.o­­mail/e­van­ge­lion/2006-Sep­tem­ber/003693.html (see also http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/1998-June/015609.html); these com­ments are sourced from the 1998 Fanime panel with Ya­m­a­ga; Pe­ter Svens­son con­firms the ‘some book’ com­ment (see http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/1998-Feb­ru­ary/010543.html and per­sonal com­mu­ni­ca­tion, but also later says “Well, at Fanime Con, Ya­m­aga said that Anno was in­flu­enced(on the re­li­gious as­pects of EVA) by a nov­el…”. A mis­take or were 2 books dis­cussed? TODO emailed Svens­son again)

Asahi News­pa­per pub­lishes a weekly mag­a­zine “AERA.” AERA 08/31/1998 is­sue dealt with an in­ter­view with Hideaki An­no.

As you know, he is 180 cm tall. He is a kind of gi­ant for nor­mal Japan­ese.

He al­ways fears some­thing. But he him­self is a kind of fear.

He was born in 1960 in Ube city, Ya­m­aguchi Pre­fec­ture. In his child­hood, Ube city has ship­yards. His in­side pro­to-land­scape is like such a ship­yard, say, NERV base. (Fac­ulty of Med­i­cine, Ya­m­aguchi Uni­ver­sity is lo­cated at Ube city.)

His fa­ther Takuya Anno lost his left leg like Touji Suzuhara.

Hideaki Anno fears an­i­mal. There­fore he is a veg­e­tar­i­an.

He said, “I can­not break my own heart shell. How­ever I think I can en­large it be­cause I com­pleted EVA.”

He is shy in fact.

He made EVA as his pri­vate ani­me. After EVA, he es­caped from work. He tried to kill him­self47. In or­der not to kill him­self, he had to live at the build­ing of GAiNAX, Musashino-c­i­ty, Tokyo.

But he lost his every­thing be­cause he wasted out his all in­side to make EVA.

http://we­­b/20071207235755/www.­geoc­i­ties.­com/­Toky­o/4081/­file425.htm­l#3 cf.http://web­space.we­bring.­com/peo­ple/cu/um_2708/­colj089.html (the one leg is con­firmed in Prano men­tion of his fa­ther’s de­for­mi­ty; for more on the de­tails of how Takuya An­no’s leg was lost and his trou­bled abu­sive re­la­tion­ship with Hideaki An­no, see the 1999-10-03 in­ter­view in the Asahi Shim­bun)

[An­no] The rea­son the game busi­ness pros­pered and grew so fast is be­cause it was a ven­ture. But games have fi­nally tanked too. It hap­pened pretty fast, did­n’t it? Our gen­er­a­tion is nat­u­rally a shal­low one, and there’s no-one who’s try­ing to over­turn things. There is­n’t any­one try­ing to make “me-anime” now, is there?

…[An­no] The first time I saw “Vir­tua Fighter”[2], I thought, is this what anime is up again­st? It was quite a shock. That’s when I re­al­ized I’d have to level up some­where other than the vi­su­als, I guess right be­fore I did “EVA”. Vi­sual im­pact is ani­me’s strong point, but since games had fol­lowed on ani­me’s heels, it had be­come a time when a method­ol­ogy no differ­ent from the oth­ers just would­n’t cut it. All the cards had al­ready been dealt, so we had no choice but to change the com­bi­na­tion, or turn over cards that were thought to be taboo. That’s what I mean when I say that “EVA” did­n’t use even a sin­gle new method­ol­o­gy.

[Ikuhara] Ah, like what the me­dia talks about as cre­ator­hood when dis­cussing an­i­mated works. But that’s just an il­lu­sion, and ac­tu­ally in the anime busi­ness no such thing as a cre­ator is any­where to be found. All there are are peo­ple who were brought along by the found­ing of the sys­tem. The peo­ple who de­vise the form of the anime of to­day.

…[An­no] Re­cently I watched some “Kinchuu” (“Kingiyo Chu­ui­hou!”)[9]. As re­search for “Kare Kano”. I thought that per­haps that was what gags and shoujo manga were. But it felt a lit­tle old.

[Ikuhara] Old? It feels like things are di­vided into the time be­fore and after “Sailor Moon”. I feel like it re­ally in­fected the tastes at Comiket. [An­no] Yeah. Whether some­thing’s ma­jor or not at Comiket amounts to whether or not it gets made into erotic stuff. After all, the sex in­dus­try is strong no mat­ter what era it is. As Tsu­ru­maki (Kazuya) said, earnestly value all things equal­ly. Both Hi­ro­matsu Junko and Ayanami Rei. I can’t ex­press it in words, but I feel the same chasm within my­self.

[Ikuhara] I think it’s the feel­ing of an­ti-sep­tic­ness. The im­pres­sion that they don’t smell like any­thing is good.

[An­no] Yes, yes, ex­act­ly.

[Ikuhara] Ap­par­ently stuff like un­nec­es­sary hair, or nose hair, is­n’t ab­solute. Of course, in pic­tures the char­ac­ters don’t ac­tu­ally have nos­trils (laugh). I bet every­one would start hat­ing pic­tures of girls if we drew nos­trils on them.

[An­no] Cel anime fans are more ster­ile than that.

[Ikuhara] The idols of a decade ago felt re­ally ster­ile. But re­cently ac­tresses and TV tal­ents are feel­ing less re­mote and more re­al­is­tic.

[An­no] Does that in­clude us, by any chance? It’s an ex­is­tence where courage and fa­mil­iar­ity seem to be drain­ing away.

[Ikuhara] If so, the place that the peo­ple who rec­og­nize the feel­ing of steril­ity are car­ry­ing with them in their thoughts will dis­ap­pear.

[An­no] That’s why I’m go­ing with the cel anime sys­tem.

[Ikuhara] There’s some­where where we’ll give up, is­n’t there. We’re try­ing to ful­fill our own am­bi­tions vir­tu­al­ly. I sup­pose if we were do­ing it for real we should be try­ing to make more prop­erly ideal cities and bet­ter hu­man re­la­tions. I can’t re­ally say it in any­thing but pedes­trian terms, but, like with things like the Aum[*1] in­ci­dent, I can un­der­stand the feel­ings of the peo­ple who want to re­or­ga­nize the world.

[An­no] In or­der to see a made-up dra­ma, there are even peo­ple who ne­glect their real lives, right? That kind of per­son does things like be­come a seiyuu fan.

[Ikuhara] I bet what they re­ally wanted was to touch an anime char­ac­ter.

[An­no] For some­thing that could con­nect the vir­tual and the re­al, I too turned to the seiyuu. But that was a mis­take. That’s why I tried to show some­thing differ­ent in “Kare Kano”. But al­ter­ing the ex­ist­ing sys­tem is tough.

…[An­no] Yes, a world where some­thing is done with the body alone. Noth­ing else be­fits a doc­u­men­tary. A world that shows noth­ing of cre­ation.

[Ikuhara] Take “Utena” and “EVA”. They take a frag­ment of our work and talk about us in­tro­duc­ing im­pact into our an­i­ma­tion, say­ing it’s like Ter­ayama Shushi[12]’s work or some­thing. It’s noth­ing that nar­row, is it? I think that what ap­pears in our works is the com­plex about the body that peo­ple who make made-up anime feel.

[An­no] I use the word “life­like-ness”. Com­pared to that, cel anime is pretty and vir­tu­al. Be­cause I feel a sense of thwarted life in cur­rent cel ani­me, I want to try to peek at it from a slightly differ­ent di­rec­tion. Like try­ing not to use any of the es­tab­lished seiyuu.

New­type Oc­to­ber 1998 in­ter­view (mir­ror); EML copy of orig­i­nal Usenet trans­la­tion

“Is Anno sane?” (see also http://e­va.o­­mail/e­van­ge­lion/2006-Au­gust/003688.html and http://e­va.o­­mail/e­van­ge­lion/2006-Au­gust/003689.html)

Horn’s affir­ma­tion that Pe­ter Svens­son re­ally did ask at ’98 Fanime of Ya­m­aga whether Anno was sane: http://e­va.o­­mail/e­van­ge­lion/2006-Au­gust/003688.html

“The May 1998 is­sue would have been called”Book Two, Is­sue #3" on its cover (that is, it con­tained the third chap­ter from vol. 2, Stage 9). It con­tained a spe­cial fea­ture tran­scrib­ing some of Hi­royuki Ya­m­a­ga’s an­swers to au­di­ence ques­tions at Fanime Con ’98 after a screen­ing of Evan­ge­lion: Death (True) and Evan­ge­lion (Re­birth). I be­lieve Mr. Ya­m­a­ga’s panel was also cov­ered in Pro­to­cul­ture Ad­dicts, but they may have in­cluded some re­marks and not oth­ers (and the re­verse is likely true for my piece)."

–per­sonal email with Carl Horn

  • Miss­ing pri­mary source books (listed in E-Mono):

‘As for the books by Hideaki An­no. They were not writ­ten by An­no. The Blue one “Suk­ina Evan­ge­lion” (EVA that I love) is sup­posed to be a very “de­tailed” in­ter­view with An­no. The yel­low one “Barano Evan­ge­lion” (EVA like rose) is sup­posed to be a very de­tailed in­ter­view with the pro­duc­tion staff “when Anno was not around”.’ http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/1998-Feb­ru­ary/010670.html

‘I’ve checked the E-MONO book and now I know which two books you are talk­ing about. The ones with blue and yel­low cover re­spec­tive­ly, right? Un­for­tu­nate­ly, they were not “writ­ten” by An­no. The “suk­ina” (blue) book is sup­posed to be a “very de­tailed” in­ter­view with An­no; while the “barano” (yel­low) book is sup­posed to be also a “very de­tailed” in­ter­view with the pro­duc­tion staff “when Anno was not around”. I don’t have them in pos­ses­sion though.’ http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/1998-Feb­ru­ary/010182.html

"the un­for­giv­ing other

the sub­sti­tute op­po­site sex

the sud­den hu­mil­i­a­tion

the anx­i­ety of de­par­ture (from oth­er)

the hor­ror (s­care?) of the other

dan­ger­ous think­ing (wis­dom)

the proud of tak­ing chance (????)

mercy of the weak

the un­happy photo

the scar of the pass

the un­com­fort­able/em­bar­rass­ing stage (?)

be­yond com­mon sense

ques­tion the value

com­bi­na­tion of lust and love

re­turn to the womb (!!!)

empty time ( the time here I think is be­ing used as noun….so time­less­ness?)

the vi­sion of dis­trac­tion

the fic­tional be­gin­ning

the con­tin­u­a­tion of re­al­ity

this, is the end of the dream"

–The Sym­phony of Evan­ge­lion con­cert had a num­ber of telops flashed dur­ing EoE pieces; George Chen made the pre­ced­ing list.

Episode 23


  1. Cut 1-51 Added Rit­suko’s room scene. Cor­rec­tions on var­i­ous back­ground.
  2. Cut 52-118 When the An­gel try­ing to get into Unit-00, added one “Mon­i­tor scene”.
  3. Cut 139-163 The in­ner Uni­verse of Rei. Huge cor­rec­tions on the draw­ings (note: ac­cord­ing to the newslet­ter any­way)
  4. Cut 139-163, 335-378, 182-190. Here, there are a lot of new scenes. We are sup­pose to see a “Gi­ant Rei” be­fore Unit 00 ex­plodes (note: Like I said, I will not be able to con­firm these notes till Sun­day night. ^_^)


  1. 191-223 Var­i­ous cor­rec­tions of scenes of Mis­ato and Shin­ji.
  2. Cut 223B-F Gendo and Fuyut­suki in front of the Dummy Plug. New scenes (Note: !!!!! Will see it Sun­day night!!!!!)
  3. Rei III. Var­i­ous cor­rec­tions but no new footage.
  4. Cut 256-278 Agen­t’s room. The com­po­si­tion which Fuyut­suk­i’s in is differ­ent. Seele with the nude Rit­suko; com­po­si­tion of the scene is differ­ent.
  5. Cut 279-303. Mi­nor cor­rec­tions in the el­e­va­tor scenes with Rit­suko, Mis­ato and Shin­ji. There seems to be more “space” after the mod­i­fi­ca­tions.
  6. Cut 304-334. While Rit­suko de­scribe the na­ture of Rei. There are added scenes of dis­cov­ery of Adam, and cre­ation of Eva.

Episode 24


  1. Cut 1-14. The scenes which Asuka learned that Kaji is dead is added.
  2. Cut 15-58. The bath­tub scenes are much more “clear” now due to the TV vs. LD (Note: no cen­sor­ship).
  3. Cut 71-79. The Rei and Ka­woru scenes. New di­a­logue be­tween the 2 added. (!!!)
  4. Cut 319-337 Seele and Ka­woru—Misato’s mon­i­tor (????). New Scenes. (Note: Since this is just notes….­plus I am do­ing a lit­eral trans­la­tions of those notes….I will have to put this into con­text later on…a­gain…­Sun­day night)
  5. Cut 150-310. News scenes which Unit 02 de­scend­ing into Cen­tral Dog­ma. Seele’s di­a­logue is new. Lilith started to grow legs. (Which in the orig­i­nal the scenes only con­tain Lilith with­out lower part of the body).
  6. Cut 311-318. Light pole had been added to the scenes by the lake (Note: So? A_A ). Re­flec­tion on near the shore had been cor­rect­ed.

Ad­di­tional changes:

In the pre­view sec­tion: The orig­i­nal pre­view of TV 25, 26 are re­tained but also added the pre­view of “Air” and “My Pure Heart for you”.

George Chen, de­scrib­ing the notes ac­com­pa­ny­ing the Japan­ese re­lease of Gen­e­sis 0:12 and de­scrib­ing the changes & ad­di­tions made as part of the Di­rec­tor’s Cut

An­no: Be­fore that I read Mr. Mat­sumo­to’s Bat­tle­field manga se­ries, and I also liked Wadachi. I was hang­ing out in my neigh­bor­hood brows­ing through an is­sue of Ad­ven­ture King when I saw the an­nounce­ment for the first episode: “New se­ries, Space Bat­tle­ship Yam­a­to.” The ti­tle caught my fas­ci­na­tion im­me­di­ate­ly. In our house we had one TV and the rest of my fam­ily wanted to watch Hei­di, but I wanted Yam­a­to. That was how it first pulled me in and got me de­vot­ed. These days we call it a ‘ham­mer.’ I think that was the first work to give me such an ex­pe­ri­ence.

Mat­sumo­to: Well, one of the few peo­ple who was in our au­di­ence! Our rat­ings were close to ze­ro.

An­no: I went out and pros­e­ly­tized for it. I told all my school­mates, “watch Yam­a­to!” They could al­ways catch Heidi in re­runs. Or maybe not. (Laugh­ter)

…An­no: If not for that, I don’t think I’d be do­ing my job now. That’s for sure. I recorded episodes on cas­sette then, be­cause there were no VCRs, so I think Miya­gawa-sen­sei’s mu­sic was the only kind I lis­tened to. (Laugh­ter)

Yam­ato was an epic. It made us feel like we were see­ing adult anime for the first time. It was­n’t di­rected at chil­dren. The mu­sic was very adult, too. Of course, it had a huge vi­sual im­pact, but since I was in the gen­er­a­tion that lis­tened to Yam­ato on tape, it’s what gave me an ear for mu­sic. By the virtue of those two things, that’s why I’m here now.

Mat­sumo­to: An eighth-grader, about 14 years old. That was the first age where you could re­ally get into it. That’s how it was with my gen­er­a­tion, too, but we drifted away when it did­n’t suit us any­more. Yours is the gen­er­a­tion that was as­sim­i­lated into the screen.

An­no: The in­flu­ence of Cap­tain Okita was very big. Goro Naya’s voice telling us to over­come our fears and be­lieve in to­mor­row. I said, “Yes! That’s it!” (Laugh­ter)

My view of life and the way I think about things was surely in­flu­enced by that.

…[Leiji Mat­sumo­to]: Any­way, it [Space Bat­tle­ship Yam­ato] was my first an­i­ma­tion job. It was pretty hard. Hon­est­ly, I was­n’t con­cerned about the rat­ings. I brought it up, but I don’t mind it par­tic­u­lar­ly.

An­no: It had a lot of en­er­gy. The work of [An­i­ma­tion Di­rec­tor] Noboru Ishig­uro was very good.

Mat­sumo­to: We’re the same age. We were about 36 then. The main staff was gen­er­ally about that age. That was the gen­er­a­tion that would­n’t go down with­out a fight. We’d have shout­ing matches or turn a deaf ear and kick up a big fuss about things and stay up all night.

An­no: Ishig­uro once asked me if I was over 30. I said I was al­ready 32, and he said “you’ve got three more years. You’ll do the best work of your life at 35.” That’s about how old he was when he made Yam­a­to, so it’s true.

I was 35 when I made Evan­ge­lion, so I guess that’s my best work. 35 or 36 may be the right age.

…Mat­sumo­to: It’s a very pow­er­ful thing, a dream in­spired by the fem­i­nine. It gives men a lust for life. To per­se­vere through many hard­ships for the sake of a match­less beau­ty.

An­no: Like hear­ing the voice of Star­sha and fly­ing all the way to Is­can­dar? I’d go for her, but if it was some scruffy guy in­stead, I would­n’t an­swer the call no mat­ter how ur­gent. I would­n’t be­lieve him! (Laugh­ter)

Mat­sumo­to: Nei­ther would I!

An­no: If there is­n’t an in­cred­i­bly beau­ti­ful woman at the end of the jour­ney, there’s no use. I’d want to go just to meet the woman.

“A Yam­ato Dis­cus­sion with Hideaki An­no, Leiji Mat­sumo­to, and Hi­roshi Miya­gawa; trans­lated from the 1998 Rail­way of Fan­tasy Con­cert Pro­gram”

Tell us about your feel­ings vis-a-vis your char­ac­ter.

As far as I’m con­cerned, Shinji is all grown up, as of the end of the movie. Every­one has their own feel­ings on the sub­ject, start­ing with the di­rec­tor, but to me, he’s fin­ished wan­der­ing from child to adult. Thus I was pretty stuck when it came to do­ing this game. You see, this is still Shinji at that time in his life when he’s lost, and it was pretty tough for me to re­call that pe­ri­od. That may well have caused me to blank out at times, which might be just like Shin­ji, in some per­verse way (laugh­s). To me per­son­al­ly, Shinji grew up, very nat­u­ral­ly…and would­n’t want to go back to the way things were. I may well have made him a differ­ent char­ac­ter from the way he was be­fore, in fact. I’m sorry (laugh­s).

… –What was it like squar­ing off with other char­ac­ters?

I only played off Hi­daka Noriko, and the shows she worked on (Top and Na­dia) had pretty differ­ent world­views from Eva, which left me kind of stuck. Shinji was a very real sort of char­ac­ter, in that he did­n’t act like an anime char­ac­ter, but typ­i­cally talked very qui­etly and spar­ing­ly, and it was like he was sud­denly thrust into an anime world (laugh­s). Here I was, talk­ing with Shin­ji’s gloomy voice, and right next to me is Hi­daka Noriko, with her pos­i­tive, im­pas­sioned man­ner of speech. I thought that this must be what your av­er­age anime hero is re­ally like (laugh­s). The gap in ten­sion lev­els be­tween these char­ac­ters was so great that I’m wor­ried that it might have put a crimp in her per­for­mance too.

…If you use Shin­ji, you’re likely to lose, so I rec­om­mend against it (laugh­s).

Megumi Ogata, seiyuu in­ter­views for Gainax web­site on mahjong game (likely trans­lated by Michael House); that is the only trans­lated in­ter­view avail­able in IA, al­though an old email may im­ply that other in­ter­views were trans­lat­ed. The more in­ter­est­ing of the other mahjong in­ter­views:

On the 9th (fi­nal) vol­ume of the film comics, the com­ments for episode.26 starts with sev­eral lines end­ing with “At last, the HCP has been ex­e­cut­ed. … How about the com­ple­men­ta­tion of Shin­ji? How about the com­ple­men­ta­tion of Shin­ji’s heart? Here the path of Shin­ji’s com­ple­men­ta­tion is de­scribed. This is just one form” [kat­achi: shape, form; I am tempted to trans­late it as sce­nar­io, but I think I’d bet­ter pre­serve the orig­i­nal word as much as pos­si­ble. The Japan­ese here “Kore wa mata hi­totsu no kat­achi de atta” has the con­no­ta­tion that there are other “forms”, which I in­ter­pret as other pos­si­bil­i­ties, or other end­ings.].

At the very end of the episode, when Shinji is smil­ing and all that. The com­ment said, “Shin­ji’s bliss­ful smile. This is the smile of com­ple­mented Shin­ji. This is just one form, one of the many pos­si­bil­i­ties.”

Patrick Yip

Karekano research

In 1998, Hideaki An­no, prior to pro­duc­tion of , en­gaged in a se­ries of di­a­logues with stu­dents in sev­eral high schools, which were pub­lished by the Mainichi In­ter­me­di­ate-School News and even­tu­ally trans­lated & re­pub­lished on the Gainax web­site (and like every­thing else ever pub­lished there, since delet­ed): “Please Lis­ten To Me, Mr. An­no! Anno Hideaki X High­school Boys & Girls” in­dex:

Anno Hideaki is work­ing on the prepa­ra­tions for his new anime se­ries, “Kareshi; Kanojo no Ji­joo”. As this will be a high­-school love com­e­dy, Anno is per­son­ally do­ing re­search into what high­-school kids are like these days. There is a col­umn in the young peo­ple’s news­pa­per, Mainichi Chugaku­sei Shim­bun (Mainichi Mid­dle-School­er’s News), called “An­no-Kan­toku Ki­ite Yo! (Hear What Anno Hideaki Has to Say)”, which de­tails this on­go­ing pro­ject. With the gra­cious per­mis­sion of the pa­per’s ed­i­to­r­ial sec­tion, we are priv­i­leged to bring you in­stall­ments from the fea­ture. Now you can en­joy con­ver­sa­tions be­tween pre­sen­t-day Japan­ese high­-school­ers, and Anno Hideaki, who was a high­-schooler twenty years ago.

Toyoko Acad­emy High School:

Fu­jimi High School:

Kana­gawa Pre­fec­tural Ikuta High School:

The Meiji Uni­ver­sity As­so­ci­ated Ju­nior-High and High Schools of Nakano and Ha­chio­ji:

Tokyo Toyama Pub­lic High School:

Tokyo Nishi Pub­lic High School:

The di­a­logues are in­ter­est­ing be­cause of the wide range of ma­te­r­ial dis­cussed like con­tem­po­rary pol­i­tics. I sus­pect the di­a­logues did in­flu­ence His and Her Cir­cum­stances, par­tic­u­larly in how the pro­tag­o­nists have sex early in the se­ries.

Here, I’ve found what I had lost—Anno said this with a heart­felt voice.

How could Toyoko Acad­emy have noth­ing but nice peo­ple like this? No bul­ly­ing, no vi­o­lence, no fail­ures to com­mu­ni­cate…the ed­i­to­r­ial staff were them­selves pro­foundly moved to find that a school such as this ex­ists in a so­ci­ety full of ug­li­ness, hate, and de­spair. Is it re­ally like this, though? We asked the stu­dents to tell us more.

… Kashi­wara: Even within a given class, we re­spect one an­oth­er. It makes me feel good to have such good friends. We pat one an­other on the back when we do some­thing good, and cry to­gether when some­thing sad hap­pens.

An­no: Here, I have found what I had lost. I guess I’ve just got­ten hard and crusty. But my heart is burst­ing at the thought that peo­ple like you still ex­ist.

http://we­­b/20050211083730/www.­gainax.­­cial/ki­itey­o/­toyoko02-e.html “(From the Oct. 1, 1998 edi­tion of Mainichi In­ter­me­di­ate-School News)”

An­no: There’s re­ally noth­ing I can say here. I mean, I’ve been aware of the ex­is­tence of high­-school stu­dents like you, in­tel­lec­tu­al­ly. Right now, I’m work­ing on an anime se­ries based on a girls’ man­ga, but the world of girls’ comics, where every­one is nice, looks com­pletely un­real to me. It’s a ma­jor sur­prise to find that there are peo­ple in the world who praise oth­ers so un­re­served­ly. I guess such peo­ple re­ally do ex­ist after all.

Kashi­wara: Do un­pleas­ant things re­ally ex­ist?

An­no: There’s no need to go out of your way to find them.


Anno pic­ture: http­s://we­­b/20000518202351if_/http://www.­gainax.­­cial/ki­itey­o/­toyoko06.jpg

Kasagi: I think that’s one of your good points, though, Aya (Kashi­wara). You’re con­fi­dent in your­self, so you can’t let any­one see even a lit­tle bit of break­down. You prac­tice in se­cret, out of pride.

An­no: You should start by throw­ing away your pub­lic im­age.

All: “Pub­lic im­age?”

An­no: Yes, the im­age you de­cide on, where you are this or that char­ac­ter type.

Kashi­wara: There are times, though, when you think that you can’t cry be­cause you are who you are. You do have your par­tic­u­lar char­ac­ter. I get the feel­ing that that’s how the teach­ers re­ally see the stu­dents. There are harsh things which they would say to me be­cause I can han­dle it, but that they would­n’t say to a stu­dent who’s more eas­ily hurt by such things. I’ve never cried, even when I’m hurt­ing, be­cause I prac­tice hard at home. I’ve made mod­i­fi­ca­tions to my home. I in­stalled a barre and other stuff, and did it all my­self.


Mu­raya­ma: I’d like to work with film and video. I was re­ally im­pressed by Evan­ge­lion, and it’s got­ten me in­ter­ested in anime and stuff like that late­ly.

An­no: I apol­o­gize for get­ting you all worked up. You’d best stay away from it.

… Mu­raya­ma: It looks in­cred­i­ble from where I’m sit­ting.

An­no: I can’t re­ally be all that proud of my own work.

Mu­raya­ma: Is that so? I think it’s ter­rific.

An­no: It does­n’t mat­ter whether one does this kind of work or not, so you’re bet­ter off not do­ing it.

Mu­raya­ma: I think it’s great to be do­ing what you want.

An­no: You’ve got it all wrong. This is the only thing I can do. Get­ting mar­ried, hav­ing kids, and rais­ing them to be adult­s–that’s far and away more of an ac­com­plish­ment than mak­ing a movie. And the biggest ac­com­plish­ment of all is to do all of that and make anime at the same time. In my case, I’ve man­aged to get this far be­cause I gave up every­thing else. I don’t see any need for any­one else to sac­ri­fice every­thing else in life for this, though.

… An­no: But if you like it, who cares? You need to like this sort of thing a cer­tain amount to be able to do it. And once you’ve given it up, you’ll be OK.

Taka­hashi: Once you’ve given it up?

An­no: Right. The in­stant you wake up to re­al­ity again. When you re­al­ize that en­joy­ment alone won’t see you through.

Shibasaki: You mean, you give it up, but even then, you still keep do­ing it?

An­no: Well, that’s where you find out what you’re re­ally made of. To some ex­tent, any­one can each a cer­tain level of achieve­ment if they try. Whether they can go be­yond that point de­pends on the given in­di­vid­ual. Go­ing be­yond that point re­quires qual­i­ty. Hard work alone won’t do it. And there will al­ways be some­one bet­ter than you. If you get car­ried away by how good you are, what do you sup­pose will hap­pen when you dis­cover that there are far bet­ter peo­ple in the world al­ready?

… An­no: Ex­act­ly. I put my work ahead of every­thing, which makes me cold. I sac­ri­fice peo­ple, in­clud­ing my­self. Go­ing that far is like be­ing pre­pared to die.


Taka­hashi: But don’t your par­ents tell you things like, “That’s why Japan is go­ing into the toi­let”? When I say that I think things are OK, my folks re­ply with, “That’s what’s wrong with the Japan­ese way of think­ing.”

Mu­too: I hate Amer­i­ca.

An­no: (laughs)

Mu­too: I’ve learned to hate it.

Taka­hashi: I bet peo­ple who de­bate in­ter­na­tional re­la­tions all hate Amer­i­ca.

Mu­too: Is all they do in Amer­ica to crit­i­cize oth­ers with­out look­ing at them­selves? Don’t they act like they’re the great­est? Al­ways say­ing they’re the world’s best.

Hi­rata: I don’t like Amer­ica ei­ther. Right now, Japan’s econ­omy is bad. But when it was re­ally good, Amer­ica said that it was do­ing too well, and now that it’s bad, they won’t help us out. They just say that it’s our own fault. Makes me think, who do they think they are, any­way?

All: (laugh­ter)

… An­no: Asia is where it’s at now. We’d best get in good with our neigh­bors. The pre­vi­ous gen­er­a­tion is with Amer­i­ca. Those cur­rently in their 50’s typ­i­cally think in terms of Amer­i­ca. In re­ac­tion to los­ing the War to Amer­i­ca, they all want to live the Amer­i­can lifestyle. Like all go­ing to Eu­rope, that sort of thing.

Taka­hashi: I get that feel­ing when I read the­ses writ­ten by peo­ple of that time.

An­no: It’s like an Amer­i­ca-first phi­los­o­phy. In my gen­er­a­tion, though, you turn more and more to do­mes­tic mat­ters, look more in­ward. When I was in the boon­docks of Ya­m­aguchi, Tokyo as I saw it on TV looked so in­cred­i­ble, so I al­ways wanted to go there. I wanted to go to Tokyo to at­tend col­lege, that sort of thing.


An­no: Put it on TV, though, and old ladies with time on their hands watch it. We got one such old lady call­ing the TV sta­tion while “Evan­ge­lion” was on the air, say­ing that we should­n’t have sexy scenes.

Miyabu: Just for that?

An­no: Yep. There’s no sense of re­al­ism about high school stu­dents hav­ing a ro­mance with­out sex, is there. I’m think­ing about putting a mes­sage at the be­gin­ning of each episode telling grade-school stu­dents not to watch.

Miyabu: Are the main char­ac­ters of “Kareshi Kanojo no Ji­joo” go­ing to be ju­nior-high or high school stu­dents?

An­no: They’re in their first year of high school, and in the manga they’ve re­cently had sex. And it just hap­pened, with­out any buildup. I’m try­ing to fig­ure out how to make some­thing dra­matic out of this. Could that be the way it is? Do they just do it?

Miyabu: What do you think?

An­no: I think I’m stuck. The male lead seemed to me to be so ter­ri­bly up­stand­ing, I fig­ured he’d treat her bet­ter than that, when he up and has sex with her. He’s not the char­ac­ter I thought he was. Maybe that’s what it’s like nowa­days. Peo­ple don’t waste time, or some­thing.

… An­no: Every­one de­fines pure love differ­ent­ly. But old bid­dies like the one who com­plained (about Eva) have never ex­pe­ri­enced it. They do things like that to kill time, be­cause they’re dis­sat­is­fied with kids to­day. They’re not dis­sat­is­fied with them­selves, but with their en­vi­ron­ment, their sur­round­ings. They ig­nore any blame they may have for their sit­u­a­tions, in­stead blam­ing every­thing on ani­me. I never thought I’d get caught up in it. No­body sounds as loud as old bid­dies like those. They have so much time on their hands that in­stead of call­ing tele­phone dat­ing clubs, they call TV sta­tions.


An­no: I did­n’t have any girl­friends in high school. I did manga and as­tron­o­my, as well as watch anime and play mah jongg. When there was a test, I’d tell my folks I was go­ing to a friend’s house to study. We’d play al­l-night mah jongg, then we’d catch a nap be­fore even­tu­ally go­ing to school, and when the test was over we’d go back and play mah jongg some more. It was all anime and mah jongg. Back then, girls avoided me like the plague, be­cause I was so gloomy.

… An­no: In ju­nior high, I had a lit­tle fling that seemed like love, but was­n’t. It turned into a tri­an­gle with a pal of mine, and that turned into a cri­sis. All through high school, I de­cided that be­ing the way I was, was fine, and had no ro­mances the whole time. Some un­der­class­women came on to me, but I showed them no in­ter­est. The world was full of things more in­ter­est­ing than women. I was much more in­ter­ested in mak­ing movies back then than dat­ing. I re­gret it now, though. My life might be differ­ent now if I’d had sex back then.

… An­no: I don’t rec­om­mend tech­ni­cal schools. Every­one who goes to one of those places starts off by hav­ing the same field of spe­cial­ty, after all, so mo­not­ony soon sets in. Take anime schools for ex­am­ple. You go to one of those, and you’ve got a gath­er­ing of peo­ple who’ve all been so­cial and class out­casts up to now. You’ll start suffer­ing the il­lu­sion that the world re­volves around you as a re­sult. I haven’t yet seen any­one who liked anime and who’d ever got­ten any use out of what he learned in those places.


An­no: I hate school, you know? And the thing I hate about it is no differ­ent from 20 years ago. Teach­ers also ought to have hated school, see­ing as how they were about the same age as me. So they should have hated it too, you know? Why did be­com­ing teach­ers change them into teach­ers?

All: Sad but true.

An­no: And it’s scary to think that they had to have been stu­dents too. The world changes peo­ple. Par­ents too: they had to have been kids them­selves on­ce, and yet as par­ents they’re so differ­ent.

… Noguchi: When it comes to law, you’ve got pri­vacy safe­guards, for ex­am­ple, but there are also things that need to be made pub­lic, and in cases where a choice has to be made, it ends up in a court­room, with the de­ci­sion be­ing left up to the judge to make.

An­no: Laws in the light of a trial are un­rea­son­able things. School is ac­cli­ma­tiz­ing you to that, so you won’t com­plain about it.

Ichikawa: We’re be­ing trained, like pets.

An­no: Ab­solute­ly.


Kawakami: When did you know what you wanted to do with your life, Mr. An­no?

An­no: I just let life carry me along, like that guy over there said.


An­no: I was ba­si­cally the hon­or-s­tu­dent type up un­til ju­nior high. I was al­ways on stu­dent coun­cil, that sort of thing. I got into the best feeder schools in my area, up to high school. I swore that I would­n’t do any more study­ing once I passed my ex­ams. I did­n’t like to study, so I stud­ied only the ar­eas and sen­tences that in­ter­ested me, and that as lit­tle as pos­si­ble. What good is al­ge­bra go­ing to do me in real life, after all?

… An­no: When I got a ze­ro, the school got an­noyed be­cause they were sup­posed to be a feeder school. So I made sure not to get neg­a­tive marks. When I got to high school, all I did was play mah jongg and make 8mm movies. I spent all my high school years just goofing off. So nat­u­rally there were no uni­ver­si­ties I could get in­to, and at the time, Os­aka Col­lege of Art had no en­trance ex­ams. Rather, I got in on my ac­com­plish­ments. But I stopped go­ing in my third year, and ended up get­ting ex­pelled.

… An­no: What it boils down to is, so­ci­ety only sees the num­bers. When it comes to movies too, there’s a need to ap­ply ei­ther of two la­bels, ei­ther that it was in­ter­est­ing or that it was­n’t. School grades are the same way, be­cause Japan only has one eval­u­a­tion method, that of neg­a­tive test scor­ing. I think cu­mu­la­tive test scor­ing would be more in­ter­est­ing, per­son­al­ly. In the fi­nal analy­sis, the sys­tem is about how can you avoid mak­ing mis­takes. The top score is set at 100 points. It’s a game, and the ob­ject is to fig­ure out how to min­i­mize your mis­takes and keep teach­ers from re­duc­ing your points. I’d say that the prob­lem lies with this neg­a­tive scor­ing sys­tem, but if asked, I’d also have to say that cu­mu­la­tive scor­ing would­n’t solve things ei­ther.

… An­no: I think it’s clear that they’re a far cry from when I was in high school. They’re smart. I get the feel­ing that they can see their own lives in an in­stant, by ob­serv­ing their par­ents and other grown-ups around them. And I’m en­joy­ing that.

Kawakami: I heard some­thing to the effect that as part of mak­ing ani­me, you meet and talk with lots of differ­ent peo­ple.

An­no: I think that’s more or less what I said. Anime and manga are com­pletely fic­tional pic­ture worlds, and thus what hap­pens in them is im­pos­si­ble in real life. Now, there are two ap­proaches you can take. You can ei­ther make it look like a dream all the way to the end, where you bring it back to re­al­i­ty, or you can show re­al­ity all the way to the end, and fin­ish up with a dream. A lot of anime starts out as a dream, and ends as a dream. This is no good, be­cause it feels like you’re us­ing dreams as a re­treat. And Japan is not such a tough place to live.

I can’t help but won­der why peo­ple are with­draw­ing into dreams in a rea­son­ably pros­per­ous coun­try. A lot of these peo­ple in par­tic­u­lar are anime fans, and for a while I could­n’t deal with that. I got fed up with Evan­ge­lion too, for that rea­son. I can’t stand peo­ple who run away, who refuse to face re­al­i­ty. Surely you’ll find some­thing for your­self if you face re­al­ity head on. If noth­ing else, take a good look at your im­me­di­ate sur­round­ings. Don’t turn away from un­pleas­ant­ness. Have a look at it too. With this in mind, ul­ti­mately I want to show a lit­tle re­al­ity in my works. If noth­ing else, I don’t feel any re­al­ism in some­thing that has no re­al­ity mixed in with it. Thus, while my next pro­duc­tion will be a girl’s manga about a high­-school girl, it’s also partly re­al.


Ikeda: You may get re­ally tired, but if you’re not aware of it, it’s the same as not be­ing tired at all, is­n’t it? Even if I should re­al­ize it and keel over from ex­haus­tion, that’s fine, be­cause my life right now is good. It’s great. Right now, I fig­ure I’ll keep on go­ing the rest of my life, in just this way.

An­no: Speak­ing with a sense of grand­moth­erly con­cern, the scari­est part of that line of rea­son­ing is when you ac­tu­ally do keel over.

Ikeda: As long as each mo­ment of my life is plea­sur­able, that’s fine.

An­no: Ex­act­ly. That’s just what that kind of per­son will say.

… Ikeda: Is it so rad­i­cal to think that to­mor­row may not come?

An­no: Yeah, I think it’s bet­ter to be­lieve that to­mor­row is al­ways with us, rather than that it can be cleanly cut away. That does­n’t mean that you do the same thing to­mor­row as to­day, though. It’s im­por­tant to form an im­age of to­mor­row be­ing even just a lit­tle differ­ent, say, even as lit­tle 3% or 5%, from to­day. If you be­lieve that you want to be a cer­tain way, chances are you’ll move in that di­rec­tion. Hav­ing a clear im­age is the key.

… Tak­agi: I want to de­stroy the sys­tem it­self.

An­no: It’s tougher than you might think. I’ve tried nu­mer­ous times, and I’ll tell you, it’s not at all easy. (Ev­ery­one laughs) The work it­self is pretty en­joy­able. But it’s a fleet­ing plea­sure.


Nag­amori: What mat­ters is how the pieces shake out.

An­no: As long as you’re not dead, you’ll be OK.

Ikeda: Then I’m safe. Peo­ple tell me I would­n’t die even if I were mur­dered.

An­no: I’ve known my share of girls, but it’s al­ways the ones who tell you they’re ab­solutely all right, they’re the ones you have to watch out for…

… Ue­hara: Are you happy with the work you’re do­ing cur­rent­ly?

An­no: Yes, I am.

Tak­agi: Does it feel like it’s a hob­by?.

An­no: It feels like a hobby that keeps go­ing on.

… Ikeda: It’s a sure bet that you (Tak­agi) will end up home­less.

An­no: I think that’s OK too.

Ikeda: It’s not OK. You end up with­er­ing away, say­ing “It re­ally should have turned out differ­ent­ly.”

An­no: And if you end your life that way, that’s fine too.


  • Carl Horn, in the Viz manga let­ters, men­tions that Ya­m­aga in Fanime­con ’98 called the re­li­gious el­e­ments “only win­dow dress­ing”. - in Pro­to­cul­ture Ad­dicts #39? TODO: check this when my PAs come…

  • Gainax un­in­volved in ADV trans­la­tions? http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/2001-Oc­to­ber/040552.html; Bochan_bird quotes a Gainax fax he ap­par­ently re­ceived:

    “All trans­la­tions into Eng­lish, Chi­ne­se, Ko­re­an, etc. are han­dled ex­clu­sively by the con­tract­ing com­pa­nies, and GAiNAX does not is­sue spe­cific in­struc­tions as to the con­tent of this trans­la­tion.”

    Con­fus­ing­ly, Bochan_bird says in 2005 that:

    ADV was also sup­posed to let Gainax check the script trans­la­tion and other things (this was back when Gainax stilled cared about artis­tic in­tegrity in­stead of just whor­ing fran­chises for cash), but when Gainax noted a bunch of things to be fixed/changed, ADV ba­si­cally told them “tough luck” be­cause they were al­ready in pro­duc­tion and could­n’t change any­thing.

    [spec­u­la­tion] These things may have con­tributed to the high ask­ing price to ADV for the Eva movies. The at­ti­tude that “fine, if that is how things are go­ing to be, then you can pay the price for it” is very preva­lent in Japan­ese ani­me/­manga cir­cles, and even in the fan­dom where you get in­cred­i­ble deals if a col­lec­tor/dealer likes you, or get pre­sented out­ra­geous prices if they don’t. [/spec­u­la­tion]

Cardass Masters

The rel­e­vance of the card texts to Eva in­ter­pre­ta­tion have been crit­i­cized and de­fended.

  • Bochan_bird: Part II (movie) card A-17 “2nd An­gel Lilith”:

    A Source of Life An­gel called/­named ‘prog­en­i­tor’ like Adam. Un­til be­ing no­ticed by Nag­isa Ka­woru, Nerv had mis­rep­re­sented the gi­ant cru­ci­fied in Ter­mi­nal Dogma as Adam, but it was ac­tu­ally Lilith. Ayanami Rei is a be­ing with the soul of this Lilith and (a copy of) the body of Ikari Yui.

  • Bochan_bird, Put card P-R1:

    All life was drawn in­dis­crim­i­nately into the world de­sired by the medi­um/a­vatar Shin­ji. Led by the Reis – the mes­sen­gers of sal­va­tion – hurt and suffer­ing hearts dis­solved into ho­mo­ge­neous LCL. Even those who did not wish sal­va­tion were pow­er­less to re­sist. Aoba fran­ti­cally re­jected Rei, but the A.T.­Field that pro­tected him had al­ready lost its pow­er.

  • Bochan_bird, Drama card D-88; “Ki­mochi warui”:

    Shinji re­nounced the world where all hearts had melted into one and ac­cepted each other un­con­di­tion­al­ly. His de­sire… to live with ‘oth­ers’ – other hearts that would some­times re­ject him, even deny him. That is why the first thing he did after com­ing to his senses was to place his hands around Asuka’s neck. To feel the ex­is­tence of an ‘other’. To con­firm (make sure of) re­jec­tion and de­nial.

