The-Narrowing-Circle (Link Bibliography)

“The-Narrowing-Circle” links:

  1. https://www.amazon.com/The-Expanding-Circle-Evolution-Progress/dp/0691150699/

  2. https://www.amazon.com/History-European-Morals-William-Hartpole/dp/1140572318/

  3. https://4.files.edl.io/933c/10/23/18/181634-4eec71a1-a437-4422-80c3-9df7454d382d.doc

  4. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epistemic-paradoxes/#MooPro

  5. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epistemic-paradoxes/#FutEpiPar

  6. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/dutch-book/#PriRef

  7. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epistemology-bayesian/#OthPriBayEpi

  8. https://philpapers.org/browse/the-reflection-principle

  9. Terrorism-is-not-Effective

  10. https://www.amazon.com/Finite-Infinite-Games-James-Carse/dp/1476731713/

  11. http://laudatortemporisacti.blogspot.com/2008/10/commit-no-nuisance.html

  12. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/CqyJzDZWvGhhFJ7dY/belief-in-belief

  13. http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/richard_carrier/kooks.html

  14. https://www.amazon.com/Not-Impossible-Faith-Richard-Carrier/dp/0557044642/

  15. https://www.amazon.com/Social-Science-Commentary-Revelation-Bruce-Malina/dp/0800632273/

  16. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Moralia/De_defectu_oraculorum*.html

  17. https://digitalis-dsp.uc.pt/bitstream/10316.2/36395/1/Plutarch%20and%20%E2%80%98God-Eclipse%E2%80%99%20in%20Christian%20Theology.pdf#page=3

  18. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/fAuWLS7RKWD2npBFR/religion-s-claim-to-be-non-disprovable

  19. https://www.amazon.com/Opus-Posthumous-Poems-Plays-Prose/dp/0679725342/

  20. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2005/05/16/8260178/index.htm

  21. ⁠, Knell, Robert J (2004):

    When syphilis first appeared in Europe in 1495, it was an acute and extremely unpleasant disease. After only a few years it was less severe than it once was, and it changed over the next 50 years into a milder, chronic disease. The severe early symptoms may have been the result of the disease being introduced into a new host population without any resistance mechanisms, but the change in virulence is most likely to have happened because of selection favouring milder strains of the pathogen. The symptoms of the virulent early disease were both debilitating and obvious to potential sexual partners of the infected, and strains that caused less obvious or painful symptoms would have enjoyed a higher transmission rate.

  22. http://philosophytalk.typepad.com/blog/files/MetaAtheism.pdf

  23. https://slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/explainer/2009/03/elf_detection_101.html

  24. https://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/13/world/europe/building-in-iceland-better-clear-it-with-the-elves-first.html

  25. https://www.amazon.com/Natural-Supernatural-Middle-Wiles-Lectures/dp/0521702550/

  26. 1975-brown.pdf

  27. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/aHaqgTNnFzD7NGLMx/reason-as-memetic-immune-disorder

  28. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-17381493.html

  29. http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/1992/03.01.25.html

  30. https://www.amazon.com/Sacrifice-Ancient-Greece-Dennis-Hughes/dp/0415034833/

  31. 1981-golden.pdf

  32. 1980-engels.pdf

  33. http://www.wou.edu/history/files/2015/08/MindyNicholsThesis.pdf

  34. https://www.amazon.com/Farewell-Alms-Economic-History-Princeton/dp/0691141282/

  35. http://www.constitution.org/sps/sps01_1.htm

  36. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/03061.htm

  37. http://christiancadre.org/member_contrib/cp_infanticide.html

  38. http://reason.com/archives/2010/01/26/the-forfeiture-racket/print

  39. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/01/30/the-caging-of-america

  40. http://nplusonemag.com/raise-the-crime-rate

  41. https://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2011/mar/24/prison-rape-and-government/?pagination=false

  42. https://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2011/mar/24/prison-rape-and-government/?pagination=false#fn-23

  43. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/03/30/hellhole

  44. https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2012/10/donald-o-hebb-effects-extreme-isolation

  45. 2003-haney.pdf: ⁠, Craig Haney (2003-01-01; psychology):

    This article discusses the recent increase in the use of solitary-like confinement, especially the rise of so-called supermax prisons and the special mental health issues and challenges they pose. After briefly discussing the nature of these specialized and increasingly widespread units and the forces that have given rise to them, the article reviews some of the unique mental-health-related issues they present, including the large literature that exists on the negative psychological effects of isolation and the unusually high percentage of mentally ill prisoners who are confined there. It ends with a brief discussion of recent caselaw that addresses some of these mental health issues and suggests that the courts, though in some ways appropriately solicitous of the plight of mentally ill supermax prisoners, have overlooked some of the broader psychological problems these units create.