  • Card H-11

    • Reg­u­lar side, pic­ture de­scrip­tion: “What we see is the after­math of Third Im­pact, like in the end­ing se­quence, there is Shinji stand­ing (dressed in his school uni­for­m), his hand, palm up, in front of him, and he’s look­ing at (and cast­ing his shadow up­on) an un­con­scious Asuka, lay­ing of the ground in an un­con­scious-but-al­so-invit­ing-and-some­what-sur­ren­der­ing pose, her home at­tire messed up so that all what was vis­i­ble of her in the orig­i­nal scene is there for Shinji and the viewer to see.” Bochan_bird trans­la­tion:

    In the sea of LCL, Shinji wished for a world with other peo­ple. He de­sired to meet them again, even if it meant he would be hurt and be­trayed. And just as he had hope­d/want­ed, Asuka was present in the new world. Only Asuka was there be­side him. The girl who he had hurt, and by whom he had been hurt. But even so, she was the one he had hope­d/wished for….

    • Re­verse side: “3rd Chil­dren Ikari Shinji”:

    Nei­ther Yui, Rei nor Mis­ato could do as a woman for Shin­ji. Asuka alone was the only girl on equal foot­ing with him. So, Shinji de­sired/­sought after Asu­ka. “I’m afraid of Mis­ato and Ayana­mi.” How­ev­er, Shin­ji’s crude affec­tion only hurt her. In the end, he used her as an ob­ject of lust/de­sire to soothe/ con­sole him­self… -Bochan_bird, card H-14;

    • Reg­u­lar side: Mis­ato & Shinji EoE kiss

    “3rd Chil­dren, Ikari Shinji – Mis­ato mon­i­tored him in her ca­pac­ity as Nerv Tac­ti­cal Op­er­a­tions Chief. Mon­i­tor­ing in the for­mat of liv­ing to­geth­er, a for­mat that would not ag­i­tate him. Play act­ing, search­ing for a com­fort­able dis­tance, clash­ing, re­ject­ing, wor­ry­ing, jok­ing, fight­ing, and un­der­stand­ing. The apart­ment changed from a sim­ple dwelling to a home…”

    • Gold side: Shinji and Mis­ato dressed up and shar­ing cock­tails in a club. Ti­tle: “That’s a grownup kiss. We’ll do the rest when you get back.”

    “While fight­ing the An­gels to­geth­er, the two be­gan to view each other not just as Tac­ti­cal Op­er­a­tions Chief and pi­lot, but in a spe­cial way. Older sis­ter and younger broth­er, mother and son, girl and boy… but the two did not no­tice/re­al­ize the word used to ex­press these feel­ings (this re­la­tion­ship?). How­ev­er, time would teach them, just as it had fos­tered the re­la­tion­ship be­tween them.”

  • Mis­cel­la­neous: a

    • Card H-2 shows Shinji in his plug suit fac­ing Gendo (back view). The ti­tle is “I was praised by my fa­ther/My fa­ther praised me”, and the fine print reads: “‘You did well, Shin­ji.’ – Gendo praised Shin­ji, who had pi­loted Eva. Shin­ji, who had avoided and re­jected his fa­ther, re­alised how much he need­ed/wanted his fa­ther. At the same time, Gendo was also com­ing to un­der­stand a sense of (com­fort­able) dis­tance with his son. As fa­ther and son move to­ward each oth­er, how­ever slow, per­haps one day….” This is per­haps the most am­bigu­ous of the three cards, but it is still a far cry from “Shinji rec­on­ciles with Gendo”.

    • Card H-5 shows Rei and Shinji fac­ing each other with the moon in the back­ground. The ti­tle is “This is my heart? I want to be one with Ikar­i-kun?” (Ep23 di­alog), and the fine print reads: “As the sce­nario pro­gress­es, he changes her. A smile, wor­ry­ing, words of thanks… Even­tu­al­ly, with her first tears, she re­al­izes. ‘I want to be with Ikari.’” Not only does this de­scribe the TV se­ries scene per­fect­ly, but I hardly think it qual­i­fies as “Rei gets Shinji”.

    • Card H-12 shows Asuka hug­ging some­one whose face is cut off at the top of the im­age and thus can­not be seen. This per­son might be mis­taken for Shin­ji, ex­cept that the rel­a­tive size of the per­son ob­vi­ously makes it an adult, and the card deals with Asuka wak­ing up in Eva-02 at the bot­tom of the Ge­ofront lake (EoE scene) and re­al­iz­ing that her mother is there and has al­ways been watch­ing over her.

1998 S

Every­one in Evan­ge­lion is “se­ri­ously messed up,” An­no’s trans­la­tor at 1996’s Anime Expo offered. Hav­ing gam­bled and won on Evan­ge­lion, Anno can afford to dis­miss his crit­ics. But this ul­ti­mate “fan­boy”, who breaks into “Ul­tra­man” poses when in front of the cam­era, is as hard on him­self as he is on his in­dus­try and its fans. Evan­ge­lion was a strug­gle against four years of his own cow­ardice - a hia­tus from work where “all I was do­ing was sim­ply not dy­ing”, said Anno to his Amer­i­can au­di­ence. “If I talk about the ‘lim­i­ta­tions’ of the in­dus­try, after all, what does that mean? Aren’t I re­ally talk­ing about the lim­i­ta­tions in­side my­self? It is the cre­ators who have to change their frame of mind.” Most peo­ple who make ani­me, Anno said, have the kind of “autism” he him­self has suffered from. “They have to try and reach out with their work, and com­mu­ni­cate to oth­ers. What’s the great­est thing anime has ever achieved? The fact that we’re hold­ing a di­a­logue right here and now.” When a fan of the mas­ter asked for ad­vice to those who’d like to break into ani­me, he shot back, “Be in­ter­ested in other things be­sides an­i­ma­tion.”

Carl Gus­tav Horn, Wiz­ard: Manga Scene; TODO: are some of these AX quotes oth­er­wise un­known?

…Oshii Mamorou’s TV anime se­ries Uru­sei-y­at­sura (81-8) was fa­mous for both its cult ap­peal to otaku cul­ture (ab­surd SF plot, pretty girls, queer-de­signed me­chas, im­ages bor­rowed from Japan­ese folk sto­ries) and his ap­proach as a di­rec­tor be­ing in­flu­enced by 70’s Japan­ese un­der­ground the­ater (for ex­am­ple, Shuji Ter­aya­ma). He fre­quently ex­per­i­mented us­ing ab­stract im­ages, fast cut- ups, (seem­ing­ly) philo­soph­i­cal con­ver­sa­tions or over­ac­tive move­ments of char­ac­ters, to de­con­struct or­di­nary anime pat­tern­s…In ad­di­tion, we also should note that Miyaza­ki, Otomo and Os­hi­i’s in at­tempt­ing to make an­i­ma­tion closer to real films seems to stem their com­mon de­tes­ta­tion of the anime genre (“genre” here means no typ­i­cal im­ages or nar­ra­tives but dis­tri­b­u­tion sys­tem, fan’s ac­cep­tance and so on. Miyazaki and Os­hii in­tended to sep­a­rate them­selves from both anime and anime dis­tri­b­u­tion­s). It is very iron­i­cal that al­most all the best re­sults of Japan­ese an­i­ma­tion come from such a (pseudo)­self-ha­tred.

…In the first place Evan­ge­lion con­tains not only me­chas and pretty girls but many kind of otaku “ser­vices.” Anno bor­rowed or some­times par­o­died in­nu­mer­able im­ages from 70 - 80’s Japan­ese ani­mes, SF films or comics as for ex­am­ple the pro­tag­o­nist fa­ther’s uni­form is ob­vi­ously de­signed as a par­ody of the cos­tume aes­thetic in Space Bat­tle­ship Yam­ato (74). Gainax (formerly Daicon Film) started its ca­reer by mak­ing par­ody anime films in a typ­i­cal “post­mod­ern” man­ner. Evan­ge­lion suc­ceeds in us­ing a lot of clich­es, only to in­vert their func­tions: For ex­am­ple, such char­ac­ters as Asuka or Toji must not be se­ri­ously in­jured in an ani­me. Anno in­tend­edly breaks such kind of im­plicit ex­pec­ta­tion/reg­u­la­tion.

…As Anno him­self re­marks [where?], in Evan­ge­lion he does not want to make an­i­ma­tion film closer to real films. In­stead, he at­tempts to make the most of ani­me’s ab­stract­ness (which re­sults from an un­avoid­able limit of in­for­ma­tion’s quan­tity in one frame). Krys­t­ian Woznicki: So Anno changed the orig­i­nal plot of the story when he saw the news about the in­va­sion of Aum’s hide out by the po­lice48. Did he change it be­cause it was too close to re­al­i­ty?

Azuma Hi­roki: Yes, he said so.

KW: But did why he change it? What is the prob­lem with Evan­ge­lion be­ing so close to the Aum case?

AH: Anno thought that the orig­i­nal sce­nario will not be suit­able for broad­cast­ing.

KW: So he feared cen­sor­ship.

AH: A kind of cen­sor­ship. But this is very typ­i­cal of the anime sit­u­a­tion. TV an­i­ma­tions are sup­posed to be seen by young­sters un­der 15, 16 years old. And I think, if it this was­n’t the case, then Anno would have thought that its ob­vi­ous sim­i­lar­ity with the re­al­ity would de­crease Evan­ge­lion’s imag­i­na­tive po­ten­tial. But any­way, the orig­i­nal sce­nario [the Pro­pos­al?] is so shock­ingly close to the po­lit­i­cal mo­ti­va­tion of the Aum Shin­rikyo group, they fight against the up­shot of the en­e­my, with­out know­ing what the en­emy re­ally is. The an­gels change their form for ex­am­ple into pyra­mids, into shad­ows.

I asked Anno about such ab­stract char­ac­ter­is­tics of the an­gels. He said that this re­flects the feel­ings of his gen­er­a­tion. For his gen­er­a­tion the en­emy is not po­lit­i­cal. It is also not defi­nite. I men­tioned to Anno that such ab­stract char­ac­ter­is­tics of the en­emy are very close to the con­cep­tion of Aum as en­emy (e.g. poi­son gas) which he ad­mit­ted. He also ad­mit­ted the sim­i­lar­ity of Evan­ge­lion with Aum. Nev­er­the­less it is too sim­ple to con­clude that Anno was sym­pa­thetic with Aum. He em­pha­sizes the closed­ness and ex­clu­sive­ness of this group. They lost any con­tact with re­al­i­ty. In An­no’s view this again is very close to the sit­u­a­tion of anime fans. In fact Evan­ge­lion crit­i­cizes anime fans, and anime cul­ture: it be­gins with am­bigu­ous flir­ta­tions with con­di­tions cen­tral to Aum, and ends with its cri­tique as launched on the sit­u­a­tion of anime fans.

KW: Why do you think that Evan­ge­lion’s flir­ta­tions with the Aum case are so es­sen­tial to its “cul­tural mean­ing”?

AH: As you may know there was this par­tic­u­lar case with . He is said to have been sur­prised when Ni­hon Seki Gun [Japan­ese Red Army] got : in 1972 the Japan­ese Red Army stayed in a house close to Mount Asama. They fought with the Japan­ese po­lice and army. This affair was very close to the novel Kozui wa waga tamashii ni oy­obi [The Flood in­vades my spirit] which Oe Ken­z­aburo wrote and wanted to pub­lish at that time. How­ever Oe had to change the plot as it was too close to re­al­i­ty. The orig­i­nal plot is said to have been partly changed. Al­though I am not sure that Anno is com­pa­ra­ble to with Oe, it seems un­ques­tion­able that he is one of the smartest sto­ry­tellers in Japan­ese cul­ture of the 90’s.

KW: But do you re­ally think that the par­al­lels to Aum are char­ac­ter­is­tic of, or say, unique about Evan­ge­lion? For in­stance the case you just men­tioned has oc­curred in var­i­ous cases of re­cent film pro­duc­tions e.g. in the case of Fukui Sho­jin’s Rub­ber’s Lover whose pro­duc­tion goes back to 1992 and which shortly after Aum came to fruition. Out of the fear to pro­voke mis­read­ings Fukui changed some parts, as he feared those to be mis­taken for a sym­pa­thetic ac­count of Aum…An­gel Dust made about two years be­fore Aum hap­pend de­scribes cer­tain con­di­tions that be­came dom­i­nant in the Aum phe­nom­e­na: again iso­la­tion, brain-wash­ing, ex­tor­tion. But the as­pect of cir­cu­la­tion, as it is linked to the mode of re­cep­tion is per­haps unique about Evan­ge­lion and on this level also com­pa­ra­ble with Oe’s case: Evan­ge­lion was broad­cast at 6:30 p.m. in the after­noon on a ma­jor chan­nel, reach­ing mil­lions of peo­ple whereas the films just men­tioned are usu­ally seen by a lim­ited au­di­ence…

AH: I ad­mit that the close­ness to Aum is not the priv­i­lege of Evan­ge­lion. The point is that Evan­ge­lion is an in­trin­sic cri­tique of Aum. An­no’s ca­reer is so close to that of Aum. The Anime fan is the typ­i­cal type of Japan­ese otaku. The Aum affair tack­led the cul­tural ter­ri­tory of the Otaku.

Azuma Hi­roki: I think that this phe­nom­e­non is very new in Japan­ese cul­tural scene of the 80’s: the mul­ti­pli­ca­tion in num­ber does not mean that they so­cial­ize and get open. Anno is very con­scious about such close­ness. In other in­ter­views [mit ein­schlaegi­gen Ani­memagazi­nen [An­i­m­age]] he says that in the be­gin­ning of mak­ing Evan­ge­lion he wanted to en­large the num­ber of otaku. It was some kind of mas­ter plan for “otakuza­tion” in or­der to break the closed­ness. But to­wards the end [of the pro­duc­tion process] he had to break that pat­tern and to diffuse it. This change, that oc­curred in less than half a year is very im­por­tant to Japan­ese cul­ture, be­cause it clearly shows that one typ­i­cal strat­egy to im­plode a closed/spe­cial­ized cul­tural ter­rain nec­es­sar­ily re­sults in fail­ure. The se­ries Evan­ge­lion can be di­vided in 2 parts. The first part is a well made Sci-Fi ani­me. The char­ac­ters are de­scribed as happy and com­mu­nica­tive; typ­i­cal Sci-Fi anime char­ac­ters such as Asu­ka. Rei is of course very ex­cep­tion­al. The first part seems to de­velop into a happy end­ing, which is of course the most de­sir­able plot for anime fans. The way they watch these films is a process of iden­ti­fy­ing with the char­ac­ters. They want to be Shinji or Asu­ka. But the later part di­verges from such a typ­i­cal pat­tern. The re­views and com­ments of Anime fans pub­lished in their re­spec­tive mag­a­zines show their dis­ap­point­ment with the later episodes, since there is no hope for a happy end­ing and no space for their iden­ti­fi­ca­tion with char­ac­ters. The mys­tery of the Evan­ge­lion world gets in­creas­ingly crit­i­cal and com­pli­cat­ed. This is ob­vi­ously not a typ­i­cal Anime plot any­more. An­other level is the level of im­agery. The speed of cut ups is very high to­wards the end. When I asked Anno about in­flu­ences he did not men­tion Nou­velle Vague, al­though I ex­pected him to say Go­dard. He named Okamoto Ki­hachi, a film­maker of the Japan­ese Nou­velle Vague, who was ac­tu­ally in­flu­enced by Go­dard. [Blue Christ­mas was by Ki­hachi.]

[AH:] …In episode 19 Evan­ge­lion punches the en­e­my, the black Evan­ge­lion. This scene is very vi­o­lent and bru­tal. Such cruel im­agery can­not be ac­cepted by Anime fans.

KW: Was there a con­tro­versy about this par­tic­u­lar scene?

AH: Anno did­n’t speak about this is­sue clear­ly. He just said that some­body made a claim. TV pro­duc­ers, ad­ver­tis­ers, … I don’t know. It seems a del­i­cate mat­ter.

KW: …In Anno there is a re­mark­able shift to­wards re­duc­tion. The im­agery is very sim­plis­tic, yet so­phis­ti­cat­ed.

AH: In­stead of mul­ti­ply­ing in­for­ma­tion within one frame, Anno does mul­ti­ply in­for­ma­tion by the speed and rhythm of cut ups. In Anno the in­for­ma­tion in­cluded in one frame is very lim­it­ed.

KW: Some­times we see a sta­tic im­age for 30 to 90 sec­onds or so. Some­times there is a min­i­mal, me­chan­i­cal move­ment on the ver­ti­cal, hor­i­zon­tal axis within this ba­si­cally sta­tic im­age such as the de­scend­ing move­ment of es­ca­la­tors on which peo­ple have “se­ri­ous” con­ver­sa­tions. The sta­tic me­chan­i­cal­ness re­calls the be­gin­nings of this genre where sto­ries are nar­rated ver­bally to a large de­gree.

AH: A sta­tic im­age fol­lowed by fast, al­most shock­ing cut ups is so char­ac­ter­is­tic for An­no. To him Otomo and Os­hi­i’s style is very lim­ited due to tech­ni­cal rea­sons. TV an­i­ma­tors al­ways work un­der diffi­cult con­di­tions. Ei­ther there is a lack of time or man pow­er.

AH: As you know An­no’s an­gels have such dou­ble char­ac­ter. You can see that the an­gels get the form of a virus in some of the episodes. Evan­ge­lion de­scribes the con­cept of the en­emy in the 90’s Japan­ese sit­u­a­tion, such as Aum. In the 90’s the Japan­ese com­plain about things get­ting worse and worse in econ­omy and so­ci­ety, etc. Many have a very crit­i­cal feel­ing about the Japan­ese sit­u­a­tion, while they can not trace the source of this de­vel­op­ment. Their feel­ings cir­cu­late in vain, with­out iden­ti­fy­ing what/who the en­emy is. This con­di­tion is well de­scribed in Evan­ge­lion.

KW: There are so many mys­ter­ies in this Ani­me. My im­pres­sion is that Anno con­structed the story by im­plant­ing a del­uge of de­tails and sub­-s­to­ries in or­der to con­fuse the reg­u­lar Anime view­er, who usu­ally sets out to fol­low and in­ter­pret the plot on all lev­els.

AH: In my opin­ion Anno be­gan Evan­ge­lion with the idea to solve all mys­te­ri­ous points fi­nal­ly. I think he changed his mind in the mid­dle. He de­cided not to solve the mys­ter­ies, but to mul­ti­ply them, which would be an­other way of crit­i­ciz­ing the view­ing habits of his au­di­ence.

AH: In Miyaza­k­i’s film [La­puta] this el­e­ment is cen­tral and reap­pears. Na­dia was sup­posed to be the TV ver­sion of it, and on top of it, ren­dered with Miyaza­k­i’s taste. Of course, Anno dis­liked this idea. He wanted to do an orig­i­nal work, but it was im­pos­si­ble to do that within the frame­work of this as­sign­ment. For ex­am­ple, he could not cre­ate any cruel scene. After that he de­cided to make an in­de­pen­dent film with Gainax.

AH: Okada is a critic now. The un­con­ven­tional char­ac­ter of Evan­ge­lion’s lat­ter part very much con­tra­dicts Okada’s point of view.

KW: Did he say some­thing about Evan­ge­lion?

AH: As I heard, dur­ing a meet­ing with fans Okada said that he did not see Evan­ge­lion. (laughs)

KW: That’s a clear state­ment.

AH: Sure, but you have to un­der­stand that his com­pli­cated re­la­tion­ship with Gainax also makes it diffi­cult for him to com­ment upon it.

AH: At that time they [Gainax] be­gan to pro­duce com­puter soft­ware. The most suc­cess­ful re­sult was a soft­ware called Princess Maker, which was a sort of sim­u­la­tion soft, in which you can ed­u­cate a girl. The fi­nal goal within this pro­gram for in­stance is mar­riage. You could chose to make your daugh­ter a sci­en­tist, de­sign­er, or a “naughty girl”. Many choic­es. In 1991 this soft­ware was a big hit. Peo­ple seemed to en­joy the idea to have a sort of a fic­tive, per­sonal toy-girl. It was strictly Otaku busi­ness. Then an­other turn oc­curs. Anno went to his home­town and is asked about his pro­fes­sion. He was very ashamed to say that he was an anime di­rec­tor as his out­put was mainly com­mer­cial. There was noth­ing he could be proud of. Anno was very frus­trat­ed, and came up with the plan to make Evan­ge­lion.

AH: You should not un­der­es­ti­mate Dou­jin­shi writer’s skills. Most pro­fes­sional comic writer come from the Dou­jin­shi Mar­ket. Many pro­duc­ers and ed­i­tors fol­low Dou­jin­shi Mar­ket trends, where they would pick up some new tal­ents. A friend of mine writes for an erotic mag­a­zine on the Dou­jin­shi mar­ket. I was very sur­prised to hear that he sold over 3,000 books ..There are for in­stance many books on the Dou­jin­shi Mar­ket which par­ody Evan­ge­lion. Gainax al­lows it. The com­mit­tee of the Dou­jin­shi Mar­ket, which may con­sist of some artists, pays a small amount to Gainax as a trib­ute. The ex­pan­sion of the mar­ket is amaz­ing though. As I just said, my friend sold a cou­ple thou­sands of his book. A pro­fes­sional writer in the lit­er­ary field in Japan can not sell so many.

KW: Her [Rei Ayanami] room looks any­way like in a hos­pi­tal. One rea­son is, be­cause she is wear­ing a ban­dage and has al­ways blood all over her clothes/­body.

AH: In her apart­ment two im­ages in­ter­sect. One is refugee, the other one is sci­en­tific dis­-or­na­ment. The in­ter­sec­tion of these two mo­tifs re­calls the hide out of Aum called Satiyam. [Aum’s build­ings were named “Satyam”, eg “Satyam no. 7” was where the sarin was pre­pared.]

KW: I am try­ing to show that there are cer­tain par­al­lels and that Anno is just also not en­tirely dis­con­nected from the sub­-cul­tural move­ments of the last years.

AH: Of course such con­tem­po­rane­ity is very im­por­tant. The point is that in Anno all these im­ages and mo­tifs are very con­vinc­ing and some­how brought to the point.

TOWARDS A CARTOGRAPHY OF JAPANESE ANIME: Anno Hideak­i’s Evan­ge­lion. In­ter­view with Azuma Hi­roki” “by Krys­t­ian Woznicki for BLIMP Film­magazine” in­ter­view with Azuma Hi­roki; Azuma is re­fer­ring to his own in­ter­view of Anno in 1996 (that in­ter­view is not trans­lat­ed, but Num­ber­s-kun con­firms what a Google Trans­late sug­gests) The ar­ti­cle seems avail­able in Ital­ian; the full in­ter­view is also avail­able in Ital­ian; it seems to differ some­what:

  1. part 1
  2. part 2
  3. part 3
  4. part 4

This is a dra­ma, and thus fic­tion.
It is ani­me, which means it is all told in draw­ings.
The pro­duc­tion sched­ule is also im­pact­ed.
But it is my hope to fill this work to the brim with the sense that this is what we feel.
I hope that this work will touch your hearts and souls.
I hope that it will reach you be­yond just a sense of cute­ness.
None of us will ever truly un­der­stand any­one else.
The big­ger our hopes, the greater our fail­ures.
Re­al­ity has no mer­cy.
But if there is a to­mor­row, we will think again on those who mat­ter to us.
That means you as well as me.
In hopes that we may all meet and fall in love with some­one won­der­ful.

Karekano pro­duc­er, Sato Hi­roki; orig­i­nal Japan­ese

Any­way, I haven’t seen Karekano episode 2 yet, as I imag­ine most of you read­ing this haven’t, ei­ther. I feel a kind of shock at miss­ing the show on the air al­ready (there’s an un­writ­ten law about GAINAX staffers hav­ing to watch it on the air).

–from the 1998-10-09 di­ary of Mu­ra­matsu Ry­ouko, asst. pro­ducer; rel­e­vant to EoTV - even pro­duc­ers don’t see the fi­nal pro­duct, and this from early in pro­duc­tion when there are no prob­lems? Gainax tra­di­tion in­deed…

Chang­ing the sub­ject, there’s a win­dow in di­rect line with the sec­ond-floor hall­way of the GAINAX Build­ing, with a chair right next to that win­dow. It’s for those who want to take a breather, look out­side, and have a smoke. When I passed by there this after­noon, though, there was some­one just sit­ting on the cold floor of the hall­way, smok­ing a cig­a­rette. It was Hi­rose, who’s do­ing cel run­ning for episode 8.

Mu­ra­mat­su: Is­n’t your butt cold sit­ting like that?

Hi­rose: If I get warm, I’ll fall asleep.

Seems he had­n’t had any de­cent sleep in a week, and was des­per­ately fight­ing off fa­tigue. When I peeked in the pro­duc­tion room about five min­utes lat­er, how­ev­er, he was sleep­ing the sleep of the just. So much for that. I guess this just goes to prove that the peo­ple draw­ing the pic­tures aren’t the ones who have it rough.

–1998-11-06, Mu­ra­matsu Ry­ouko; the crunch con­tin­ues. (In a sim­i­lar vein, Carl Horn says that “Ya­m­aga once asked an Amer­i­can fan who wanted to work at Gainax if she had ever seen the movie , be­cause he said that did a good job sug­gest­ing the work space”.)

1998 T

  • 1998-animer­i­ca-al­lisonkei­thin­ter­view.pdf

Their best orig­i­nal work­s–Ya­m­a­ga’s Royal Space Force, Takeshi Mori’s Otaku no Video, Kazuya Tsu­ru­mak­i’s FLCL, and An­no’s Evan­ge­lion–dis­play Gainax’s odd in­sid­e-out para­dox of be­ing su­per-ob­sessed fans who, through their med­i­ta­tions, nev­er­the­less some­times come to en­light­en­ment about the na­ture of them­selves, their medi­um, their in­dus­try, their times, and their world.

–Carl Horn, “Ed­i­tor’s Note, Manga Vol­ume 1”

Al­though Death and Re­birth has not yet had a com­mer­cial re­lease on video or disc in Japan, it re­cently aired on the Japan­ese ca­ble chan­nel WOWOW, and this copy was the source for the pub­lic screen­ing at Fanime – a screen­ing be­lieved to be the first in the United States.

Death and Re­birth came out in Japan on March 15, 1997. A month prior to the film’s Japan­ese pre­miere, Eva di­rec­tor Hideaki Anno called a Valen­tine’s Day press con­fer­ence to an­nounce that while “it was my in­tent to con­clude (E­va) with (Death and Re­birth)… the story ex­panded far be­yond the vi­sion I had when we be­gan pro­duc­tion, and we went vastly over the planned run­ning length and frames of an­i­ma­tion.”

… Death is an edited ver­sion of the events of episodes #1-24 of the Evan­ge­lion TV se­ries, yet it is no mere syn­op­sis; be­sides con­tain­ing sev­eral new scenes (it opens with se­cret UN footage from their Antarc­tic Base shortly be­fore the Sec­ond Im­pact), Death tells the story of Eva in a com­pletely differ­ent or­der that leads the viewer to con­tem­plate di­rec­tor An­no’s choice of view and fo­cus. Hi­royuki Ya­m­aga com­pared An­no’s edit­ing method to that of a DJ, “sam­pling” the episodes in a com­plex, non-lin­ear mix. In an­oth­er, lit­eral sense as well, Death is a mu­si­cal com­po­si­tion – the movie is struc­tured as a string con­certo in four parts, and we re­turn at var­i­ous points in the edit to the same mys­te­ri­ous lo­cale where much of the events of Eva TV episodes #25 and #26 take place (thus strongly sug­gest­ing that de­spite the pre­sen­ta­tion of The End of Evan­ge­lion – of which Re­birth is of course the first part – as a “re­make” of those fi­nal two episodes, it might be bet­ter re­garded as an­other view­point on them in­stead) where var­i­ous Eva char­ac­ters per­form, sep­a­rately and to­geth­er, mu­si­cal se­lec­tions from Bach, Beethoven, and Pachel­bel.


I was flip­ping through the old Japan­ese clas­sics “Genji Mono­gatari” (Tale of Gen­ji) the other day. It’s been quite some time since I looked at the fi­nal part of this mon­u­men­tal work, and I found that the name of the hero in this part of the story is “Ka­woru”!!

I did some more re­search on this name. These are the facts about “Ka­woru” that I find out:

  • The rea­son why “Ka­woru” is writ­ten with a “wo” char­ac­ter is prob­a­bly in­flu­enced by clas­sics work like “Genji Mono­gatari”. In the Heian ages and me­dieval pe­ri­od, “wo” and “o” were quite sep­a­rate words. At that time “Ka­woru” was in­deed writ­ten with “wo” char­ac­ter. The two char­ac­ters merged in their pro­nun­ci­a­tion in the Edo pe­riod and thus cre­ated the con­fu­sion as to why “Ka­woru” should have a “wo” char­ac­ter. It is pos­si­ble that some Japan­ese may not even know this, and it has be­come com­mon prac­tice to write “Kaoru”. This cre­ates more con­fu­sion.
  • “Ka­woru” is a se­ri­ous but also ro­man­tic hero in the last third of the Tale of Gen­ji. And lit­er­ally the kanji for “Ka­woru” means fra­grance (of in­cense wood). In­deed in Tale of Gen­ji, Ka­woru was born with a very spe­cial bod­ily fea­ture: His body bore a sweet fra­grance smell. So the name “Ka­woru” is com­monly re­lated to the idea of in­tel­li­gent, hand­some and ro­man­tic hero.
  • And one more strik­ing thing. “Ka­woru” can be a girl’s name as well!!This adds to the am­bi­gu­ity of sex im­pli­cated by this name. Put it into the con­text that Ka­woru is an epit­ome of shou­jo-anime bis­honen (hand­some boy) with am­bigu­ous sex­u­al­i­ty. Now it seems to me that Gainax ac­tu­ally put some thought in choos­ing his name.
  • Last­ly, it can now be­come clear that de­spite “Ka­woru”’s Cau­casian look, he in­deed has a Japan­ese name.

Patrick Yip (In­ter­est­ing­ly, in An­no’s 2000 char­ac­ter name es­say, he has no idea what the first name sig­ni­fies.)

Well the PTA man­aged to stop Go Na­gai’s Shame­ful School (Harenchi Gakuen) from be­ing pub­lished. U-Jin’s An­gel was pulled from pub­li­ca­tion a few years ago after loud PTA ob­jec­tions, but then it came back in a new 3-D stere­ogram edi­tion es­sen­tially un­cut. If EVA was a late night ani­me, the PTA prob­a­bly would­n’t have raised a ruckus, if it ever did. But since EVA was shown on prime­time, when chil­dren (as well as adults) would likely be able to watch, con­cerned par­ents might have ob­jected to it. From what I’ve gath­ered, EVA had more “ma­ture sit­u­a­tions” than any anime on prime­time tele­vi­sion. It also had re­li­gious themes (or those that could be in­ter­preted as such) that are vir­tu­ally nonex­is­tent in the medi­um.

Fu­uma Mo­nou


1999 P

…In an in­ter­view with Asahi Shim­bun he said his fa­ther [Takuya An­no], who wears an ar­ti­fi­cial leg, has over­come the stigma of dis­abil­ity by work­ing as a news­pa­per de­liv­ery man. Wounded sol­diers in his an­i­ma­tions re­flect fa­ther’s in­flu­ence, he said, adding, “Some­thing bro­ken or de­fi­cient comes more nat­u­rally to me.”

My fa­ther has only one leg. While work­ing at a lum­ber mill he had his left leg se­ri­ously in­jured with an elec­tric saw. He was 16 years old at the time. He wears an ar­ti­fi­cial leg be­low the thigh. He has trou­ble walk­ing, so he used to stay at home.

He was run­ning a tai­lor’s shop with his wife in Ube, Ya­m­aguchi Pre­fec­ture. He be­came a tai­lor be­cause he could work sit­ting on a chair. He had no trou­ble ped­al­ing the sewing ma­chine.

Fa­ther had an op­er­a­tion at a lo­cal hos­pi­tal, but the sur­geon did a poor job. I often saw an edge of the bone still peek­ing out of the flesh. And he felt pain be­cause his ar­ti­fi­cial leg did­n’t fit. After walk­ing for a long time, he would take off the de­vice and mas­sage his thigh. So about the only time I went out with him was when there was a fes­ti­val in town.

In my boy­hood, fa­ther was melan­choly. I often over­heard him com­plain­ing to moth­er, “I would­n’t lose out to any­body if I had two healthy legs.” As a small child I could un­der­stand how he felt about his hand­i­cap.

I think he was emo­tion­ally un­sta­ble. Maybe that’s why he beat and kicked me when I did some­thing wrong. Some­times mother came to my res­cue and ran away hold­ing me in her arms. Fa­ther also said some­thing very cruel to me, though I don’t re­mem­ber ex­actly what he said. It had the same con­no­ta­tion as what a frus­trated mother might say to her un­wanted child - “I wish you were not here.”

When I was in se­nior high school, low-priced ready-made suits hit the mar­ket, and fa­ther could­n’t make a liv­ing just run­ning a tai­lor shop. So he be­gan de­liv­er­ing news­pa­pers. He made his rounds in the town on a bi­cy­cle. Maybe he wanted to show he could work like any­body else.

I think some­thing in him changed after that. He stopped com­plain­ing around that time. He got a dri­ver’s li­cense and often made a short trip with my moth­er.

Fa­ther says noth­ing about my pro­duc­tions. Maybe he does not un­der­stand an­i­ma­tions. I meet him per­haps once every two or three years. I feel dis­tant from my fam­i­ly.

But there is no doubt that I have been in­flu­enced by fa­ther’s phys­i­cal hand­i­cap. I can­not love any­thing per­fect. To me, ro­bots with­out a hand or leg look bet­ter. In my an­i­ma­tion “Tet­su­jin 28-go” (Iron Man No. 28), the ro­bot loses his arm. I love that scene.

While in el­e­men­tary school I would draw a ro­bot in my note­book or in a blank space of the text­book, and then I would rub out a part of the body and show some­thing that looks like a bone.

The ro­bots that ap­pear in my pro­duc­tions usu­ally get in­jured in bat­tle and end up in bad shape with a part of the body bro­ken.

Some­thing bro­ken of de­fi­cient comes more nat­u­rally to me. Some­times that thing is the body. Some­times it is the mind.

—“Dis­abil­ity Shapes Taste for the Im­per­fect: A Fa­ther’s Way”, Asahi Evening News, Sun­day 1999-10-03 (tran­scribed by EGF Wiki from pho­to­graph of printed news­pa­per)

In 1997, shortly after the suc­cess of Evan­ge­lion and some­where dur­ing pre-pro­duc­tion of Kare Kano, Anno par­tic­i­pated in a pop­u­lar NHK show called “Wel­come Back for an Ex­tracur­ric­u­lar Lesson, Sem­pai!”, where pop­u­lar per­son­al­i­ties re­visit the town they grew up in to teach a class at their old pri­mary schools. For any­one who has peeked into the very, very dark cur­rent of thought he vented so read­ily in Evan­ge­lion, the thought of this is im­pos­si­ble not to snicker at.

… Be­fore Anno ar­rives, they are to draw and write what they think he’s like, based on their thoughts from watch­ing Eva. Puz­zled, they just start com­ing up with silli­ness.

… “Why is that ro­bot­-thingy called Evan­ge­lion?”

“It comes from a Chris­t­ian word mean­ing ‘Gospel’ and it’s sup­posed to bring bless­ings. It has some Greek roots. I chose the name be­cause it sounds com­pli­cat­ed.”

“What does Rei like?” Otaku boy asks. “I haven’t thought about it,” is An­no’s curt re­ply. He’s not ex­actly a ver­bal per­son, but he’s keenly aware of sub­tle things that affect how the kids might re­act to him, so he does things like main­tain eye level with them. Anno ad­mits he has a self­-es­teem prob­lem. “I’m not crazy about my­self. I’m often told that those who don’t like them­selves have high ide­als, but I think some­one who says that does­n’t re­ally un­der­stand the pain that’s in­volved,” he mus­es.

“Do you like the anime you make?”

“There’s parts I like and parts I don’t.”

“What parts do you dis­like?”

“The parts that I’m in.”

… After a quick school lunch (Anno barely eats, and re­fuses all meat and fish) The kids are brought by bus into town to in­ter­view An­no’s par­ents and child­hood friends. [cf. the ’96 anime pan­el]

… After the kids present their (much im­proved) an­i­ma­tions, Anno wraps up by ex­plain­ing the point of such free-form ex­er­cis­es. “In school tests, there’s only one an­swer for each ques­tion, and you might get zero or half points if you’re wrong. But in the real world, things aren’t so black and white, so think about things on your own and ex­press them in words or pic­tures. That’s how you com­mu­ni­cate with peo­ple. That’s so im­por­tant.”

… The power lines, the land­scapes of man-made struc­tures – in­clud­ing many of An­no’s vi­sual trade­mark shots – are so ob­vi­ously in­flu­enced by these sur­round­ings that we al­most ex­pect to see Asuka round­ing the cor­ner.

“Buried Trea­sure: ‘Hideaki Anno Talks to Kids’”; pic­ture of par­ents in Hideaki Anno Talks to Kids

When the very first meet­ing was held be­fore the ti­tle had even been de­cid­ed, Anno had al­ready pro­vided the theme of “a bat­tle be­tween gods and hu­mans”. Both Anno and I – our gen­er­a­tion – was in­flu­enced by Go Na­gai, so mak­ing some­thing on a grand scale meant it ended up like “Dev­il­man”. The char­ac­ter de­sign re­quest from Anno was that “the lead char­ac­ter is a girl, and has an old­er-sis­ter type fig­ure like Coach next to her,” so it was struc­turally sim­i­lar to “Gun­buster”. So I first de­signed an Asuka-type girl as the lead char­ac­ter, but after “Gun­buster” and “Na­dia” I felt some re­sis­tance to mak­ing the lead char­ac­ter a girl again. I mean a ro­bot should be pi­loted by a trained per­son, and if that per­son just hap­pens to be a girl then that is fine, but I could­n’t see why a young girl would pi­lot a ro­bot… So I re­mem­ber say­ing to An­no, “It’s a ro­bot sto­ry, so let’s make the lead char­ac­ter a boy.” And just about that time, I was watch­ing the NHK [pub­lic TV chan­nel] pro­gram “Brain and Heart”49 and learned about the ex­is­tence of the A10 nerve, and I told Anno about the idea that popped into my head at that time. That was the idea where “the dead mother is in­side the ro­bot, which is op­er­ated by men­tal/psy­chi­cal bond­ing with the child. More­over, par­en­t-child re­la­tions are parched/s­trained due to the death of the mother at a young age.”

… An eas­ily rec­og­niz­able sil­hou­ette is also im­por­tant, but I de­signed the char­ac­ters so that their per­son­al­i­ties could be more or less un­der­stood at a glance. For ex­am­ple, even the color and length of the hair ex­presses per­son­al­i­ty. I thought that Asuka would oc­cupy the po­si­tion of an “idol” in the Eva world, and that [A­suka and] Shinji should be just like the re­la­tion­ship be­tween Na­dia and Jean. And then I set Rei as the op­pos­ing “Ying” por­tion. It was my idea to have her wrapped in ban­dages. The most diffi­cult was Mis­ato. So I thought it would be in­ter­est­ing to have some­one like the older girl next door as a mil­i­tary per­son.

We had talked a lot in the be­gin­ning about want­ing a ti­tle like “Space Run­away Ideon (Le­gendary Gi­ant God Ideon)”, so I think I did push that. And to tell the truth, the story com­po­si­tion is also sim­i­lar. For ex­am­ple, Nerv can be con­sid­ered the same as the Solo Ship fight­ing a lonely bat­tle against both hu­mankind and the Buff Clan, and then there are the in­com­pre­hen­si­ble ro­bots that can only com­mu­ni­cate with chil­dren and tend to go berserk, etc. It might not be an ex­ag­ger­a­tion to say that if you add “Ideon” and “Dev­il­man” to­gether and di­vide by two, you get “Evan­ge­lion”. (laugh)

–Sep­tem­ber Der Monde Sadamoto in­ter­view; par­tial trans­la­tion, cov­er­ing key char­ac­ter de­sign. In­ter­view was reprinted in Os­adebon (“Book of Sadamoto”), a sup­ple­ment to the De­cem­ber 2000 Ace-A manga mag­a­zine. e writes that the con­tents of the Os­adebon are:

  • "Stage 1 of Eva manga (40 pages).
  • Sadamoto Long In­ter­view men­tioned above (8 pages).
  • Sadamoto My Favourites (5 pages - he writes about his favourite cars, bikes, idols, movies and ani­me/­man­ga).
  • Ko­tou no Oni manga (32 pages - orig­i­nally pub­lished in New­type in 1994, then in the Der Mond Deluxe Edi­tion, art by Sadamo­to, story by wife Takaha Mako).
  • Otou­san no Fut­suu Seikatsu manga (9 pages - by wife Takaha Mako).
  • 1 page list­ing all tank­oubon (and re­lated Eva books) by Sadamo­to.
  • 2 pages of all com­ments made by Sadamoto in the con­tents page of Shonen Ace since 1995.
  • 2 pages list­ing Sadamo­to’s main works, with short com­ments by Sadamo­to.
  • 1 page ad for vol­ume 8 of the Eva man­ga.
  • 1 page time­line of Sadamo­to’s life, start­ing with birth in 1962."

Go Na­gai: I told my­self that it was a good idea to cre­ate a hero who was­n’t nec­es­sar­ily good, that we could have a bad hero, that’s where the in­spi­ra­tion came. At that time I was watch­ing movies like Godzilla and I was re­ally iden­ti­fy­ing my­self to him. With­out know­ing why, through the eyes of Godzil­la, I felt the need to crush tanks or to dis­perse crowds of peo­ple with kicks, I found that en­ter­tain­ing… It’s in this same state of mind that I started writ­ing Mao Dante.

[Hideaki An­no:] …In brief, I was fol­low­ing the man­ga, and I ar­rived to the part of the “big bat­tle”. It was some­thing un­ex­pect­ed, and for a child like me, it was shock­ing.

G: And what marked you?

H: For ex­am­ple, this scene where a char­ac­ter faced school­girl pris­on­ers, whose clothes were torn, were hid­ing their breasts and the crotch, and tells them “Hands up !” It’s re­mark­able, like a com­i­cal scene. I think it was one of my first mem­o­ries of your work. But your in­flu­ence on me is in­cal­cu­la­ble, im­pos­si­ble to eval­u­ate. After all, even in Evan­ge­lion, I could­n’t get away from the Dev­il­man in­flu­ence…

G: Oh yes ? I was told that there were sim­i­lar­i­ties, there­fore I went to see Evan­ge­lion in the cin­ema with that idea, but I did��n’t feel that.

H: No, but I think I did­n’t do it con­scious­ly… After that, peo­ple made me no­tice : “Ah this is Dev­il­man”, etc…

…[In­ter­view­er] You both are from two differ­ent gen­er­a­tions. What was your idea of a mon­ster, when you were kids ?

H: I was­n’t a big fan of mon­ster movies, not as much as Mas­ter Na­gai… I did­n’t hate it, but for me war movies was rather my thing. After that, I started on hero sto­ries like Ul­tra­man.

G: You were not watch­ing Ul­tra Q, Ul­tra­man’s pre­quel?

H: I saw it, but I could­n’t get a hold of it. We were see­ing only mon­sters, and scary stuff… We can con­clude that I pre­fer gi­ant he­roes over mon­sters.

G: Some­one told me that Evan­ge­lion was vi­su­ally in­spired by Ul­tra­man, is it true ?

H: EVA is an “Ul­tra­man-ian” char­ac­ter, sure. But to be hon­est, the vi­sual in­spi­ra­tion also comes from Dev­il­man.

G: Re­ally ?

H: There’s also some Shuten Douji in it. And also the idea that even demons and ogres with their scary faces. I think the thing we name “power” is some­thing re­ally scary. So when the de­sign was to be made, I par­tic­u­larly in­sisted that he is scary-look­ing. If kids could start cry­ing just by watch­ing an episode, that would be ide­al. To the point to make it an an­ti-hero, some­thing which is scary. For that, Dev­il­man was the per­fect mod­el. I had drawn a “rough” ver­sion of EVA which looked a lot like Dev­il­man, with the curved back, la taille fine, a thick chest plate. It was the im­age that I made from Dev­il­man. But EVA also has com­mon points with Mazinger Z. Him too has a scary de­monic face.

G: For what is Dev­il­man and Mazinger Z, I did­n’t have the in­ten­tion to give them night­mare-esque faces, but that nat­u­rally came to me ! (Laughs)

H: In Mao Dan­te, the ears of Ryo Ut­sugi be­come the eyes of a de­mon, right ? In the first ver­sion of EVA, when we looked at its eyes close­ly, we also no­ticed an in­flu­ence from Mao Dante. Be­fore that I did the Gun­buster ova, and for the ro­bot de­sign, I told my­self that giv­ing it two eyes was a bit dull. So I made it like a cy­clops, but later I re­al­ized it was a mis­take. Even with their shad­ow, ro­bots like Mazinger re­mained rec­og­niz­able, even if the eyes were no longer just two white shapes. In Gun­buster, with its unique eye, it did­n’t work well. I there­fore told my­self that next time, I will defi­nitely make a ro­bot with com­pound eyes, like an in­sect. For that, I coloured all of the body of the first ver­sion of EVA with a gloomy colour, ex­cept for the eyes, which I left in white, to at­tract at­ten­tion.

…H: Still con­cern­ing the face, I love Mazinger Z in pro­file to­wards the first episode in the pre­pub­li­ca­tion. It’s his first ap­pear­ance and Kouji dis­cov­ers it with a stun­ning cry.

G: The scene in the house of the grand­pa, is that it ?

H: Yes, it re­ally marked me. That must be why I gave the same kind of eyes to the first ver­sion of EVA. When I brought these rec­ti­fi­ca­tions on the orig­i­nal draw­ings, I could­n’t pre­vent my­self from draw­ing the eyes in the style of Mas­ter Na­gai.

And in the first episode of Evan­ge­lion, the first ap­pear­ance of EVA is a big shot on his face, right ?

H: Eh yes, that’s it. (Laugh) Sor­ry.

G: Fancy that ? (Laugh)

…HA : The manga that was ap­pear­ing in Terebi Mag­a­zine was­n’t bad, but how­ev­er, it was­n’t the tv ver­sion… I was watch­ing, but at that time when I was in 5th grade, me and my friends had the im­pres­sion that it was for lit­tle kids, and that they were tak­ing us a bit for id­iots. It’s the same thing for the Get­ter Robo ani­me. The manga of Mas­ter Ken Ishikawa was like a bible to me. In the anime of Mazinger Z, there was only one episode that I liked, the n°32 (“Three headed beast ma­chine of ter­rorr”), where Mazinger Z was hurled in the sky by hang­ing on to the “breast­-mis­siles” [Aphro­dai Ace - NDT]. In my mem­o­ry, it’s the only scene that fas­ci­nated my child­ish heart. And for Get­ter Robo, it’s the episode where they were forced to pi­lot by them­selves… The one where the ro­bot gets de­cap­i­tated ? (N°30 : “When the Phoenix res­ur­rects”)

HA : That’s all. It’s the only episode I liked, the one where Get­ter Robo is de­feat­ed. That seemed plau­si­ble to me. Al­so, I re­ally liked the open­ing song too.

…TO : In your work, there are fright­en­ing im­ages of dis­fig­ured char­ac­ters, torn bod­ies or hu­man-dogs, which were very scary, and in ad­di­tion to that, there were frights that we pre­fer not to talk about, gen­er­ally speak­ing. It’s the kind of things we pre­fer not think­ing in our every­day life. In Dev­il­man and Mao Dan­te, the mem­ory that in the past, hu­mans were the prey of demons, it’s re­ally some­thing ter­ri­fy­ing.

GN : Whether it comes from our mem­o­ries or else­where, we have this kind of mem­o­ries in us.

TO : It ac­tu­ally ex­ists by the way. There was a time when hu­mans were preys, with­out a doubt. I think that’s why we started us­ing our hands, mak­ing fire etc… so as not to be eat­en! It’s some­thing that we have for­got­ten, but some­thing still says in our mem­o­ry, as a species. At that time, we were simi­ans, we were at­tacked by sauri­ans, et since these beasts were a source of fear, we got used to the idea of demons.

Hideaki Anno : I like well the con­cept of “freaks” who counter at­tack, for ex­am­ple in Mazinger Z. For me, the me­chan­i­cal beasts are like an army of “freaks”, al­so, they’re led by a crazy sci­en­tist! As a kid, I loved to see the crazy sci­en­tist who was op­pressed and started shout­ing “For­ward for the world’s con­quest!”

GN : It’s a bit the same thing with demons, right? From a his­toric point of view, most of peo­ple who were iden­ti­fied to demons were tyran­nised. I ex­pressed that un­con­scious­ly… I maybe go that idea some­where, to say … Who knows that can hap­pen to me in an­other life?Any­way, what­ever hap­pens, I can­not be on side of those with pow­er, I’ll nat­u­rally be for the ones op­pos­ing pow­er. And even if Sa­tan was iden­ti­fied as the big evil, I won­der if he’s as bad that. Et puis au fi­nal. At the end of Dev­il­man, we can also reach a con­clu­sion that God is the evil one. Sa­tan too op­poses power : He op­poses God…

…HA : When we have char­ac­ters hose lose their orig­i­nal form and mixes them­selves with one an­oth­er, that’s Ken Ishikawa. How­ev­er, when we see bod­ies well cut in two with blood com­ing out, that’s Go Na­gai.

GN : In the cin­ema ver­sion of Evan­ge­lion, your use of vis­cer­al­ity is­n’t bad at all…

HA : That’s right… We also in­tro­duced the con­cept of can­ni­bal­ism. But it’s hard to make it fright­en­ing in an­i­ma­tion.

GN : I thought it was effec­tive enough!

HA : What would be ideal is that kids who watch it start to vom­it, but they did­n’t even get a small nau­sea. That should have made them sick. Be­cause if I think it’s bet­ter to show re­pug­nant things just as they are. If we suc­ceed to trans­mit the emo­tion that atro­cious things are atro­cious, it’s mis­sion suc­ceed­ed. When some­one tells me “It’s too hor­ri­ble, too vi­o­lent”, that pleases me, be­cause it’s a healthy and nor­mal re­ac­tion. When they tell me “I can­not watch, it’s too much”, I say “Okaaaaay!” (Laugh­s).50

…HA : Ac­tu­ally (with Evan­ge­lion), I only thought of re­new­ing the genre. At its core, it’s still Mazinger Z. I thought to my­self how Mazinger Z would be if it was cre­ated to­day. With stuff like train­ing the pi­lots in lab­o­ra­to­ries… How­ev­er, this was quickly de­railed.

…TO : No, noth­ing at all. But tell me, An­no, you will have to clar­ify me on a point : In the cin­ema ver­sion of Evan­ge­lion, the NERV fights against the army… As far as the in­trigue goes, it re­minded me of the war be­tween the min­istry of ed­u­ca­tion and the shame­less school, in Harenchi Gakuen. On one side, you got those who back up the to­tal war, say­ing that it’s jus­ti­fied, and on the other side, there are those who say it’s go­ing to be a mas­sacre. When I watched the movie in the the­atres, I told my­self that this looked like a se­ri­ous ver­sion of Harenchi Gakuen’s end­ing…

HA : Ac­tu­al­ly, since the time when we pro­duced the TV se­ries which pre­ceded the movie, I was think­ing of the im­age of the so­ci­ety as en­e­my. So, in the end, char­ac­ters linked to the gov­ern­ment are ac­tu­ally a form of au­thor­i­ty, from our point of view. It’s a story which shows how adults de­stroy the lives of chil­dren. I can­not say I’m com­pletely op­posed to the sys­tem, but since my child­hood, I al­ways had this vague im­pres­sion of be­ing squashed by the pres­sure around me.

…HA : I ask my­self at what mo­ment peo­ple started to value vir­tual things over real things. Maybe kids to­day think that vir­tu­al­ity has more val­ue.

TO : I think that’s the case. As a con­se­quence, re­al­ity has less value in their eyes, they think it’s easy to kill peo­ple. So that if we give re­al­ity its ad­e­quate val­ue, it’s hard to de­cap­i­tate some­one or do these kind of things…

H: As for the im­ages of girls, when I was small, I was more ad­dicted to Ya­m­aguchi Mo­moe (A Japan­ese “Idol” singer) than my girl class­mates. Peo­ple that we see on tv are more im­por­tant than those who ex­ist just two steps away from us. It’s a form of idol­i­sa­tion.

…H: Yoshiyuki Sadamoto con­sid­ers you sim­ply like a God. His main rea­son for go­ing to a party or­gan­ised by Ko­dan­sha was to meet you. Me too, when I went to the cer­e­mony of prize awards of Sci­ence-Fic­tion, that was for the same rea­son.

…H: In our days, it’s un­de­ni­able that we ask ques­tions on the va­lid­ity of fic­tion. Al­so, doc­u­men­taries are be­com­ing more and more in­ter­est­ing. To the point where re­al­ity it­self be­come just as chaotic just like fic­tion. I ex­plain my­self : the things that M. Na­gai wrote about 25 to 30 years ago have al­ready ma­te­ri­al­ized. Re­cent­ly, I was wan­der­ing in Shibuya quar­ters, around 21 hours. I had the im­pres­sion of be­ing there. The “in­fer­nal earth­quake of the Kanto planes” did­n’t hap­pen, but it was as if I was in the slums of Vi­o­lence Jack. There’s an at­mos­phere of des­o­la­tion. Peo­ple who were found there had no place of work, and when they worked, it did­n’t bring them any­thing. It’s be­fore every­thing else a spir­i­tual pover­ty.

…G: I partly wrote Dev­il­man with the in­ten­tion of alert­ing peo­ple. In our days in Japan, we are in­differ­ent to ar­ma­ment com­pared to the past. I want to say that in this time, noth­ing other than talk­ing about the prob­lem of the army could cool down the am­biance. For some time, that’s no longer the case.

Toshimichi Ot­suki: It’s as if they were telling me ear­lier : It’s “vir­tual”. We’re “wait­ing for the war”, I think. I some­time ask my­self if every­one does­n’t want war.

G: And I have the im­pres­sion that this want for war is be­com­ing re­al­i­ty. How did it hap­pen, again? … Yes, for the Japan­ese sol­diers of the au­tode­fense force sent to a for­eign place can par­tic­i­pate in mil­i­tary ac­tiv­i­ties, we cre­ated rules of co­op­er­a­tion with the peace main­te­nance force from the UN. It will start like this. If we ad­mit that it’s ac­cept­able to send army forces in large quan­ti­ties, we are two fin­gers away from ap­prov­ing armed ag­gres­sions. What scares me, it’s to ex­trap­o­late that.

–In­ter­view be­tween Hideaki Anno and , pub­lished in the 1999 art­book Dev­il­man Tab­u­lae Anatom­i­cae Kaitaishin­sho; trans­lated into French (ful­l?) by Jay­Wicky, and then into Eng­lish

“I think my friend wanted me to do this” is the sole, mys­te­ri­ous ex­pla­na­tion offered for his [Hideaki An­no’s] new, one-night old hair­style.

…“Yeah, I fit into the otaku group-or at least I’m an otaku who has opened up. But maybe then I’m not an otaku any more be­cause of that. It’s hard to de­fine …”

…“I be­came an an­i­ma­tor by chance, re­al­ly-it did­n’t hap­pen by my will. Be­fore I knew it, I was an an­i­ma­tor. When I was a child, I wanted to be a bus dri­ver or a train con­duc­tor; I never re­ally had a spe­cific vi­sion or dream.”

…“Eva was a fluke …,” Anno pauses for a mo­ment, al­most re­con­sid­er­ing his re­ply, then adds, “I don’t think my sto­ries are re­ally meant for a wide au­di­ence. I guess what I felt at that time just hap­pened to strike a chord with the youth.”

…“Japan is the only coun­try in the world that ac­tu­ally has an anime in­dus­try, and can mass-pro­duce an­i­mated works of a high qual­ity for a large au­di­ence. It’s only nat­ural then, that this prod­uct would be in de­mand from the rest of the world.”

“Japan is un­ri­valed in this sense. Dis­ney is re­ally no com­pe­ti­tion be­cause Dis­ney can only re­lease one film at a time. They are not ca­pa­ble of han­dling the wide range of sto­ries that we see in Japan­ese ani­me. Real anime ex­ists only in Japan, and this is about the only orig­i­nal prod­uct Japan can offer to the world-anime, manga and com­puter games.”

…So, when asked di­rectly about the fu­ture of Japan in the next mil­len­ni­um, Hideaki Anno be­comes the dark vi­sion­ary that the kids know so well.

“Whether it be a few years into the fu­ture or 10 years in the fu­ture, I don’t know, but there is go­ing to be a rad­i­cal change or event that will change Japan.”

“There will come a time when Japan is go­ing to go through a big shake-up-so much so that Japan may no longer be able to sur­vive. But it won’t be be­cause of pol­i­tics, and it won’t be the re­sult of any nat­ural dis­as­ter.”

“It’s the Japan­ese econ­o­my; the back­lash of our econ­o­my. Right now, peo­ple are al­ways telling us that our econ­omy is on the up­swing and all that …” (pause) … “but I don’t be­lieve them.”

“‘Opened-up’ otaku opens up: The na­tion’s - nay, the world’s - fore­most cy­beran­i­ma­tor comes down to Earth to talk.” (EML mir­ror); Asahi Shim­bun, De­cem­ber 30, 1999

“PS We did man­age to find out that it is Ka­woru play­ing the vi­o­lin in Death & Re­birth.”

–Saxon Heffer­nan, “Pil­grim­age to Gainax”

Anno had planned to visit Aussiecon Three and then Ayres Rock; can­celed when he fell down a Tokyo es­ca­la­tor dur­ing rush hour, “hit­ting his head se­ri­ously enough to re­quire seven stitches in his fore­head”.

12-11-99—- Japan Mar­itime Self­-De­fence Force Se­ries Su­per­vised By Hideaki Anno

The film­ing of Japan Self­-De­fense Force [JSDF] equip­ment and train­ing, su­per­vised by Gainax di­rec­tor, Hideaki Anno (E­van­ge­lion), is be­ing re­leased in Japan on LD and DVD. The first vol­ume: “JUSDF FLEET POWER1 -Yoko­suka- Japan Mar­itime Self­-De­fense Force” went on sale on Nov. 25th. The first vol­ume in­cludes scenes of car­ri­er-based air­craft and as­roc shoot­ing and re­tails for 5800 Yen.

Source: J-Dream Di­rect Newslet­ter, J-Dream Web


1999 S

Japan Edge: The In­sid­er’s Guide to Japan­ese Pop Sub­cul­ture, 1999 ISBN 156931-345-8; con­trib­u­tors: Carl Gus­tav Horn, Ma­son Jones, Patrick Ma­ci­as, Yui Oniki, Matt Thor; ‘Ani­me: Overview; “As You Are, As You Were, As I Want You To Be”; Fu­ture Trend/­Col­lec­tion/Bio’, by Carl Gus­tav Horn:

Gainax’s Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion would even­tu­ally be­come the na­tional phe­nom­e­non to make the pre­dic­tion come true. Gainax (their name even sounds like Gen-X) un­der­stood the cul­ture of in­ter­na­tional post­mod­ernism that draws every­day lessons from Be­witched and re­serves the big, ab­stract is­sues for Star Wars. But what made Gainax spe­cial was their in­sis­tence that this was all, on some lev­el, true and au­then­tic. The ’60s gen­er­a­tion claimed that a ninja comic was a Cliff Notes for Marx. Gainax had no need to plead a higher au­thor­i­ty; they saw noth­ing wrong with find­ing guid­ance just in the ninja comic it­self. They had a spe­cial kind of self­-knowl­edge some­times ac­ces­si­ble to those who grow up play­ing not with the world but with other peo­ple’s mod­els of the world, to those who con­tem­plate not cre­ation but ar­ti­fice.3

3: Pauline Kael’s com­ments on Mas­cu­line-Fem­i­nine in The New Yorker fit Gainax’s con­cep­tion of the otaku per­fect­ly: “This com­mu­nity of un­be­liev­ers has a style of life by which they rec­og­nize each oth­er; it is made up of every­thing adults at­tack as the worst and shod­di­est forms of…de­hu­man­iza­tion. It is the va­ri­ety of forms of ‘Co­ca-Cola’ - the syn­thetic life they were born to and which they love, and which they barely make hu­man and more beau­ti­ful and more ‘real’ than the old just-bare­ly-hang­ing-on adult cul­ture. Mem­ber­ship is au­to­matic and nat­ural for the crea­tures from in­ner space…they have the beauty of youth which can en­dow pop with po­et­ry, and they have their feel­ings for each other and all those shared prod­ucts and re­sponses by which they know each oth­er.” Gainax’s pas­sion is, then, a French kiss-in-cheek, a tongue stuck out, but say­ing some lovely things. Hideaki Anno and Hi­royuki Ya­m­a­ga, both born when the Bea­t­les were still a Chuck Berry cover band, are the Lennon and Mc­Cart­ney of Gainax. At least, Ya­m­aga main­tains that Anno looks like the “smart one”, while per­son­ally dis­claim­ing any re­sem­blance to “the cute one”. (But nei­ther of the two are fans, par­tic­u­lar­ly; Anno loves the sound of retro-SF themes and clas­si­cal mu­sic, while Ya­m­aga has shown a pen­chant for the ’80s elec­tronic of Ryuichi Sakamoto and ’90s trance-Goa pi­o­neer DJ Tsuyoshi, both of whom Ya­m­aga picked to score his movies.) “If any­body’s go­ing to get shot, though, I would want it to be Anno”, he says, laugh­ing as he speaks of his com­rade of many years. “Sup­pos­edly he made Evan­ge­lion for a tar­get age of four­teen, but I think he re­ally made it for peo­ple his own age - about thir­ty-five.”

Like Miyazaki and Taka­hata’s po­lit­i­cal fa­bles, Gainax’s know-thy­self anime ran on a part­ner­ship of two di­rec­tors. The crit­i­cal de­tail for Gainax is that the “mo­ment of clar­ity” - as Amer­i­can otaku Quentin Taran­tino would have it - for Hi­royuki Ya­m­aga (b. 1962) and Hideaki Anno (b. 1960), came at de­cid­edly differ­ent speeds. For Ya­m­a­ga, the per­cep­tion came first, as a burst from deep space: il­lu­mi­nat­ing with a bril­liant, light-speed flash. Long years lat­er, the shock­wave ar­rived for An­no, crack­ing his pri­vate world apart.

Ya­m­aga pre­sented as a fairly re­spectable, ath­letic young man with an in­ner pas­sion for cre­ative and fi­nan­cial suc­cess in the film world, when he ar­rived at col­lege in 1980 - just like Kubo, the fresh­man pro­tag­o­nist of Otaku no Video, which Ya­m­aga wrote un­der a pseu­do­nym. The col­lege he at­tended was no To­dai or Gakushuin, but the arts uni­ver­sity of Japan’s heavy in­dus­trial cen­ter, Os­a­ka. Walk­ing through the quad one day early on in his stu­dent ca­reer, he found him­self sud­denly in the midst of a live-ac­tion bat­tle be­tween wild cos­tumed stu­dents, one side dressed as nin­ja, the other in SWAT gear. “When that be­comes a daily oc­cur­rence, what am I sup­posed to say?” Ya­m­aga ex­claimed to Amer­i­can fans in 1997 upon a visit to Sil­i­con Val­ley’s mas­sive an­nual anime gath­er­ing, Fanime Con. Then, a tall, gan­gling, and mys­te­ri­ous up­per­class­man in­tro­duced him­self not with the cus­tom­ary hello but by con­fid­ing that he knew prac­ti­cally every line in Space Bat­tle­ship Yam­ato (Star Blaz­ers) by heart. “I think I for­got what was nor­mal at that point”, re­called Ya­m­a­ga.

Soon he found him­self mak­ing 8 mm Power Rangers-type su­per­hero films with Anno and his friends, and, of course, anime - cut­ting up in­dus­trial plas­tic sheet­ing into cels to save mon­ey. The anime shorts were not so much nar­ra­tives as col­lec­tions of pop-cul­ture rhyming-and-steal­ing, as fran­tic as a Beastie Boys track. In an An­no-Ya­m­aga stu­dent pro­duc­tion, cities for A-bombed just for effect while Play­boy bun­nies crossed light sabers with Darth Vad­er. Ya­m­a­ga, who, when he ar­rived at col­lege, had no in­ten­tion of be­com­ing an otaku, much less an ani­me-mak­er, be­came both by the time his group in­cor­po­rated in 1984 as Stu­dio Gainax.

It was the year of Nau­si­caa, and only three years lat­er, Gainax would make an anime epic of their own - Royal Space Force: The Wings of Hon­neamise.4 The con­cept for the film, said Ya­m­a­ga, came to [pg19] him in that most Gen-X of cathe­drals, the coffee­house. It was a prod­uct of otaku con­scious­ness. “I thought how [anime] should re­flect so­ci­ety and what it should rep­re­sent, and to me it seemed it should be like a mir­ror in a coffee­house - a dou­ble space, an il­lu­sion. We have a lim­ited time here in our lives, but we feel that through tele­vi­sion and film, we can un­der­stand a great deal more… In school, you may be taught that the world is round, but with your own eyes, you’ll only be able to con­firm, to di­rectly ex­pe­ri­ence, a very small part of that world, a very small part of what we’re ca­pa­ble of imag­in­ing… We wanted to cre­ate a world, and we wanted to look at it from space.”

4: At Fanime Con, Ya­m­aga de­scribed how they raised the money for the film. One might say that Gainax de­cided to walk into Jabba the Hut­t’s palace with a ther­mal det­o­na­tor. Freshly dropped-out of col­lege, they en­tered the cor­po­rate head­quar­ters of Bandai, the multi­bil­lion-dol­lar Japan­ese toy gi­ant that pro­duces half the anime in Japan, in­clud­ing ti­tles fa­mil­iar to Amer­i­cans, such as Sailor Moon. Gainax pre­sented Bandai with a ten-year busi­ness plan they had drawn up - not for Gainax to fol­low, but Bandai! In the stunned si­lence that fol­lowed, Gainax pres­i­dent Toshio Okada (who went to col­lege just to join the sci­ence fic­tion club and to­day teaches at Taka­hata’s alma mater) man­aged to fash­ion a movie bud­get with the help of a cre­ative-minded young ex­ec­u­tive at Bandai, Shigeru Watan­abe, who quickly be­came a fer­vent dis­ci­ple of Gainax’s vi­sion. Watan­abe re­mains the pa­tron be­hind some of Japan’s most pro­gres­sive anime films - films that he and Hon­neamise took the blows to make pos­si­ble. The ther­mal det­o­na­tor bit proved no joke: the movie bombed. Hon­neamise was a clas­sic ex­am­ple of the film too far ahead of its time that to­day every­one ac­knowl­edges as the work of ge­nius. At least some­one un­der­stood, though: Ya­m­aga may have taken some pa­ter­nal com­fort from Miyaza­k­i’s praise of his film in an in­ter­view in Kinema Jumpo in 1995 (the year after Hon­neamise fi­nally be­gan to turn a profit). Miyazaki saw kin­dred spir­its in the mak­ers of Gainax’s break­through film; their ap­proach re­minded him of his work with Taka­hata on the mak­ing of Ho­rus: “Hon­neamise is the proof [that] it’s still pos­si­ble… Those who made it were am­a­teurs in terms of ex­pe­ri­ence. In their mid-twen­ties, they made it by them­selves, liv­ing and eat­ing to­geth­er, with no dis­tinc­tion be­tween the work and their pri­vate lives.”

Gainax made good on their am­bi­tion; un­der Ya­m­a­ga’s di­rec­tion, an ex­plo­sion of twen­ty-some­thing cre­ative en­ergy gave The Wings of Hon­neamise the most so­phis­ti­cated and cos­mopoli­tan art di­rec­tion of any anime film made be­fore or since. In an achieve­ment be­yond even that seen in the movies of Terry Gilliam or Ri­d­ley Scott, the team crafted an imag­i­nary al­ter­nate world in every fas­ci­nat­ing de­tail, from the bongs to the jet planes. It was a kalei­do­scopic mir­ror, for the set­ting of Hon­neamise con­tained every el­e­ment of our mod­ern lives: class, faith, sci­ence, war, and of course, tele­vi­sion - but all with the jum­bled look of no par­tic­u­lar coun­try, or many coun­tries, in an in­ter­na­tional vi­sual lan­guage.

Ya­m­aga imag­ined an or­di­nary young man in his early twen­ties, named Shi­ro, for the pro­tag­o­nist of Hon­neamise. How­ev­er, in a bril­liant plot con­ceit, the di­rec­tor turned the clock of Shi­ro’s par­al­lel world back to a time when space travel was a dream few be­lieved pos­si­ble. Shiro al­ways says he wants a sim­ple life, but a child­hood vi­sion of flight flick­ers within him. With­out the grades to get into avi­a­tor school, he falls in with a tiny, no-bud­get gov­ern­ment pro­gram, whose mum­bling com­man­dant styles his bored young stu­dents the Royal Space Force, and talks of one day send­ing the first man into or­bit. For no bet­ter con­scious rea­son than to im­press a girl who seems to be­lieve in him, Shiro as­tounds every­one by vol­un­teer­ing. The story be­gins from there, as Shiro be­gins his long jour­ney to the rock­et.

His il­l-con­sid­ered de­ci­sion changes him from a man con­tent to stare, into some­one who, for the first time in his life, must take a good look around. Be­fore he will ever get to leave the ground, the would-be as­tro­naut has to ex­plore his own fallen world and the in­ner space in­side him. What be­gins for him as a sci-fi joke be­comes shad­owed by as­sas­si­na­tion, ter­ror­ism, so­cial un­rest, and war, as both he and his mis­sion be­come pub­lic sac­ri­fice pawns in the global power game. Yet the ques­tion of whether the first man will go into space is to be de­cided pri­vate­ly, as Shiro con­fronts his own ca­pac­ity for vi­o­lence and delu­sion in mo­ments with­out a wit­ness. Few mo­tion pic­tures of any kind have so well used the make-be­lieve of movies in such a pow­er­ful and sus­tained metaphor as Hon­neamise. As an ani­me, it re­mains in many ways un­sur­passed.

Anno had been the spe­cial-effects ge­nius on Hon­neamise, and un­like Ya­m­a­ga, Hideaki Anno never had any doubts that he was ei­ther an otaku or an an­i­ma­tor. On the cusp of ado­les­cence, he with­drew from the realm of senses into a world of watch­ing anime and mak­ing 8 mm movies. Girls avoided him like the plague, and he avoided them - an en­tente cor­diale of the kind por­trayed in 1991’s Otaku no Video. It was oddly ap­pro­pri­ate that after Otaku no Video stro­belit Anno and his friends like a string of fire­crack­ers, Gainax fell silent in the smoke for the next four years as they strug­gled fruit­lessly with an abortive plan to make a sec­ond mo­tion pic­ture.

The rea­son lay in large part with Anno him­self, who never had any doubts be­cause he never asked him­self any ques­tions. When he at last asked, with an anime called Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion, he was to change the face of anime once again, as Ya­m­a­ga’s Hon­neamise had years be­fore - only this time, the pub­lic would re­spond to the seeds Gainax had sown. And when Anno had the an­swer, it was a high school girl who got it from him. One day in Au­gust of 1998, while vis­it­ing stu­dents to re­search his next show, she came up to him, full of ad­mi­ra­tion, to say that she loved Evan­ge­lion, be­lieved in pur­su­ing one’s dreams, and in­tended to grow up and one day make anime her­self. He warned her: “You’ve got it all wrong. This is the only thing I can do… I’ve man­aged to get this far be­cause I gave up every­thing else.”

By the time he was twen­ty-four, while still a stu­dent film­mak­er, Anno was be­ing men­tored by Hayao Miyaza­ki, who gave him key work on Nau­si­caa - and hailed as a ris­ing star. After Hon­neamise, he di­rected and cowrote for Gainax both the 1988 ro­man­tic space-war epic video se­ries Gun­buster and the 1990 TV anime Na­dia, a Jules Verne-like ad­ven­ture set in a fan­tas­tic nine­teenth cen­tury (and a con­cept orig­i­nally de­vel­oped for Miyaza­k­i). Then it was all over, not from a lack of suc­cess - An­no’s two di­rec­to­r­ial efforts had proved pop­u­lar - but be­cause he had bro­ken qui­etly one day. For four long years he was un­able to make anime any­more. It was when he re­al­ized that, in a world full of life, not mak­ing anime was for him the same as not liv­ing, that the shock­wave hit. On Oc­to­ber 4, 1995, he be­gan at last to speak about it, with the pre­miere of a TV se­ries four years in the wait­ing, Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion - an­cient Greek for New Be­gin­ning Gospel.

Evan­ge­lion takes place in 2015 - fifteen years after the sec­ond-to-Last Judg­ment. On Sep­tem­ber 13 in the year 2000, a mas­sive ex­plo­sion in Antarc­tica trig­gers a global cat­a­stro­phe that leaves half the world dead. The offi­cial story is that the blast is caused by a gi­ant me­te­or. The truth though, as they say, “is out there”, and there may be time to dis­cover it as hu­man­ity makes its last stand in Toky­o-3, a su­per-tech fortress city un­der as­sault from the hideous, un­com­mu­nica­tive en­ti­ties code-named the An­gels.

Evan­ge­lion fol­lows the course of this war and, most es­pe­cial­ly, the per­sonal con­flict be­tween the three differ­ent gen­er­a­tions at NERV: the four­teen-year-old “Chil­dren” who pi­lot the equal­ly-mon­strous bio­me­chan­i­cal Evan­ge­lion Units against the An­gels, their twen­ty-some­thing com­mand­ing offi­cers, and the Chil­dren’s par­ents, sci­en­tists who know far too much and tell far too lit­tle. The 1995-96 Eva TV show was a phe­nom­e­non in japan; ten mil­lion peo­ple tuned in for its fi­nal episode. The 1997 Evan­ge­lion movies, which pre­sented a differ­ent ver­sion of the TV show’s con­tro­ver­sial end­ing, made about $28 mil­lion, the mer­chan­dis­ing well over $200 mil­lion.5

5: Al­though Evan­ge­lion has re­mained strictly on video for now in the United States, it has been a con­sid­er­able suc­cess, which has made the per­sis­tent ru­mor that it might be picked up by MTV seem cred­i­ble. When Hous­ton’s A.D.V. Films re­leased the fi­nal episode here, their print ads, trad­ing on Eva’s renown in the Amer­i­can mar­ket, were mys­te­ri­ous and tex­t-on­ly, show­ing no anime im­ages at all - the first U.S. anime ad to dare such an ap­proach. Some el­e­ments of Eva’s suc­cess needed no Eng­lish trans­la­tion, such as the vi­sual de­sign which Em­my-award win­ning CG pro­gram­mer Allen Hast­ings (Baby­lon 5) has de­scribed as the most so­phis­ti­cated of any anime TV se­ries ever, or the at­trac­tive char­ac­ters drawn by Yoshiyuki Sadamoto - most no­tably, the Zen beauty of Rei Ayanami, whose ap­peal as The Face in Japan dur­ing ’96 to ’97 proved portable when she ap­peared on a pop­u­lar boot­leg T-shirt worn by a char­ac­ter on NBC’s Veron­i­ca’s Closet. Like the ma­jor­ity of ani­me, Evan­ge­lion was made with no au­di­ence in mind but the one in Japan. Nev­er­the­less, to the West­ern­ers who see it, it has a spe­cial res­o­nance. Eva’s use of Judeo-Chris­t­ian sym­bol­ism, es­cha­tol­ogy, and es­o­ter­ica are ex­otic and fas­ci­nat­ing dec­o­ra­tions for the Japan­ese, but they are part of the ac­tual cul­ture of the West, most es­pe­cially Amer­i­ca, where fallen pres­i­dents have prayer break­fasts, cit­i­zens claim in polls to still be­lieve in the God of Abra­ham, and many fear a mil­len­nial Ar­maged­don - or seek to help it along with a lit­tle fer­til­izer and gaso­line.

Anno claims no spir­i­tual be­liefs but the an­i­mism of Shin­to. In fact, many of Evan­ge­lion’s re­li­gious el­e­ments - most par­tic­u­larly his use of the Kab­balah - come not through re­li­gion per se but the psy­cho­log­i­cal the­o­ries of C.G. Jung, who con­sid­ered the Kab­balah a valu­able set of sym­bols with which to un­der­stand the hu­man psy­che. Thus, in Eva, the An­gels’ and Man’s bat­tle for their place in the scheme of cre­ation be­comes a dra­matic and metic­u­lously con­sid­ered de­vice that al­lowed Anno to stage spec­tac­u­lar fights and show­case fan­tas­tic tech­nol­o­gy, all in the ser­vice of his own per­sonal lake of fire, a pub­lic burn­ing every Wednes­day at 7:30 p.m. na­tion-wide.6

6: It is as much a metaphor for the real vi­o­lence within the in­tri­cate depths of An­no, who speaks with a differ­ent as­pect of his per­sona through every char­ac­ter - from his cow­ard­ly, des­o­late “son”, Shin­ji, who mo­ti­vated him to cre­ate Eva in the first place to the cryp­tic, dic­ta­to­r­ial “fa­ther”, Gen­do, who the dri­ven di­rec­tor was said to re­sem­ble as the se­ries neared the wrack­ing end of its pro­duc­tion. “Your God is dead / And no one cares / If there is a Hell / I’ll see you there”, is the scream from Nine Inch Nails’ song “Heresy” off The Down­ward Spi­ral, an al­bum that Japan­ese so­cial critic Kenji Sato, late of M.I.T. and The New York Times Mag­a­zine, com­pares to the feel­ing of Eva as the se­ries ap­proaches the whirlpool of its end. Eva is­n’t re­ally about the end of the world, but the per­sonal apoc­a­lypse. Some Amer­i­can fans had al­ready made this as­so­ci­a­tion in­de­pen­dent­ly, or saw in An­no’s in­ti­ma­tions of sui­cide not John Lennon but Kurt Cobain. Cer­tainly nei­ther Nir­vana or NIN had any di­rect con­nec­tion with Evan­ge­lion or the show’s mu­si­cal style, but it’s nat­ural that young fans tied into the U.S. mu­sic scene should as­so­ciate the show that, for on­ce, re­ally meant it, with the songs that in the four years be­fore Eva’s 1995 pre­miere made pop mu­sic mean some­thing again. Anno also made Eva as a com­ment on the des­o­la­tion of youth and cul­ture in Japan, but Amer­i­can teens don’t have gi­ant ro­bots to com­mand in their rage. They have semi­au­to­matic ri­fles. It is the emo­tion, too, of Evan­ge­lion, that needs no trans­la­tion.

To­day Japan­ese an­i­ma­tion, in its search for the next Eva, pop­u­lates its new se­ries with the Eva look - the ex­otic tech­nol­ogy called mecha in anime and a cast of sad toma­toes - with­out per­haps ever re­al­iz­ing what kind of com­mit­ment an­other Evan­ge­lion would re­quire from its cre­ators. Pretty faces and cool de­vices drew Evan­ge­lion’s ini­tial au­di­ences, but it was the un­rav­el­ing of the strands of the life of a real hu­man be­ing who would never have ad­mit­ted to watch­ing anime be­fore - that brought in the out­siders. In a sav­age irony, many hard­core otaku - de­spite the ani­me’s req­ui­site por­tion of cute girls and hi-tech ac­tion - felt robbed by Eva, and wanted to know what kind of a show was ul­ti­mately about noth­ing more than a per­son’s un­re­solved soul.

Post­script. Some­where/Any­where

There is­n’t likely to be “an­other Evan­ge­lion”. Nor is that par­tic­u­larly de­sir­able. What Eva has led to is much bet­ter - its suc­cess has spawned an ex­plo­sion of new anime shows in Japan on a level un­seen since the early ’80s; it’s just like the ex­cit­ing col­lege days that en­cour­aged Gainax to en­ter the in­dus­try in the first place. Some shows are tak­ing chances and try­ing to move anime along. Oth­ers are sim­ply pro­vid­ing anime with the di­ver­sity of de­mo­graph­ics and themes that the medium so des­per­ately needs to catch up with the suc­cess and re­spect manga al­ready en­joys in Japan.

Gainax is not the Beat­les; first of all, that was Ghi­b­li’s gen­er­a­tion. In a 1998 in­ter­view with the au­thor, Ya­m­aga in­voked the Fab Four not as his­to­ry, but as myth, for he is well aware that to the Japan­ese -as well as to their Amer­i­can fans - he and Anno have them­selves be­come myth as much as his­to­ry. Ya­m­aga ac­cepts their fame with a cau­tion­ary wink: “The press is say­ing good things about us… If they were in­sult­ing us or say­ing nasty things - yeah, then I would [pg23] be mo­ti­vated to go out and cor­rect them. As I make my own liv­ing writ­ing sto­ries that aren’t true… Look at all the things they said about the Bea­t­les. If you do, you’ll prob­a­bly find a lot of stuff that was made up as well… Well, it would be great if we could be as suc­cess­ful as them… The main thing the in­dus­try has learned from Evan­ge­lion and Mononoke”, says Ya­m­aga dry­ly, “is that there’s a lot of money to be made in ani­me.”

…Re­cent­ly, Miyazaki and Anno took an ex­tra­or­di­nary jour­ney to­geth­er, an air sa­fari across the Sa­hara in a vin­tage plane, which re­traced the path of avi­a­tion pi­o­neer and au­thor of The Lit­tle Prince, An­toine de Sain­t-Ex­u­pery. Land­ing in the mid­dle of that desert from whose winds Ghi­bli takes its name, the two posed for a pic­ture on a dune, strik­ing the stat­u­ary poses of beard­ed, be­spec­ta­cled lead­ers of the rev­o­lu­tion. Miyaza­ki, with the dig­nity of a grey suit, the shade of a sen­si­ble hat, points straight ahead. An­no, in a black pullover, his bare head cov­ered with scrag­gly curls, raises his arm high in the air; after a mo­ment you re­al­ize he’s do­ing an Ul­tra­man pose. Sorry - it’s not “look upon my works, ye might, and de­spair”, be­cause anime is just in the hands and the imag­i­na­tion; there’s noth­ing ever there to see but the man. And it’s not like they’re go­ing to stick around wait­ing to be cov­ered by the sand - fa­ther or son, they’ve got places to go still. What­ever place you want to put them, they’ll leave that some­where be­hind. They pre­fer any­where.

[pg26] For­tu­nate­ly, I met two teens there, named Bruce Bai­ley and Brian Foun­tain, who ran a lit­tle refuge for their fel­low run­aways [pg28] from that scene. They would show me copies of Japan’s An­i­m­age mag­a­zine and play Ag­nos­tic Fron­t’s Vic­tim in Pain. Through them I be­gan to un­der­stand that this was a vi­tal, golden age for ani­me, that things were hap­pen­ing over in Japan. It was they who in­tro­duced me to shows like Lupin III, Dirty Pair and Fist of the North Star, which we watched with many a “huh-huh-huh”. They showed me that anime was­n’t just an al­l-male world; there was het­ero­sex­u­al­ity and les­bian­ism as well in an anime called Pop Chaser. Years lat­er, I would find out that Evan­ge­lion’s Hideaki Anno worked on it, al­though he has writ­ten that he only did the ex­plo­sions. Which ex­plo­sions, he did­n’t spec­i­fy.

Tak­ing him to the air­port after Fanime one year, I asked Hi­royuki Ya­m­aga about Anno and Miya­mu­ra, whether it was true they were go­ing out (which was the story I had heard–not the story that she re­buffed him). If you’ve ever seen THE CASTLE OF CAGLIOSTRO, he was kind of re­clin­ing back in the car seat at the time like Ji­gen was, just be­fore they blew the tire. He sort of gave a “where’d you hear that?” re­sponse. Mr. Ya­m­aga is usu­ally not shy about gos­sip­ing about An­no, which leads me to be­lieve ei­ther 1. they were never go­ing out (90% pos­si­bil­i­ty) or 2. they were but jeal­ousy fore­bade him from con­firm­ing it (10% pos­si­bil­i­ty).

… It’s quite pos­si­ble that this strug­gle was in­ter­preted in­stead as a strug­gle with An­no, which cer­tainly made for juicier ru­mors. Nor was it all that far-fetched, as there was at times a great deal of ten­sion within Gainax over the mak­ing of EVA.