  46. https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2012/10/solitary-confinement-shane-bauer//

  47. https://nitter.hu/HunterFelt/status/317495942829965313

  48. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2006/12/charitable-foundations--posners-comment.html

  49. https://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/26/nyregion/former-village-dispensary-must-untangle-restrictions.html

  50. #islamic-waqfs

  51. https://www.amazon.com/Shadow-Sun-Ryszard-Kapuscinski/dp/0679779078/

  52. https://www.amazon.com/Valley-Shadow-Foundations-Religious-Belief/dp/B00509COFU/

  53. 1973-bayliss.pdf

  54. https://www.amazon.com/Israels-Beneficent-Dead-Necromancy-Israelite/dp/B005UW1MTG/

  55. https://www.amazon.com/Ancient-Israel-Harvard-Semitic-Monographs/dp/1555403255/

  56. 1992-blochsmith.pdf

  57. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/wantok

  58. https://www.amazon.com/Chinese-Family-Kinship-H-Baker/dp/0231047681/

  59. https://www.amazon.com/Property-Freedom-Richard-Pipes/dp/0375704477/

  60. https://www.amazon.com/Land-Law-Custom-Co-Cb/dp/0714616982/

  61. https://www.amazon.com/Historical-jurisprudence-Introduction-Paul-Vinogradoff/dp/B00087G9SC/

  62. 1978-ladurie-montaillouthepromisedlandoferror-chapter2domus.pdf

  63. 2007-schneider.pdf: ⁠, Frederick R. Schneider (2007; economics):

    The common law rule against perpetuities maintained alienation of property by voiding interests in property that did not vest within a life in being at the creation of the interest plus twenty-one years. The rule was applied strictly, often producing harsh results. The courts used a what-might-happen test to strike down nonvested interests that might not have vested in a timely manner. During the last half-century, many legislatures have softened the application of the rule against perpetuities by enacting wait-and-see provisions, which require courts to decide cases based on the facts as they actually developed, and reformation, which allowed some nonvested interests to be reformed to save them from invalidity.

    This paper describes the common law rule. Then it traces the modern developments, including promulgation of the widely adopted Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities, which includes an alternate 90 year fixed wait-and-see period to be applied in place of the common law’s lives in being plus twenty-one years.

    The paper continues by exploring the policies which underlie the rule against perpetuities. Then, after finding that there is no substantial movement to repeal the rule except for trusts, it is established that proposals for that federal law, including federal transfer taxes, cannot and should not be used to implement the policies served by the rule itself.

    There is a continuing need for state rules against perpetuities. The paper proposes that the rule be modified to make it more understandable and easier to apply. The proposed rule would replace lives in being plus twenty-one years with a fixed term of years. This would eliminate most of the difficulties encountered in application of the rule. Wait-and-see and reformation are part of the proposed rule. The proposed rule provides for determination of valid interests at the end of the fixed term of year Rule and contains a definition of “vested” to enable judges and attorneys to apply the rule in cases which will arise many years in the future.

  64. https://www.overcomingbias.com/2010/03/ancestor-worship-is-efficient.html

  65. https://www.overcomingbias.com/2011/09/let-us-give-to-future.html

  66. https://www.overcomingbias.com/2010/03/parable-of-the-multiplier-hole.html

  67. http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/43098220/ns/today-today_people/t/after-years-millionaire-misers-heirs-finally-split-m/

  68. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_oldest_church_buildings&direction=prev&oldid=462879008#Oldest_continuous_church_congregations

  69. https://www.laphamsquarterly.org/future/trust-issues

  70. https://www.amazon.com/Valley-Shadow-Foundations-Religious-Belief/dp/1439130108/

  71. http://www.meltingasphalt.com/hallucinated-gods/

  72. https://old.reddit.com/r/philosophy/comments/lxr4c/ethicss_narrowing_circle/

  73. https://old.reddit.com/r/slatestarcodex/comments/bhykw1/the_narrowing_circle_gwern/