Anno was also at one time ro­man­ti­cally linked with Ayako Fu­ji­tani, whose novel “Shik­i­jitsu” he, of course, adapted into film. They ap­par­ently first met when she was star­ring in the re­makes of the GAMERA se­ries (Ya­m­aga claimed at one time the real rea­son Anno walked away from KARE KANO was be­cause he was too busy edit­ing his “mak­ing of GAMERA” doc­u­men­tary). Ms. Fu­ji­tani is, of course, also the daugh­ter of Steven Sea­gal, mak­ing the ru­mored re­la­tion­ship not with­out great per­sonal risk.

–Carl Horn, http://­fo­rum.e­vageek­­­p?p=16516#16516 TODO: the year is a guess; al­so, per­haps Ya­m­aga counts as Pri­ma­ry?

Con­tin­u­ing the topic of Anno & Miya­mu­ra:

Re­al­is­ti­cally – I have to ques­tion the au­then­tic­ity of such a story51. The di­rec­tor, in this case An­no, re­ally did­n’t have to go along with what the VA want­ed. Gos­sip linked the two ro­man­ti­cal­ly, but even in this sce­nario I don’t think Anno would be will­ing to com­pro­mise the screen­play un­less he pre­ferred her sug­ges­tion. He could al­ways have used an­other ac­tress (it is al­most a whis­pered line) or even said the line him­self (which is ac­tu­ally what sev­eral peo­ple thought hap­pened).


“…in re­gards to the ru­mor that Yuko Miya­mura (A­suka’s VA) and Anno were an item, it seems that this was more than just a ru­mor for a time, al­though there is lit­tle in­for­ma­tion as to whether the re­la­tion­ship is con­tin­u­ing. How­ev­er, the lat­est gos­sip/s­can­dal sur­round­ing Yuko Miya­mura is an adult video which she ap­peared in be­fore be­com­ing fa­mous as a voice ac­tress. This video, which has ac­tu­ally been out for quite some time, is of course in Asuka’s voice…And it’s be­ing sold as a set with the Eva Hen­tai video/VCD on Ya­hoo! Japan…”

Bochan_bird; more in­for­ma­tion, 2011 “Don’t Let a Lit­tle Thing Like a Sex Video Slow You Down” Ko­taku ar­ti­cle:

“As the voice of Asuka Lan­g­ley So­ryu, one of Evan­ge­lion’s prin­ci­ple char­ac­ters, Miya­mura grabbed a brass ring in Japan­ese voice act­ing. The anime took the coun­try by storm dur­ing the 1990s, and Miya­mura scored other ma­jor roles, such as Kazuha Toyama in the De­tec­tive Co­nan ani­me. She also re­leased CDs and picked up game roles like Chun-Li in the Street Fighter Al­pha and EX games as well as Akane in Poké­mon. But in 1997, a porno, dubbed Ex­pe­ri­enc­ing Erotic S&M as a Cou­ple, sur­faced. The video was ap­par­ently from when she was in her early 20s. It was­n’t un­til the fol­low­ing spring that Japan­ese tabloid Fri­day ran a story on the video. Fans were cer­tain that the woman in the video was Miya­mu­ra, who was still rid­ing high with Evan­ge­lion. But the video, com­bined with her mar­riage, quick di­vorce, and sec­ond mar­riage changed the way fans viewed her. By 1999, Miya­mura was in the hos­pi­tal from fa­tigue (it was later dis­cov­ered that she suffered from Graves’ dis­ease). Out­side Evan­ge­lion and Co­nan, the voice work slowed, and the TV ap­pear­ances came screech­ing to a halt. The mu­sic CDS, al­ways a good in­di­ca­tor of an idol’s pop­u­lar­i­ty, stopped. Her im­age had been changed.”

Sankaku Com­plex in­cludes NSFW screen­caps in “Which Are Worse - The Seiyuu or Their Creepy Fans?”:

“Fans man­aged to iden­tify her (by her teeth and other char­ac­ter­is­tics) in”SM Erotic Ex­pe­ri­ences for Two," an old am­a­teur fetish AV from her stu­dent days. Her im­age amongst these fans was ir­repara­bly ru­ined, al­though she man­aged to re­tain the Asuka role….[pic­tures]…Her per­sonal life, re­sem­bling that of a nor­mal per­son and in­volv­ing the full gamut of mar­riages, di­vorces, chil­dren, ill­ness­es, etc., also con­tributed to her los­ing most of her work."

Bryan was tak­ing some video of the peo­ple walk­ing by as a snap­shot of every­day peo­ple. Be­cause it was Sat­ur­day after­noon, some of the peo­ple trav­el­ing through the sta­tion were school stu­dents re­turn­ing home after a half-day at school. Of course, they were wear­ing uni­forms of the style we learned to ex­pect in ani­me. Al­though it may ap­pear ob­vi­ous and nat­ural to some of you, my im­pres­sion of every­thing we saw in Japan that matched what I had seen in anime was chang­ing my im­pres­sion of the coun­try and its cul­ture. What I came to re­al­ize is how ac­cu­rately anime por­trays many el­e­ments of Japan­ese cul­ture. This means that I had to reeval­u­ate the im­pres­sion of Japan that anime had given me, and look more closely at what I had pre­vi­ously not con­sid­ered ac­cu­rate por­tray­als of every­day life: the sound crows make, the lay­out of city streets and rail­ways, the hus­tle and bus­tle of daily life at a train sta­tion, the zon­ing laws, what peo­ple wear, what they look like, how they color their hair (^), what they eat for break­fast, the size and thick­ness of one slice of bread (^), and so on.

… Note: I’m not ab­solutely cer­tain these are the rea­sons, nor are they nec­es­sar­ily the sole rea­sons, for An­no’s de­par­ture from the pro­duc­tion of Kare-Kano.

Anno ob­jected to the re­stric­tions placed on TV anime by TV Tokyo after the Pocket Mon­ster in­ci­dent, so in protest, he de­cided to have noth­ing more to do with TV Tokyo and left the pro­duc­tion of Kare-Kano in the hands of Sato, who joined Gainax after hav­ing worked for the gov­ern­ment in a pub­lic works man­age­ment po­si­tion.

http://we­­b/20040203105028/http://­nau­si­­toky­o/990203.html In 2001, Olivier Hagué agreed:

“Anno wanted to write an orig­i­nal story for the sec­ond half of the TV se­ries. You can find sev­eral men­tions about that plan in”old" is­sues of An­i­m­age or New­type (ie be­fore the TV se­ries aired). That’s why the “rhythm” of the first half of the se­ries is that fast : they in­tended to adapt most of the manga in 13 or so episodes. But TV Tokyo got cold feet and feared that Anno would go back to his old ways (ie the last TV episodes of Eva…), so they asked Gainax to stick with the man­ga… Anno was ob­vi­ously frus­trat­ed/in­fu­ri­at­ed… ^^;"

Ac­tu­al­ly, there is ‘canon’ that can ‘dis­prove’ this. Na­tion­wide parental (PTA) ob­jec­tions against Eva’s con­tent are a known fact. These ob­jec­tions reached such a level (even re­ceiv­ing Japan­ese news­pa­per cov­er­age) that TV Tokyo was forced to set up a screen­ing panel in­clud­ing PTA mem­bers which effec­tively ‘nixed’ the orig­i­nal episodes 25 and 26 that were cur­rently un­der pro­duc­tion. (ie: The ‘in­tended’ scrip­t/s­to­ry­line was sub­mit­ted for re­view but re­ject­ed.) Be­ing forced to redo two en­tire episodes from a late stage led to the time and bud­get re­stric­tions which re­sulted in still im­ages, stick fig­ure an­i­ma­tion and telops.

Bochan_bird on the cen­sor­ship that forced changes from the end­ing be­ing pro­to-EoE to be­ing the ac­tual EoTV; re­peats claim else­where, eg. No­vem­ber 2001. In Au­gust 2002, he said that Boo­giepop Phan­tom suffered un­der the PTA, and Brian Shea con­curred with “Cow­boy Be­bop too, so bad that 14 of the 26 episodes never aired on the first run. In­clud­ing the first episode and the fi­nal 8. With all the talk about Eva’s in­flu­ence on the genre (although I’ll ad­mit here and now that I’m one of those who thinks it was very lit­tle), the biggest in­flu­ence it had may have been the cen­sor­ship at­mos­phere…”

What was I ag­o­niz­ing over, you ask? Well, when the sub­ject of buy­ing drapes came up, I asked Anno if he had any color pref­er­ences, and he replied, “Red.” If I were buy­ing scarves, that would be one thing, but come on… (Trans­la­tor’s note: If you get the “Red Scarf” ref­er­ence, go to the head of the class, and ex­plain it to some­one who does­n’t–if you dare.–MH) There re­ally is­n’t much in the way of red cur­tains, at least, not off the shelf. So I set­tled for a color mix that would at least show that I’d made a hard try to meet An­no’s re­quest.

–1999-05-07, Mu­ra­matsu Ry­ouko, asst. pro­ducer of Karekano

[Sh­inji Ikar­i:] “He and his fa­ther Gendo have lived apart for at least a decade. A sud­den mes­sage from Gendo brings Shinji to Toky­o-3, and on that very day, an”An­gel" at­tacks the city. As a cho­sen Evan­ge­lion Op­er­a­tor, he fights on, though thor­oughly ag­o­nized. He is re­ferred to as “Third Chil­dren” (a term mean­ing “the third qual­i­fier”). In per­son­al­i­ty, he is a qui­et, over­achiever type."


1999 T

  • 1999-corlis­s-times-hon­neamisepraise.txt
  • 1999-manga­max-spooky­janeway.pdf
  • 1999-manga­max-what­si­tal­labout­shin­ji.pdf
  • 1999-schilling-con­tem­po­rary­jap­film.txt

“I read in an old an­i­ma­tion mag­a­zine”Ani­me­fan­tas­tic" IIRC, an ar­ti­cle by J. Lamp­lighter, that Gainax/Anno had some in­flu­ence on the ADV TV dub for spe­cial vo­cab­u­lary, & had to ap­prove what was done be­fore it could be print­ed." http://www.­ma­ni­a.­com/aod­vb/showthread­.ph­p?p=1502313

“The mag­a­zine is An­i­maze­ment & it has Rei on the cov­er, with the ti­tle”God in 3 Ro­bots"“. Ani­me­fan­tas­tique”Sum­mer 1999. Vol.1 #2.Eva pp 32-43 Gainax 44-45 Eva manga pp46-7 most by L. Jagi Lamp­lighter." http://e­va.o­­mail/e­van­ge­lion/2005-April/002629.html

The first EVA ar­ti­cle breaks down the se­ries into plot, char­ac­ter con­flicts, re­li­gious ref­er­ences, fan re­ac­tion, the end: movies vs TV, and voice ac­tors. It also con­tains sev­eral EVA lingo as well as re­ac­tion from the AD vi­sion Eva staff. An other EVA ar­ti­cle re­lates to END OF EVANGELION (con­tains spoil­er­s). Ba­si­cally what it tries to do its ex­plain what hap­pened in EoE and what ma­jor plot knots were re­solved. There’s an­other one that cov­ers the Manga ver­sion. Noth­ing spe­cial here but still some cool info about differ­ences and stuff. Fi­nally there is an ar­ti­cle that takes you through the his­tory and cre­ations of Gainax. http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/1999-April/027834.html

“How­ev­er, its vi­o­lence and sur­re­al­ism will not be new to those who have seen the TV show; nei­ther will its view of a so­ci­ety of bro­ken souls, where men and women are grains of fly­ing sand, blast­ing each other to bone. Play­wright Kenji Sato, who does not like Evan­ge­lion, com­pares it to Nine Inch Nails’ al­bum The Down­ward Spi­ral; it is an ex­cel­lent com­par­ison, and I agree, ex­cept that I like Eva. It’s only a car­toon; it’s only a life.”

“The End’s main char­ac­ters are a man and a wom­an, Shinji and Asuka, and di­rec­tor Hideaki Anno when he does not present him­self through Mis­ato, Gen­do, or every other char­ac­ter in the se­ries iden­ti­fies with them both (gos­sip links him ro­man­ti­cally with Asuka’s voice ac­tress, Yuko Miya­mu­ra). As Anno ex­plained at the out­set of the se­ries, in an es­say reprinted this month in Viz’s col­lected Book One of the Evan­ge­lion man­ga, he be­gan this be­cause he felt sick, and the fi­nal line of The End, spo­ken by Asuka back to Shin­ji, could not put things any more plain.”

“This is The End of Evan­ge­lion. It is the same end­ing as that of the tele­vi­sion se­ries. It is told big-bud­get, stitched with bul­lets, limned with guts, and tagged with blood, in case it was too sub­tle the first time. But it is the same end­ing. You will see all this: a man, stunted in emo­tion, has a spe­cial gift within him. He can move his hu­man hands and feet with the stride and reach of a gi­ant. Be­cause he knew love on­ce, and lost it, he sketched one map on his floor where he stood and one in the sky above, un­til he had drawn be­tween them a world of mys­ter­ies and won­ders, a world of things to love and of those in love. But when they put their hands to­wards him, he drew away; when he put his hands on them, they were cold and still. In his frus­tra­tion, he tight­ened his grip to take sat­is­fac­tion by force: a load shot to nowhere, a stran­gle­hold on beau­ty, clenched fists bat­ter­ing down his cre­ation, un­til there was noth­ing left but him­self again.”

Viz Com­mu­ni­ca­tion web­site ‘MY EMPIRE OF DIRT: The End of Evan­ge­lion; Car­l’s Anime Pick’ (mir­rors: 1, 2) TODO: Sato’s full re­marks

By break­ing with the long-s­tand­ing tra­di­tion of bas­ing their an­i­mated works on pre-ex­ist­ing sto­ries and folk tales, GAINAX has been cred­ited with free­ing an­i­ma­tion from the con­straints which have al­lowed it to be per­ceived as a de­riv­a­tive medi­um. In so do­ing, they have es­tab­lished an­i­mated film as a self­-suffi­cient art form (Time Mag­a­zine, No­vem­ber 22, 1999).


In a re­cent is­sue, Rolling Stone pro­claimed Nir­vana’s Kurt Cobain to have been, for west­ern pop­u­lar mu­sic, the Artist of the Decade. I have no prob­lem with that as­sess­ment, any more than I have in say­ing Evan­ge­lion’s Hideaki Anno should hold that ti­tle for Japan­ese an­i­ma­tion. But both made their state­ment when there was still plenty of Nineties left: Cobain killed him­self in 1994 and An­no’s pop cul­ture sui­cide hap­pened in ei­ther the spring of ’96, when Eva had its con­tro­ver­sial TV end­ing, or in the sum­mer of ’97, with its even more talked-about movie end­ing-you may take your pick. There­fore, the rea­son Cobain and Anno de­serve the ti­tle is not that their tal­ent be­strode the decade like a head­less colos­sus, but be­cause they posed the ques­tion of what will you do, now that you know to all those that came after them. Evan­ge­lion sug­gest­ed, as Nir­vana did in both their first and last song, “you could do any­thing, you could do any­thing…” Yet it seemed that few in TV anime chose to re­spond to Eva’s ex­am­ple of free­dom of ex­pres­sion. In 1998, se­r­ial ex­per­i­ments lain (the ti­tle is in low­er-case) came and went from Japan­ese tele­vi­sion in a mere thir­teen episodes. But it was enough to show that lain’s cre­ators, scriptwriter Chi­aki Kon­aka (whose pre­vi­ous Ar­mitage III was also pro­duced and re­leased by Pi­o­neer) and new­comer Ryu­taro Naka­mura had un­der­stood the pos­si­bil­i­ties and chose to seize upon them.


Evan­ge­lion is an am­bigu­ous prod­uct. On the one hand it strongly ap­peals to otaku’s sen­si­bil­i­ties, (2) but on the other it im­plies rad­i­cal crit­i­cism against otaku’s men­tal­i­ty….

In a sense, Evan­ge­lion is ex­tremely in­te­rior and is lack­ing in so­cial­i­ty, so that it seems to re­flect pathol­ogy of the times. I think for some peo­ple it is noth­ing more than a bad prod­uct which is sim­ply to in­crease otakus.

For in­stance, some Japan­ese crit­ics, such as Eiji Ot­suka and Tet­suya Miyaza­ki, crit­i­cized Evan­ge­lion TV se­ries on the grounds that the last two episodes, in which in­te­rior mono­logue of Shin­ji, the hero, went on all the time, were like brain­wash­ing or psy­cho-ther­a­py, and it was only a self­-affir­ma­tion of otaku’s autis­tic ten­dency for es­capism. Yoshiyuki Tomi­no, who had once di­rected sev­eral epoch-mak­ing ani­mes such as Gun­dam and Ideon, (3)-these ani­mes had a great in­flu­ence on Hideaki An­no, the di­rec­tor of Evan­ge­lion-also crit­i­cized Evan­ge­lion bit­terly on the grounds that it is some­thing like clin­i­cal records of a mor­bid per­son who con­fines him­self to the world of in­for­ma­tion and can­not re­al­ize ac­tu­al­i­ty….

The lat­ter half of Evan­ge­lion TV se­ries, es­pe­cially the last two episodes clearly had in­ten­tion to break the closed do­main of anime that keeps on offer­ing nar­cis­sis­tic plea­sure to otakus, that is, Evan­ge­lion had in­ten­tion to crack the closed do­main of ani­me, not from the out­side, but from the in­side, re­main­ing within it, just as its pu­rity is high­est, or to make joy of anime self­-de­struct at the ut­most lim­its.

The last part of Evan­ge­lion TV se­ries-in which the progress of the story was stopped by Shin­ji’s in­te­rior mono­logue and he came to affirm him­self ground­less­ly, say­ing “I can stay here!”-was not a play for the sal­va­tion of the self­-some peo­ple mis­read it so-like brain­wash­ing or psy­cho-ther­a­py, but some­thing like ha­rass­ment with mal­ice and irony to some anime fans. I think the last mes­sage of the last episode of the TV se­ries-“Con­grat­u­la­tions to all the chil­dren!”-was a quo­ta­tion from the last scene of Yoshiyuki Tomi­no’s anime movie The Ideon (1982), as many peo­ple have al­ready pointed out it. In the last scene of The Ideon, after the hu­man race had died out, the souls of the dead char­ac­ters were drift­ing in outer space and they heard the singing, “Happy birth­day dear chil­dren!” That is iron­ic, in short, the last episode of Evan­ge­lion TV se­ries im­plies that closed and self­-sus­tained in­te­ri­or­ity is noth­ing other than a kind of “death.” It is death of the self as loss of the oth­er. It also im­plies that the world of joy for otakus such as the first half of Evan­ge­lion TV se­ries can­not help com­ing to a death on ac­count of its close­ness….

The world of the first half of Evan­ge­lion TV se­ries, which had been full of joy of ani­me, col­lapsed grad­u­ally in the lat­ter half: In the 18th episode, Evan­ge­lion Unit-01-Sh­inji was in­side it-at­tacked Evan­ge­lion Unit-03 as an “An­gel,” and Tou­ji, the pi­lot of Evan­ge­lion Unit-03 and Shin­ji’s class­mate, got badly wounded and lost a leg. In the 22nd episode, Asuka, the pi­lot of Evan­ge­lion Unit-02, be­came as good as the liv­ing dead be­cause of An­gel’s psy­chic at­tack, get­ting non com­pos men­tis. In the 23rd episode, Rei, the pi­lot of Evan­ge­lion Unit-00-in the episode it was found that she was some­thing like a clone cre­ated from Shin­ji’s moth­er-blew her­self up in or­der to pro­tect Shinji from An­gel’s at­tack, and the city Shinji lived in­-Third New Tokyo City-be­came a ru­in. In the 24th episode, Shinji was forced to kill Kaoru, a boy who was Shin­ji’s beloved friend, as an An­gel, or en­e­my. In the last two episodes, the progress of the story was stopped and the work Evan­ge­lion it­self broke down as if to re­ject a com­ple­tion of it­self as an ani­me. It is, as it were, clos­ing of the world, or “death” it­self….

The lat­ter half of Evan­ge­lion TV se­ries, in which a world of joy was col­laps­ing and clos­ing be­cause it was sim­ply he­do­nis­tic and re­gres­sive, re­minds me of Mamoru Os­hi­i’s anime movie Uru­sei Yat­sura 2 Beau­ti­ful Dreamer (1984). (4) In Beau­ti­ful Dream­er, an end­less slap­stick com­edy at a high school like Uru­sei Yat­sura TV se­ries-Oshii him­self had di­rected the TV se­ries-is de­picted as an ideal world to Lum, the hero­ine, or an oc­cur­rence in Lum’s in­ner space. In the world, the progress of time has stopped and one and the same day-the day be­fore the school fes­ti­val-is be­ing re­peated over and over. In the in­ner space, the peo­ple who were hin­drances to Lum van­ished one after an­oth­er, and the town she lived in be­came a ruin ex­cept for the house Ataru Mo­ro­boshi-the hero and Lum’s “dar­ling”-lived in and a con­ve­nience store near­by. The more the pu­rity of the world as Utopia to Lum is en­hanced, the more the close­ness and fic­ti­tious­ness of the world be­come promi­nent. Ataru wan­dered about in the world of in­ner spaces like this and then tried re­turn­ing from the in­fi­nite chain of the in­ner spaces like “dreams” to “ac­tu­al­i­ty.”

The End of Evan­ge­lion pre­sented the the­sis that ac­tu­al­ity is the end of a dream. Con­cern­ing the the­sis, Os­hi­i’s Beau­ti­ful Dreamer pre­cedes An­no’s Evan­ge­lion. If the world of Uru­sei Yat­sura TV se­ries had switched sud­denly to the level of Beau­ti­ful Dream­er, it would have been sim­i­lar to the last two episodes of Evan­ge­lion TV se­ries. The rea­son that Evan­ge­lion TV se­ries seemed to break down at the con­clu­sion was that the shift-from fic­tion to meta-fic­tion-was too sud­den and self­-de­struc­tive. It may be that the peo­ple who showed re­jec­tion re­ac­tion to the last two episodes of the TV se­ries could not bear its irony and self­-ref­er­en­tial­i­ty.

The world where Shinji op­er­ated Evan­ge­lion Unit-01 and fought against the An­gels, the world of a comic love story at a ju­nior-high school, in which there were no Evan­ge­lions or An­gels (the last episode of the TV se­ries), the world where the peo­ple con­grat­u­lated Shinji and he came to affirm him­self ground­less­ly, and the world where Shin­ji, Asuka, Rei and Kaoru were re­hears­ing a string quar­tet at a hall of school (E­van­ge­lion: Death)… It can be thought that each of these worlds was an oc­cur­rence in in­ner space, or one of par­al­lel worlds. The theme of Evan­ge­lion is, so to speak, the world as in­te­ri­or­i­ty.

…Maybe Evan­ge­lion gave up be­ing a story at a cer­tain point in time, I think. In the 6th episode of the TV se­ries, Shinji and Rei, who were “closed-minded chil­dren,” fought to­gether against an An­gel and “opened their minds,” ex­chang­ing smiles with each oth­er. Al­though this scene was prob­a­bly first cli­max of the se­ries, maybe Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion as a story of “growth and in­de­pen­dence of a boy”-like a Bil­dungsro­man-ended there once. Evan­ge­lion as a story has stopped there.52

…The End of Evan­ge­lion, re­leased as a movie, is a re­make of the last two episodes of the TV se­ries, and it is the last pro­gram of Evan­ge­lion se­ries. I think the largest point in dis­pute con­nected with the eval­u­a­tion of this last pro­gram is this. Did Evan­ge­lion only end in a self­-affir­ma­tion of closed in­te­ri­or­i­ty, or did it show the way to get out of prison of self­-con­scious­ness?

It seems some peo­ple an­tic­i­pated that the movie ver­sion of Evan­ge­lion would end as a story of “growth and in­de­pen­dence of a boy,” like a Bil­dungsro­man, but The End of Evan­ge­lion avoided such a pop­u­lar end­ing and was com­pleted as works that re­newed the last two episodes of the TV se­ries in an­other way. The End of Evan­ge­lion is a rep­e­ti­tion and vari­a­tion of the theme pre­sented in the lat­ter half of the TV se­ries. It is not an end­ing of a sto­ry.

…This EoE end­ing can be re­garded as crit­i­cism against re­li­gion, be­cause it avoided an ide­o­log­i­cal/aes­thetic so­lu­tion and faced the ugly re­al­i­ty. It is highly eth­i­cal. The peo­ple, who equated Evan­ge­lion with mo­ti­va­tional sem­i­nar or the Aum Shin­rikyo cult and called it ‘tech­no-mys­ti­cism’, should be ashamed of their thought­less­ness.53

In my view, The End of Evan­ge­lion ended on the phase when Shin­ji, the hero, found Asuka as “the oth­er.” For Shin­ji, Asuka is an am­bigu­ous ex­is­tence. On the one hand she lec­tures and in­spires him be­cause she minds him, but on the other she is also an ex­is­tence be­yond his con­trol-the other that can never be in­te­ri­or­ized. Asuka’s am­bi­gu­ity is also the am­bi­gu­ity of the work Evan­ge­lion as it is.

The last two episodes of Evan­ge­lion TV se­ries and The End of Evan­ge­lion have a re­la­tion like a Möbius strip. They are the two views of one and the same theme. The dis­cov­ery of the other in The End of Evan­ge­lion is the re­verse ex­pres­sion of the loss of the other in the last two episodes of the TV se­ries. The un­so­phis­ti­cated peo­ple who could not read the irony in the last two episodes of the TV se­ries will prob­a­bly over­look the crit­i­cal essence of The End of Evan­ge­lion as well.

“Prison of Self­-con­scious­ness: an Es­say on Evan­ge­lion”, Man­abu Tsuribe, Feb­ru­ary 1999

“Ac­tu­al­ly, there is ‘canon’ that can ‘dis­prove’ this [that "They had prob­lems, they surely were short in bud­get"]. Na­tion­wide parental (PTA) ob­jec­tions against Eva’s con­tent are a known fact. These ob­jec­tions reached such a level (even re­ceiv­ing Japan­ese news­pa­per cov­er­age) that TV Tokyo was forced to set up a screen­ing panel in­clud­ing PTA mem­bers which effec­tively ‘nixed’ the orig­i­nal episodes 25 and 26 that were cur­rently un­der pro­duc­tion. (ie: The ‘in­tended’ scrip­t/s­to­ry­line was sub­mit­ted for re­view but re­ject­ed.) Be­ing forced to redo two en­tire episodes from a late stage led to the time and bud­get re­stric­tions which re­sulted in still im­ages, stick fig­ure an­i­ma­tion and telops.”


A week or two ago, the Japan­ese Tax Agency dis­played the ‘ev­i­dence’ foud­is­cov­erednd dur­ing their in­ves­ti­ga­tion of GAiNAX. In other words, they are so con­fi­dent that they went pub­lic with the ev­i­dence. (Of course, find­ing ¥500 mil­lion [about US$4 mil­lion) in cash hid­den in a se­cret safe, among other things, would prob­a­bly make me con­fi­dent, too…)…This ev­i­dence has also been used on TV spe­cials con­cern­ing tax eva­sion as an ex­am­ple of ‘tax eva­sion by a par­tic­u­lar anime pro­duc­tion com­pany’.

Bochan_bird, 1999-07-7

It is now offi­cial. To­day (July 13) at 10:00 am, the Japan­ese Tax Agency offi­cials en­tered the GAiNAX offices/shop and the pri­vate res­i­dence of GAiNAX pres­i­dent Takeji Sawa­mura with search war­rants, and ar­rested GAiNAX pres­i­dent Sawa­mura and one other per­son (whom they are now ques­tion­ing/in­ter­ro­gat­ing as to the where­abouts of the re­main­der of the mon­ey).

GAiNAX is be­ing charged with hid­ing ¥1.5 bil­lion (about US$12.5 mil­lion) in in­come, re­sult­ing in the eva­sion of ¥580 mil­lion (about US$4.8 mil­lion) in cor­po­rate tax­es. This eva­sion took the form of faked trans­ac­tions with re­lated com­pa­nies and pa­per ac­counts in or­der to over­state pro­duc­tion ex­pens­es.

Given the amounts in­volved and the ob­vi­ous in­tent to evade, it seems that the Tax Agency is ‘mak­ing an ex­am­ple’ of GAiNAX. The au­thor­i­ties have al­ready pub­licly dis­played the ev­i­dence found (in­clud­ing ¥500 mil­lion (about US$4 mil­lion) hid­den in a safety de­posit box), and are mak­ing sure that the case re­ceives as much pub­lic­ity as pos­si­ble. The two ar­restees will prob­a­bly not have to serve ac­tual jail time, but will have to un­dergo de­ten­tion/ques­tion­ing and court time, pay all evaded taxes plus some hefty fines, and upon ad­mit­ting their guilt and ex­press­ing the proper re­morse, will re­ceive guilty sen­tences with sus­pended jail time.


Gainax posted an offi­cial state­ment 1999-07-19; George Chen trans­lates/­para­phrases it

Mainichi Shim­bun re­ports that Takeji Sawa­mu­ra, 40, al­legedly evaded pay­ing cor­po­rate taxes by re­port­ing fic­ti­tious costs for com­pany soft­ware dur­ing the years of 1996 and 1997. Tax ac­coun­tant Yoshikatsu Iwasaki was also ar­rested on sim­i­lar charges. Ac­cord­ing to pros­e­cu­tors, Gainax al­legedly faked the costs by pay­ing fees to soft­ware com­pa­nies un­der false con­tracts. The com­pa­nies then re­funded the money back to Gainax, mi­nus a pre­mi­um.


Gendo and EoE bor­row from ? No­tice the white gloves Mishima wore…

Hideaki An­no’s TV se­ries Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion (1995) has a sound­track that is so Japan­ese it will be decades be­fore Oc­ci­den­tal forms of au­dio­vi­sual en­ter­tain­ment be­gin to suc­cess­fully mimic it. Not only does Evan­ge­lion have many mem­o­rable vo­cal per­for­mances (Sh­in­ji, his fa­ther Gen­do, the other ‘chil­dren’ Rei and Asuka) but there is a to­tal logic to the sound de­sign which both typ­i­fies its ‘Japan­ese­ness’ and qual­i­fies the role of the recorded voice within its au­ral net­ting. In fact, it should never be for­got­ten that ‘sound de­sign’ is the cre­ation of a sonic logic wherein all el­e­ments are or­ches­trated in ac­cor­dance to our pe­cu­liar and pre­cise un­der­stand­ing of how an imag­ined re­al­ity would acousti­cally op­er­ate and psy­choa­cousti­cally res­onate. To un­der­stand how any one el­e­ment - a voice, for ex­am­ple - ap­pears, hap­pens and/or is ren­dered in a nar­ra­tive form, one must wholly in­ves­ti­gate the nar­ra­tive’s sonic log­ic. Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion ex­em­pli­fies 4 pri­mary cat­e­gories of au­dio­vi­sual nar­ra­tiv­ity which de­fine the sense of its sound­track: mecha de­sign, mu­si­cal eclec­ti­cism, spa­tio-tem­po­ral rup­ture, and emo­tional com­paction.

The de­sign of me­chan­i­cal de­vices and ma­chines - known as mecha de­sign - is an im­por­tant area of pre-pro­duc­tion in Japan­ese en­ter­tain­ment. In manga and anime , ob­jects are imag­ined, en­vis­aged and de­signed as if they have to be used. That is, their logic is based less on their ‘look’ (a very West­ern no­tion that joins DaVin­cian op­tics and mod­ernist sen­si­bil­i­ties) and more on their tac­til­i­ty. Vir­tu­ally all Japan­ese de­sign pro­motes an erotic re­la­tion be­tween user and ma­chine, be­tween ob­ject and hand, be­tween shape and body. This per­vades every­thing from a Kawasaki mo­tor­bike to Sailor Moon’s skirt. Most im­por­tant­ly, the ‘look’ of ob­jects in Japan­ese de­sign is ac­cepted as a sep­a­rate and aux­il­iary as­pect of the ob­jects’ pur­pose and func­tion. Bank ma­chines can be based on the look of toma­toes; sky­scrap­ers on milk car­tons; cars on deep sea crus­taceans; per­fume bot­tles on car­bu­re­tors. They each will do what is re­quired of them, so there is not real rea­son for them to spe­ciously prove their ex­is­tence through their look. (This is but yet an­other as­pect of the ‘cal­li­graphic’ in Japan­ese cul­ture, where an im­age or a look is em­braced as pure vi­sual sub­stance with no ref­er­ent to the re­al.) The de­sign of ma­chin­ery in Japan­ese manga and anime is there­fore a prime tex­tual layer in the many fu­tur­is­tic sce­nar­ios wherein man and ma­chine ex­ist in a com­plexly mod­u­lated har­mo­ny. It is no sur­prise then that Japan­ese sound de­sign­ers for anime obey the logic of the mecha de­sign, care­fully an­a­lyz­ing is­sues of weight, den­si­ty, force, en­ergy and mass be­fore they even start to imag­ine the acoustic and trans­mis­sive prop­er­ties of the ma­chines.

…Sec­ond­ly, each of the An­gels (the di­a­bol­i­cal threat to Earth) has their own look and an equally dis­tinc­tive sound. This is es­pe­cially no­tice­able due to the de­sign of the An­gels whose vi­su­al­ity ref­er­ences a se­ries of mod­ernist and an­cient ar­che­types of bio­mor­phic form - from Aztec wall paint­ings to Miro’s mu­rals to Don­ald Judd cubes. Amaz­ingly com­pounded sound effects ac­com­pany their ter­ri­ble force, based on the power of vi­o­lence they un­leash on Tokyo 3. And de­spite the prob­lem in de­sign­ing sound for such im­pos­si­ble imag­in­ings, an effec­tive ‘mis­match­ing’ of un­ex­pected sounds with un­ex­pected form­s/shapes/be­ings runs through­out Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion .

…Japan­ese anime has con­sis­tently offered al­ter­na­tives to the Wag­ner­ian leit mo­tiv ap­proach to se­ri­ally repo­si­tion­ing a melodic re­frain or theme through­out a film score. While this ap­proach has typ­i­fied both ro­man­tic and mod­ernist film scor­ing, anime em­ploys a string of mo­tifs which effec­tively can­cel each other out - or at least ren­der their sig­nifi­cance fluid and un­fixed. Amer­i­cans have often com­mented on how the Japan­ese place their mu­sic cues in the ‘wrong’ place - as if George Lu­cas and John Williams con­trol the uni­ver­sal imag­i­na­tion. The use of New Jack Swing in Blue Seed (1995), Elec­tro-Am­bi­ent in Please Save My Earth (1995) and Prog Rock in La Fil­li­ette Rev­o­lu­tion­aire [Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Girl Utena] (1997) as score rather than sourced songs fur­ther typ­i­fies this seem­ing ‘wrong­ness’ about ani­me. The Eu­ro­pean or­ches­tral ma­chine is em­ployed in anime for pure effect - not be­cause ‘that’s how movie mu­sic should sound’. Fur­ther, there is usu­ally no gov­ern­ing or de­ter­min­ing style in any one ani­me. Shiro Sag­isu’s score to Evan­ge­lion at vary­ing times sounds like The Thun­der­birds, FM-soft rock, Steve Re­ich and Ken Ishii. but the re­sult of this eclec­ti­cism is not arched, strained or post­mod­ern: it sim­ply mu­tates and evolves in re­sponse to the surges and pul­sa­tions in the lo­ca­tion and dis­per­sion of dra­matic en­er­gy.

While the score to Evan­ge­lion seems to sim­u­late a ra­dio sta­tion pro­grammed in a chaotic ran­dom fash­ion, there is a pur­pose be­hind such chop­ping and chang­ing. For the fu­ture in Evan­ge­lion - like the post-apoc­a­lyp­tic con­tin­uum which paves the way for Japan’s un­set­tling ex­is­tence - is on the brink of de­struc­tion, and all that is calm is merely the po­ten­tial for rad­i­cal desta­bi­liza­tion. Spa­tio-tem­po­ral rup­ture thus rages through­out Evan­ge­lion. Often we are caught in the claus­tro­pho­bic mind of young Shinji as he grap­ples with an aching ex­is­ten­tial dilemma of how to live alone, di­vorced from so­cial and hu­man con­tact. The screen will go black, white, or as­sault the eye with Poke­mon-style strobe-cut­ting; rad­i­cal shifts in sound den­sity will ac­com­pany these vi­sual rup­tures. Si­lence screams and pierces the sound­track; det­o­na­tions ca­pit­u­late to a soft roar; all en­er­gies are con­tin­u­ally in­verted and re­versed to com­ple­ment and coun­ter­point their dra­matic weight. Some­times com­plete sec­tions of plot dis­ap­pear to con­vey Shin­ji’s loss of con­scious­ness in­side an Eva. Some­times his psy­chic sen­si­tiv­ity tele­ports him un­ex­pect­edly to il­l-de­fined lo­cales and spaces. The musique con­crete col­lage of sounds and at­mos­pheres which play with these spa­tio-tem­po­ral rup­tures is never gra­tu­itous. If the sound de­sign - like the mu­sic - in Japan­ese anime sounds ‘wrong’ it is not sim­ply be­cause we aren’t lis­ten­ing care­fully enough, but that we are not cog­nizant of the way that Japan­ese sound re­flects nar­ra­tive, rather than neu­tral­iz­ing it as does West­ern au­dio­vi­sual en­ter­tain­ment.

…Not that Japan­ese char­ac­ters be­have ‘differ­ently’, but that the schisms which we per­ceive as cor­rupt­ing and in­ter­fer­ing with a char­ac­ter’s iden­tity are ac­knowl­edged as the sub­stance of a char­ac­ter’s iden­ti­ty. In the West, we will crudely des­ig­nate the hero, the buffoon, the cyn­ic, the sage, etc.; in the East, char­ac­ters are founded upon their schiz­o­phre­nia, es­tab­lished through their mul­ti­plic­i­ty, and de­fined by their in­abil­ity to be ground­ed. Evan­ge­lion’s char­ac­ters - es­pe­cially the three ‘chil­dren’ who com­plexly rep­re­sent Japan’s own prob­lema­tized Gen­er­a­tion-X - are formed by means of emo­tional com­paction. Joy har­mo­nizes grief; suffer­ing prompts laugh­ter; com­pas­sion folds vi­o­lence; ha­tred sup­presses in­no­cence. Evan­ge­lion’s char­ac­ters are quin­tes­sen­tially good, bad and ug­ly. Mu­sic, sound and voice dance in in­tri­cately or­ches­trated lines that map out these char­ac­ters not as con­tain­ers or ves­sels of emo­tion, but shim­mer­ing and shift­ing ap­pari­tions of emo­tional com­plex­ity - not ‘rounded out’ by au­tho­r­ial con­ceit, but un­re­fined as be­fits the prickly ir­ra­tional­ity which dic­tates our every­day ex­changes.

“Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion: The Tyranny of the Eng­lish Voice in Anime”, Philip Bro­phy, Real Time No.31, Syd­ney, 1999

Of all the places in Japan, why did the Japan­ese gov­ern­ment pick Mat­sushiro (Nagano Pre­fec­ture) for the site of the new Capi­tol? Well, aside than the fact that the rise in sea level caused by 2nd Im­pact hap­pened to sub­merge most ma­jor Japan­ese cities (which are lo­cated along the coast­s), there is also the un­der­ground com­plex in Mat­sushiro which dates back to WWII.

This un­fin­ished tun­nel com­plex is hewn out of solid bedrock and con­sists of two por­tions: a ‘func­tional’ area con­sist­ing of a tun­nel grid sev­eral hun­dreds of me­ters in each di­rec­tion, and sep­a­rate Im­pe­r­ial quar­ters com­plete with shrine and emer­gency es­cape tun­nel.

The com­plex was con­structed dur­ing the late WWII years as Japan came within range of bomb­ing raids, and was in­tended as an emer­gency bomb shel­ter (it would be diffi­cult to de­stroy even with a di­rect nu­clear blast) ca­pa­ble of sup­port­ing gov­ern­ment func­tions should Tokyo be­come un­in­hab­it­able.

Bochan_bird; see on those bunkers. The lo­ca­tion is yet an­other WWII ref­er­ence in NGE.

“I re­mem­ber talk­ing to Carl Horn about EoE and about the hos­pi­tal scene in par­tic­u­lar. His feel­ings on the hos­pi­tal scene is that Anno was send­ing a mes­sage to the otaku. The fact that the main char­ac­ter, who most of us (the fans) iden­tify with, jack­ing off in front of their ac­etate avatar, was NOT OK. What Shinji does in front of Asuka SHOULD NEVER be con­sid­ered fan-ser­vice. Con­sid­er­ing that Anno also uses the same un­flat­ter­ing self­-por­trait in Love & Pop, I have a feel­ing that there is some truth in that state­ment.”

Av­ery Davies

“Ac­tu­al­ly, al­though Anno is listed in the Mecha de­sign too, his ini­tial sketches are quite dis­tant from the fi­nal Evas we got in the end. As an ex­am­ple of the fact that Anno was in charge of the project but did­n’t do it all by it­self, not even on a story lev­el: in­flu­ences from Ki­ichi Hadame for episodes 3 and 4, ex­pert in pre­sent­ing teenage prob­lems (Gun­dam) graph­i­cal­ly, Shinji Higuchi di­rect­ing the hu­mor­ous or lighter episodes, sup­ported by Shin’ya Hasegawa’s draw­ing style, Kei­ichi Sug­eya­ma’s di­rec­tion and sto­ry­board­ing of”A hu­man work" re­sult­ing in the in­ter­locked scene shifts, Ghi­b­li’s hand­i­work in co-di­rec­tion and draw­ing of episode 11 (but let’s not for­get Masayuk­i’s hand too), etc. I agree with the fact that Anno was the one who came up with the idea, but the fi­nal prod­uct was the re­sult of his cowork­ing with oth­ers at all lev­el­s."


“1995 (IIRC), and I am pretty cer­tain that the cult had no in­flu­ence what­so­ever on Evan­ge­lion. How­ever, they did show scenes and episodes from Evan­ge­lion (in­tro­spec­tive sce­nes, etc.) at re­cruit­ing/­train­ing sem­i­nars. In fact, that was part of the draw for the sem­i­nars – the cult would dis­trib­ute fliers say­ing that there would be an air­ing of Evan­ge­lion at a cer­tain place and time (ie: pig­gy-back­ing on Eva’s pop­u­lar­i­ty), and then when un­sus­pect­ing (and mostly younger) vic­tims showed up they would try to equate some of their teach­ings with the soul-search­ing in the show and ‘re­cruit’ them.”


"I have seen some of these weird fliers when I was in Japan 2 years ago. Now, what I am cu­ri­ous about is what’s the name of the group that pro­duced these fliers. I hope that’s not the in­fa­mous Aum Shin­rikyo…

Yes, Aum Shin­rikyo is the cult that used Evan­ge­lion in its fliers. They don’t use Evan­ge­lion out­wardly (eg: fliers) any more be­cause it re­ceived at­ten­tion by the me­dia and also prob­a­bly be­cause GAiNAX threat­ened with a law­suit. As for in­ter­nal use, who knows…"

Bochan_bird (his dis­cus­sion of is in­ter­est­ing in light of sub­se­quent events)


2000 P

Ko­mat­su: There’s some­thing that I was a bit cu­ri­ous about in the work An­no-san di­rect­ed, “Shin Seiki Evan­ge­lion.” The word “Evan­ge­lion” it­self [con­notes] a way of think­ing that ap­pears in Chris­t­ian es­cha­tol­ogy. but what was the rea­son you ap­pended a ti­tle with that sort of con­no­ta­tion to your work?

An­no: The truth is, it did­n’t have such a deep mean­ing. (laughs) Al­though I seem to get at­tacked when I say this. The mean­ing of the orig­i­nal word, if I’m not mis­tak­en, is some­thing like “the cry of vic­to­ry.”

…An­no: The truth is, the im­age of hear­ing that “cry of vic­tory” came first. [The ti­tle] was ap­pended with a vague rea­son, some­thing like, “please bring about hap­pi­ness.”

Ko­mat­su: For what rea­son did the “es­cha­to­log­i­cal” el­e­ments ap­pear [in the work]?

An­no: They were made up as I went. (laughs)

Ko­mat­su: That’s ter­ri­ble, re­al­ly. (laughs) But, it’s cer­tainly amaz­ing that you com­pleted a story that se­ri­ous from with­in.

— [In­ter­view­er]: Up to this point var­i­ous things have been said about Evan­ge­lion, but you could say that it is the anime which deals with things like “the­ol­ogy or evo­lu­tion­ary the­ory” in the most up­-front man­ner.

An­no: [It was] just pedantry.

Ko­mat­su: So, it’s not as if you had a par­tic­u­lar in­ter­est in Chris­tian­i­ty……

An­no: No. I guess it was con­ve­nient ma­te­r­ial for struc­tur­ing the sto­ry. I think that, gen­er­al­ly, re­li­gion is out of place in Japan. Noth­ing has grown [in Japan] but “in­dige­nous-feel­ing” or an­i­mistic re­li­gions. At first glance, there are parts of daily life that seem to be rooted in Bud­dhism, but in ac­tu­al­ity Bud­dhism is not use­ful for much more than fu­ner­als.

Ko­mat­su: It’s said that the na­tive re­li­gion in Japan is a kind of an­i­mism, but it’s not just a sim­ple “pan-a­n­imism.” It’s like this: in the moun­tain there is a god of the moun­tain, in the river there is a god of the riv­er. Its char­ac­ter­is­tic is that every­thing in the world be­comes an ob­ject of re­li­gion. The opin­ion that this was some­thing prim­i­tive and em­bar­rass­ing that we should stop first emerged in the Meiji Era, and then again just after the war.

—An­no-san, you say that it was just con­ve­nient ma­te­r­ial [for struc­tur­ing the sto­ry], but what do you think about that struc­ture? Al­though Ni­et­zsche said “God is dead,” if that’s the case, is­n’t the “SF-like” way of think­ing “Let’s cre­ate a God”? There are parts like this in Evan­ge­lion as well.

An­no: Be­cause orig­i­nally God is some­thing cre­ated by hu­man be­ings. I think that there is a tran­scen­dent be­ing, but that im­age was only some­thing fab­ri­cat­ed. I don’t think it mat­ters that each per­son has their own God. In short, I do not at all in­tend to re­pu­di­ate re­li­gion. On­ly, I don’t think it’s nec­es­sary for every­one to have the same God.

Ko­mat­su: And then there is Dar­win’s evo­lu­tion­ary the­o­ry. It’s the foun­da­tion of mod­ern sci­ence; how­ev­er, it also [indi­cates that,] in the end, the most ad­vanced [life­form] is of course the hu­man be­ing. But I won­dered if hu­man be­ings were re­ally that great. Be­cause of that, and think­ing that there may be some­thing greater be­sides [hu­man be­ings], I ended up writ­ing “sci­ence fic­tion” sto­ries where alien be­ings ap­peared. [The phrase] “cry of vic­tory” came up pre­vi­ous­ly; what does An­no-kun think about sal­va­tion?

An­no: Evan­ge­lion also in­cludes a “sal­va­tion-like” sto­ry, but it’s not true sal­va­tion. It was a work where, think­ing about the des­ti­na­tion of mankind, I be­gan by bor­row­ing el­e­ments from Chris­tian­i­ty. It’s like, think­ing about some­thing like the evo­lu­tion of mankind or the mean­ing of ex­is­tence, I tried to make some­thing con­cern­ing the des­ti­na­tion of mankind.

—In An­no-san’s work, a type of alien or life­form ap­pears which is painful for hu­man be­ings to come in con­tact with.

An­no: It’s more real that the aliens be in­com­pre­hen­si­ble. The aliens you see on tele­vi­sion even show that they can speak Japan­ese on an earth that they are sup­posed to have come to for the first time. I don’t think that some­thing like that is an alien. (laughs)

—I won­der if Eva and Lilith were in­tel­li­gent life-forms.

An­no: What con­cerned me more than [them hav­ing] in­tel­li­gence was whether they had a kokoro or not. In short: the prob­lem of the soul [tamashii]. Re­gard­ing the kokoro and the body, there are many things that have been said by du­al­ism, but I think that they are two faces of the same thing.

—Ko­mat­su-san, what do you think about the prob­lem of the soul [ta­mashii] or the koko­ro?

Ko­mat­su: The koko­ro, I think, is some­thing that mam­mals are sur­pris­ingly able to share. How­ev­er, in the case of an alien race, then things are differ­ent. Re­gard­ing in­tel­li­gence, it’s pos­si­ble that there are in­tel­li­gences in­ca­pable of con­tact­ing hu­man be­ings. Think­ing this through is the ap­peal of sci­ence fic­tion. It would be nice if the world was con­ve­nient in the man­ner of Star Trek; how­ev­er…

An­no: When I re­ally think it through I think that’s how it is. I don’t hate Star Trek, but I’m not that into it. You can see some­thing of the ar­ro­gance of Amer­ica [in it]. There is a story of in­flu­enc­ing or en­light­en­ing the na­tive peo­ple of the des­ti­na­tion plan­ets, or there is a ro­mance with their most ad­mirable woman in a fron­t-line base. I feel like this is Amer­i­can im­pe­ri­al­ism it­self.54

Ko­mat­su: More than im­pe­ri­al­ism, it’s the im­po­si­tion of a Chris­t­ian sense of jus­tice.

An­no: Some­how this way Marx­ists are por­trayed as be­ing prim­i­tive peo­ple. I can’t get used to that kind of Amer­i­can world­view. I think the En­ter­prise is cool, but…

–Hideaki Anno & Ko­matsu Sakyô (Japan Sinks; Japan­ese SF au­thor & or­ga­niz­er, see The Notenki Mem­oirs) round­table (orig­i­nal tran­script); trans­la­tion by Num­ber­s-kun: “On the main in­ter­views page (here) it’s listed as be­ing from 2000. It seems to have been tran­scribed from this book, pub­lished in April 2000. So, the in­ter­view was prob­a­bly from early 2000 or some time in 1999, maybe two and a half years after EoE.”

—Dur­ing the Eva Boom books such as “Read­ing the Dead Sea Scrolls” came out. Did you an­tic­i­pate that?

An­no: I could some­how un­der­stand that. When I was in mid­dle school, be­cause I loved the anime “Space Bat­tle­ship Yam­a­to,” be­ing in­ter­ested in the wave mo­tion gun, warp dri­ve, and so on, I would buy “blue books”55 [Ko­dan­sha books on pop­u­lar sci­ence]. (laughs) My knowl­edge of the the­ory of rel­a­tiv­ity and so on was due to the in­flu­ence of Yam­a­to. I feel it’s fine by it­self if peo­ple be­come in­ter­ested in the Dead Sea Scrolls be­cause of that [be­cause of Eva]. If through that they get in­ter­ested in psy­chol­ogy and move on to that di­rec­tion, it will also be in­ter­est­ing. As for the el­e­ments re­lat­ing to Chris­tian­i­ty, I just re­searched them quickly us­ing dic­tio­nary-like books. Be­cause these sort of con­ve­nient things ex­ist in the world, (laughs) around the time when we were stu­dents, the anime “Macross” was show­ing on TV, and there was a “cat­a­log gen­er­a­tion,” a gen­er­a­tion in­ter­ested in noth­ing but “specs” and cat­a­logs. They would only eval­u­ate things on the ba­sis of “cat­a­log-like” el­e­ments.56 They did­n’t care about “in­te­rior” el­e­ments but were only caught up in what was on the sur­face. So, you can ex­tend that [idea]. [In Eva] there are var­i­ous “key­word-like” terms but, in truth, these are just sym­bols. They don’t re­ally have mean­ings taken in­di­vid­u­al­ly. As they are mixed to­geth­er, for the first time some­thing like an in­ter­re­la­tion­ship or a mean­ing emerges. If you in­ves­ti­gate each one in­di­vid­u­ally you will very quickly reach the bot­tom.

…—You pre­vi­ously said you have an in­ter­est in psy­chol­o­gy, but in Eva things like Kierkegaard’s “The Sick­ness Unto Death” are cited as well…

An­no: I did­n’t read it.


An­no: I just quoted it.

—I thought you must have liked it.

An­no: In no time at all I lost my in­ter­est [in it]. I did­n’t un­der­stand it. I made guesses based on skim-read­ing, and so on. And, I would seem in­tel­li­gent if I re­mem­bered a phrase [from it]. (laughs)

—It was­n’t that you based [E­va] on Chris­tian­ity be­cause you liked it…

An­no: It was­n’t at all be­cause of that. I don’t un­der­stand Chris­tian­ity at all. It was be­cause of the at­mos­phere. (laughs)

…An­no: If the planned re­la­tions had worked out - the plan was that the ‘un­con­scious Shin­ji-kun’ would be Ayanami Rei, the Shin­ji-kun who ap­pears on the sur­face would be Ikari Shin­ji, and the ‘ideal Shin­ji-kun’ would be Nag­isa Ka­woru-kun. [Ka­woru was] sup­posed to be an ideal male but when I tried putting him to­gether he was just a strange fel­low (laugh­s). That was some­thing of a lack of ca­pa­bil­ity on my part.

–Ex­cerpt trans­lated by Num­ber­s-kun(first ex­cerpt, sec­ond ex­cerpt, third ex­cerpt; full orig­i­nal); 5 De­cem­ber in­ter­view ‘with a mem­ber of Waseda Uni­ver­sity for the pur­pose of “char­ac­ter study.”’

"…­Gendo is bor­rowed from an­other anime project be­fore Eva that was abort­ed. [Aoki Uru?]

Ikari is the same as be­fore. Yui sounds sim­i­lar to Rei, and it’s also a lit­tle pun on yui [唯, “only one”].

Keel is also a com­po­nent of a ship. Lorenz is named after a zo­ol­o­gist or some­thing, but I can’t re­mem­ber clear­ly. Am I just get­ting old? Oh, well.

Su­per straight­for­ward nam­ing [for Pen2], but I thought the rep­e­ti­tion sounded cute. His name has offi­cially be­come the 2nd power of Pen [Pen²]. I was re­luc­tant at first, but we thought we needed a mas­cot char­ac­ter, so we had an an­i­mal ap­pear in the show. As it hap­pened, the show is set in Hakone, which one as­so­ciates with hot springs, which in turn are as­so­ci­ated with mon­keys. But that is no fun, so we de­cided to make it a pen­guin, the an­i­mal least suited to a hot spring. I’m pos­i­tive that Sadamoto came up with the idea of a “hot spring pen­guin”.

… [Ken­suke Aida] Also from Mu­rakami’s nov­el. By the way, I was just in­ter­ested in a char­ac­ter “Zero” in this nov­el, rather than the story about rev­o­lu­tion and dic­ta­tor­ship it­self….

This char­ac­ter was named by the screen­play writer Akio Sat­sukawa. Nag­isa [shore] is a word re­lated to the sea. Also the kanji nag­isa 渚 con­sists of katakana SHI シ and kanji SHA 者, there­fore he’s SHISHA シ者 [mes­sen­ger 使者]. He said it also comes from the movie di­rec­tor . But what is Ka­woru? Sor­ry, I will ask him next time. [Anno dis­cussed Os­hima in a 1997 New­type?]"

Hideaki Anno, per­sonal web­site; orig­i­nal trans­la­tion by mas­sangeana on Japan.Ani­me.E­van­ge­lion, De­cem­ber 2000. (It’s strik­ing how ran­dom and mean­ing­less many names seem to be.)

Oguro: The re­la­tion be­tween the fan and the work.

An­no: Right, right. So, they can’t meet the real Rei Ayanami, but be­cause, as an act of com­pen­sa­tion, they can meet the voice ac­tress who does her voice, they go to events [where she ap­pears]. Or, they get that pic­ture signed by Yoshiyuki Sadamo­to, the man who drew it.

Oguro: As a sub­sti­tute for the real Rei Ayana­mi.

An­no: I be­lieve that anime char­ac­ter mer­chan­dise sells well sim­ply be­cause it is a means of get­ting close to the char­ac­ter. You can’t ex­press your love for Rei Ayanami ex­cept by putting her poster up on your wall. So, char­ac­ter mer­chan­dise sells well be­cause of that.

Oguro: Ex­press your love?

An­no: Every­one un­der­stands that it’s a fic­tion, but pre­cisely be­cause it’s a fic­tion you have a pure feel­ing, you fall for the char­ac­ter to an even greater ex­tent. You as­sume that an anime char­ac­ter will not be­tray you. Iku-chan said [to me], “in the last episode, please have Rei Ayanami get mar­ried and be­come preg­nant. Just please be­tray the Ayanami fans. The Rei Ayanami they are think­ing of is not re­al. The real Rei Ayanami gets mar­ried, and her bel­ly…”

Oguro: (laughs) Ah, if Ayanami re­ally ex­ist­ed.

An­no: He told me some­thing like, “please, make them re­al­ize that, If she were re­al, she would get mar­ried, be­come preg­nant, have a child, and grow old­er.” I was think­ing, “we don’t have to go that far…” (laugh­s).

Oguro: (laughs) Iku-chan is a wicked man.

–Trans­lated by Num­ber­s-kun based on 2chan ex­cerpts and scans; this ex­tract is from an April 2000 in­ter­view pub­lished in Monthly Anime Style (in-depth mag­a­zine, suc­ces­sor to Anime Style), which was reprinted in the 2011 in­ter­view an­thol­ogy アニメクリエイタ-・インタビュ-ズ この人に話を聞きたい2001-2002 (Anime kurieitā intabyūzu : kono hito ni hanashi o kik­i­tai; ISBN 9784063648515). See also the 1996 Ani­me­land in­ter­view.

Anno: […] I want to fo­cus on con­tem­po­rary Japan. Since we [my gen­er­a­tion] does­n’t have the post-war pe­riod or any­thing else, there is noth­ing but the pre­sent. The wor­thy past was out­side of our for­ma­tive ex­pe­ri­ences, so even if we base some­thing on the past, it only be­comes more de­fi­cient. On the other hand, to the ex­tent we de­pict the fu­ture, it is with­out op­ti­mism. If we de­pict the fu­ture, to­day it will surely only be in a pes­simistic way. This be­ing the case, I want to con­front what is right be­fore my eyes, but when I do so, my empty self comes into sharp re­lief, and I merely be­come per­plexed. In the case of Evan­ge­lion, I thor­oughly pre­sented this empti­ness, but now be­yond that - I am emp­ty, so what should I do? - that’s what I have to do, but I’ve been strug­gling to find [what that is], and so come to a stand­still. At such a time I saw “Taboo,” [and thought,] “Ah, this old man is giv­ing his all, [but I] ….”

Os­hima: (Laugh­ing)

Anno: Feel­ing this way, I have been dri­ven into a cor­ner. I am strug­gling to find an ex­it. I think that is com­mon to [my gen­er­a­tion]. For peo­ple now in their for­ties and be­low, since there is no joint strug­gle or anpo [toso], see­ing those things on tele­vi­sion, a neg­a­tive feel­ing, a so-called “shi­rake mood” [feel­ing of ap­a­thy] like, “even if I do some­thing it won’t make any differ­ence,” has taken root. I think that we who have been “blocked” since the time we were chil­dren will al­ways be haunted by [the ques­tion of] what we should do in or­der to be able to move for­wards.

–Un­trans­lated copy of the di­a­logue is avail­able on­line; ex­cerpt trans­lated by Num­ber­s-kun; M Arnold, Miyazaki ML (pub­lic mir­ror) sum­ma­rizes it:

The cur­rent is­sue of Eu­reka, a lit­er­ary/art crit­i­cism mag­a­zine, is about Japan­ese film di­rec­tor Os­hima Nag­isa. Among a score of other es­says and ar­ti­cles it in­cludes a tran­script of a di­a­logue be­tween Os­hima and Anno Hidea­ki. I haven’t read the whole thing, but they talk about Os­hi­ma’s new film “Go­hatto” (which is great, by the way) and the diffi­cul­ties (well, An­no’s diffi­cul­ties) in find­ing mo­ti­va­tion and is­sues to tackle in films now.

At the end, I asked the ques­tion: “You’ve started out do­ing Sci­ence-Fic­tion (Gun­buster, Royal Space Force, Na­dia) and now you’re do­ing Shou­jo, why is that?”

Ya­m­a­ga’s an­swer: “We’ve al­ways worked in both sci-fi and Shou­jo. EVA was a com­bi­na­tion of both.”

Pe­ter Svens­son, Fanime 2000; in 2001, Svens­son de­scribed the ques­tion as “Is the Gainax of to­day, which makes the Shoujo se­ries Kare Kano, the same Gainax that made Royal Space Force?”

Amer­i­can fans en­joyed the [Daicon] film’s broad par­o­dy, but its Japan­ese cre­ators have fixed feel­ings. “They’re a source of pride and some­thing you want to stran­gle,” said Ya­m­a­ga, who is more in­ter­ested in new pro­jects. “I don’t want to see them for a long time. Just think­ing about them sends shiv­ers down my spine,” added Akai, say­ing that he wants to pro­duce bet­ter films than the old ones."

… “Some­how, the con­ver­sa­tion turned to the an­i­mated films the two cre­ated for the Daicon con­ven­tions in Japan. Those films are known as the first Gainax films - and re­mem­bered for the al­l-con­quer­ing bunny girl char­ac­ter. Amer­i­can fans en­joyed the film’s broad par­o­dy, but its Japan­ese cre­ators have fixed feel­ings.”They’re a source of pride and some­thing you want to stran­gle," said Ya­m­a­ga, who is more in­ter­ested in new pro­jects. “I don’t want to see them for a long time. Just think­ing about them sends shiv­ers down my spine,” added Akai, say­ing that he wants to pro­duce bet­ter films than the old ones.

–From a Fanime pan­el: http://we­­b/20070707233248/www.­fans­view.­com/2000a/022400d.htm

I met Mr. Ya­m­aga at Car­l’s party after Fanime­con 2k, and he said (as one might as­sume) that Eva was An­no’s thing, not his, so we talked about Hon­neamise. You wont get the an­swers you want from him.

Sean Mc­Coy

It’s [Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Girl Utena] di­rected by Ikuhara, one of An­no’s good friends. I call it the Shoujo EVA.

Ikuhara ac­tu­ally called it that him­self at Otakon this year. He made the Utena movie as re­venge against An­no. He wanted to make some­thing se­ri­ously dent­ed, and I think he ac­com­plished just that…

Vera La­Porte

The manga ideas came first, though I don’t think the au­thor re­ally pro­duced much be­fore the ani­me. Ikuhara tempted the au­thor away from GAiNAX (I wish I could re­mem­ber the guy’s name…Hasegawa? I know he was the char­ac­ter de­signer for the ani­me) and they worked to­gether rather stealth­ily on the anime be­cause Ikuhara was still un­der con­tract for Sailor Moon (and he did­n’t want Anno to find out). So I guess my an­swer is the Utena manga idea came first, but the anime took hold and then the real manga be­gan.

Vera La­Porte

Did that end­ing scene (EOE) seem a lit­tle eu­phoric to any­one else? Is there any ev­i­dence that Anno was on crack or LSD while writ­ing this?

Funny you should men­tion that… At the Utena panel at Otakon this past Au­gust some­one asked that of Ikuhara (a good buddy of An­no, col­league, and some­time co-work­er, as well as di­rec­tor for Utena and Sailor Moon), and Ikuhara sim­ply replied, “I was born like this.”

Vera La­Porte

Been away for a while for the clas­sic Lucca Comics Expo here in Italy…Ikuhara said that he did NOT sub­sti­tute Anno at the di­rec­tion of the lat­est episodes of Kare Kano, con­trar­ily to some ru­mors that have been go­ing on for a while.


I re­mem­ber Ku­ni­hiko Ikuhara com­ing to a con­ven­tion here in Italy (one in Luc­ca, 2001 or 2002 pos­si­bly), and be­ing asked about his col­lab­o­ra­tion with Anno (did­n’t like it, he was pre­sent­ing the Utena movie back then), and he too did say that the Chris­t­ian sym­bol­ogy was, as far as he knew/had been told by An­no, cool­ness fac­tor. The con­ver­sa­tion went there be­cause a weirdo tried to get him to ad­mit there was a par­al­lel be­tween the Utena movie and Gnos­tic doc­trines - don’t ask - and while Ikuhara just laughed ner­vously and mum­bled about not even know­ing the word, it was clear from the face of the trans­la­tor that such em­bar­rass­ments weren’t wel­come any­more.


Yoshiyuki Sadamoto: The staff loved (the work) while they were mak­ing it. The film ver­sion was re­ally planned to be a com­pletely differ­ent story that would only use the char­ac­ters from the orig­i­nal.

Hi­roki Sato: We re­ally had planned it so that peo­ple who had­n’t seen the TV se­ries would be able to en­joy it as well, but the staff said that they were worn out, and we did­n’t think we would be able to do it any more. Well, since the film [be­came] a re­make of episodes 25 and 26, we de­cided to do it along the lines of the left over orig­i­nal script. But the orig­i­nal film col­lapsed.

Sadamoto: Right. [The staff] were worn out. I wanted to see the orig­i­nally planned film.

Sato: If I was to say which [di­rec­tion it was head­ing in], it would have been a re­turn to the ear­lier sci­ence-fic­tion [ori­ent­ed] sto­ry. In the plan which fell apart, we wanted to se­ri­ously cre­ate a world in which gi­ant ro­bots would ex­ist. The de­sign team con­structed this idea, which would have been an­other side of - well, if I had to say, some­thing like a “hard-ge­lion” (laugh­ing).

SD: But, hav­ing worked end­lessly on the TV se­ries, the staff had al­ready run out of steam. “You’re telling us to keep up this bru­tal work for merely one more year?” The en­tire staff was worn out, An­no-san in­clud­ed.

ST: After An­no-san re­ha­bil­i­tated for half a year, he had work on the video ver­sion start up again. Since do­ing that worked out sched­ul­ing-wise, we had an­nounced it around when the TV se­ries had first end­ed, but we were also think­ing about an orig­i­nal film. [???]

SD: Eva takes place in a “sum­mer world.” It was planned that [the film] would com­pletely change the art style, so that sud­denly snow-cov­ered moun­tains, and Mis­ato and the oth­ers wear­ing coats, would ap­pear in a “win­ter world.”57 Think­ing that would be very cool, I was a lit­tle bit ex­cited in­side. That be­came the re­make [in­stead], and [it was then like,] “What? There’s no job for me?”

–ex­cerpts trans­lated by Num­ber­s-kun; SF on­line #35, 2000-01-24. Note that the ‘snow world’ is con­sis­tent with both Okada in “Re­turn of the Otak­ing” part 4 in 1996 and with Olivier Hagué’s April 2001 com­ments:

But did they ever state that there would be no more Eva? After all, they in­tended to make the Sum­mer 97 movie an orig­i­nal sto­ry, in­de­pen­dently from the al­ter­nate end­ing (first sup­posed to be re­leased on video on­ly)… And there are still some Gainax mem­bers who would like to make (or at least, to see ^^) that one.

It was sup­posed to take place in snowy land­scapes (in­stead of the “end­less sum­mer” set­ting), to have new char­ac­ters, and over­all a more re­al­is­tic touch (some of the Gainax mem­bers called it “a sort of Hard-ge­lion” ^^). Who knows?… In a few years, may­be?…

2000 S

  • 2000-animer­i­ca-es­say­tomi­no-no­e­va.pdf
  • 2000-animer­i­ca-tomi­noin­t­er­view.pdf Tomino in­ter­view where he slags on NGE: Ani­mer­i­ca, Vol 8 #2 (March 2000) “In­ter­view: Yoshiyuki Tomino”, Ani­mer­ica 8:2 pg 12-13, 34-37

Tomi­no: For in­stance, Brain Pow­ered came out after Evan­ge­lion did, so I am often asked ques­tions sim­i­lar to yours about the con­nec­tion be­tween them, but in re­al­ity the plans for Brain Pow­ered and the over­all story had all been com­pleted be­fore Evan­ge­lion came out. I never meant Brain Pow­ered to be an an­tithe­sis to Evan­ge­lion. I knew when I saw Evan­ge­lion that Brain Pow­ered would be called an an­tithe­sis to it, but I did­n’t want to change my plans any, so I just re­signed my­self to that.

This is con­nected with my wish for more an­i­ma­tors to see them­selves as en­ter­tain­ers. I don’t think I suc­ceeded with Brain Pow­ered, and I don’t think it was very good with en­ter­tain­men­t–but there was one thing I did try to do with it. If 100 peo­ple come to see an anime with gi­ant ro­bots, then chances are that not every one of those 100 peo­ple will be a huge fan of ro­bot ani­me. What I wanted to do was to make an anime that had a truly in­ter­est­ing story that would­n’t cause the peo­ple who watched it to have a ner­vous break­down. I also tried to make a story that would tell anime fans that there were often other things out there bet­ter than ani­me. That’s the goal I chal­lenged my­self to do. I don’t think the se­ries it­self was a suc­cess, though, I have to ad­mit that. 1 So I was very up­set when I saw Evan­ge­lion, be­cause it was ap­par­ent to me that the peo­ple who made it weren’t think­ing at all about mak­ing fun for or gain­ing the sym­pa­thy of the au­di­ence. In­stead they tried to con­vince the au­di­ence to ad­mit that every­body is sick, prac­ti­cally in the mid­dle of a ner­vous break­down, all the time. I don’t think you should show things like that to every­body. It’s not en­ter­tain­ment for the mass­es–it’s much more in­ter­ested in ad­mit­ting that we’re all de­pressed ner­vous wrecks, I thought. It was a work that told peo­ple it was okay to be de­pressed, and it ac­cepted the psy­cho­log­i­cal state that said if you don’t like the way the world works, then it’s okay to just pick up a gun and at­tack some­one. I don’t think that’s a real work of art. When peo­ple see that, they be­gin to re­al­ize they are the same way. I think that we should try to show peo­ple how to live health­ier, fuller lives, to fos­ter their iden­tity as a part of their com­mu­ni­ty, and to en­cour­age them to work hap­pily un­til they die. I can’t ac­cept any work that does­n’t say that.

Ani­mer­i­ca: Is that differ­ent from your down­beat end­ings?

Tomi­no: I make sure my au­di­ence knows it’s fic­tion and that what hap­pens to my char­ac­ters does­n’t nec­es­sar­ily say any­thing about their own lives.


2000 T

‘Evan­ge­lion’ de­ploys otaku clichés with me­chas and girls, with par­o­dies and quo­ta­tions from the his­tory of the genre all the way back to ‘Space Bat­tle­ship Yam­ato’ of 1974.(20) At the same time, Anno crit­i­cizes the closed na­ture of the Otaku cir­cle, and its di­vi­sion into ever-s­mall­er, strictly sep­a­rated ar­eas of in­ter­est.

The otaku would ap­pear to be suc­cess­fully es­cap­ing the shack­les of one prison named so­ci­ety only in or­der to build them­selves a new hous­ing com­posed of tech­no­log­i­cal me­di­at­ed­ness and self­-ref­er­en­tial­ism. As Toshio Okada writes in his book ‘Our Brain­wash So­ci­ety’ (Boku­tachi no sennô shakai, Asahi Shim­bun­sha, Tokyo, 1995), he too de­tects the main prob­lem in this clos­ing off.



2001 P

Some of the jokes, gags, and el­e­ments in FLCL are sub­cul­tur­al, and if it was very diffi­cult for him to ex­plain some of the el­e­ments to the staff, it may be even more so to Amer­i­cans - or so is his as­sump­tion. Tsu­ru­maki told the Otakon pan­el, “Hon­estly speak­ing, I’m very happy that Amer­i­cans like my work, but the Eva TV se­ries and movies, Kare Kano, and FLCL are ba­si­cally made for the Japan­ese au­di­ences. So when I hear that they are be­ing well re­ceived by Amer­i­can au­di­ences, I feel very hap­py; but at the same time I feel a lit­tle awk­ward.”

When PULP asked him what he meant by that, Tsu­ru­maki said, “For ex­am­ple, in Eva, I thought Shin­ji’s char­ac­ter would only be un­der­stood by Japan­ese fans of this gen­er­a­tion. But I was very happy - or ac­tu­al­ly, shocked - to find out that his kind of char­ac­ter is also un­der­stood by Amer­i­cans.” I ap­pre­ci­ated the di­rec­tor’s im­plied vote of con­fi­dence in us, but won­dered whether the oft-re­marked-upon Japan­ese sense of cul­tural sin­gu­lar­ism was strong enough to can­cel out the uni­ver­sal fact of youth dis­affec­tion, let alone the world­wide re­port­ing on in­ci­dents such as the mur­ders at Columbine.

An­other per­son at Tsu­ru­mak­i’s press con­fer­ence took up that ques­tion. Tsu­ru­maki averred that Shin­ji’s char­ac­ter was based per­son­ally on that of Hideaki An­no. Tsu­ru­mak­i’s ver­sion of the metaphor was that Shinji be­ing sum­moned by his fa­ther to pi­lot the Evan­ge­lion stood for Anno be­ing “sum­moned” by Gainax to di­rect their first anime in four years, and his in five - he traced An­no’s am­bigu­ous feel­ings about his craft back to Na­dia. At the same time, said Tsu­ru­maki, Anno felt, “But maybe by do­ing Eva I can change, I can grow.”

Most of the Gainax shows are also tar­get­ed, Tsu­ru­maki said, for an au­di­ence “that tends to be rather weak and has prob­lems with their fam­ily” - and the di­rec­tors at Gainax are those kind of peo­ple. “A lot of fam­i­lies in Japan a gen­er­a­tion ago - and per­haps even now - had fa­thers that were worka­holics and never home. They were out of their chil­dren’s’ lives. My own fa­ther was like that, and I hardly ever got to as­so­ciate with him un­til quite re­cent­ly. I’m the same sort of per­son as Hideaki An­no. That prob­a­bly in­flu­ences the type of anime I cre­ate.”

Nev­er­the­less, if Tsu­ru­maki feels that he will never be safe, he will never be sane, he wanted to ex­press that fran­tic in­side in a comedic mode, rather than with the vi­o­lent con­vul­sions of Evan­ge­lion. Sim­ply put, he per­son­ally was ready for a con­trast to that apoc­a­lyp­tic dark­ness. Tsu­ru­maki com­pares the bizarre ro­bots pop­ping forth from Nao­ta’s head to stir up the town in FLCL to the bizarre ideas pop­ping forth from his head dur­ing its pro­duc­tion, stir­ring up the post-Eva Gainax. For some­one in­volved with such a talked-about film, Tsu­ru­maki hardly ever watches movies him­self, telling the panel he re­ceives in­flu­ences in­stead from Japan­ese TV dra­mas and man­ga, his fa­vorite be­ing those of Leiji Mat­sumo­to.

…None of the Evan­ge­lion pro­duc­tion staff are them­selves of a West­ern re­li­gious back­ground. Tsu­ru­maki, for his own part as as­sis­tant di­rec­tor, said at Otakon that he al­ways en­vi­sioned the ex­ten­sive use of Judeo-Chris­t­ian iconog­ra­phy in Evan­ge­lion to be more of a way for the show to dis­tin­guish it­self vi­su­ally in the mecha field. Evan­ge­lion’s es­cha­tol­ogy is in fact too well-de­vel­oped to be re­garded as a mere mo­tif, how­ever if it is a syn­cret­ic, sym­bolic and es­o­teric ap­proach, it is not an ig­no­rant one. Tsu­ru­maki re­marked that Eva, be­ing a show only meant for Japan, al­lowed Gainax to cre­ative free­dom in the use of West­ern el­e­ments, re­mov­ing any con­cern about how their in­ter­pre­ta­tion might cause offense. By the same to­ken, Ya­m­aga has ex­pressed a sense of re­lief that Gainax could­n’t be eas­ily smeared with the me­dia hys­te­ria over Aum Shin­rikyo, since Evan­ge­lion’s own high­-tech cultists used West­ern, not Bud­dhist, rev­e­la­tions. It should be ob­vi­ous that if this is viewed as an ar­mor for Evan­ge­lion to com­ment on con­tem­po­rary Japan­ese events, it is an effec­tive one - an ap­plic­a­bil­ity many Japan­ese crit­ics in fact ac­cept­ed.

FLCL is the for­mu­la: 4. emerg­ing from the head of Gainax”, PULP (archive)

P: Do you think, then, that the dis­tinc­tive Gainax projects are the ones which ac­tu­ally orig­i­nate from within the stu­dio, rather then their adap­ta­tions of some­one else’s work?

KT: It de­pends on the time in which it was re­leased, but yes, works like Royal Space Force: The Wings of Hon­neamise, Gun­buster, Na­dia, and FLCL would be con­sid­ered the ones with the true Gainax fla­vor, their mile­stones.

FLCL is the for­mu­la: 5. and so the Pulp in­ter­view”, PULP (archive)

Tsu­ru­maki said he was sur­passed [sur­prised] that Shinji Ikari was un­der­stood so well by North Amer­i­can Evan­ge­lion fans, and ad­mit­ted that Shinji was mod­eled after the di­rec­tor Hideaki An­no. “Shin­ji, he gets sum­moned by his fa­ther to ride a ro­bot, and Anno was sum­moned by Gainax to make a big an­i­ma­tion show after he had had a prob­lem with Na­dia of the Mys­te­ri­ous Seas and did­n’t know if he still wanted to di­rect.” Some fans think that the ex­treme vi­o­lence in End of Evan­ge­lion was in­spired by fans’ dis­ap­proval of An­no, but Tsu­ru­maki said that was not the case. “It was­n’t a bit­ter­ness to­ward the fans. A lot of peo­ple think anime should al­ways have happy end­ings, but that’s not al­ways the case. We wanted to ed­u­cate the fans that anime can have bit­ter end­ings.”

Tsu­ru­maki Otakon panel

#2. Why were the Di­rec­tor’s Cuts made and how im­por­tant are they to the sto­ry?

(an­swer: they aren’t that im­por­tant to the sto­ry, they were made as an apol­ogy to fans for de­lay­ing the re­lease of the video so long. And also to help un­der­stand the later episodes, which he ad­mit­ted were made quickly and rough­ly).

…He men­tioned that Anno was work­ing on Na­dia when the Eva op­por­tu­nity arose, and that he took the job be­cause he thought he could change. Tsu­ru­maki com­pared this to Shinji be­ing sum­moned by his fa­ther to con­trol Eva…an­other par­al­lel of staff and fic­tion!

MDWigs sum­mary of Tsu­ru­maki Otakon panel. Tsu­ru­maki was also asked whose soul was in Unit-03 (much dis­cussed - To­ji’s moth­er? sis­ter? ran­dom third par­ty?); he was just con­fused. (Bren­dan Jamieson tells the story in 2004 but of Unit-00; he says he was prob­a­bly just mis­taken.)

fuller tran­script: “Amus­ing Him­self to Death” part 1; part2; part3:

Why does Evan­ge­lion end vi­o­lent­ly, and some­what un­hap­pi­ly?

KT: Peo­ple are ac­cus­tomed to sweet, con­trived, happy end­ings. We wanted to broaden the gen­re, and show peo­ple an ug­ly, un­happy end­ing.

Why is the char­ac­ter of Shinji por­trayed as he is?

KT: Shinji was mod­eled on di­rec­tor Hideaki An­no. Shinji was sum­moned by his fa­ther to ride a ro­bot, Anno was sum­moned by Gainax to di­rect an an­i­ma­tion. Work­ing on Na­dia [Na­dia: Se­cret of the Blue Wa­ter, one of Anno and Tsu­ru­mak­i’s ear­lier pro­jects] he won­dered if he still wanted to work like this. He thought that work­ing on Eva could help him to change.

Is there any par­tic­u­lar rea­son why so many Gainax se­ries fea­ture very anx­ious, un­happy young male pro­tag­o­nists with no par­ents?

KT: Yes, the di­rec­tors at Gainax are all ba­si­cally weak, in­se­cure, bit­ter, young men. So are many anime fans. Many Japan­ese fam­i­lies, in­clud­ing my own, have worka­holic fa­thers whose kids never get to see them. That may in­flu­ence the shows I cre­ate.

Could you ex­plain the mecha burst­ing from Nao­ta’s head in FLCL?

KT: I use a gi­ant ro­bot be­ing cre­ated from the brain to rep­re­sent FLCL com­ing from my brain. The ro­bot rav­ages the town around him, and the more in­tensely I worked on FLCL the more I de­stroyed the peace­ful at­mos­phere of Gainax.

Why does­n’t FLCL fol­low one sto­ry?

KT: In the third episode Ni­namori was al­most a main char­ac­ter, a kid who, like Nao­ta, has to act like an adult. After episode three her prob­lem was solved so we wrote her out. She has many fans in Japan and we got plenty of let­ters about that de­ci­sion. For FLCL I wanted to por­tray the en­tire his­tory of Gainax, and each episode has sym­bols of what hap­pened be­hind the scenes on each of Gainax’s shows. Episode one has many el­e­ments of Kare Kano; episode two, a lot of Evan­ge­lion ref­er­ences, etc.

Where does the ti­tle FLCL come from?

KT: I got the idea from a CD in a mu­sic mag­a­zine with the ti­tle Fooly-Cooly. I like the idea of ti­tles that are short­ened long Eng­lish words. Poke­mon for “Pock­et-Mon­sters” for in­stance, and an old J-pop band called Bril­liant Green that was known as “Bril­ly-Gril­ly.”

Is there any rea­son why the ex­tra scenes added to Eva for the video re­lease were cut in the first place? Did you think the story would mean some­thing differ­ent with them in­tact?

KT: The scenes that were added to Eva for its video re­lease aren’t that im­por­tant. We added them as an apol­ogy for tak­ing so long to get the video out. Maybe they’ll help peo­ple un­der­stand things, be­cause the episodes were done un­der tough dead­lines the first time around.

Ear­lier to­day you said that you were try­ing to broaden the genre by giv­ing Eva a sad end­ing. Does the same­ness of much of to­day’s anime bore you?

KT: First of all we did­n’t use a sad end­ing to an­noy fans. When they’re up­set, that re­ally both­ers us. Per­son­al­ly, I think a happy end­ing is fine, but not if it is achieved too eas­i­ly. That’s no good.

Can you ex­plain the sym­bol­ism of the cross in Evan­ge­lion?

KT: There are a lot of gi­ant ro­bot shows in Japan, and we did want our story to have a re­li­gious theme to help dis­tin­guish us. Be­cause Chris­tian­ity is an un­com­mon re­li­gion in Japan we thought it would be mys­te­ri­ous. None of the staff who worked on Eva are Chris­tians. There is no ac­tual Chris­t­ian mean­ing to the show, we just thought the vi­sual sym­bols of Chris­tian­ity look cool. If we had known the show would get dis­trib­uted in the US and Eu­rope we might have rethought that choice.

Sadamoto says Na­di­a=Sh­inji pic is joke, but close to truth: http://e­va.o­­mail/e­van­ge­lion/2006-No­vem­ber/003857.html

At the Gainax Live! event in Nagoya a few years back, Sadamoto said that he wished the manga was over so that he could move on to new things since he had been do­ing noth­ing but Eva for 6-7 years.

Bochan_bird, 2004; guess­ing 2001, as , and see also a Tsu­ru­maki quote

You men­tioned pre­vi­ously that Japan­ese an­i­ma­tion is not in a good sit­u­a­tion right now. Why not?

MO: Un­for­tu­nate­ly, anime is gen­er­ally rated low by the Japan­ese pub­lic. One rea­son is that many peo­ple still think anime is for small chil­dren, which is no longer true. A se­ries of very ab­nor­mal mur­ders of small chil­dren that oc­curred in 1989 can be an­other rea­son. Be­cause the crim­i­nal was over 20 years of age, and a devo­tee of anime and video games, the whole na­tion started per­se­cut­ing and dis­crim­i­nat­ing against anime and its fans. Those feel­ings still re­main. Cre­ative teams now must make anime within very small bud­gets - this in­cludes voice ac­tors. Fur­ther­more, the on­go­ing re­ces­sion makes it more diffi­cult to train good ac­tors and artists to cre­ate good works. We are now fac­ing a hard time and there­fore we are given fewer op­por­tu­ni­ties to use our high abil­i­ties and tech­niques; and the sit­u­a­tion is get­ting worse every year. I feel that we must do some­thing about it.

Do you think shows for chil­dren in Japan are more so­phis­ti­cated than Amer­i­can or Eu­ro­pean shows?

MO: I think that is true in some ways, but it is­n’t al­ways true. I think Dis­ney movies are won­der­ful. I can­not be­lieve that “Fan­ta­sia” was made that many years ago. But the sit­u­a­tion of the Japan­ese an­i­ma­tion in­dus­try in which the best tech­niques and abil­i­ties can­not be fully uti­lized is some­thing that we are ashamed of. If we had the sup­port of big spon­sors from abroad, the sit­u­a­tion may turn out differ­ent­ly. It’s a shame.

…You are prob­a­bly best known in the US for play­ing Shinji in “Evan­ge­lion.” Some of Shin­ji’s speeches sound like they might have been ad-libbed. Did you get to ad-lib and ex­per­i­ment when you were work­ing on “Evan­ge­lion?”