  74. https://forum.effectivealtruism.org/posts/WF5GDjLQgLMjaXW6B/the-narrowing-circle-gwern

  75. https://jaymans.wordpress.com/2015/06/27/the-rise-of-universalism/

  76. https://www.amazon.com/Moral-Consequences-Economic-Growth/dp/1400095719

  77. http://nationalinterest.org/bookreview/the-fallacy-human-freedom-8652?page=show

  78. http://www.wesjones.com/eoh.htm

  79. https://www.wsj.com/articles/at-the-end-of-history-still-stands-democracy-1402080661

  80. https://www.econlib.org/archives/2014/11/the_smart_again.html

  81. 2001-kuran.pdf

  82. 2015-heldring.pdf: “Monks, Gents and Industrialists: The Long-Run Impact of the Dissolution of the English Monasteries”⁠, Leander Heldring, James A. Robinson, Sebastian Vollmer

  83. 2016-kuran.pdf: ⁠, Timur Kuran (2016; economics):

    In the legal system of the premodern Middle East, the closest thing to an autonomous private organization was the Islamic waqf. This non-state institution inhibited political participation, collective action, and rule of law, among other indicators of democratization. It did so through several mechanisms. Its activities were essentially set by its founder, which limited its capacity to meet political challenges. Being designed to provide a service on its own, it could not participate in lasting political coalitions. The waqf’s beneficiaries had no say in evaluating or selecting its officers, and they had trouble forming a political community. Thus, for all the resources it controlled, the Islamic waqf contributed minimally to building civil society. As a core element of Islam’s classical institutional complex, it perpetuated authoritarian rule by keeping the state largely unrestrained. Therein lies a key reason for the slow pace of the Middle East’s democratization process.

  84. ⁠, Timur Kuran (2018):

    This essay critically evaluates the analytic literature concerned with causal connections between Islam and economic performance. It focuses on works since 1997, when this literature was last surveyed. Among the findings are the following: Ramadan fasting by pregnant women harms prenatal development; Islamic charities mainly benefit the middle class; Islam affects educational outcomes less through Islamic schooling than through structural factors that handicap learning as a whole; Islamic finance hardly affects Muslim financial behavior; and low generalized trust depresses Muslim trade. The last feature reflects the Muslim world’s delay in transitioning from personal to impersonal exchange. The delay resulted from the persistent simplicity of the private enterprises formed under Islamic law. Weak property rights reinforced the private sector’s stagnation by driving capital out of commerce and into rigid waqfs. Waqfs limited economic development through their inflexibility and democratization by restraining the development of civil society. Parts of the Muslim world conquered by Arab armies are especially undemocratic, which suggests that early Islamic institutions, including slave-based armies, were particularly critical to the persistence of authoritarian patterns of governance. States have contributed themselves to the persistence of authoritarianism by treating Islam as an instrument of governance. As the world started to industrialize, non-Muslim subjects of Muslim-governed states pulled ahead of their Muslim neighbors by exercising the choice of law they enjoyed under Islamic law in favor of a Western legal system.

  85. 2019-bazzi.pdf: ⁠, Samuel Bazzi, Gabriel Koehler-Derrick, Benjamin Marx (2019-12-23; economics):

    This article explores the foundations of religious influence in politics and society. We show that an important Islamic institution fostered the entrenchment of Islamism at a critical juncture in Indonesia, the world’s largest Muslim country. In the early 1960s, rural elites transferred large amounts of land into waqf—inalienable charitable trusts in Islamic law—to avoid expropriation by the state. Regions facing a greater threat of expropriation exhibit more prevalent waqf land and Islamic institutions endowed as such, including mosques and religious schools. These endowments provided conservative forces with the capital needed to promote Islamist ideology and mobilize against the secular state. We identify lasting effects of the transfers on the size of the religious sector, electoral support for Islamist parties, and the adoption of local sharia laws. These effects are shaped by greater demand for religion in government but not by greater piety among the electorate. Waqf assets also impose costs on the local economy, particularly in agriculture, where these endowments are associated with lower productivity. Overall, our findings shed new light on the origins and consequences of Islamism.

  86. https://www.amazon.com/Dark-Side-Enlightenment-Alchemists-Spiritual/dp/0393079465

  87. https://www.amazon.com/Better-Angels-Our-Nature-Violence/dp/0143122010/

  88. https//www.edge.org/conversation/-the-book-of-revelation-prophecy-and-politicsedge-master-class-2011