MO: I’m de­lighted that you think I sounded nat­ural as if I was do­ing ad-libs. I don’t re­mem­ber do­ing any­thing ex­per­i­men­tal. There was a time when I ac­tu­ally pushed Yuko Miya­mura to the floor to stran­gle her dur­ing the last scene of the “Evan­ge­lion” movie in which Shinji stran­gles Asu­ka. I could­n’t act very well in play­ing that scene. I was so ag­i­tated that I stran­gled her too hard, mak­ing it im­pos­si­ble for her to say her lines for a while. Of course, I apol­o­gized to her for do­ing that. I al­most killed her.

A cen­sored ver­sion of “Sailor Moon” has been air­ing in the US. Haruka and Michiru were turned into cousins and much of their di­a­logue was changed. When the show first aired in Japan, was there any con­tention com­ing from par­ents or re­li­gious lead­ers?

MO: When I was cast to play Haruka, I asked di­rec­tor Ku­ni­hiko Ikuhara, “Are they gay?” He an­swered, “Act as if they are mar­ried cou­ple.” And I asked him again, “Mar­ried cou­ple? You, mean, with two ladies?” He replied, “Yes.” So they are hus­band and wife. Their ap­pear­ance on TV was sen­sa­tion­al, some­thing un­heard of in TV car­toons. And the show was aired every Sat­ur­day at 7 p.m. when every mem­ber of the fam­ily would be gath­er­ing around the TV. Even so, it seems that we were able to grab the view­er’s heart. The pro­gram’s rat­ing con­tin­ued to rise, and I re­ceived a lot more fan let­ters than be­fore. Be­cause many peo­ple watched the show with their fam­i­ly, not only the anime fans but also small chil­dren and their moth­ers be­came our fans as well. There was a time I was called “a madam killer” [a term used to de­scribe a per­son so charm­ing that they can get any wom­an, usu­ally ap­plied to men, how­ever Ms. Ogata’s seiyuu ca­reer stands as a tes­ta­ment to how ap­pro­pri­ate the term is for her].

I’m sure that the anime also ap­pealed to gay peo­ple, too. I heard that “Sailor Moon” was the talk of the town in Shin­juku 2-chome, a fa­mous gay street in Japan. Of course, it may have caused con­tro­versy in some strict, re­li­gious fam­i­lies, but the en­ter­tain­ment won a vic­tory over the re­li­gious fa­nat­ics. Maybe it’s be­cause Japan is not as re­li­gious a coun­try as the U.S. But the anime is not only about girls with mini skirts and gay cou­ples. It also has a very in­ter­est­ing sto­ry. It fo­cuses on very im­por­tant as­pects of hu­man be­hav­ior, and it is very well writ­ten. The anime de­served pop­u­lar­i­ty. Of course, the sex­i­ness is also an im­por­tant thing. Per­haps the most im­por­tant. I am at­tracted to anime with a touch of sen­su­al­ity - with­out be­ing too in­de­cent like X-rated movies - be­cause sexy things are sim­ply en­ter­tain­ing. [With the voice of Haruka Tenoh] “Don’t you think so too, my cute lit­tle Amer­i­can kit­ties?”

– From a Megumi Ogata in­ter­view (note that stran­gling-Megumi story is con­firmed by the Megumi Live­door in­ter­view and her later Aus­tralian in­ter­view): sin­gle page (part1, 2, 3)


  • 04/10 Term starts [Pre­sum­ably the be­gin­ning of the se­ries]

  • 04/25 Field trip

  • 05/early 3rd An­gel Sachiel

  • 05/late 4th An­gel Shamshel

  • 06/early ID card

  • 06/mid­dle 5th An­gel Ramiel Rei is hos­pi­tal­ized

  • 06/late 6th An­gel Gaghiel Asuka’s first ap­pear­ance

  • 07/03 Asuka ar­rives in Japan and be­gins school

  • 08/early 7th An­gel Is­rafel

  • 08/early 7th An­gel Is­rafel re­match

  • 09/mid­dle 8th An­gel San­dalphon If this oc­curs be­fore 09/12, the Eva pi­lots go on the field trip with the rest of the class. If not, they go to the hot springs (as we know, the canon event is hot springs)

  • 09/14-6 Hot Springs

  • 09/mid­dle 9th An­gel Matarael Bat­tle

  • 10/late 10th An­gel Sa­haquiel Bat­tle. Lat­er, they go out for ra­men.

  • 11/mid­dle 11th An­gel Ireul

  • 11/mid­dle Eva 00 goes berserk

  • 11/late 12th An­gel Leliel

  • 12/21-3 Se­cret harsh train­ing (pos­si­bly when Rei starts us­ing LoL)

  • 12/24 Christ­mas eve

  • 01/01 New year’s

  • 01/mid­dle 13th An­gel Bardiel Bat­tle

  • 01/mid­dle 14th An­gel Zeruel Bat­tle. Eva 01 goes berserk, Shinji

  • re­vives a month lat­er.

  • 02/late 15th An­gel Arael

  • 03/24 16th An­gel Armisael - Rei II’s End­ing

  • 17th An­gel Tabris [Ar­rival]

  • 03/27 Rei III is re­leased from hos­pi­tal

  • 03/29 Events of ’24, Shinji vs Nag­isa-Kun

  • 03/30-31 Events of EoE (??)

  • Rei Ayanami Rais­ing Project chronol­ogy (ap­par­ently in­con­sis­tent with the Episode 04 dates cut in Evan­ge­lion ORIGINAL)

Be­sides, An­no-tachi worked on Macross, which had episodes de­liv­ered to the stu­dio min­utes be­fore air­time… So says Ya­m­a­ga…

Pe­ter Svens­son (Fanime 1999/2000; Svens­son is un­sure which)

“I felt my ca­reer as an an­i­ma­tion di­rec­tor had gone as far as it could, and de­cided I would like to try a new cre­ative me­dia. I am not com­plain­ing about the an­i­ma­tion in­dus­try, but I felt I could­n’t get any more sat­is­fac­tion from mak­ing an­i­ma­tion and I needed to try some­thing new to stim­u­late my cre­ativ­i­ty. I knew Ayako Fu­ji­tani and I loved her book when I read it. So I de­cide to try and make it into film.”

The style of Rit­ual is not dis­sim­i­lar to your an­i­mated work?

“Yes, there is some sim­i­lar­ity in the two, but it is­n’t di­rect copy. Though I used some spe­cial-effects, I was try­ing to make the im­ages in the film look painter­ly. It’s odd that when I used to do an­i­ma­tion, I would try hard to re­alise the char­ac­ters as if they were in a live-ac­tion movie, but when I did Rit­ual I put a lot of effort in mak­ing the im­age more graph­ic!”

Why you choose Shunji Iwai to act in the film?

“Two rea­sons. First, the pro­fes­sion of the main char­ac­ter in Rit­ual is a di­rec­tor, so it seemed ideal to get a ‘real’ di­rec­tor to do it. Sec­ond­ly, I think Shunji Iwai is re­ally cool, so I thought he could cap­ture the qual­ity of the main char­ac­ter.”

–Hideaki An­no, Look@Ritual (Shik­i-Jitsu)

Anno: How­ev­er, if I was to speak just of anime as an art­form, I be­lieve it is rapidly de­clin­ing. I find the anime of twenty or thirty years ago to be over­whelm­ingly bet­ter [than to­day’s]. […] Of course, even now, al­though we have skill­ful peo­ple, I feel we have a ways to go be­fore we match the move­ment of the older ani­me.

  • What is the cause of that?

Anno: It’s a prob­lem of the qual­ity of the Japan­ese peo­ple them­selves. To ex­press it in the style of Shiba Ry­otaro, the volt­age of Japan is de­creas­ing. It’s not just ani­me; nov­els, films, man­ga, no mat­ter the kind of cul­ture, they are all surely de­clin­ing, I be­lieve. It’s not sim­ply a mat­ter of the old times be­ing good. We[, my gen­er­a­tion,] and those after are al­ready a “copy cul­ture”, so there’s noth­ing else we can do. As copy piles upon copy, they quickly be­come dis­torted and di­lut­ed. […] In this sit­u­a­tion, things can hardly be im­proved. It’s diffi­cult, I think. From here, Japan will prob­a­bly rapidly reach an im­passe. Per­haps years from now, or per­haps longer, some­one will fig­ure out some­thing, and per­haps things will just keep de­clin­ing. In Japan as a coun­try, cul­ture has al­ready be­come “blocked.” Ko­rea, Chi­na, and South Asia have been able to pro­duce ex­em­plary works, and the day may ar­rive when they do away with Japan­ese things. I be­lieve the in­ten­tion to break down this “block­age” is es­sen­tial.

–the Au­gust 2001 is­sue of Eu­reka, on Miyaza­k­i’s Spir­ited Away; trans­la­tion by Num­ber­s-kun

2001 S

Carl Horn in­ter­view with (former) Gainax Gen­eral Prod­ucts USA head Lea Her­nan­dez; cov­er­age of Otaku no Video sec­tion which de­picts & in­sults an Amer­i­can otaku (Craig York):

LH: I was orig­i­nally in Tex­as, but they wanted to have the busi­ness in San Fran­cis­co.

P: Why?

LH: You know what? It’s be­cause, the truth is, they just wanted to say they had a busi­ness in San Fran­cis­co. There was re­ally no other rea­son.

P: Did it have a ca­chet?

LH: Yeah, it had a ca­chet. And I think it was also be­cause Toren [Smith] was here. But even­tu­ally it be­came, “We have a busi­ness in San Fran­cis­co, and we have a very-good look­ing vice-pres­i­dent.” [laughs]

P: Speak­ing of which, they later put you into a man­ga. [pro­duces copy of Comic Weapon Cy­ber Comix Spe­cial Edi­tion: Comic Gun­buster Vol. 2, an an­thol­ogy of “offi­cial” Gun­buster dou­jin­shi re­leased in May of 1991 through Bandai]

LH: Yes, they did. That’s me. There’s no doubt. It’s my glass­es, it’s my hair, it’s my dress. I had a shirt-dress, with an elas­tic waist that was gath­ered in.

P: Does this manga story have any ba­sis in re­al­i­ty?

LH: Some­what. I re­mem­ber [laughs] they were the biggest bunch of per­verts. They went out to Manga no Mori58 right after the re­lease of Gun­buster and saw that some­one had al­ready done a do­jin of it. And from what I could gather from their re­ac­tion, they saw it as ev­i­dence of “We’ve caught fire among the fans”–we’re gold. [laughs] In their imag­i­na­tions, they were gold. “We can sell them any­thing.” Shon [How­ell–­to­day ac­tive as an artist pub­lished through Ra­dio Comix], who took over for me lat­er, de­scribed their re­ac­tions, where they got one of these re­ally raunchy do­jin, and [Ya­suhi­ro] Takeda [found­ing mem­ber of Gainax and to­day its pres­i­dent] opened it and went, “Mooohh­h­h­h­h­h­hhh!” and his feet came off the floor of their own ac­cord. I was like, “Let me see.” And they’re like, “No, no, no, no, no!” And I’m like, “I’ve seen this and worse by peo­ple who were a lot less tal­ent­ed.”

LH: And they did­n’t want to show me any of this stuff. Even when I went over to [anime stu­dio] , and Kenichi Son­oda was show­ing me all these cov­ers for all these do­jin, and all these cute lit­tle girls, I said, “Can I open it?” and he slapped his hand down and said, “No.” [laughs] “No, no, no, no.” And I think [the man­ga] might have also been ref­er­enc­ing that, even though it does­n’t show Son­oda-san do­ing it.

P: There’s a scene here where the guy gets hu­mil­i­ated when you see his Gun­buster do­jin.

LH: And I love the way they drew me here, with these gi­gan­tic boobs.

P: He’s es­pe­cially up­set that it’s a for­eigner who’s see­ing this. Be­fore giv­ing in, he briefly draws him­self as a shonen manga hero, “The Japan­ese Who Can Say No,” as op­posed to . [politi­cian con­tro­ver­sial con­tem­po­rary trea­tise on US-Japan re­la­tion­s].

LH: Yeah, it’s fun­ny. As if there was­n’t am­ple ev­i­dence all over Gun­buster that they were a bunch of per­verts [laugh­s]. Like it’s a big se­cret, when there’s this cel ly­ing in a box on the floor there, and it’s this up­-shot of Noriko, this crotch-cam on her lit­tle gym­suit. And I’m like, “Guys, I know how you think.” But they were like, “Oh, it’s our pretty vice-pres­i­dent, and she wants to look at the porn!”

…LH: Viz, among oth­ers. I was ac­tu­ally do­ing at the time. So I got to hear all these sto­ries about how “Uru­sei Yat­sura wrecked my life!” It seemed that for any­body who worked on it, it was like . Bad things hap­pened. Peo­ple’s lives got fucked up while work­ing on Uru­sei Yat­sura. Every­body wanted it, and no­body who got it was hap­py. It was just the way things were go­ing at the time. And Toren [Smith] told me, “You know, the guys from Gainax need some­one to run their Amer­i­can di­vi­sion. They want me to do it, and I don’t want to. Do you?” And I’m like, “Yeah­h­h­hh! Yeah! I’ll live in San Fran­cis­co! And be a vice-pres­i­dent! And be rich! Yeah­h­h­hh!”

P: It does sound very Otaku no Video.

LH: Yeah, some of it is ref­er­enced in Otaku no Video. Not very flat­ter­ing­ly, I might add. The gai­jin they “in­ter­view,” “Shon Her­nan­dez” [the pseu­do­nym given to Craig York, an­other Amer­i­can who worked for Gen­eral Prod­uct­s], with his line, “Ah, to be born in this golden land!” Half of me was kind of flat­tered that they even re­mem­bered that I was there, since they seemed to want to for­get once I left, and half of me was like, “Fuck you! Fuck you, man! Fuck you fuck you fuck you!” ’Cause it was re­ally very in­sult­ing. They knew they had a live one in this fel­low Craig York. They knew they had a to­tal, to­tal geek. And they just turned on the cam­era and let him talk. And he was pour­ing out his heart, and they took the piss on him. I felt re­ally bad for Craig, and I was like, “You guys are re­ally be­ing dicks. This is re­ally very un­kind and very un­grate­ful. We all worked very, very hard for you. We were very sin­cere, and we wanted the com­pany to suc­ceed, and you’re just mak­ing fun of us.” I was a lit­tle dis­ap­point­ed.

P: Al­though Gainax was a lit­tle hard on them­selves, as well.

LH: Yeah, I guess every­one got shit on in that video.

LH: I was V-P for al­most ex­actly a year, be­fore I could­n’t take the non­sense any more. Noth­ing was work­ing, and every move I made was wrong, and they fre­quently for­got to send me my op­er­at­ing cap­i­tal–and my pay­checks. And, you know, it was­n’t re­ally un­com­mon for my check to be two weeks to a month late at least. And it was heart-stop­ping liv­ing out in Cal­i­for­nia, which was more ex­pen­sive than we ever sus­pected or imag­ined. It was hard to find hous­ing, it was hideously ex­pen­sive to buy any­thing and every­thing here…And I re­ally was very se­ri­ous. I came within days of just putting it all on a van and leav­ing in De­cem­ber, after about three months of that.

P: Was the prob­lem that Gen­eral Prod­ucts would­n’t let you cre­ate the busi­ness plan, that they were try­ing to cre­ate it from the other side of the ocean?

LH: I don’t know. I think part of the prob­lem was–and I’m guess­ing here, be­cause I don’t know what was go­ing on, this is pure­ly, purely spec­u­la­tion on my part–that there was never any­body at Gen­eral Prod­ucts Japan whose only job it was to run GP-USA, which they needed some­one to be do­ing. And they found out they had all this stuff they wanted to sell, and they found out that Art­mic [the stu­dio be­hind the orig­i­nal se­ries] put the skids un­der it, and they could­n’t get any of the anime mer­chan­dise they wanted to sell. They I wanted us to sell things from, what was that thing called? _A.R.I.E.L. And I was, like, “No­body knows A.R.I.E.L., and no­body wants stuff from A.R.I.E.L. They want stuff from Dirty Pair.” And they were, “Why do they want stuff from Dirty Pair? It’s so over!” I said, “It is­n’t over in Amer­ica.”

P: They could­n’t grasp the fact of the time lag.

LH: They could not un­der­stand that things took years some­times to get over to Amer­i­ca, and es­pe­cially in those days. It’s al­most in­stan­ta­neous now, but in those days there’d be a year or two gap, at least. They did­n’t un­der­stand when we said we wanted this, this, and this. There were a lot of things they did­n’t un­der­stand, how anime fans and busi­ness worked over here, and we just could not bridge the gap.

TODO: Part 2 says there is more, but dig­ging around re­veals noth­ing; Carl Horn on 2009-12-01 said (but has­n’t replied since):

I’m not sure. My orig­i­nal Word file of that in­ter­view does have two more ques­tions (and an­swers) after what ap­peared in print, but the tran­scrip­tion does­n’t seem to end at a nat­ural point (i.e., no con­clud­ing re­marks, or such) sug­gest­ing to me that per­haps there was more to the in­ter­view that was­n’t tran­scribed from tape–­maybe some­thing else came up at the mag­a­zine and it was­n’t fol­lowed up on. I’ll try to see if I can find the orig­i­nal tape, and check.

2001 T

  • 2001-azu­ma-o­taku­japans­data­basean­i­mal­s.pdf
  • 2001-napier­su­san-anime­fro­maki­rato­princess­mononoke.pdf

“The ques­tion of what worked and what did­n’t there­fore does­n’t seem a per­ti­nent one to me; to me the show is about dys­func­tion­al­i­ty: of the artist, of his cre­ation, and of his artis­tic at­tempts to phrase and por­tray that cre­ation. If Evan­ge­lion”worked" it would be Gasaraki or Brain Pow­erd. Less flip­pant­ly, it might be Gun­dam or Getta Robo G. But what would have been the point of mak­ing them again?"


"We’ve seen in­stances, from Anno in in­ter­views, to the pseudo-ex­poses of Otaku no Video, to com­ments by peo­ple we know, that they even­tu­ally got tired of the grind­ing un­re­al­ity of ani­me, which be­came quite as op­pres­sive as the grind­ing re­al­ity they thought to es­cape by be­com­ing an otaku. The prob­lem with that ex­pla­na­tion for me is that I don’t be­lieve one ever es­capes from re­al­i­ty, the chal­lenges of ex­is­tence, the is­sues of hav­ing been born into this world: of be­ing a hu­man be­ing.

Re­ject­ing the otaku and his works is­n’t go­ing to teach you how to see, any more than the rig­or­ous mo­tions of otaku cul­ture will make you go blind. Upon em­bark­ing upon his post-Eva project Kare Kano, Anno re­marked as an epi­gram for the show that “re­al­ity has no mercy”. He based his ap­proach to the se­ries in large part by talk­ing to stu­dents in con­tem­po­rary Japan­ese high schools: try­ing to re­store the con­ver­sa­tion he had cut off when he was their age."

… “The com­plaint may cer­tainly have some va­lid­ity within Gainax it­self. Anno him­self fore­saw this in”What Were We Try­ing To Make Here?“, when he said,”I know my be­hav­ior was thought­less, trou­ble­some and ar­ro­gant. But I tried. I don’t know what the re­sult will be, be­cause I don’t know where life is tak­ing the staff of the pro­duc­tion. I feel that I am be­ing ir­re­spon­si­ble. But it’s only nat­ural that we should syn­chro­nize our­selves with the world within the pro­duc­tion." The synch rate was­n’t al­ways 100%. Masayuki, Kazuya Tsu­ru­maki, and Yoshiyuki Sadamoto had their own ideas; Ikuto Ya­mashita, the man most re­spon­si­ble for the dis­tinc­tive me­chan­i­cal de­signs of Evan­ge­lion, had his de­tailed sce­nario for how the story should end (it would have in­volved the “emer­gence” of the Eva unit­s). "

–Carl Horn, “I Dis­cov­ered the Word”

http://we­­b/20071103111305/www.c­ “The cur­rent sta­tus of”otaku" and Japan’s lat­est youth cri­sis"

Much has been made of the fact that the sense of anger, dis­gust, and con­fu­sion per­va­sive to Stu­dio Gainax’s smash-hit se­ries NEON GENESIS EVANGELION was­n’t some­thing done sim­ply to fol­low the tra­di­tion of ani­me’s angst-filled ro­bot jocks, but was rather a per­sonal emo­tional con­fes­sion of its di­rec­tor, Hideaki An­no. Not only did Anno frighten and shock new au­di­ences when they glimpsed an in­tense, re­flex­ive hon­esty anime cre­ators rarely think (or, per­haps, think bet­ter than) to put on dis­play, but to­wards those con­verted to hard­core fans, Anno dis­played a some­time mock­ing at­ti­tude to­wards their ob­ses­sions and ex­pec­ta­tions for EVA (and as an otaku him­self, this was of ne­ces­sity also self­-mock­ery). Hor­ri­fied or vil­i­fied, it did­n’t mat­ter?au­di­ences ate it up with a sou­pline ladle, and EVANGELION be­came the great­est com­mer­cial suc­cess in Gainax’s his­to­ry.

But Gainax had tried this once be­fore, and it was their great­est com­mer­cial fail­ure. It was a differ­ent time, 1991, and the ap­proach was satire, not dra­ma. Some have even gone as far to say it was the chilly re­cep­tion of their forth pro­duc­tion, 1991’s OTAKU NO VIDEO, which ush­ered in the four-year ab­sence of the stu­dio from new anime ven­tures, bro­ken spec­tac­u­larly with EVANGELION. Ac­tu­ally a com­pi­la­tion of two videos re­leased sep­a­rately in Japan in that same year, OTAKU NO VIDEO 1982 and MORE OTAKU NO VIDEO 1985, Ani­mEigo’s re­lease of OTAKU NO VIDEO is a unique doc­u­ment in ani­me: Stu­dio Gainax’s con­fes­sion of their feel­ings as ob­sessed fans, or “otaku” – part satire, part au­to­bi­og­ra­phy, and part wish-ful­fill­ment. OTAKU NO VIDEO’s struc­ture cuts back and forth be­tween anime and live-ac­tion. The anime por­tion, with un­for­get­table char­ac­ter de­signs by Ken’ichi Son­oda (BUBBLEGUM CRISIS, GUNSMITH CATS), tells the story of Kubo, a clean-cut young uni­ver­sity stu­dent who gets grad­u­ally sucked into the otaku lifestyle and, sub­se­quently re­jected by so­ci­ety, vows to be­come “Otak­ing,” and at­tempts to “otakuize” the hu­man race through build­ing a mighty cor­po­ra­tion that will sell “otaku cul­ture” to the world. The live-ac­tion por­tions con­tain mock­ing, pur­ported in­ter­views with “real otaku” whose iden­ti­ties are con­cealed in the style of a tabloid-TV “true crime” show.

… But OTAKU NO VIDEO hardly bore an aus­pi­cious name as it sat on store racks. The name of Tsu­tomu Miyazaki – a se­r­ial killer ar­rested in 1989 whose otaku back­ground was ex­ploited as a me­dia cir­cus (in a man­ner not un­like the live-ac­tion seg­ments of ONV) – was still fresh in the pub­lic mind, and made Gainax, to any po­ten­tial main­stream au­di­ence, ap­pear to be merely ex­pos­ing a dis­taste­ful patho­log­i­cal sub­cul­ture. Which, of course, is what they were, in fact do­ing, for the pur­pose of lay­ing all their cards on the table. Amer­i­can anime fans are often con­cerned about the im­age the main­stream me­dia may present of their de­vo­tion; in the light of such fears, ONV was a pre-emp­tive strike. The black­-com­edy truth is that any main­stream-me­dia ex­posé could not pos­si­bly put otaku in a worse light than the one Gainax shines on it­self. Yet ONV’s satire also branches out to en­com­pass the larger so­ci­ety, as it por­trays scenes of “nor­mal” peo­ple who would never fall prey to ob­ses­sion and bad cul­ture like an otaku, stand­ing in line for hours to buy a de­sign­er-la­bel sweat­shirt or go­ing to qual­ity fare like a re­vival of KRAMER VS. KRAMER. And of course, re­spectable cor­po­ra­tions in ONV are quite happy to take over and mar­ket the cre­ations of otaku op­er­at­ing out of six-mat offices and give those same cre­ators the old heave-ho.

… And Gainax was clearly out to bite the hand that fed them?the ben­t-over, twitch­ing, hen­tai com­puter game-o­taku, so­cially par­a­lyzed, hid­ing from the sun, has got a card from Gainax’s own NADIA on his PC-98, and is ac­ti­vat­ing his man­ual hand re­lease to Gainax’s own dirty on-screen pro­gram, “Cy­ber­netic High School.” The con­trast be­tween ONV’s anime por­tion – up­ward­ly-mo­bile, world-strid­ing anime otaku de­signed by Son­oda, over­com­ing every set­back to make their cul­ture the cul­ture of all mankind – and the otaku of ONV’s live-ac­tion por­tion – stark, low-res, poorly lit, crudely ob­scured, and not likely to ever leave that room – gave ONV a schiz­o­phrenic qual­ity that must have made it diffi­cult for many hard­core fans to bear.

“Car­l’s Pick: Otaku no Video”

“There’s an in­ter­est­ing chap­ter on Evan­ge­lion as well. I think the au­thor re­spects An­no’s work more than just about any­thing else she re­searched, but there is a de­gree of am­bi­gu­ity in in­ter­pret­ing the show’s con­clu­sion. Is it show­ing the ben­e­fits of women en­ter­ing”men’s" so­ci­ety and tak­ing power roles, de­stroy­ing the struc­ture of the “men’s coun­try” or is it sim­ply show­ing how women fail when they try to join in? I don’t think there’s any­thing on Taka­hata’s work in the book."

–M Arnold, Miyazaki ML (pub­lic mir­ror), de­scrib­ing the 2001 anime crit­i­cism book Kouit­ten ron

The ti­tle of Movie Episode 26, “Magokoro wo kimi ni” is the Japan­ese trans­la­tion of “Flow­ers for Al­ger­non.” How they trans­lated that to “Pure heart for you” is be­yond me…

Ac­tu­al­ly, it’s the Japan­ese ti­tle of “Charly”, the movie based on “Flow­ers for Al­ger­non”. The Japan­ese ti­tle of the novel is just “Al­ger­non ni Hantaba o”. Anno most prob­a­bly chose to use the movie ti­tle be­cause episode 26’ was a “the­atri­cal episode”.

Anno has been us­ing SF nov­el­/short sto­ries ti­tles for fi­nal episodes of his se­ries for quite some time, now… The 39th and fi­nal episode of “Na­dia The Se­cret of Blue Wa­ter” was named “Hoshi o Tsugu Mono…”. That was the Japan­ese ti­tle of “In­herit the Stars”, by James P. Hogan. The 6th and fi­nal episode of “Gun­buster Aim for the Top !” was named “Hateshi Naki Na­gare no Hate ni”. That was the ti­tle of a novel by Ko­matsu Sakyô.

Olivier Hagué

I’d much rather see things you way. For me, the end of EVA is not a sad end­ing, it is not a tragic end­ing, it is a point­less end­ing. From what I can see, every­one is dead and thus there was no point to any­thing that went on. Your in­ter­pre­ta­tion makes things much hap­pi­er. Peo­ple will be climb­ing out of the soup any minute now, then they’ll start putting the world back to­geth­er. Your view makes it a sad end­ing but with a hope shin­ing bright in the dis­tance, a hope that the world could be put back to­geth­er. Ac­tu­al­ly, gives it a sim­i­lar feel to the old Macross episode, the big bat­tle for earth. Just about every­one on Earth was killed in the Zen­traedi bom­bard­ment. Rick res­cues Lisa from the ru­ins of the Grand Can­non base. They’re sit­ting on the ground out­side the base dis­cussing what has hap­pened. Rick men­tions that they have to con­sider the pos­si­bil­ity that the SDF-1 was de­stroyed and they’re the last two peo­ple left alive on the plan­et. Not too dis­sim­i­lar to EoE. Then they see the SDF-1, bat­tle-s­corched but still un­der con­trol, de­scend­ing into a blast crater. The SDF-1 sur­vived. Macross city sur­vived. There would be a chance to start over. Rick fires up his Valkyrie and they fly to­wards the su­per-di­men­sional fortress.

The ma­jor differ­ence be­tween this sit­u­a­tion and EoE is that we see vi­sual proof that there is hope. But o well.

Greg Muir; note that Anno worked on Macross, is surely fa­mil­iar with it, and this in­ter­pre­ta­tion tracks with the end­ing of Space Run­away Ideon and Tsu­ru­mak­i’s var­i­ous com­ments


2002 P

“It seems like all [old­er?] men see younger girls as bet­ter than any­thing else. I guess it’s be­cause of their age. They have this in­cred­i­ble en­ergy which older men are lack­ing. In fact, there’s no en­ergy left in Japan.”

, sea­son 1, episode 02; Hideaki Anno in­ter­view:

  • An­no’s par­tic­i­pa­tion in draw­ing & pub­lish­ing dou­jin­shi/hen­tai as part of the Cho­sen Ame dou­jin­shi cir­cle: http://­fo­rum.e­vageek­­­p?p=408293#408293; de­scrip­tion of phonecards Gainax re­leased, de­scribed by Bochan_bird as hen­tai:

    “…priced at around $80 to $100 per set. The only prob­lem was that you would need to be 18 or over to buy them. Asuka was posed buck naked sprawled out face down, Hikari was feel­ing her­self with her face con­torted in plea­sure, Rei was semi­-naked on hands and knees with a ban­daged arm and eye­patch, Mis­ato was wear­ing some rather skimpy black lin­gerie, Rit­suko was also in lin­gerie which was even more sug­ges­tive than Mis­ato’s, and Maya was hav­ing fun like Hikari. The art­work was done by var­i­ous GAINAX staff, and the style could be best de­scribed as semi­-hard hen­tai dou­jin­shi – ie: things were peek­ing out all over…”

    These phonecards may or may not be the same phonecards printed (a­long with some of the pre­vi­ous ec­chi cal­en­dars) in a book Gainax pub­lished in 2005 with erotic Eva art­work.

    Yoshiyuki Sadamoto has been ru­mored to be the hen­tai artist ‘YS-11’; Carl Horn, dis­cussing a paint­ing in­cluded in Sadamo­to’s Der Mond of Asuka & Rei to­gether

    “Sadamoto painted it as the cover to one of the very first EVA dou­jin­shi, one edited by Hi­royuki Utatane (the artist of SERAPHIC FEATHER) which was sold at the Win­ter 1995 Comic Mar­ket.”

What is your usual day at work like?

‘The pro­duc­tion of anime is very hard, time-con­sum­ing work. There are times where there are more things to do, and times where there are less. Dur­ing the pro­duc­tion of Evan­ge­lion, I was only able to sleep six hours a night and spent the rest of the time work­ing. I slept at the stu­dio and only went home very rarely. Evan­ge­lion was an ex­treme case, I nor­mally work twelve hours a day.’

…Does it sur­prise you that Evan­ge­lion, Na­dia and OMG are con­sid­ered “clas­sics” in Ger­many? Do you oc­ca­sion­ally hear of the re­ac­tions from Ger­many in Japan?

‘I know that anime is very pop­u­lar in Amer­i­ca. I was­n’t aware that this also ap­plies to Eu­rope by now. There is al­most no in­for­ma­tion or feed­back about fans in Eu­rope. We get a lot more in­for­ma­tion from Amer­i­ca.’

How come that one Episode of Kare Kano was not pro­duced with draw­ings, but with “pa­per fig­urines”? Was­n’t that very la­bo­ri­ous?

‘This is some­thing only Gainax could do, since it’s very un­usual to pro­duce an episode in such a differ­ent fash­ion. At Gainax, we have peo­ple who like live ac­tion movies, Sci­ence Fic­tion and spe­cial effects, as well as oth­ers who sim­ply want to pro­duce or­di­nary ani­me. An­other group likes to mix differ­ent styl­is­tic el­e­ments, which was very ap­par­ent in Kare Kano. Hideaki Anno al­ready used to pro­duce “am­a­teur ani­mes” with spe­cial effects be­fore he started work­ing at Gainax.’ [This is an un­der­state­ment; Gainax­ers were much more heav­ily in­volved in that sort of thing, see The Notenki Mem­oirs.]

…Ikari Gendo is a very con­tro­ver­sial char­ac­ter. How do you see the role of Ikari Gendo in Evan­ge­lion?

‘Ikari Gendo is not ex­actly pop­u­lar in Japan. Many think that he is too stern with Shinji and that he gen­er­ally ex­udes the aura of a hard, tra­di­tion­al, strict fa­ther. Gendo was meant to be a strong fa­ther who should have a pos­i­tive in­flu­ence on Shinji so that he could grow to be more con­fi­dent and adult-like. [!] Many mod­ern fa­thers in Japan are “mol­ly­cod­dled” which was an­other rea­son to make Ikari Gendo into a strong fa­ther.’

…What mean­ing does the cross sym­bol hold in Evan­ge­lion?

‘We did­n’t think that us­ing this Chris­t­ian sym­bol would lead to prob­lems out­side of Japan. In Japan, there were none. It’s meant to make the se­ries look more ex­otic and mys­te­ri­ous, there is­n’t any par­tic­u­lar re­li­gious as­pect to it. We thought that the mix­ture of sci­ence and re­li­gion would make the se­ries more in­ter­est­ing.’ [cf. Tsu­ru­maki and Ya­m­a­ga’s other state­ments on this top­ic]

…Who killed Ka­ji? What’s your ver­sion of it?

‘This is a ques­tion that many Japan­ese fans also won­der about. Kaji wanted to in­ves­ti­gate a deeper part of NERV (SEELE) and learn of its se­crets. He was tricked by one of his in­for­mants and then killed. It was­n’t Mis­ato or Rit­suko.’59

…Is the scooter in front of the Gainax shop re­ally the ve­hi­cle from the FLCL end­ing?

‘Yes, it’s the Vespa from the end­ing, and it’s mine. Alas, it can­not fly.’

Why are the male pro­tag­o­nists in Gainax-animes often “wimps”?

‘There are ani­mes like Drag­onball where the pro­tag­o­nists keep get­ting stronger and stronger, but we at Gainax tend to base the pro­tag­o­nists on Otakus, and that’s why we can’t make a story where the char­ac­ters get stronger and stronger.’

…What do you think of Anime Mu­sic Videos that are often made by fans?

‘I own a small broad­cast sta­tion in Japan and I re­ally like mu­sic videos. I don’t have any prob­lems with such videos - FLCL is al­ready pretty close to a mu­sic clip, any­way.’

Do you know the Fan-Video “Kodomo no EVA”? There are ru­mors that Gainax em­ploy­ees were in­volved with it.

‘No, these were real Otakus, not Gainax em­ploy­ees.’ (grins)

FUNime in­ter­view with Kazuya Tsu­ru­maki, Eng­lish trans­la­tion by Kendrix; is­sue 27 (3/2002). (FUNime ap­pears to be a Ger­man mag­a­zine pub­lished by “So­ci­ety for the Pro­mo­tion of Japan­ese pop­u­lar cul­ture in Ger­many”.)

Mae­jima Satoshi presents a num­ber of de­fi­n­i­tion at­tempts of [sekaikei] in his Sekaikeito wa Nani ka: Po­su­to-Eva no Otaku Shi…A more spe­cific de­lin­eation of what is meant by ‘ex­ten­sion’ in Un­o’s de­fi­n­i­tion can be found in a state­ment of anime stu­dio GAINAX co-founder Okada Toshio on the tele­vi­sion pro­gram “BS Manga Night Talk” broad­cast on 2002-10-28, where he de­fined ‘Post-E­van­ge­lion Syn­drome’ as fol­lows: “One’s own in­ner prob­lems end up drawn along the same line as a world-s­cale cat­a­stro­phe, such as a war or that sort of thing.”29 [Mae­jima pg 29]

--["'You Cannot See Yourself Unless There Are Others': _Sekaikei_ as Exhortation of Societal Participation", Thomas 2016](

2002 S

2002 T

  • 2002-napier-when­thema­chinestop­s.pdf
  • 2002-or­baugh­-sexandthesin­gle­cy­borg.pdf

In ad­di­tion, the Sep­tem­ber 2002 is­sue of Ani­mer­ica has a cover ar­ti­cle on the launch of the Evan­ge­lion movies, in­clud­ing an in­ter­est­ing in­ter­view with Amanda Win­n-Lee.


Otaku no Video com­men­tary

I think Pro­duc­tion I.G’s Yoshiki Saku­rai sums it up best.

“In­flu­ences or copy­ing could be seen com­monly within Japan­ese anime it­self as well. Evan­ge­lion suc­ceeded in uti­liz­ing and ex­press­ing the sit­u­a­tion. It was, as it is often said, FULL of par­o­dies and in­flu­ences or some­times even ex­act copies (on pur­pose of course) from some scenes of var­i­ous ani­me, manga and Japan­ese mod­ern nov­els and WW2 war­ship names etc etc etc not to men­tion the Bible. An­no-san him­self says it was a huge col­lage of past works. The older gen­er­a­tions who un­der­stood the orig­i­nal, en­joyed the par­o­dy. Younger gen­er­a­tions who did­n’t know, en­joyed the piece as it is. The bril­liant bal­ance of Evan­ge­lion is that it could be en­joyed both ways.”

http://­fo­rum.e­vageek­­­p?p=198735&sid=1c479269d4ac6116cfc609783b335275#198735; http://www.shoryuken.­com/showthread­.ph­p?t=191202&s=65c676ffd­d7a5288ae6d­f1d4c912cbf6&p=7122209&view­ful­l=1#­post7122209; Ap­par­ently from Pro­duc­tion IG fo­rums: http://e­va.o­­mail/old­e­va/2002-De­cem­ber/041932.html points to­duc­tion­ig.­com/­fo­rum­s/in­­p?ac­t=ST&f=33&t=861&s=25ff4325918b4d­f2a7f03c170068d1f4 but I have failed to find any copies of the fo­rum after much search­ing.

“To be fair, Eva does seem to con­tain a host of per­sonal sym­bols. It is said that the trou­bled re­la­tion­ship be­tween Shinji and his dis­tant ma­nip­u­la­tive fa­ther is based on An­no’s own child­hood. But the last­ing suc­cess of Evan­ge­lion seems to in­di­cate that by some­how try­ing to cre­ate a very per­sonal work, Anno wound up tap­ping into some­thing very uni­ver­sal.”

Ani­mer­ica, July 2002, Vol.10 No.7: “Ani­mer­ica Spot­light: Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion”

How­ev­er, be­fore every­one rushes to buy the DVD (or get the fan­sub), it should be noted that Ma­horo­matic is a 180-de­gree re­ver­sal from the epic film Wings of Hon­neamise (Royal Space Force). Not only is the art­work and an­i­ma­tion qual­ity quite sim­ple due to the lim­ited bud­get and pro­duc­tion time for a TV se­ries rather than an an­i­mated movie, but the show is also quite pos­si­bly the biggest glob of fan-ser­vice that I have ever seen in a TV se­ries (al­beit satel­lite TV).
The first episode of Ma­horo­matic was screened at the Gainax Live! event held in Nagoya on Jan­u­ary 20, and to be hon­est the fan-ser­vice (o­taku/hen­tai) was so fla­grant that it was quite em­bar­rass­ing to watch. Most of the au­di­ence vis­i­bly squirmed in their seats through­out the episode (I know I did), and the ap­plause after­wards was po­lite but mut­ed…It re­sem­bled some of Gainax’s com­puter games…


Di­rec­tor Ya­m­aga him­self de­scribed Ma­horo­matic as es­sen­tially a “be­spec­ta­cled, se­ri­ous and in­no­cent young boy meets over­ly-friendly girl­s/­women with big tits” show, with no real men­tion of any­thing else.



2003 P

“…The other thing I thought of was about copy­ing. Quite apt­ly, Anno de­clared him­self a copy, say­ing, ‘I’m a copy of a copy’. But this is a ‘copy of a copy of a copy’. In the fu­ture, there will un­doubt­edly be ‘a copy of a copy of a copy of a copy’, and un­doubt­ed­ly, this chain of copies will con­tin­ue. An­i­ma­tion has also al­ready en­tered this world, and there no longer as such things as orig­i­nals…”

–Mamoru Os­hii, sec­tion ‘Whether One is Aware of Be­ing a Copy or Not’ of in RahX­ephon: The Mo­tion Pic­ture; see the ex­tended Izubuchi/Oshii quotes in 2003 Ter­tiary

[Miya­mu­ra:] At first I did­n’t… how do I put it? I’ve never played a role of a char­ac­ter like her, so I tried re­ally hard to find ways to con­nect to her. By now, she’s al­ready be­come a part of me. Now, she’s ab­solutely adorable. Um, now, she’s the… girly part of me that I haven’t been able to ex­press be­fore….My Asuka had a sad end­ing in the anime se­ries, so I’m hop­ing for some­thing differ­ent in this movie.

…[Sadamo­to:] Hav­ing a neck­tie or not, even with the same white shirt, could change his [Sh­in­ji’s] whole char­ac­ter. I drew him wear­ing a reg­u­lar shirt, in just an or­di­nary school uni­form so he seems like an av­er­age char­ac­ter.

[On Mis­ato] There’s a char­ac­ter called Mine Fu­jiko in an old se­ries called Lupin. And when I was young, I was… err… thought it was re­ally in­ter­est­ing. She looked like she’s still 20, but she also seemed like she’s in her 30s. As for her bangs, well, I just stuck Us­ag­i-chan’s bangs on her. It started as a joke. But now hav­ing the voice ac­tor, Mit­su­ishi-san and all, it’s no longer a joke. [On Rei] One of my fa­vorite bands is called the Buff Girl Team and in one of their songs, there’s this line “a white girl in ban­dages.” I had an im­age of her even be­fore I started Evan­ge­lion. Like a girl with a dark past. I thought it’ll be in­ter­est­ing to have a girl in ban­dages. And maybe she’ll have the an­tibac­te­r­ial smell like hos­pi­tals. If I had known her when I was 14, I would have hes­i­tated to get close to her. She’s cute, but her world’s the far­thest away from mine. But I end up ad­mir­ing her. In the ani­me, I de­signed her as kind of an idol fig­ure.

[On Rit­suko] I got a rare re­quest from An­no-san to make a hot girl. He wanted a side­kick girl for Nishimura Shi­nobu. He wanted her to be re­ally girly, so I took that and added my own ideas to her. Mat­sushita Yuk­i-san in the drama “He’s there when I turn around” is wear­ing… not a miniskirt, but hot pants un­der her white lab coat. That left a re­ally strong im­pres­sion on me, so I thought I’ll try mak­ing Rit­suko wear a miniskirt un­der her lab coat.

Not just with de­sign­ing char­ac­ters, but when I’m mak­ing a Gainax sto­ry, I can in­flu­ence the story quite a bit. For ex­am­ple, this time, my most in­flu­en­tial work was called… Mind and Soul, one of the shows on NHK. I got my themes from that, and I tried to con­vey my idea to the fans. When they ask me why are the main char­ac­ters are only 14 year-olds, or why is it that only kids can ride in it, I ac­tu­ally did­n’t think of a rea­son why at first, so I got those ideas, and oth­ers, from that show.

My very first char­ac­ters were Gendo and Shin­ji. I made those two quite eas­i­ly. I was aim­ing for a char­ac­ter that’s both re­al­is­tic and or­di­nary. I wanted a char­ac­ter that’ll be hard for oth­ers to make.

…Q. What role does school play?

[As­sis­tant Di­rec­tor Tsu­ru­maki Kazuya:] By hav­ing it pre-ex­ist, it makes the story as a whole more cheer­ful… or rather… less se­ri­ous. By in­sert­ing a school-set­ting, or a ro­man­tic com­e­dy, like more teenager-like as­pects, it makes it eas­ier for the au­di­ence to con­nect to the sto­ry. But ac­tu­al­ly…­parts of it have be­come like…a school ani­me, and other parts have…­gone a bit off the orig­i­nal in­tent.

[Hideaki An­no:] There are cer­tain things that only work on a TV show. In the closed world of an­i­ma­tion, there’s a feel­ing of clo­sure and suffo­ca­tion among those who’ve been locked in to­geth­er. Some peo­ple feel it, and oth­ers don’t. At least I felt it. And you want to ex­press that feel­ing some­how, but it’s a lit­tle hard to do in movies. That’s where you re­al­ize there are some things only TV can do. The main char­ac­ter this time is both an in­tro­vert and right­eous. He also tends to cat­e­go­rize things. And those kinds of char­ac­ters usu­ally have some­thing hid­den. Like a way to es­cape from that clo­sure. Not sui­cide though. Sui­cide is what’s left after hope is gone. It’s not loss of hope. Well, I don’t think hu­mans can lose hope. We might be liv­ing, try­ing to see what los­ing hope is like.

So the ques­tion be­comes, how can an in­tro­vert like him change? Well, all the char­ac­ters are in­tro­verts by na­ture. Like they don’t last long in team work. Their loose hu­man re­la­tion­ships are re­flected in the movie. Some peo­ple feel sym­pa­thy for them, and oth­ers might feel threat­ened by them. But we’re pre­pared for that. Well, we ex­pect that.

“New Era” be­comes “Neon Gen­e­sis” in Eng­lish. The “Era” is trans­lated us­ing its al­ter­nate mean­ing. On the other hand, its Japan­ese coun­ter­part has an­other mean­ing. This is done to ex­press both mean­ings. The word does­n’t look very good in Katakana, so we used Eng­lish and Japan­ese to play on the pun. This comes from our de­sire to make some­thing new from the ani­me.

That’s all.

It means both the new era and the new gen­e­sis that marks that. That’s what the ti­tle means.

Re­newal bonus ex­tras, Brikhaus’s sub­ti­tles sourced through Hy­per Shin­chan

The main differ­ence in the GAINAX of to­day com­pared to the past is sta­bil­ity in an­i­ma­tion pro­duc­tion. “For a dozen years or so, we just kept go­ing with­out much plan­ning,” says Ya­m­a­ga–it’s the ‘with­out much plan­ning’ part he wants to drop. “I guess we did­n’t re­ally start think­ing about how to run the com­pany more effec­tive­ly, like a com­pany should be run, un­til maybe two or three years ago. Se­ri­ous­ly.” It’s a mat­ter of tak­ing on work, defin­ing the goals and check­ing to see if they’re be­ing ful­filled. “I mean, none of this is any­thing new,” he re­marks. “I guess nor­mal peo­ple do it that way from the start.”

…Of his thoughts re­gard­ing Evan­ge­lion, Ya­m­aga replies, “Be­fore then, we were aware that this thing called ‘anime’ was mak­ing waves, but it was­n’t the kind of thing where fa­mous per­son­al­i­ties would get up on TV and say, ‘I watch anime’–I doubt Kimu­Taku [Takuya Kimura of the group SMAP] would just sud­denly go ‘Evan­ge­lion!’ you know.” Yet he found the se­ries was con­tin­u­ally be­ing men­tioned and in­cor­po­rated into TV drama ma­te­r­ial at the time. “From that point on, the dis­tinc­tion be­tween ‘some­one who likes anime’ and ‘a nor­mal per­son’ be­gan rapidly dis­ap­pear­ing. That’s the thing that im­pressed me the most.”

The se­ries was not only a land­mark in the in­dus­try and for GAINAX; fi­nan­cially speak­ing, it was the first anime pro­duc­tion to ac­tu­ally make money for the com­pa­ny. “Not mak­ing money is one thing, but that does­n’t mean they weren’t hits,” stresses Ya­m­aga of their pre-Eva works. “The oth­ers were cer­tainly hits, but the con­tracts were at fault.”

“We never had very good con­tracts,” he ad­mits. “In fact, we did­n’t have a very good con­tract for Evan­ge­lion, ei­ther, but it was just so pop­u­lar. So ba­si­cally we made money on the prod­ucts we put out our­selves. They said on the news how Evan­ge­lion had passed the 30 bil­lion yen mark, so even if the con­tract only gave us 1% of that, it’s still be 300 mil­lion yen!”

Un­til then, the games di­vi­sion kept GAINAX run­ning. Ya­m­aga re­calls that Takami Akai, who’d been with the group since their col­lege days, sud­denly bought a com­puter and an­nounced, “Let’s do games! If we do games, we can make mon­ey.”

“Ac­cord­ing to him, at that time with Japan­ese com­puter games, the art was done by the pro­gram­mers, so it to­tally sucked,” Ya­m­aga ex­plains. Since Akai was a painter, he’d be able to cre­ate de­cent im­ages, even with the limit of 16 dis­playable col­ors at the time. “He was like, ’If we do this, there’s no way we can go wrong!”

Akai’s con­cept was lit­er­ally on the mon­ey. “Princess Maker (1991) was a big hit, and that paid our salaries for quite a while,” Ya­m­aga says on the princess rais­ing sim­u­la­tion. “Un­like the anime and films, we make the games all in­-house and sell some of them our­selves, so it’s not just that we have the rights; we get to keep the take in those cas­es, so hit or no hit, the amount of money com­ing in is to­tally differ­ent.”

…Highly an­tic­i­pated by GAINAX fans is Ya­m­a­ga’s grand pro­ject, Aoki Uru, which some say is a se­quel to Hon­neamise. Ya­m­aga says there’s noth­ing he can im­part on its de­vel­op­ment just yet, though he as­sures us that the project is ma­tur­ing and mov­ing for­ward. It’s tied in with how GAINAX will evolve, their po­si­tion with re­spect to the in­dus­try and the po­si­tion an­i­ma­tion oc­cu­pies within Japan.

…A reg­u­lar US con­ven­tion guest, he ob­serves that com­pared to Japan­ese fans, over­seas fan­s–e­spe­cially the ones also study­ing Japan­ese–­tend to ap­proach anime in­tel­lec­tu­al­ly, akin to how Japan­ese study Eu­ro­pean film or for­eign lit­er­a­ture. As an ex­am­ple, Ya­m­aga men­tions the dic­tio­nar­ies and ref­er­ence books cre­ated by fans. “It’s such an aca­d­e­mic at­mos­phere.”

…“That de­bate’s been go­ing on for a long time, but we’ve gone along ig­nor­ing it, mak­ing things that tar­get Japan, and they’re still very pop­u­lar over­seas. Sen to Chi­hiro was an ex­tremely ‘Japan­ese’ film, was­n’t it? There were parts that even Japan­ese view­ers could­n’t un­der­stand with­out some re­search.” He stresses the point with an anal­o­gy: “I re­ally like French wine from Bor­deaux, so do I want some­thing that the busi­ness­men over there have whipped up es­pe­cially for Japan­ese? No–­give me the stuff the French peo­ple like.”

…A­mong the pro­duc­tion ma­te­ri­als on Hideaki An­no’s desk is an area oc­cu­pied by var­i­ous toys from Thun­der­birds, UFO, and Space: 1999. Anno is a big tokusatsu (spe­cial effects film) fan–he shot a live-ac­tion Ul­tra­man par­ody on 8mm film dur­ing his stu­dent days–so it’s not sur­pris­ing to also spot a col­lec­tion of the ul­tra he­roes stand­ing in for­ma­tion, as well as a set of sim­i­larly arranged Ka­men Rider fig­ures. Al­though he has­n’t been get­ting into re­cent movies and mu­sic, tokusatsu hero shows re­main a fa­vorite view­ing of his. “I’ve been watch­ing Ka­men Rider 555 and AbaRanger,” he says. When asked about the long-run­ning Ka­men Rider se­ries’ evo­lu­tion over the years, Anno replies, “I haven’t seen them all, but I think change is a good thing.”

The ac­claimed di­rec­tor of anime has shifted gears in re­cent years, with cred­its that in­clude two live-ac­tion films, Love & Pop and Shik­i­jitsu, adap­ta­tions of nov­els by Ryu Mu­rakami and Ayako Fu­ji­tani, re­spec­tive­ly. While tight-lipped re­gard­ing de­tails of a new live-ac­tion work he’s cur­rently di­rect­ing, Anno says it’s an ac­tion movie, due to wrap to­ward the end of the year. In the mean­time, Shik­i­jitsu is slated for DVD re­lease this sum­mer in Japan. “It’s the story of a man and a woman meet­ing, and what hap­pens dur­ing their one month to­geth­er.” Au­thor Fu­ji­tani also stars as the lead, and di­rec­tor Shunji Iwai (of Swal­low­tail But­ter­fly fame) is also cast in the film.

Anno be­lieves that his first fea­ture, Love & Pop, was vi­su­ally very light in com­par­i­son. Shot on dig­i­tal video with ex­per­i­men­tal cam­er­a­work and a doc­u­men­tary-like pre­sen­ta­tion, it de­picts school­girl Hi­romi’s foray into the world of sub­si­dized dat­ing to ac­quire the funds for a much cov­eted ring. “It did­n’t have any tricky el­e­ments to it or have a heavy feel,” he states. “Fol­low­ing that up with some­thing with the ex­act same feel would be bor­ing. That’s why on Shik­i­jit­su, I tried to liven things up by us­ing 35mm film and Cinescope, and by thread­ing the im­ages to­gether in a vi­su­ally ap­peal­ing way. I wanted to shoot some re­ally good-look­ing im­ages.”

“The nov­els were in­ter­est­ing, but there was also the more re­al­is­tic as­pect of it: that I could do this,” Anno says of the fac­tors that drew him to de­velop the nov­els for the screen. He did­n’t know how much money he’d be able to round up, but be­lieved the projects could be re­al­ized with rel­a­tively small bud­gets. “I as­sem­bled a staff of very tal­ented in­di­vid­u­als, from one per­son who did a cou­ple of films out of his own pocket when he was at uni­ver­si­ty, to an­other who’s an in­cred­i­bly gifted pro­duc­er. I think that’s why, even though I was head­ing into un­charted ter­ri­to­ry, I was able to make the tran­si­tion from anime di­rec­tor to live-ac­tion, and make movies with a min­i­mum of prob­lems.”

Com­par­ing the two medi­ums, he re­marks that live ac­tion offers more free­dom. “Anime is an al­to­gether differ­ent sto­ry; you have to cre­ate the vi­su­als in or­der to move ahead. With live-ac­tion, you can end up with vi­su­als that you had­n’t ex­pect­ed, or that are differ­ent from those you’d imag­ined. Ac­tu­al­ly, the part about live-ac­tion that I liked was that it did­n’t turn out as I’d planned.” We com­ment that Love & Pop seems to ex­ude spon­tane­ity from the cast’s per­for­mance to the cam­era work, freed from the rigid­ity of anime once the sto­ry­boards have been set. Anno agrees. “It was all about that.”

He sug­gests that bud­ding live-ac­tion film­mak­ers should ref­er­ence both anime and live-ac­tion works and in­cor­po­rate the best of both worlds. In­deed, ani­me-in­spired shot com­po­si­tions lend a unique feel to Love & Pop’s vi­su­als.

…Re­gard­ing his other early works, we men­tion a 1991 Japan­ese in­ter­view with manga artist Kazuhiko Shi­mamo­to, in which Anno re­marked that when he saw Na­dia in its en­tire­ty, he was sad be­cause he felt it was too geared to­ward chil­dren.

“I don’t think it was ‘sad’” he clar­i­fies. “The nu­ance was a lit­tle differ­ent when trans­lated into Eng­lish. NHK’s vi­sion for Na­dia was very, very strong. I was able to do what I wanted within that vi­sion, but I could­n’t change the ba­sic parts. I was able to do a lot of the things I wanted to do, but I could­n’t do every­thing that I’d re­ally wanted to do. Which, I think, gave it the nu­ance of be­ing a more child-ori­ented work. And that’s why, even though I did every­thing I pos­si­bly could, Na­dia is a work that I still have re­grets about. I won­der if that’s the nu­ance that came across in Eng­lish.”

…Then there’s Oruchuban Ebichu, a hi­lar­i­ously per­verted se­ries brim­ming with di­a­logue (mostly from its diminu­tive star) and con­tain­ing sit­u­a­tions un­print­able in this pub­li­ca­tion, There’s a mis­con­cep­tion that Kotono Mit­su­ishi (Misato’s voice ac­tress) orig­i­nally brought the manga to An­no’s at­ten­tion dur­ing the pro­duc­tion of Evan­ge­lion, which led to him plan­ning the anime adap­ta­tion–it was ac­tu­ally an­other friend who in­tro­duced him to the work.

…The same friend in­tro­duced Anno to the Kareshi Kanojo no Jijo (“His and Her Cir­cum­stances”) man­ga. When we com­ment on its deft bal­ance be­tween com­e­dy, per­sonal strug­gle and dra­ma, he replies, “I did­n’t re­ally care much about the un­der­ly­ing strug­gle; the com­edy was what was in­ter­est­ing. The story re­lied on com­edy as its base, and it was very east to turn the at­mos­phere of the orig­i­nal into the ani­me.”

…“Now, seven years lat­er, the show has been a hit, so they gave us a bit of money and time [for the Re­newal remix of NGE]. Both the pic­ture and sound are rad­i­cally differ­ent. Differ­ent, but also the same as was present in the orig­i­nal.” The ex­tra au­dio chan­nels cour­tesy of Dolby Dig­i­tal 5.1 opened up new sonic av­enues. “It’s a remix, with us fix­ing parts where the sound was­n’t good enough be­fore,” he com­ments. “We fixed over 100 parts of the pic­ture.” The re­mas­ter boasts sharper, jit­ter-free vi­su­als with in­ten­si­fied col­ors; the en­hanced au­dio is pal­pa­ble as soon as the open­ing song fires up, when per­cus­sion el­e­ments and back­-up vo­cals are in­tro­duced via the sur­round speak­ers in an en­velop­ing effect. Ac­tion scenes give sub­woofers a no­tice­ably in­creased work­out.

New­type USA, July 2003, Vol­ume 2, Num­ber 7, Pages 8-19 http://www.e­va­mon­key.­com/in­sid­e_­gainax.htm

There was a spe­cial New­type mag­a­zine is­sue (De­cem­ber ex­tra is­sue) de­voted en­tirely to Evan­ge­lion, which also con­tained a DVD with sam­ples of Eva2 game sce­nar­ios. In ad­di­tion to spot­light­ing Eva2, this mag­a­zine also con­tained a 1-page sum­mary of each TV episode with “check­points” which are like the New­type TV film­book check­points but with even less in­for­ma­tion. IMO the only thing worth not­ing was the Ep25/26 check­points which stated quite clearly that EoE (mainly “Air”) was the orig­i­nally in­tended TV end­ing, but could not be made due to pro­duc­tion sched­ule and other rea­sons.

Bochan_bird; was the ex­tra is­sue De­cem­ber 2002 or 2003? Could be ei­ther. (EGF re­quest)

Platinum commentary

From the plan­ning stages, Hideaki An­no, a rep­re­sen­ta­tive cre­ator of GAINAX, was at the heart of the pro­duc­tion work and his in­di­vid­u­al­ity col­ors every as­pect of the show. Fas­ci­nat­ing char­ac­ters, a cap­ti­vat­ing sci-fi premise, dy­namic bat­tle sce­nes, and su­per-high den­sity of in­for­ma­tion that in­cor­po­rates Chris­tian­ity and psy­cho­analy­sis. Each of those el­e­ments sur­passed the realm of all anime that had come be­fore it and made it a work wor­thy of the ti­tle “New Cen­tury (Neon Gen­e­sis).”

From back when it was air­ing on TV, Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion had the ar­dent sup­port of fans and its pop­u­lar­ity boomed even after it fin­ished its run. Its in­flu­ence was not lim­ited to anime fans but also spread to the gen­eral pop­u­lace, and it was even called the third im­pact, fol­low­ing Space Bat­tle­ship Yam­ato and Mo­bile Suit Gun­dam.


Re­united with Shinji for the first time in 3 years, the ex­ec­u­tive com­man­der of NERV, Gendo Ikari, or­ders him to get on the Eva and out into the field on the spot. And faced with Eva Unit-00 and Rei Ayanami, he re­peats over and over, “I Must­n’t run away,” as if he is try­ing to con­vince him­self of it. “Com­mu­ni­cat­ing with oth­ers” is a vi­tal theme of Evan­ge­lion and de­pict­ing how Shinji in­ter­acts with those around him is part of the story of Evan­ge­lion. The re­veal­ing of why Gendo treats Shinji so coldly is left to Episode Twen­ty-Six, “My True Heart For You,” which was re­leased the­atri­cal­ly.

When Shinji comes to New Toky­o-3, he sees a girl that seems to be Rei Ayanami for just an in­stant. Con­sid­er­ing how she is in­jured and wrapped up in ban­dages, when he later meets her in NERV Head­quar­ters, the nat­ural as­sump­tion would be to think that this was a phan­tom vi­sion. But in Episode 26, “My True Heart For You,” a differ­ent pos­si­bil­ity is sug­gest­ed. The girl that ap­peared for just one cut in this scene may be the Rei Ayanami who is “the ex­is­tence that gazes upon man.”

… Shinji was sup­posed to live by him­self, but in­stead, Mis­ato takes him in and the two be­gin their life to­gether in her apart­ment. In or­der to try to close the gap be­tween her and him, Mis­ato acts silly around Shinji and as if in re­sponse to that, Shinji acts ex­ag­ger­at­edly sur­prised by the pres­ence of Pen Pen, the hot spring pen­guin. See­ing Shin­ji’s true in­ten­tions in his ac­tions, Mis­ato says to her­self, “Maybe I’m the one who’s trans­par­ent.” It is a most Eva-like de­pic­tion con­cern­ing “com­mu­ni­ca­tion.” In the pre­view, the idea of her tak­ing Shinji in is clearly stated as “Mis­ato’s ar­ro­gance.” The sense with which they coolly cap­ture such events is also part of the ap­peal of Evan­ge­lion.

… To­ji, who con­sciously be­haves like a man, and Ken­suke, who has his own world of his hobby con­cern­ing all things mil­i­tary and who also knows how to get on in the world, are very con­trast­ing char­ac­ters com­pared to Shin­ji. The names of these two char­ac­ters are taken from the main char­ac­ters in Ryu Mu­rakami’s The Fas­cism of Love and Il­lu­sions, which pro­vides no small amount of in­spi­ra­tion for Di­rec­tor An­no.

… In this episode, Rit­suko talks about the “hedge­hog’s dilem­ma,” which is a psy­chol­ogy term that orig­i­nates from Schopen­hauer’s fa­ble, and it ex­presses the com­pli­ca­tions and am­biva­lence that arises as peo­ple seek the psy­cho­log­i­cal dis­tance to main­tain be­tween each oth­er. This is where the Eng­lish episode ti­tle “Hedge­hog’s Dilemma” for Episode Four “Rain, Es­cape, and After­wards” comes from. In ad­di­tion, what Mis­ato says in this same scene al­lows us to see what her thoughts on com­mu­ni­cat­ing are at this time, so that is also very in­ter­est­ing.

… Episode Four de­picts the wan­der­ings of Shin­ji, who has run away from Mis­ato and NERV. Shinji and Mis­ato hurt each other with their thorns as they try to get closer, and yet even then, they need one an­oth­er. The re­la­tion­ship be­tween these two is in­deed just like the “hedge­hog’s dilemma” that Rit­suko had men­tioned in Episode Three. There is no bat­tle with an An­gel and it largely stays away from ad­dress­ing any of the mys­ter­ies, but when con­sid­ered from a the­matic per­spec­tive, this is truly Eva-like dra­ma.

In ac­tu­al­i­ty, this episode was once omit­ted in terms of the se­ries com­po­si­tion and it was planned that what is now Episode Five would come after Episode Three. But as pro­duc­tion pro­gressed, staff mem­bers voiced their opin­ion that per­haps there was a need to de­pict Shin­ji’s re­la­tion­ship with the peo­ple around him after Episode Three, and thus, this episode was made, greatly chang­ing the con­tents from what had orig­i­nally been con­ceived. Be­cause of this, the script for this episode writ­ten after the script for Episode Five had al­ready been fi­nal­ized. This is the one and only episode of all the TV and movie episodes in which Di­rec­tor Anno did not have a di­rect hand in the plot and script.

In terms of per­for­mance, the high­light has got to be the fi­nal cut at the train sta­tion where Shinji and Mis­ato gaze at each oth­er. This cut, which has ab­solutely no di­a­logue or move­ment, lasts roughly 50 sec­onds. It is a si­lence that would nor­mally be in­con­ceiv­ably long, but it de­picts Shin­ji’s feel­ings in find­ing it diffi­cult to ex­press him­self in words.


Among the footage shown are in­cluded a num­ber of char­ac­ters and im­ages who ap­pear to­wards the mid­dle and end of the show as well. At the time this show aired, these served as signs of things to come and the pre­sen­ta­tion of mys­ter­ies to the view­ers. How will the im­ages of Unit-01’s bloody hand and of the bloody util­ity poles and Unit-01’s foot un­fold and ap­pear within the sto­ry? What is the gi­ant of light that pos­sesses a sil­hou­ette that looks like an Eva? Who are the pen­cil sketches of the woman and the boy with the pierc­ing gaze? What about the mys­te­ri­ous let­ters in the fi­nal scene? Or why does the cap­tion “ANGEL” ap­pear after the scene of the boy’s face and the scene of Rei Ayanami? All the an­swers to the mys­ter­ies pre­sented in the open­ing are pre­sented in the show and the movies.

http://www.e­va­mon­key.­com/­plat­inum-book­let­s/episode-com­men­taries-07-13.php; Yes, what about those mys­te­ri­ous let­ters? TV script for the OP calls them ‘an­gelic script’ and they re­sem­ble but don’t match the real an­gelic script of West­ern oc­cultism. Patrick Yip writes that a num­ber of Japan­ese fan books an­a­lyze the script as dis­torted an­cient Chi­nese for the NERV slo­gan “God’s in His Heaven” etc.

The name “Op­er­a­tion Yashima” is a ref­er­ence to when Yoichi Na­suno shoots the fan with his bow from atop his horse on the beach in the “Bat­tle at Yashima” in the first year of Bunji (1185). That’s Chief of Op­er­a­tions Kat­suragi for you, quite the in­tel­lec­tu­al. In ad­di­tion, “Yashima” writ­ten differ­ently is also the old name for Japan. Thus, the name also con­tains a ref­er­ence to the op­er­a­tion gath­er­ing elec­tri­cal power from all of Japan.

… You can also en­joy the Ki­hachi Okamo­to-esque cam­er­a­work that Di­rec­tor Anno ex­cels at. The drama of com­mu­ni­ca­tion be­tween Shinji and Mis­ato also hits a plateau. The seg­ment From Episode One to this episode can be thought of as the “Pro­logue Arc” of the se­ries.

Mis­ato is nor­mally sloven­ly, but here, she gal­lantly stops the J.A. with­out any re­gard for her own life. Shinji is dis­ap­pointed by the enor­mous differ­ence be­tween these two sides of her, but at the end, he learns that the rea­son she shows that de­fense­less side of her to him is be­cause that’s how much she trusts him. Back­-to-back with that is re­vealed the ironic truth that the J.A. go­ing out of con­trol and the mir­a­cle that Mis­ato and the oth­ers brought about were all plot­ted by Gen­do, but the way Shinji be­gins to walk for­ward when he un­der­stands that his re­la­tion­ship with Mis­ato has be­come closer is re­fresh­ing enough to even erase the sense of up­set.

… The name of J.A comes from the ro­bot, Jet Jaguar, which ap­peared in the spe­cial effects film Gozilla vs Mega­lon (1973). Jet Jaguar was a ro­bot whose de­sign was cho­sen from sub­mis­sions from the pub­lic, and when it was ini­tially an­nounced, its name was Red Alone. Jet Alone is a name made by com­bin­ing Red Alone and Jet Jaguar. It is truly a geeky GAINAX-like name.

… This episode de­picts the ac­tions of Eva Unit-02 and its pi­lot, Asuka Lan­g­ley Sohryu. Start­ing here, the se­ries charges into the sec­ond part, the “Ac­tion Arc,” which de­picts bat­tles with var­i­ous An­gels in stand­alone episodes. The spir­ited char­ac­ter of Asuka ush­ers in a new phase of Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion. Ap­par­ent­ly, Asuka’s char­ac­ter be­came so­lid­i­fied in Di­rec­tor An­no’s mind when he came up with the lines “This is my Chance!” and “What are you, stu­pid‽”

… The con­tents of the trunk that Kaji is car­ry­ing looks like a hu­man em­bryo and Gendo calls this “the first man, Adam.” In Episode Seven in the SSTO con­ver­sa­tion, they were talk­ing about the “re­vised bud­get for the sam­ple col­lec­tion,” but that sam­ple is prob­a­bly this Adam. Adam’s ex­is­tence is one of the great­est mys­ter­ies in this show. Could it be re­lated to the Adam that ap­pears in the Old Tes­ta­ment? The name of Adam’s wife in the Old Tes­ta­ment is Eva.

… Episode Nine is also the episode where Asuka’s char­ac­ter gets filled in. At the be­gin­ning in the scene where she talks to Rei at school, she is stand­ing on the edge of the flower bed, but this is be­cause in Di­rec­tor An­no’s plans re­gard­ing her, one of the things was “she is a girl who en­deav­ors to stand at a higher spot com­pared to the per­son she is ad­dress­ing when greet­ing peo­ple.” In Episode Eight, she also ad­dresses Shinji from the top of the el­e­va­tor.

Asuka says, “This is the wall of Jeri­cho, never to fall!” of the slid­ing door that sep­a­rates the two rooms, but the “Wall of Jeri­cho” is a ref­er­ence to the West­ern film It Hap­pened One Night (1934, Amer­i­ca). In the movie, a rich run­away girl and an un­em­ployed news­pa­per re­porter end up spend­ing a night in the same room, and they put a blan­ket as a di­vider, call­ing it the “Wall of Jeri­cho.” In­ci­den­tal­ly, the orig­i­nal “Wall of Jeri­cho” is a cas­tle wall that ap­pears in the Bible. Al­so, she says, “It is proper that boys and girls sleep apart after the age of sev­en,” but the cor­rect proverb is “it is proper that the boys and girls sit apart after the age of sev­en.” This is a say­ing in the an­cient Chi­nese Con­fu­cian text of The Book of Rites, and the seat refers to a straw mat. In an­cient Chi­na, sit­ting on the same mat meant that the two were hus­band and wife. Is it the ge­nius girl’s pride that leads her to want to use diffi­cult say­ings, even though she’s not sup­posed to be used to Japan­ese yet?

… At the be­gin­ning, Hyuga com­pares the data on the Sev­enth An­gel and says, “Pat­tern blue, con­firmed as an An­gel,” and at the time, the screen dis­plays “BLOOD TYPE: BLUE.” In the scene be­fore that, with the data on the Sixth An­gel that Rit­suko had an­a­lyzed, it also has “6th ANGEL pat­tern: BLOOD TYPE: BLUE.” This in­di­cates that it is an An­gel. The term “BLOOD TYPE: BLUE” comes from a sci-fi film di­rected by Ki­hachi Okamoto called Blue Christ­mas (1978, Japan).

[This Com­men­tary tal­lies with Patrick Yip’s claims: The Japan­ese SF fans man­age to trace the in­flu­ence be­hind the de­ci­sion of mak­ing “Blood Type Blue” the sig­nal for dis­cov­ery of “alien”. They trace this to a quite-well-known Japan­ese SF writer (for­got his name) which wrote a SF in the 60’s about some “blue-blood” peo­ple be­ing hunted down by “or­di­nary” peo­ple and the main char­ac­ter in the story was forced to kill his girl­friend be­cause she has “blue blood”.’]

… There is also a scene de­pict­ing the three op­er­a­tors tak­ing a break be­tween work. Maya Ibuki is read­ing a ro­mance nov­el. Makoto Hyuga is read­ing a comic mag­a­zine. Shigeru Aoba has a mu­sic mag­a­zine next to him as he mim­ics play­ing a gui­tar. Aoba’s hobby is to play the gui­tar, and in Episode Eleven, he can be seen com­ing to work with a gui­tar case con­tain­ing an elec­tric gui­tar. This was never re­al­ized, but there was an idea of hav­ing him play his gui­tar and singing nearby Shinji and the oth­ers in the fi­nal scene on the hill.

The model that the Eighth An­gel was based on was the Anom­alo­caris, the largest car­ni­vore of the Cam­brian Pe­ri­od. The Anom­alo­caris was taken up on the NHK Spe­cial Life - A Long Jour­ney of 4 Bil­lion Years (1994, Japan), and at the time the show aired, the crea­ture was a hot top­ic.

http://www.e­va­mon­key.­com/­plat­inum-book­let­s/episode-com­men­taries-07-13.php (For a re­view of Blue Christ­mas, see http://wt­f-film.­com/site/2007/09/24/bu­ru-kurisuma­su/)

Fur­ther­more, this is also the one and only An­gel that ap­peared some­where other than New Toky­o-3. Its ob­ject is be­lieved to have been one of two things, ei­ther the Unit-02 be­ing trans­ported by the Pa­cific fleet or the con­tents of Ry­oji Ka­ji’s trunk.

http://www.e­va­mon­key.­com/­plat­inum-book­let­s/an­gel-pro­files.php; should­n’t you guys know?

This episode de­picts the com­mo­tion and a bat­tle with an An­gel with the great black­out at NERV Head­quar­ters in the back­ground. Pa­per fans, can­dles, buck­ets and other small props that are gen­er­ally not seen around NERV Head­quar­ters make an ap­pear­ance here. The “It’s luke­warm” at the end of Part A is the one and only gag uti­liz­ing Gen­do, but there are nu­mer­ous hu­mor­ous sce­nes, in­clud­ing when Hyuga takes over an elec­tion PR car and the var­i­ous raggedy an­tics of the three Chil­dren. The glimpse into an aware­ness of the prob­lem of mod­ern life re­ly­ing too much on a tech­no­log­i­cal civ­i­liza­tion could also be said to be very Di­rec­tor Hideaki An­no-like. The Eng­lish sub­ti­tle is a ref­er­ence to a sci-fi movie clas­sic The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951, Amer­i­ca)

… The an­i­ma­tion for this episode was han­dled by Stu­dio Ghi­b­li, known for their work on such films as My Neigh­bor To­toro. No­zomu (writ­ten as “peek”) Taka­hashi, the city as­sem­bly elec­toral can­di­date, who only ap­pears as a name is a twist on the pro­ducer of Ghi­b­li, No­zomu (writ­ten as “as­pire”) Taka­hashi.

… At the sea at the South Pole, where Gendo and Fuyut­suki travel on board an air­craft car­ri­er, the wa­ters are red and there are gi­ant pil­lars of salt. This is also due to the effect of the Sec­ond Im­pact. Gendo calls the post-Sec­ond Im­pact South Pole “a world that has been purged, un­tainted by the orig­i­nal sin.” In gen­er­al, orig­i­nal sin refers to the sin Adam, the fa­ther of mankind, com­mit­ted in “Gen­e­sis” of the Old Tes­ta­ment, as well as to the sin that all of mankind was bur­dened with as a re­sult of it. In the con­ver­sa­tion in this scene, it is re­vealed that Fuyut­suki and Gendo dis­agree on var­i­ous top­ics, such as the Sec­ond Im­pact, mankind, and sci­ence. Fuyut­suki says, “I pre­fer the world where man lives, no mat­ter how tar­nished by sin it is.” One won­ders how he felt be­ing in­volved in the Hu­man In­stru­men­tal­ity Pro­ject.

“By the hand of man” and “a mir­a­cle has value when it is brought about” are two lines that are fa­mil­iar from some of Di­rec­tor An­no’s pre­vi­ous works. In this episode, it is re­vealed that Rei dis­likes meat, but Na­dia: Se­cret of Blue Wa­ter was also a veg­e­tar­i­an. Di­rec­tor Anno him­self is also fa­mous for not eat­ing meat. In­ci­den­tal­ly, Rei or­ders a gar­lic ra­men with­out the pork at a ra­men shop, but the script has Rei or­der­ing sea­weed ra­men. It is a rare ex­am­ple of pure adlib­bing on the part of a voice ac­tress in this show.

… The su­per­com­puter MAGI is com­posed of three differ­ent com­puter sys­tems, Mel­chior-1, Balthasar-2, and Gas­par-3. Var­i­ous cal­cu­la­tions, prob­lems and op­er­a­tions are ex­am­ined by these three. The nam­ing of the MAGI come from the three wise men from the East, who fore­told the birth of Je­sus in the “New Tes­ta­ment.” The names Mel­chior, Balthasar, and Gas­par are also taken from each of the wise men. The word “magi” also means “as­trol­ogy” and is the ori­gin of the Eng­lish word “ma­gi­cian.”

In or­der to pre­vent the An­gel from in­vad­ing the lower re­gions of NERV head­quar­ters, Gendo com­pletely phys­i­cally seals off the re­gion in the Cen­tral Dogma be­low the Sigma Unit. The pyra­mid-shaped build­ing stand­ing in the Geo-front is but a small part of the NERV Head­quar­ters. Stretch­ing di­rectly be­low the square lake ad­join­ing the pyra­mid-shaped build­ing is an in­cred­i­bly deep fa­cil­ity go­ing down ap­prox­i­mately 7km. The ma­jor­ity of this in­cred­i­bly deep fa­cil­ity is called the Cen­tral Dogma and the Sigma Unit is a part of it. In­ci­den­tal­ly, the name Cen­tral Dogma came from bi­ol­o­gy. Ge­netic in­for­ma­tion is trans­ferred DNARNA → pro­tein, and this flow of ge­netic in­for­ma­tion is called the cen­tral dog­ma.

… Every so often, the show was aired at an ir­reg­u­lar time in the Tokyo re­gion, such as on Jan­u­ary 3rd, when it was aired at 8 a.m., and thus, Episode Four­teen was cre­ated as a re­cap episode of sorts. The Eng­lish sub­ti­tle is also a ref­er­ence to the fact that this episode is a re­cap.

… Part A has no BGM, and there is also very lit­tle di­a­logue. The lack of “sound” and the heavy use of Bold Min­cho cap­tions cre­ate a sti­fling ten­sion. The struc­ture of dis­play­ing the sub­ti­tle at the end of Part A was also effec­tive. In ad­di­tion, in Part A, the names of the An­gels and op­er­a­tions that had ap­peared up through Episode Twelve “The Value of a Mir­a­cle” be­came clear. The names of the An­gels are the same as the names of an­gels that ap­pear in the Bible, and each of their spheres of in­flu­ence, char­ac­ter­is­tics, and the sit­u­a­tions in which they ap­pear are con­sis­tent. At the end of Part A, the terms “Dead Sea Scrolls” and “SEELE” ap­pear for the first time. Gen­er­al­ly, the “Dead Sea Scrolls” refers to the an­cient doc­u­ments dis­cov­ered in a cave on the west bank of the Dead Sea in 1947. They con­tained the “Old Tes­ta­ment,” the “Apoc­rypha,” and other re­li­gious writ­ings not in­cluded in the Bible. They are thought to be writ­ings from around 200-100 B.C., mean­ing around the era that Christ was alive. Though it is said to be the great­est find of this cen­tu­ry, full dis­clo­sure of it to the pub­lic was dragged out for an­other 45 years. Ad­di­tion­al­ly, there is spec­u­la­tion that parts of it have been de­lib­er­ately with­held from be­ing re­leased due to it con­tain­ing writ­ings that shake the very foun­da­tion of Chris­tian­i­ty. It is un­clear whether the “Dead Sea Scrolls” that they speak of are the ac­tual “Dead Sea Scrolls.” SEELE is the con­trol­ling or­ga­ni­za­tion of NERV and its mem­bers seem ap­prox­i­mately the same as the Hu­man In­stru­men­tal­ity Com­mit­tee. Seele means “soul” in Ger­man.

… In the fi­nal scene, what Unit-02 is hold­ing is the Spear of Long­i­nus that was be­ing trans­ported from the South Pole in Episode Twelve. In the Bible, the Spear of Long­i­nus is the spear that pierced Christ on the cru­ci­fix.


Start­ing with this episode, the drama is pre­sented more dense­ly, en­ter­ing into the third part, which dri­ves the theme strong­ly. The first episode in this part, Episode Fifteen, shines a spot­light on the hu­man re­la­tion­ships be­tween such peo­ple as Mis­ato and Ka­ji, Shinji and Gen­do, Asuka and Shin­ji, etc.

… Through Ka­ji’s in­ves­ti­ga­tions, it is re­vealed that the or­ga­ni­za­tion cre­ated to se­lect Eva pi­lots, the Mar­duk In­sti­tute, is largely in­sub­stan­tial. The name for the Mar­duk In­sti­tute comes from a Baby­lon­ian god said to have 50 names. The god Mar­duk had 50 names, and the Mar­duk In­sti­tute in Eva was us­ing 108 names.

The home­osta­sis that Rit­suko men­tioned is a bi­ol­ogy term that refers to a qual­ity that crea­tures have that al­lows them to main­tain their phys­i­cal and bi­o­log­i­cal con­di­tion within sta­ble lev­els and to sur­vive in re­sponse to var­i­ous changes in their en­vi­ron­ment. The Amer­i­can bi­ol­o­gist Canon (Wal­ter Brad­ford Canon: 1871 - 1945) pro­posed it as a uni­ver­sal prin­ci­ple of life. Com­bin­ing that with its com­pan­ion con­cept of tran­sis­ta­sis to come up with the idea that “hav­ing these two con­tra­dic­tory qual­i­ties is what de­fines life” is orig­i­nal to this se­ries.

… Episode six­teen de­picts the fight against the Twelfth An­gel that takes its op­po­nent into imag­i­nary space and Shin­ji’s strug­gle within the in­ner space. This is an episode that could only be a part of Eva, pos­sess­ing two very dis­parate ap­peal­ing as­pects in its de­pic­tion of sci-fi drama and the abyss that is the “hu­man heart.” And the scene of Shin­ji’s in­ner space in the lat­ter part of Part B could be said to be one of the finest ex­am­ples of this. This se­quence on board a train car at dusk with no one else present de­picts the world of Shin­ji’s heart in a most vivid way by us­ing meth­ods that could even be called ex­per­i­men­tal, such as ex­press­ing the char­ac­ter as a white “line” on a black screen and in­ter­ject­ing var­i­ous im­ages through­out the se­quence. In ad­di­tion, the im­age of “in­side a moth­er’s womb” can be taken from the en­try plug that Shinji can’t es­cape from, and the im­age of “giv­ing birth” can be taken from the scene where Unit-01 es­capes from within the An­gel, cov­ered in blood. Thus, this is also an episode with strong sym­bol­ism.

In the in­ner space se­quence, the ques­tion, “Is it okay to live by string­ing only the happy things in life to­gether like a rosary?” is pre­sent­ed, and later on, it be­comes one of the themes car­ried through­out the se­ries. In the same se­quence, Shin­ji’s moth­er, Yui Ikari, ap­pears for the first time. Shin­ji’s line, “No. Mother was smil­ing,” serves as a fore­shad­ow­ing to the mys­tery in­volv­ing Yui. Al­so, there is a di­rec­tional rea­son for why she is voiced by Megumi Hayashibara, who also voices Rei Ayana­mi.

The episode ti­tle is a ref­er­ence to “The Sick­ness Unto Death” (Syg­dom­men til Do­den, 1849), the most im­por­tant work put out by the fa­ther of ex­is­ten­tial­ism, the philoso­pher Soren Aabye Kierkegaard (1813-1855) of Den­mark. “The sick­ness unto death” refers to “de­spair,” and in the in­tro­duc­tion of this work, Kierkegaard says that for a Chris­tian, “Even death it­self is not ‘the sick­ness unto death.’ Not to men­tion any of the suffer­ing on Earth known as des­ti­tu­tion, ill­ness, mis­ery, pri­va­tions, mis­for­tune, pain, an­guish, grief, or re­gret.” The Eng­lish episode ti­tle, “Split­ting of the Breast” refers to a psy­cho­log­i­cal process by which an in­fan­t’s im­pres­sion of the breast be­comes split into two, a “good ob­ject” and a “bad ob­ject.”

The “Dirac’s sea” that took Shinji and Unit-01 in is a con­cept that the British the­o­ret­i­cal physi­cist Dirac (Paul Adrien Mau­rice Dirac: 1902-1984) used in his hole the­o­ry. A vac­uum is filled with neg­a­tive en­ergy elec­trons, and this is what is called “Dirac’s sea.”

… The three episodes span­ning Episode Sev­en­teen to Episode Nine­teen are a se­r­ial piece called the “First Child Tril­o­gy.” This se­r­ial piece is the great­est cli­max in the mid­dle of the se­ries and also holds im­por­tant mean­ing in terms of Shin­ji’s dra­ma. The first of these episodes, Episode Sev­en­teen, is one that fo­cuses on de­pict­ing daily life. The main plot is of Toji be­ing cho­sen as the fourth Eva pi­lot and of how he finds his re­solve con­cern­ing that, but at the same time, such things as Shin­ji’s growth as a per­son, Rei’s emo­tional un­cer­tain­ty, and Hikaru’s ro­man­tic feel­ings are also de­pict­ed. Episode Eigh­teen and Episode Nine­teen, which fol­low, be­come more in­tense in terms of both drama and ac­tion. This episode is meant to be “the calm be­fore the storm.”


In a con­ver­sa­tion with Ka­ji, Shinji says, “You know, I’m a man.” So far, Mis­ato and Asuka have re­peat­edly ha­rangued him about, “You’re a man, aren’t you?” and he never offered a re­spon­se, but now, he says this with­out a hitch. Does this mean he is feel­ing more at ease, just as Toji had said in Rei’s room? It is also note­wor­thy that he looks at Toji with a smile as Toji stub­bornly de­clares that clean­ing is not a man’s job. In Shinji and Ka­ji’s con­ver­sa­tion at the wa­ter­melon field, the top­ics cov­ered are once again “en­joy­ing” and “suffer­ing,” fol­low­ing up on the in­ner space in Episode Six­teen “The Sick­ness Unto Death, and…”

The peo­ple who per­formed the Eng­lish op­er­a­tor di­a­logue at the be­gin­ning were Michael House, George A. Ar­rio­la, and Hi­romi Ar­rio­la. Michael House was a GAINAX em­ployee at the time, who did in­-house trans­la­tion work. George A Ar­riola and Hi­romi Ar­riola were friends of his and are ap­par­ently hus­band and wife. [see the House in­ter­view]

The Eng­lish ti­tle for this episode is “Am­biva­lence.” Am­biva­lence refers to a state where two con­tra­dic­tory emo­tions or at­ti­tudes ex­ist at the same time within an in­di­vid­ual. It was orig­i­nally a psy­cho­an­a­lyt­i­cal term, which was first used by a Swiss psy­cho­an­a­lyst, Bleuler (Paul Eu­gen Bleuler: 1857-1939). Per­haps the ti­tle of “Am­biva­lence” was given to this episode be­cause Shinji is con­flicted be­tween his mis­sion to de­feat Unit-03 and his emo­tional re­luc­tance to fight Unit-03, which has a hu­man pi­lot on board.

… As the story un­folds, Shinji re­solves to fight on his own and gets on board the Eva. And with a fierce bat­tle that can truly be called “a man’s bat­tle,” Episode Nine­teen is up­held by the fans as hav­ing the most ex­cit­ing con­tent in the se­ries. How­ev­er, what in fact de­feats the An­gel is nei­ther his re­solve nor his fight­ing spir­it, but the berserk Unit-01. Hav­ing ag­gres­sively faced the An­gel, Shinji is taken in by Unit-01 as a re­sult, and there is not even any por­trayal of him re­al­iz­ing vic­to­ry. In that sense, this episode also has a most Eva-like ironic struc­ture.

The Eng­lish episode ti­tle “In­tro­jec­tion” is a psy­cho­an­a­lytic term mean­ing “to take in.” It refers to tak­ing in var­i­ous at­trib­utes of an­other per­son and mak­ing it one’s own. It is one form of a de­fense mech­a­nism. For ex­am­ple, by tak­ing in a moth­er’s pro­hib­i­tive or deny­ing as­pects, the su­per-ego is formed. In­tro­jec­tion is a term that refers to a phe­nom­e­non that oc­curs in the world of the psy­che, but in this episode, it is likely used both in terms of its orig­i­nal mean­ing and how Unit-01 took in the An­gel’s abil­i­ties.

In the en­try plug, Shin­ji’s body has be­come one with the LC.L. and sep­a­rated from his psy­che, Rit­suko sets a plan in mo­tion to re­con­struct his body and get his psy­che to an­chor it­self in it. As the Eng­lish episode ti­tle “Weav­ing A Story 2” in­di­cates, this episode is a sum­mary of sorts, like Episode Four­teen. In point of fact, it is made largely cen­tered around the reuse of al­ready ex­ist­ing com­pos­ite ma­te­r­ial and film, how­ever its con­tents do not look back on what hap­pened in the past but tell a com­pletely differ­ent sto­ry. Hav­ing be­come an ex­is­tence solely con­sist­ing of his psy­che, Shinji ag­o­nizes and suffers over things like “his re­la­tion­ship to oth­ers” and “the es­tab­lish­ment of self.” De­pic­tions in his in­ner space is the lo­cus of this episode and just as in Episode Six­teen, ex­per­i­men­tal meth­ods are abun­dantly used. Al­so, with this episode as a turn­ing point, This show be­gins to show a stronger ten­dency to di­rectly por­tray “the hu­man mind.”

Rit­suko says that the Eva “con­tains a hu­man will” and that the fact Shinji was taken in “might be the Eva’s will as well.” Mis­ato felt she was say­ing it jok­ing­ly, but when con­sid­ered along with things like how the story un­folds later and how Rit­suko said, “So, she’s awok­en…” in Episode Nine­teen, it be­comes clear that what Rit­suko said is con­vey­ing the truth to Mis­ato to a cer­tain de­gree.

To­wards the end of Part A, Shinji re­calls that he knew the Eva even ear­lier and that when he found out, he ran away from his mother and fa­ther. And the im­ages of that flash­back are the scene of the ex­per­i­ment from Episode Twen­ty-One “NERV Is Born,” in which Yui Ikari is the sub­ject. Shinji ran away from that site, and that in­ci­dent is likely what planted the com­pul­sive idea that he “must not run away”.

While the fi­nal scene at the love ho­tel con­tained no ex­plicit im­ages, the love scene was de­picted bold­ly, which caused quite a stir when it was orig­i­nally aired. After touch­ing upon Mis­ato’s tryst, Rit­suko’s line, “I guess I’m in no po­si­tion to talk,” is also cu­ri­ous.

The Eng­lish episode ti­tle “oral stage” is also a psy­cho­an­a­lyt­i­cal term. The oral stage is the first stage of de­vel­op­ment in Freud’s (Sig­mund Freud: 1856-1939) li­bido de­vel­op­ment the­o­ry. It is the time pe­riod when the mouth serves as the prin­ci­pal source of plea­sure. It is said that the oral stage starts at birth and ends around the age of 1 1/2. in the scene where Mis­ato and Rit­suko are in the car, a ra­dio DJ show can be heard from the car ra­dio. We can sup­pose that this is the same show that was air­ing in Episode Twelve. A woman DJ is ad­vis­ing a lis­tener on their ro­man­tic prob­lems, but the term “oral stage” ap­pears here as well. In this case, the oral stage refers to the oral per­son­al­i­ty. In other words, it points to per­son­al­ity ten­den­cies that strongly lean to­wards be­ing de­pen­dent and needy for love Peo­ple with an oral per­son­al­ity hap­pily sac­ri­fice them­selves in or­der to ob­tain the love of oth­ers. Shinji could be said to have an oral per­son­al­ity at this point in time.


Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion has nu­mer­ous mys­ter­ies to en­gross the fans. After all 26 episodes of the TV se­ries were aired, the re­make ver­sion of Episode Twen­ty-Five and the Fi­nal Episode were re­leased as a the­atri­cal piece, in which sev­eral of the mys­ter­ies were re­solved. Or there were clues pre­sented with which to think about the mys­ter­ies. Fur­ther­more, in the video ver­sion (re­leased on LD and VHS at the time) of Episodes Twen­ty-One through Twen­ty-Four, which were re­leased after the movie opened, new footage was added that also pre­sented in­for­ma­tion re­gard­ing the mys­ter­ies.


If you look at Eva as a story whose pro­tag­o­nists are Gendo and Fuyut­suki, then the hero­ine would be Yui Ikari. She fas­ci­nates Fuyut­suki and she says, “He’s quite a sweet per­son,” of Gen­do. Gen­do’s re­solve to ad­vance the Hu­man In­stru­men­tal­ity Project is surely also re­lated to her dis­ap­pear­ance. Many mys­ter­ies, such as the Eva and Adam, the cir­cum­stances of Ayanami’s birth, Unit-01 go­ing out of con­trol, etc., are linked with Yui’s ex­is­tence.

… When it was first aired on TV, it seems no few fans sus­pected that it was Mis­ato that shot Kaji in this episode. In the “video ver­sion,” di­a­logue ex­plain­ing that SEELE has dis­cov­ered that Kaji has de­liv­ered a sam­ple of Adam to Gendo and has made his po­si­tion pre­car­i­ous has been added and the way the scene where Kaji is shot con­nects to the next scene has been changed. It leads the au­di­ence to think that the cul­prit is some­one on SEELE’s side.

… In the fourth part, the drama un­folds tak­ing an even deeper look into the char­ac­ters. Not only Shin­ji, but Asuka, Rei, and Mis­ato are put through hearth-wrench­ing ex­pe­ri­ences. In Episode Twen­ty-T­wo, the spot­light is on the Unit-02 pi­lot, Asuka Lan­g­ley Sohryu. It be­comes clear why she had been so hung up on the Eva and worked so ex­ces­sively hard, and when that is un­cov­ered by the An­gel, she loses her psy­cho­log­i­cal bal­ance. Just as it holds true for the Fifteenth An­gel that ap­pears in this episode, non of the An­gels that ap­pear in the fourth part launch brute force at­tacks, but in­stead, try to shake the Eva pi­lots psy­cho­log­i­cal­ly.

The big ad­di­tions in the “video ver­sion” are the car­rier at the be­gin­ning, the scene where Asuka is look­ing at Shinji and Rei at the sta­tion, and the bath scene. The high­light is the strug­gle in Asuka’s in­ner space when she is be­ing at­tacked psy­cho­log­i­cal­ly, which took as much as 70 cuts to ac­com­plish. In the sta­tion scene, she speaks nas­tily of Shinji and Rei’s re­la­tion­ship, say­ing, “He is to­tally back to his usual thing again.” Per­haps Asuka thought that the two were a cou­ple or at least in a re­la­tion­ship close to it. Note that in the strug­gle in her in­ner space, a scene where she is hang­ing her head in de­jec­tion with the slid­ing door closed has been newly in­serted after the scene from Episode Nine, “Mo­ment and Heart To­geth­er,” where she shuts the slid­ing door. And like­wise, after the kiss scene from Episode Fifteen, “Lies and Si­lence,” there is a new scene show­ing her look­ing frus­trated after rins­ing her mouth. And from Asuka’s di­a­logue that over­laps these sce­nes, it be­comes clear that she has been look­ing for help and love from Shin­ji.

… In the fourth part, the effec­tive­ness of cer­tain im­por­tant scenes has been in­creased by the use of well-known clas­si­cal pieces as BGM. The piece used in this episode is Han­del’s or­a­to­rio “Mes­si­ah.” Mes­siah means sav­ior and the lyrics have been taken from the Bible. The piece por­trays the prophecy of Christ’s birth all the way to his res­ur­rec­tion in three parts.

… Episode Twen­ty-Three is the episode where the spot­light falls on Rei Ayana­mi. The se­crets of her in­ner thoughts, her death, and her third self are de­pict­ed. This is also the episode where Rit­suko’s drama is de­pict­ed, and just as the ti­tle “Tears” in­di­cates, Rei cries in the first half and Rit­suko cries in the sec­ond half. The way the story un­folds in a cool, de­tached way in spite of the fact the episodes por­trays the life and death, and the love and hate, of the char­ac­ters is very much in char­ac­ter with this show.

… Stand­ing be­fore the Reis in the tank, Rit­suko speaks of the re­la­tion­ship be­tween Rei and the dummy plugs, and also of the re­la­tion­ship be­tween “God” and the Evas. It is a scene that pro­vides the great­est amount of in­for­ma­tion re­gard­ing the mys­ter­ies in Eva. What ex­actly is this “God” who dis­ap­peared 15 years ago? Was it not Adam ap­peared 15 years ago? She said that the “God” hu­mans res­ur­rected was Adam, but is this Adam the em­bry­o-like Adam that showed up in Episode Eight? Or could it pos­si­bly be the gi­ant un­der­ground? In the same scene, Rit­suko says, “The Cham­ber of Gaf was emp­ty, you see.” The Cham­ber of Gaf, ac­cord­ing to He­brew leg­ends, is a room in the house of God in Heaven where the souls dwell. Ba­bies re­ceive a soul from this room be­fore they are born. It is said that if there are no more souls in the Cham­ber of Gaf, it is an omen that the world will fall to ru­in.


Up to this point, Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion has de­picted themes sur­round­ing “the hu­man heart” and “com­mu­ni­ca­tion be­tween peo­ple” through the sto­ries of the main char­ac­ters. How­ev­er, the cli­mac­tic episodes, Episode Twen­ty-Five “The World End­ing” and the Fi­nal Episode “The Beast That Shouted Love at the Heart of the World,” re­verse the re­la­tion­ship be­tween the story and the theme. What would nor­mally be con­sid­ered the story is kept to the bare min­i­mum and “the theme it­self” is told. The ma­te­r­ial is the­o­ret­i­cal and ex­per­i­men­tal, and with­out a doubt, some­thing never seen be­fore in TV an­i­ma­tion. When it orig­i­nally aired, it be­came an in­cred­i­bly hot topic and di­vided the fans in their opin­ion. The con­clu­sion to the drama and il­lu­mi­nat­ing the mys­ter­ies. In re­sponse to fans clam­or­ing for those two things, it was de­cided that there would be a re­make of Episode Twen­ty-Five and the Fi­nal Episode. The re­sult of that are Episode 25 “Air” and Episode 26 “A Pure Heart For You,” which were re­leased as the the­atri­cal “The End of Evan­ge­lion.” Thus, the story of Eva would branch into two sto­ries with the di­verg­ing point be­ing the end of Episode Twen­ty-Four “The Fi­nal Mes­sen­ger.” The two sto­ries each un­fold differ­ently and ar­rive at their own cli­max­es. Episode Twen­ty-Five and the Fi­nal Episode tell the theme di­rect­ly. And the other ver­sion, Episode 25 and Episode 26, de­pict the same, fol­low­ing the sto­ry. It is not that one is the com­plete ver­sion and the other is in­com­plete. Just like the mul­ti­ple end­ings of a game, two differ­ent end­ings were pre­pared for one sto­ry.


Ka­woru only ap­pears in this episode of the show, but his unique at­mos­phere and his re­la­tion­ship with Shinji led to his char­ac­ter gar­ner­ing over­whelm­ing sup­port from fe­male fans. When you dis­as­sem­ble the char­ac­ter for his last name, “Nag­isa”, it be­comes “shi” and “sha”. Thus, it is a play on the sub­-ti­tle, “The Fi­nal Mes­sen­ger (saigo no shisha)”. The “Nag­isa (shore)” also forms a pair with Rei Ayanami’s “nami (wave)”.

Only the fourth move­ment of Beethoven’s Sym­phony No. 9 in D mi­nor, Opus 125 “Choral” is used as BGM in this episode. Event what Ka­woru is hum­ming when he first ap­pears and what Shinji is lis­ten­ing to on the S-DAT are from No. 9, show­ing quite a thor­ough­ness. Dur­ing the cli­max, it plays for over 7 min­utes mak­ing a strong im­pact on the au­di­ence. The lyrics for the choral “Ode to Joy” are from the poem “To Joy” by the Ger­man poet and play­wright, Schiller. There is a pas­sage in those lyrics that goes, “We en­ter, drunk with your fire, Oh heav­enly one, into your sanc­tu­ary.” it can be thought of as link­ing to the con­tent of the sec­ond half of this episode.

… This is a sin­gu­lar piece of work with an ex­ceed­ingly ex­per­i­men­tal struc­ture. In spite of the story un­fold­ing only through mono­logues and con­ver­sa­tions be­tween char­ac­ters, the di­rect­ing does a bril­liant job main­tain­ing the high ten­sion. When it was orig­i­nally aired, many voiced their opin­ion that they could not un­der­stand the story in Episode Twenty Five and the Fi­nal Episode. How­ev­er, there is ac­tu­ally a bare-bones ex­pla­na­tion of the story within the show. That be­ing… Gendo uses Rei to ex­e­cute the Hu­man In­stru­men­tal­ity Project and the com­ple­men­ta­tion of man be­gins. See­ing the re­makes, Episode 25 “Air” and Episode 26 “A Pure Heart For You”, may in fact make the con­tent of Episode Twen­ty-Five eas­ier to un­der­stand. The de­pic­tions of Mis­ato and Rit­suko be­ing shot to death, Unit-02 hug­ging its knees in the lake, and Asuka like­wise hug­ging her knees within Unit-02 all cor­re­spond to Episode 25.

Gendo says, “All souls will be­come one and find eter­nal peace”. His In­stru­men­tal­ity Project must have been for all hu­man souls to be com­bined as one and to com­pen­sate each other for what they have been de­prived of. In the story that fol­lows from Episode 25 “Air” to Episode 26 “A Pure Heart For You”, he was not able to ex­e­cute the sce­nario he had drawn up. It may be that it was in Episode Twen­ty-Five and Episode Twen­ty-Six that his wish ac­tu­ally came true.

The Eng­lish sub­ti­tle, “Do you love me?” is from the book of the same ti­tle writ­ten by a British psy­chother­a­pist named R.D. Laing (Ronald David Laing: 1927-1989). It is a work that is done in a dis­tinc­tive style as a dis­course be­tween in­di­vid­u­als, and the style in which this episode is ad­vanced through con­ver­sa­tions be­tween the char­ac­ters is rem­i­nis­cent of “Do you love me?”

… “Vividly draw­ing peo­ple” is a dis­tinct qual­ity of this show, and it was also the cre­ative theme. In that sense, step­ping deeper into Mis­ato’s mind us­ing the rea­son she slept with Kaji as a lead into it can be called the end point for Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion in de­pict­ing peo­ple.

… This is the fi­nal episode of the TV se­ries. The year is 2016 A.D., and the com­ple­men­ta­tion of mankind is on­go­ing. Shinji ag­o­nizes over the value of his ex­is­tence and his re­la­tion­ship with other peo­ple and comes to a con­clu­sion. The sub­ti­tle “The Beast That Shouted Love at the Heart of the World” is from a story by Amer­i­can sci-fi au­thor Har­lan El­li­son (1934 - ) of the same name. Tak­ing the sub­ti­tle of the fi­nal episode from a sci-fi novel is a tra­di­tion of Di­rec­tor An­no’s works, con­tin­u­ing from Aim for the Top! and Na­dia: Se­cret of Blue Wa­ter. The “love (ai)” be­ing writ­ten in katakana is likely a play on the “love (ai)” and the Eng­lish “I”.

The fi­nal episode also takes the un­usual route of un­fold­ing en­tirely within what ap­pears to be the world within Shin­ji’s mind. In terms of tech­nique, there are also var­i­ous modes of ex­pres­sion used in abun­dance, such as still pho­tographs, pa­per ani­me, and il­lus­tra­tions. Di­rec­tor Anno and the an­i­ma­tor You [Y­oh] Yoshi­nari are the ones who did the key an­i­ma­tion for the pa­per ani­me.

… The mo­ment that Shinji gains con­vic­tion that it is okay for him to be there, the back­ground changes, and the blue Earth spreads be­neath his feet. How­ev­er, there are no con­ti­nents on this Earth, and it is cov­ered by a gi­gan­tic coral reef. It seems this is the Earth that has been trans­fig­ured by the In­stru­men­tal­ity Pro­ject. This episode ends with the cap­tions “To my fa­ther, thank you.” “To my moth­er, farewell.” “And to all the Chil­dren.” “Con­grat­u­la­tions!” Eva is some­thing of an Oedi­pus com­plex sto­ry, where a boy feels love and ha­tred for his fa­ther and moth­er, so the first two cap­tions can be thought to means that Shinji has come to an un­der­stand­ing with his fa­ther and grown out of his de­pen­dence on his moth­er. Per­haps the lat­ter two cap­tions mean, “This is a world where all the chil­dren born into it de­serve to live.” It is left for the au­di­ence to de­cide whether this end­ing is the Best End­ing or the Bad End­ing. [vi­sual novel ter­mi­nol­o­gy]


RahXephon Complete

  • 2003-izubuchi-an­no-rahx­ephon-in­ter­view.jpg

  • ; in­ter­view with Anno (A) & Izubuchi (I) in the RahX­ephon Com­plete book:

    A: Yeah, just the be­gin­ning of it. Also “Mazinger”, based on the orig­i­nal work that ap­peared in Shonen Jump. The im­ages of hu­man-shaped ro­bots by Mr. Na­gai Go, I think, was also in­spired by Mr. Yokoya­ma’s, like the way he drew legs / feet.

    I: The nail-tips look like rub­ber and they are curled out­wards.

    A: And the way he cre­ates high­lights, or shade and lus­ter (gloss) effects. So, I still pre­fer the ro­bots’ legs and hands to be round columns, even though they have all be­come square after Gun­dam. You know, like, here, bel­lows, round (join­t), round, and go (fast) (laugh).

    I: I liked it, but I did­n’t go into it. At that time things that fea­tured spe­cial film­ing tech­niques (tokusat­su) were much more pop­u­lar. It was a pe­riod when even the boys’ comic mag­a­zines had a “smell” of un­der­ground cul­ture, and car­ried some con­tro­ver­sial works. Each is­sue of those mag­a­zines con­tained an amaz­ing mix­ture of so many differ­ent things.

    A: There were tons of Tokusat­su, manga and ani­me, weren’t there? I think we were born and brought up dur­ing the best pe­ri­od. Along with the evo­lu­tion of the tele­vi­sion - the tele­vi­sion spread when we were very young and be­gin­ning to un­der­stand things, and we grew up at the same speed as TV the TV caught on. We were lucky in that we were able to ab­sorb many things , both good and bad. I won­der how the kids who grow up with the anime nowa­days are go­ing to turn out in the fu­ture.

    — You mean they are bi­ased from the be­gin­ning?

    A: I guess so. They watch those in­tri­cate im­ages with shades and every­thing from the mo­ment they start to be aware. The amount of in­for­ma­tion their mind has to process is huge. It’s very de­mand­ing. And it’s also scary that they be­gin with a pre­con­cep­tion that they can take per­fectly done CG for grant­ed.

    I: You know Eva’s face shows up be­fore Shinji in the first episode, right? That made me hap­py…it was like, “That’s Con-V!”

    A: Yeah, the first episode of ‘Con-V’ is the stan­dard, or­tho­dox way of do­ing it. All char­ac­ters are gath­ered, and the ro­bot is shown from the face first. In the manga “Mazinger,” be­yond the star­tled face of Ko­ji, there’s the face of the ro­bot. You have a ro­bot, and it has a face. . That’s what the face is there for.

    …— Ac­tu­ally I’ve heard that Mr. Izubuchi also took part in the de­sign­ing of Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion at that time, and I want to know about the sto­ry.

    I: The ini­tial ti­tle was “The Flash Ar­gion”, was­n’t it?

    A: The name changed a few times. The first one was Evan Gerion, but it was hard to re­mem­ber and so we changed it. Then the next one had no im­pact (laugh). Fi­nally it was named Jin­zou Nin­gen [Ar­ti­fi­cial Hu­man] Evan Gerion. It was also trashed be­cause they said “Jin­zou Nin­gen” sounded old fash­ioned, so the bit was re­moved.

    I: I gave out a cou­ple of de­signs of Eva’s body. I got the rough sketch and some re­quests about the de­tails from An­no-chan, and it was more like a (me­chan­i­cal) ro­bot than now.

    A: It was­n’t dri­ven by mo­tor gears or oil pres­sure, it was pre­sented as an mod­i­fied hu­man be­ing that moved with ar­ti­fi­cial mus­cles.

    I: I was told that they wanted a de­mon-like air. So I put the mouth, and the two eyes that looked like they are raw and star­ing. I ended up giv­ing it four eyes (laugh).

    A: With just one eye, it was hard to rec­og­nize his face as such when he stood ful­l-screen it as a sil­hou­ette. So we needed two eyes in or­der for it to look like a hu­man shape. Ab­solutely two, I thought it needed two eyes.

    A: In the end, it’s about the differ­ence be­tween the “hero” genre and the “mil­i­tary.” Zaku60 has only one eye, and the rea­son why peo­ple rec­og­nize Gun­dam as a “hero” is be­cause he has two eyes. Jim61 has no eyes at all. Nei­ther does Gan­can­non nor Gan­tank. The rea­son why Gun­dam is the only one that sells so well is be­cause that’s the only “hero” one among them.

    …— Did Mr. Anno as­pire to be a di­rec­tor from the be­gin­ning?

    A: The mo­ti­va­tion was that I did­n’t want to waste the sec­ond episode of Top wo Nerae. Ya­m­a­ga’s script was in the air, no­body would di­rect it, so I had to take the job. I was­n’t re­ally hop­ing to go into di­rect­ing.

    A: For me it was be­cause I worked best with Ro­bot Ani­me. In Na­dia there were no ro­bots ap­pear­ing and I thought “Oh a ro­bot would have made it much eas­ier” (laugh). My fa­vorite and best type of work is bat­tle­ship or ro­bots. With them, I run a good chance of suc­ceed­ing. And the vir­tual en­emy in the Top is Pat­la­bor.

    I: Is it?

    A: Yeah. If La­bor took the re­al­is­tic line, I wanted to make a proper gi­ant ro­bot one. There was a back­ground rea­son within the in­dus­try - the two movies were planned around the same time and they de­cided on Pat­la­bor to go first. So when I saw it, there was no ac­tion at all and it ended right be­fore the ro­bots bat­tle start­ed, with a line “Rocket Punch!” I thought “You’ve gotta be kid­ding.” My plan was be­ing scrapped by some­thing like this? I was­n’t hav­ing it. There­fore, the vir­tual en­emy at the time was Pat­la­bor.

    …— In Eva, Mr. An­no’s work, the en­emy is not a hu­man shaped ro­bot.

    A: If I made them hu­man-shaped, it would have been much more work. They do bat­tle prop­erly in the first and the sec­ond episodes, but that was be­cause at that time we still had re­sources to em­ploy an­i­ma­tors. In the fifth or sixth episode it was just done with­out.

    I: That’s what hap­pens some­times. If we make an im­pact strong enough to hook the au­di­ence in the first or the sec­ond episode, we can sur­vive on it.

    A: Then we re­duce the num­ber of the char­ac­ter (draw­ings) and use more in the bat­tle scenes. In Eva we used fewer than 4500 cels, but it looks like we used 6000 cels. That’s be­cause we did that trick.

    I: You told me when I helped you with Eva that you would go for a straight­for­ward, stan­dard type of work, did­n’t you? How did it end up the way it did?

    A: Strange, is­n’t it? There was a point when I adopted an any­thing-goes at­ti­tude, and I went with the flow, and the re­sult was some­thing en­tirely differ­ent from the orig­i­nal plan. It was re­ally strange. For me the ini­tial idea was Mazinger and Gun­dam.

    I: You said that you were think­ing of a big happy end­ing. It was a kind of happy end, but was­n’t it differ­ent from what you were thought of in the be­gin­ning?

    A: Yeah, it feels differ­ent. I think it’s strange.

    I: Strange…? (laugh).

    A: It changed grad­u­al­ly…

    I: I felt you were a bit wor­ried about the genre it­self. The genre of gi­ant ro­bots was al­most ex­tinct ex­cept the Tokusatsu Sen­tai Robo at that pe­ri­od.

    A: Yeah. I wanted to work with proper gi­ant ro­bots, not de­signed pri­mar­ily as toys, but de­signed with a per­spec­tive in the real world. But it’s strange that it turned out like that.

    I: I think as a re­sult it was good, but I re­mem­ber there was a point of time when it was sud­denly el­e­vated to a sub­cul­ture sta­tus. And it was be­com­ing ir­rel­e­vant to the pas­sion for ro­bots you have, and taken out of con­text to a differ­ent di­rec­tion. Watch­ing it, I felt like “Ah, Anno is get­ting crushed…”

    A: In that way… I did­n’t plan it like that. It was very strange.

    I: How did you plan it?

    A: I planned to do it more like stereo­typed. See, it was like, the fa­ther is mak­ing the ro­bots, and there is a lab­o­ra­to­ry, and the ro­bot comes out from the base­ment, it is in­tro­duced in the first episode, then the en­emy comes out, and they fight… Ba­si­cally it’s the or­tho­dox line.

    — Then why?

    I: That’s what every­one wants to know (laugh).

    A: Why…? It just turned out like that. I guess it’s be­cause I was try­ing to in­cor­po­rate ideas from many peo­ple around, it just went in that di­rec­tion. I did­n’t mind, that was OK the way it went too. Maybe I have mul­ti­ple per­son­al­i­ty. I don’t even un­der­stand my­self.

    I: Maybe the in­flu­ence of Makky (T­su­ru­maki Kazuya) and Masa (Masayuki) was big, right?

    A: Yeah, and also oth­ers like Mr. Sat­sukawa (Akio), Enokido (Yōji), Shin-chan (Higuchi Shin­ji), and Mr. Honda (Yu­u), Mr. Iso (Mit­suo), and lot of oth­ers are all mixed in me. Well… I did plan to work in Gun­dam

    A: I think that there is no one who can cre­ate from scratch, ex­cept the very few ge­nius­es…[­lines miss­ing]…An en­tirely orig­i­nal work from scratch, I think, is the re­sult of those very few peo­ple’s brains short­-cir­cuit­ing or some­thing, pro­duc­ing to­tally new ideas.

    I: If it were pre­sented straight­for­ward­ly, it would be seen as mad.

    A: Yeah. After all, it’s a sim­ple mat­ter of bas­ing your work on a pre­de­ces­sor’s but not get­ting too close to the work it’s based on, that kind of lev­el, I think. Like if my par­ents did­n’t speak Japan­ese I would­n’t be speak­ing Japan­ese, ba­si­cally that’s the way hu­man life is, and you can’t go for­ward if you get too stuck in try­ing to be orig­i­nal. But I can’t tol­er­ate over-sam­pling (of oth­er’s work).

    A: The world we are liv­ing in to­day is no longer a world where brute force is the an­swer to prob­lems. But soon it will be again a “power is jus­tice” world, and then the ro­bot work will re­vive, I think.

    I:Yes, as the world changes for the worse that is pos­si­ble….

    A: All the same, we solve every­thing with pow­er. The baddy has to GO! by the Spacium62

    I: I won­der what is that (laugh).

    A: In the end it’s like this!! (a pose of Ul­tra­man) All the en­emy is smashed!! That’s it. But not now…

Anata to Watashi no Gainax

Un­trans­lated Ko­dan­sha in­ter­views with Gainax­ers:

  • Takami Akai (in­tro­duc­tion/back­ground, bi­og­ra­phy):

    1. first half
    2. sec­ond half
  • Hideaki Anno (in­tro­duc­tion/back­ground, bi­og­ra­phy)

    1. First in­ter­view:
      • part 1 (Na­dia & death dis­cus­sion, an­other de­scrip­tion of Japan as child­ish?)

      • part 2 (anime bub­ble)

      • part 3; Num­ber­s-kun trans­la­tion:

        I think, since the 1960s, there has been noth­ing but coun­ter­cul­ture. Some­thing was there, and you re­act against it; in the end you re­act again, against the [ini­tial] re­ac­tion. It was just this cy­cle of rep­e­ti­tion. Now, there is noth­ing left to re­act again­st, so cre­ative ac­tiv­ity has been re­duced to noth­ing but re­cy­cled, “copy­-col­lage” type works. The works cre­ated to­day are only made by “copy­ing and past­ing.” I think there is no choice left but to do this. To­day, when the po­ten­tial of each in­di­vid­ual has been low­ered to this ex­tent, and only the amount of in­for­ma­tion has in­creased, there is more or less noth­ing but copy­ing and past­ing.

        I do be­lieve that some­day this sit­u­a­tion, along with the sit­u­a­tion of con­tem­po­rary Japan­ese so­ci­ety, will change, but… If a sin­gle mis­sile just now fell on Tokyo, it would no longer be the time and the place to cre­ate ani­me. “Are you mak­ing bishojo anime at a time of emer­gency like this‽” (laughs) How­ev­er, in con­tem­po­rary so­ci­ety, there would still be far more peo­ple who would rather watch bishojo anime than news re­ports about the mis­sile that fell on Tokyo.

        – Among peo­ple who draw manga in Eu­rope, there are many who have stud­ied draw­ing pro­fes­sion­al­ly, and there are great differ­ences in vi­sual de­signs and so on. How­ev­er, the otaku men­tal­ity is no differ­ent [there] than it is in Japan. You even see peo­ple do­ing things like draw­ing manga and ap­ply­ing for prizes for new­com­ers from Japan­ese manga mag­a­zines. Otaku eas­ily cross na­tional bound­aries.

        An­no: I feel that otaku have al­ready be­come com­mon to all coun­tries. In Eu­rope, in Ko­rea, in Tai­wan, in Hong Kong, in Amer­i­ca, otaku re­ally do not change. I think that this is amaz­ing. I say crit­i­cal things to­wards otaku, but I don’t re­ject them. I only say that we should take a step back and be self­-con­scious about these things. I think it’s per­fectly fine so long as you act with an aware­ness of what you are do­ing, self­-con­scious and cog­nizant of the cur­rent sit­u­a­tion. I’m just not sure it’s a good thing to reach the point where you cut your­self off from so­ci­ety. I don’t un­der­stand the great­ness of so­ci­ety, ei­ther. So I have no in­ten­tion of go­ing so far as to call for peo­ple to give up otaku-like things and be­come more suited to so­ci­ety. On­ly, I think there are many other in­ter­est­ing things in the world, and we don’t have to re­ject them.

        How­ev­er, I take offense when otaku are crit­i­cized by non-o­taku. Stu­pid id­iots, I think, [crit­i­ciz­ing] though you don’t un­der­stand any­thing (laugh­s). There are truly many peo­ple who don’t seem to re­ally un­der­stand. I know these things with­out be­ing lec­tured to by these peo­ple. It’s like, why now? But say­ing those things are still bet­ter. There are many who com­pletely missed the mark. When peo­ple don’t even try to un­der­stand speak about otaku as though they were far above them, I think: what stu­pid peo­ple.

        – I have a strong im­pres­sion that you have sep­a­rated your­self from anime in re­cent years. I imag­ined that per­haps one rea­son for this was that you grew sick of mak­ing the things that fans of con­tem­po­rary anime want. Was this the case?

        An­no: If we think [of ani­me] purely in terms of ser­vice, then it’s prob­a­bly fine to straight­for­wardly make what the cus­tomers want. I think that offer­ing ser­vices other than those de­sired [by the cus­tomers] is still ser­vice [eg. ‘poi­son’]. It’s diffi­cult. I think it’s less that I got sick of it, than that I gave up [be­came re­signed].

        Anime fans, in a nar­row sense, do not change. I re­signed my­self to the fact that their un­der­stand­ing would prob­a­bly not change in my life­time. Of course, they are con­form­ing to a sin­gle stan­dard. As long as they are alive, they only like the same things. They’re not look­ing for change. They end­lessly seek the same plea­sures. Even if you say that other in­ter­est­ing things ex­ist, they can’t be both­ered. It’s some­thing they did­n’t ask for and don’t care for. I have my own ex­treme likes and dis­likes in re­gard to food, so I can’t be find­ing all these faults with other peo­ple (laugh­s). I’ve been told, “you should eat meat, be­cause it’s re­ally de­li­cious,” but I don’t eat it. Meat does­n’t seem like food [to me]. So, I’m sorry (laugh­s). I’m sure it’s de­li­cious, but I have no in­ten­tion of eat­ing it. I’m fine with yakko [to­fu]. I would rather eat 250 yen hiyayakko than meat which cost tens of thou­sands of yen. Be­cause of this I can’t re­ally say any­thing. Or should I say: I, too, am truly an otaku (laugh­s).

      • part 4

    2. Sec­ond in­ter­view:
    3. Third in­ter­view:
      • part 1 (men­tion of Evan­ge­lion 2?)

      • part 2 (re­mark that ‘this [NGE] is in­ter­est­ing’, par­al­lel New­type?)

      • part 3; ex­cerpt trans­lated by Num­ber­s-kun:

        An­no: Part of the “theme” of mak­ing Eva was, “hav­ing pride in the work.” That was all I tried to do, re­gard­less of if [peo­ple] praised or de­graded it. So, I hoped to make a work that would not make peo­ple ashamed who ut­tered the word “Eva” in pub­lic. For ex­am­ple, at the work place [some­one] says, “Last night’s Evan­ge­lion was bor­ing,” and, be­ing asked by some­one who does­n’t know about it, “What’s that?”, replies, “There’s this anime on now.” So, when the per­son who learns about it watches it [with the idea], “if there’s an anime like that, maybe I’ll try watch­ing it a lit­tle,” I wanted to make a work where, apart from whether they be­come in­ter­ested in it or not, they would­n’t think that it was some­thing child­ish. Of course, anime is fun­da­men­tally some­thing child­like or child­ish. I don’t think that peo­ple who are men­tally adults feel a need to watch it. Even so, I wanted to have an ounce of pride be­fore so­ci­ety. In­stead of just want­ing 20,000 anime fans to en­joy it, [I want­ed] a vec­tor aim­ing to­wards the out­side, even if just by a lit­tle. How­ev­er, the re­sult was, in the end, that I went in a di­rec­tion that was re­ally pop­u­lar among anime fans, so in the end I felt that I, too, was an otaku. (laughs)

        …I feel that my strong emo­tion to­wards works like Yam­ato and Gun­dam, or the feel­ing that I wanted to sur­pass those works, has sub­sided within me. I won­der if this is a kind of res­ig­na­tion. I feel, as things stand, that I can’t beat Yam­ato and Gun­dam. It has noth­ing to do, I think, with hav­ing some­thing good enough to beat them; I can’t beat the works and the peo­ple of that era. Also re­lated to this are the cir­cum­stances of the era in which I grew up, so it’s prob­a­bly some­thing I can’t do any­thing about. Be­cause, ac­tu­al­ly, there has yet to emerge any­one from my gen­er­a­tion who has beaten Yam­ato and Gun­dam. This is ab­solutely my per­sonal per­spec­tive, but, as to whether or not [peo­ple] felt the same im­pact from Eva as I re­ceived back when I saw Yam­ato and Gun­dam, I feel like Eva is still lack­ing. If we com­pare ac­cord­ing to the cur­rent mo­ment, then per­haps I am ca­pa­ble of cre­at­ing more in­ter­est­ing works than [the cur­rent] Tomi­no-san. How­ev­er, I feel I am far from be­ing a match for the Tomi­no-san of the time of Gun­dam and Ideon. …I watched ro­bot anime end­less­ly, and the im­pact I felt when I was nine­teen years old was [that of] Gun­dam. “Those ro­bot ani­me… have be­come some­thing like this!” For me, this im­pact can never be sur­passed. The im­pact of the first episode of the first Gun­dam was that pow­er­ful. There was an en­ergy like the G-ar­mor hav­ing to come out [?] [in episode 24?], an en­ergy like, even though the chains of ro­bot anime up to this point were still wrapped around it, from here on out it was go­ing to do some­thing new. That en­ergy was amaz­ing. In Gun­dam, there was very much an an­tithe­sis or a counter to the the­sis that had been built up by ro­bot anime up to that point. I was deeply affected by that. Com­pared with that, Eva is still a long ways off. Even though I pro­duced as much en­ergy as I could, I feel like it did­n’t have the same de­gree of im­pact. …Yam­ato is the same way. The orig­i­nal broad­cast was when I was four­teen years old. At that time I was in the sec­ond year of ju­nior high school, and was be­ing told by my par­ents and friends, “You’re still watch­ing ani­me?” “At your age, you should stop look­ing at things like man­ga; cut it out and grow up.” Well, I think they had a point. How­ev­er, when I was in sec­ond year, Yam­ato was the show I was not ashamed of talk­ing to my friends [about]. As no one watched it in those days, I would pros­e­ly­tize it to my friends and even to peo­ple out­side my class. “Don’t watch ‘Army of the Apes,’ watch this!” Or, “Don’t watch ‘Hei­di,’ watch this!” There was hardly any­one who lis­tened. (laughs) At that time, I liked ju­ve­nile SF and mil­i­tary his­to­ry, and there were manga that ful­filled [my de­sire for] the things I liked. [Yam­ato] met my in­ter­ests re­sound­ing­ly. It was a pro­gram that I, in my sec­ond year, was not em­bar­rassed to watch, and which con­vinced me that, “as I thought, it’s fine to read man­ga.” If I had­n’t seen Yam­ato in my sec­ond year, I would prob­a­bly not have read manga any longer after that….The mem­o­ries of these per­sonal ex­pe­ri­ences are in­grained within me. [?] I think the differ­ent ap­peals of Yam­ato and Gun­dam are also in Eva, but from my own per­spec­tive, I can’t cre­ate some­thing that ex­ceeds the im­pres­sion I felt see­ing Yam­ato at the age of four­teen. I can’t go be­yond the im­pact I felt when I was nine­teen and, hav­ing con­tin­u­ally watched ro­bot anime since the time I was a child, saw the first episode of Gun­dam. It seems ex­tremely diffi­cult to be ca­pa­ble of beat­ing the mem­o­ries in­side of me. I have the de­sire to sur­pass them, but on the other had, I am re­signed to the fact that I can’t do it. If I my­self change, then maybe I can find a differ­ent ap­proach. I feel, at least for now, that it can no longer be some­thing like Evan­ge­lion. Per­haps it can’t be that sort of des­per­ate and pres­sur­ized work. Some­thing a lit­tle bit more pleas­ant would be good, I think.

      • part 4 (mar­riage, food)

  • Shinji Higuchi (in­tro­duc­tion/back­ground, bi­og­ra­phy)

    1. First in­ter­view:
    2. Sec­ond in­ter­view:
    3. Third in­ter­view:
    4. Fourth in­ter­view:
  • Tadashi Hi­ra­matsu (in­tro­duc­tion/back­ground, bi­og­ra­phy); this in­ter­view has been fully trans­lated into Eng­lish which is for­tu­nate be­cause only one page out of ~7 sur­vives

  • Ya­suhiro Kamimura (in­tro­duc­tion/back­ground, bi­og­ra­phy)

    1. First in­ter­view:
    2. Sec­ond in­ter­view:
    3. Third in­ter­view:
  • Masayuki (in­tro­duc­tion/back­ground, bi­og­ra­phy)

    1. First in­ter­view:
    2. Sec­ond in­ter­view:
    3. Third in­ter­view:
  • Showji Mu­ra­hama (in­tro­duc­tion/back­ground, bi­og­ra­phy)

    1. First in­ter­view:
    2. Sec­ond in­ter­view:
  • Masahiko Ot­suka (in­tro­duc­tion/back­ground, bi­og­ra­phy)

    1. First in­ter­view:
    2. Sec­ond in­ter­view: