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  • 2021-cason.pdf: ⁠, Timothy N. Cason, Alex Tabarrok, Robertas Zubrickas (2021-09-01):

    The mechanism is often used to crowdfund public goods. This mechanism has weak implementation properties that can lead to mis-coordination and failure to produce socially valuable projects. To encourage early contributions, we extend the assurance contract mechanism with refund bonuses rewarded only to early contributors in the event of fundraising failure.

    The experimental results show that our proposed solution is very effective in inducing early cooperation and increasing fundraising success. Limiting refund bonuses to early contributors works as well as offering refund bonuses to all potential contributors, while also reducing the amount of bonuses paid. We find that refund bonuses can increase the rate of campaign success by 50% or more. Moreover, we find that even taking into account campaign failures, refund bonuses can be financially self-sustainable suggesting the real world value of extending assurance contracts with refund bonuses.

    [Keywords: public goods, donations, assurance contract, free riding, conditional cooperation, early contributions, refund bonuses, experiment, laboratory]

  • 2021-wang.pdf: ⁠, Guihua Wang, Ronghuo Zheng, Tinglong Dai (2021-07-09):

    Every year, nearly 5,000 patients die while waiting for kidney transplants, and yet an estimated 3,500 procured kidneys are discarded. Such a polarized coexistence of dire scarcity and massive wastefulness has been mainly driven by insufficient pooling of cadaveric kidneys across geographic regions.

    Although numerous policy initiatives are aimed at broadening organ pooling, they rarely account for a key friction—efficient airline transportation, ideally direct flights, is necessary for long-distance sharing, because of the time-sensitive nature of kidney transplantation. Conceivably, transplant centers may be reluctant to accept kidney offers from far-off locations without direct flights.

    In this paper, we estimate the effect of the introduction of new airline routes on broader kidney sharing. By merging the U.S. airline transportation and kidney transplantation data sets, we create a unique sample tracking (1) the evolution of airline routes connecting all the U.S. airports and (2) kidney transplants between donors and recipients connected by these airports. We estimate the introduction of a new airline route increases the number of shared kidneys by 7.3%. We also find a net increase in the total number of kidney transplants and a decrease in the organ discard rate with the introduction of new routes. Notably, the post-transplant survival rate remains largely unchanged, although average travel distance increases after the introduction of new airline routes.

    Our results are robust to alternative empirical specifications and have important implications for improving access to the U.S. organ transplantation system.

    [Keywords: organ transplantation, airline transportation, pooling•flexibility, causal inference]

  • 2021-monk.pdf: ⁠, Ellis P. Monk Jr., Michael H. Esposito, Hedwig Lee (2021-07-01):

    Physical attractiveness is an important axis of social stratification associated with educational attainment, marital patterns, earnings, and more. Still, relative to ethno-racial and gender stratification, physical attractiveness is relatively understudied. In particular, little is known about whether returns to physical attractiveness vary by race or statistically-significantly vary by race and gender combined.

    In this study, we use nationally representative data to examine whether (1) socially perceived physical attractiveness is unequally distributed across race/ethnicity and gender subgroups and (2) returns to physical attractiveness vary substantially across race/ethnicity and gender subgroups. Notably, the magnitude of the earnings disparities along the perceived attractiveness continuum, net of controls, rivals and/or exceeds in magnitude the black-white race gap and, among African-Americans, the black-white race gap and the gender gap in earnings.

    The implications of these findings for current and future research on the labor market and social inequality are discussed.

  • 2021-white.pdf: ⁠, Lawrence H. White (2021-06-23; backlinks):

    Prominent economists have supposed that the private production of full-bodied gold or silver coins is inefficient: due to information asymmetry, private coins will be chronically low-quality or underweight.

    An examination of private mints during gold rushes in the US in the years 1830–63, drawing on contemporary accounts and numismatic literature, finds otherwise. While some private gold mints produced underweight coins, from incompetence or fraudulent intent, such mints did not last long. Informed by newspapers about the findings of assays, money-users systematically abandoned substandard coins in favour of full-weight coins. Only competent and honest mints survived.

  • 2021-taylor.pdf: ⁠, Mark P. Taylor (2021-06-04):

    The decline in late 19th century agricultural prices, by reducing the incomes of aristocratic landed estates and of non-aristocratic landed families, led to richly dowried American heiress brides being substituted for brides from landed families in British aristocratic marriages. This reflected a wider 19th century phenomenon of aristocratic substitution of foreign brides for landed brides and the substitution of daughters of British businessmen for daughters of landed families when agricultural prices declined.

    The results are consistent with positive assortative matching with lump-sum transfers (dowries), where landowning family dowries are cash constrained in periods of agricultural downturn.

    [Keywords: aristocracy, agricultural depression, wheat prices, marriage, assortative matching]

  • 2021-kleven.pdf: ⁠, Henrik Kleven, Camille Landais, Jakob Egholt Søgaard (2021-06-01):

    This paper investigates whether the impact of children on the labor market outcomes of women relative to men—child penalties—can be explained by the biological links between mother and child. We estimate child penalties in biological and adoptive families using event studies around the arrival of children and almost 40 years of adoption data from Denmark. Short-run child penalties are slightly larger for biological mothers than for adoptive mothers, but their long-run child penalties are virtually identical and precisely estimated. This suggests that biology is not a key driver of child-related gender gaps. (JEL J12, J13, J16)

  • 2021-gunadi.pdf: ⁠, Christian Gunadi, Hanbyul Ryu (2021-05-27):

    Technological advancements bring changes to our life, altering our behaviors as well as our role in the economy. In this paper, we examine the potential effect of the rise of robotic technology on health.

    Using the variation in the initial distribution of industrial employment in US cities and the difference in robot adoption across industries over time to predict robot exposure at the local labor market, we find evidence that higher penetration of industrial robots in the local economy is positively related to the health of the low-skilled population.

    A 10% increase in robots per 1000 workers is associated with an approximately 10% reduction in the share of low-skilled individuals reporting poor health. Further analysis suggests that the reallocation of tasks partly explains this finding. A 10% increase in robots per 1000 workers is associated with an approximately 1.5% reduction in physical tasks supplied by low-skilled workers.

    [Keywords: automation, health, occupational injury, robots]

  • 2021-baird.pdf: ⁠, Vanessa Baird, Jennifer Wolak (2021-05-02):

    Why do some people blame the political system for the problems in their lives? We explore the origins of these grievances and how people assign responsibility and blame for the challenges they face. We propose that individual differences in the personality traits of locus of control and self-esteem help explain why some blame the political system for their personal problems. Using responses from a module of the 2016 Cooperative Congressional Election Study, we show that those with low self-esteem and a weaker sense of control over their fates are more likely to blame the political system for the challenges they face in their lives. We also demonstrate that this assignment of blame is politically consequential, where those who intertwine the personal and the political are more likely to evaluate elected officials based on pocketbook economic conditions rather than sociotropic considerations.

  • 2021-yamada.pdf: ⁠, Takahiro Yamada, Hiroyuki Yamada (2021-05-01):

    • Investigates the long-term causal effects of bombings on later economic development.
    • Focus on Laos that is one of the most intensely bombed countries per capita in history.
    • Use granular grid data, nightlights or population, as proxies of economic development.
    • No robust effects of bombings in southern Laos, but some effects in northern Laos.
    • No within-country conditional economic convergence, which could be Lao specific.

    This study investigates the long-term causal effects of U.S. bombing missions during the Vietnam War on later economic development in Laos. Following an instrumental variables approach, we use the distance between the centroid of village-level administrative boundaries and heavily bombed targets, namely, the Ho Chi Minh Trail in southern Laos and Xieng Khouang Province in northern Laos, as an instrument for the intensity of U.S. bombing missions. We use three datasets of mean nighttime light intensity (1992, 2005, and 2013) and two datasets of population density (1990 and 2005) as outcome variables. The estimation results show no robust long-term effects of U.S. bombing missions on economic development in southern Laos but show negative effects in northern Laos, even 40 years after the war. We also found that the results do not necessarily support the conditional convergence hypothesis within a given country, although this result could be unique to Laos.

    [Keywords: conflict damage, economic development, conditional convergence hypothesis, Lao P.D.R]

  • 2021-huntington.pdf: ⁠, Heather Huntington, Ajay Shenoy (2021-05-01):

    • A randomized tenure security intervention in Zambia statistically-significantly reduced farmers’ fear of losing their land.
    • But it had no impact on land fallowing, agroforestry, or other investments.
    • We cross-randomize tenure with an agroforestry extension that relaxes financial and technical constraints to investment.
    • The impact of land tenure is still zero even when these other constraints are relaxed.

    There is broad agreement among the most prominent observational studies that tenure insecurity deters investment. We present new experimental evidence testing this proposition: a land certification program randomized across villages in Zambia. Our results contradict the consensus.

    Though the intervention improved perceptions of tenure security, it had no impact on investment in the following season. The impact is still zero even after a cross-randomized agroforestry extension relaxes financial and technical constraints to agroforestry investment. Though relaxing these constraints has a direct effect, it is not enhanced by granting land tenure, implying tenure insecurity had not been a barrier to investment.

    …This paper sidesteps such challenges by using a randomized experiment. We evaluate the short-run effects of an intervention in Zambia that cross-randomized an agroforestry extension with a program that strengthened customary land tenure through field demarcation and certification. We test for whether tenure security affects a host of outcomes drawn from prior observational studies. Our experimental results do not corroborate these studies. We estimate with reasonable precision that tenure security has zero effect…Finally, we discard our experimental variation and apply several observational research designs similar to those used in prior studies. We show that had we used such a design we would have spuriously concluded that tenure security has positive and statistically-significant effects. This exercise does not necessarily imply the estimates of the observational studies were flawed. But it does show that the key moments used by these studies for identification also appear in our Zambian sample. That implies the context is not entirely different and that it is possible to find these moments even in a sample where granting tenure security has no effect.

  • 2021-tarduno.pdf: ⁠, Matthew Tarduno (2021-03):

    I study the impact of transportation network companies (TNC) on traffic delays using a natural experiment created by the abrupt departure of and from Austin, Texas.

    Applying difference in differences and regression discontinuity specifications to high-frequency traffic data, I estimate that Uber and Lyft together decreased daytime traffic speeds in Austin by roughly 2.3%. Using Austin-specific measures of the value of travel time, I translate these slowdowns to estimates of citywide congestion costs that range from $33 to $52 million annually. Back of the envelope calculations imply that these costs are similar in magnitude to the consumer surplus provided by TNCs in Austin.

    Together these results suggest that while TNCs may impose modest travel time externalities, restricting or taxing TNC activity is unlikely to generate large net welfare gains through reduced congestion.

  • 2021-desrochers.pdf: ⁠, Pierre Desrochers, Vincent Geloso, Joanna Szurmak (2021-02-11; backlinks):

    Objective: This paper provides the first comprehensive assessment of the outcome of and counteroffer (1995) to economist following Ehrlich’s loss in the famous on economic growth and the price of natural resources (1980–1990).

    Methods: Literature review, data gathering and critical assessment of the indicators and proxies suggested or implied by Ehrlich and Schneider. Critical assessment of Simon’s reasons for rejecting the bet. Data gathering for his alternative indicators.

    Results: For indicators that can be measured satisfactorily, the balance of the outcomes favors the Ehrlich-Schneider claims for the initial ten-year period. Extending the timeline and accounting for the measurement limitations or dubious relevance of many of their indicators, however, shifts the balance of the evidence towards Simon’s perspective.

    Conclusion: Although the outcomes favour the Ehrlich-Schneider claims for the initial ten-year period, Ehrlich and Schneider’s indicators yielded mixed results in the long run. Simon’s preferred indicators of direct human welfare would yield largely favourable outcomes if the bet were extended into the present. Based on this, we claim that Simon’s optimistic perspective was once again largely validated.

    [Followup paper: ⁠, Desrochers et al 2021b.]

  • 2021-desrochers-2.pdf: ⁠, Pierre Desrochers, Vincent Geloso, Joanna Szurmak (2021-02-11; backlinks):

    Objective: This paper provides the first comprehensive assessment of the outcome of and counteroffer (1995) to economist following Ehrlich’s loss in the famous on economic growth and the price of natural resources (1980–1990). is that, for indicators that can be measured satisfactorily or can be inferred from proxies, the outcome favors Ehrlich-Schneider in the first decade following their offer. This second article extends the timeline towards the present time period to examine the long-term trends of each indicator and proxy, and assesses the reasons invoked by Simon to refuse the bet.

    Methods: Literature review, data gathering, and critical assessment of the indicators and proxies suggested or implied by Ehrlich and Schneider. Critical assessment of Simon’s reasons for rejecting the bet. Data gathering for his alternative indicators.

    Results: For indicators that can be measured directly, the balance of the outcomes favors the Ehrlich-Schneider claims for the initial ten-year period. Extending the timeline and accounting for the measurement limitations or dubious relevance of many of their indicators, however, shifts the balance of the evidence towards Simon’s perspective.

    Conclusion: The fact that Ehrlich and Schneider’s own choice of indicators yielded mixed results in the long run, coupled with the fact that Simon’s preferred indicators of direct human welfare yielded largely favorable outcomes is, in our opinion, sufficient to claim that Simon’s optimistic perspective was largely validated.

  • 2021-abramitzky.pdf: ⁠, Ran Abramitzky, Leah Boustan, Elisa Jácome, Santiago Pérez (2021-02-01):

    Using millions of father-son pairs spanning more than 100 years of US history [using US census data], we find that children of immigrants from nearly every sending country have higher rates of upward mobility than children of the US-born. Immigrants’ advantage is similar historically and today despite dramatic shifts in sending countries and US immigration policy. Immigrants achieve this advantage in part by choosing to settle in locations that offer better prospects for their children.

  • 2021-ruttan.pdf: ⁠, Rachel L. Ruttan, Loran F. Nordgren (2021-01-21):

    A fundamental feature of sacred values like environmental-protection, patriotism, and diversity is individuals’ resistance to trading off these values in exchange for material benefit. Yet, for-profit organizations increasingly associate themselves with sacred values to increase profits and enhance their reputations.

    In the current research, we investigate a potentially perverse consequence of this tendency: that observing values used instrumentally (ie., in the service of self-interest) subsequently decreases the sacredness of those values. Seven studies (n = 2,785) demonstrate support for this value corruption hypothesis. Following exposure to the instrumental use of a sacred value, observers held that value as less sacred (Studies 1–6), were less willing to donate to value-relevant causes (Studies 3 and 4), and demonstrated reduced tradeoff resistance (Study 7). We reconcile the current effect with previously documented value protection effects by suggesting that instrumental use decreases value sacredness by shifting descriptive norms regarding value use (Study 3), and by failing to elicit the same level of outrage as taboo tradeoffs, thus inhibiting value protective responses (Studies 4 and 5).

    These results have important implications: People and organizations that use values instrumentally may ultimately undermine the very values from which they intend to benefit.

    [Keywords: self-interest, morality, values, sacred values, prosocial behavior]

  • 2021-hodgson.pdf: ⁠, Geoffrey M. Hodgson (2021-01-18):

    This scoping paper addresses the role of financial institutions in empowering the British Industrial Revolution. Prominent economic historians have argued that investment was largely funded out of savings or profits, or by borrowing from family or friends: hence financial institutions played a minor role. But this claim sits uneasily with later evidence from other countries that effective financial institutions have mattered a great deal for economic development. How can this mismatch be explained? Despite numerous technological innovations, from 1760 to 1820 industrial growth was surprisingly low. Could the underdevelopment of financial institutions have held back growth? There is relatively little data to help evaluate this hypothesis. More research is required on the historical development of institutions that enabled finance to be raised. This would include the use of property as collateral. This paper sketches the evolution of British financial institutions before 1820 and makes suggestions for further empirical research. Research in this direction should enhance our understanding of the British Industrial Revolution and of the preconditions of economic development in other countries.

  • 2021-brynjolfsson.pdf: ⁠, Erik Brynjolfsson, Daniel Rock, Chad Syverson (2021-01):

    General purpose technologies (GPTs) like AI enable and require substantial complementary investments. These investments are often intangible and poorly measured in national accounts.

    We develop a model that shows how this can lead to underestimation of productivity growth in a new GPTs early years and, later, when the benefits of intangible investments are harvested, productivity growth overestimation. We call this phenomenon the Productivity J-curve.

    We apply our method to US data and find that adjusting for intangibles related to computer hardware and software yields a TFP level that is 15.9% higher than official measures by the end of 2017.

  • 2021-nodtvedt.pdf: ⁠, Katrine Berg Nødtvedt, Hallgeir Sjåstad, Siv Rosendahl Skard, Helge Thorbjørnsen, Jay J. Van Bavel (2021):

    In 3 experiments (n = 1,599), which included a pre-registered study on a nationally representative sample (Norway), we find causal evidence for racial discrimination against minority Airbnb hosts. When an identical Airbnb apartment was presented with a racial outgroup (vs. in-group) host, people reported more negative attitudes toward the apartment, lower intentions to rent it, and were 25% less likely to choose the apartment over a standard hotel room in a real choice.


    The rise of peer-to-peer platforms has represented one of the major economic and societal developments observed in the last decade. We investigated whether people engage in racial discrimination in the sharing economy, and how such discrimination might be explained and mitigated.

    Using a set of carefully controlled experiments (n = 1,599), including a pre-registered study on a nationally representative sample, we find causal evidence for racial discrimination. When an identical apartment is presented with a racial out-group (vs. in-group) host, people report more negative attitudes toward the apartment, lower intentions to rent it, and are 25% less likely to choose the apartment over a standard hotel room in an incentivized choice. Reduced self-congruence with apartments owned by out-group hosts mediates these effects. Left-leaning liberals rated the out-group host as more trustworthy than the in-group host in non-committing judgments and hypothetical choice, but showed the same in-group preference as right-leaning conservatives when making a real choice.

    Thus, people may overstate their moral and political aspirations when doing so is cost-free. However, even in incentivized choice, racial discrimination disappeared when the apartment was presented with an explicit trust cue, as a visible top-rating by other consumers (5⁄5 stars).

    [Keywords: racial bias, sharing economy, trust, self-congruence]

  • 2021-meyer.pdf: ⁠, Bruce D. Meyer, Derek Wu, Victoria Mooers, Carla Medalia (2021; backlinks):

    [Interview] Recent research suggests that the share of US households living on less than $2/person/day is high and rising.

    We reexamine such extreme poverty by linking SIPP and CPS data to administrative tax and program data.

    We find that more than 90% of those reported to be in extreme poverty are not, once we include in-kind transfers, replace survey reports of earnings and transfer receipt with administrative records, and account for ownership of substantial assets. More than half of all misclassified households have incomes from the administrative data above the poverty line, and many have middle-class measures of material well-being.

  • 2021-eshel.pdf: ⁠, Tzilla Eshel, Ayelet Gilboa, Naama Yahalom-Mack, Ofir Tirosh, Yigal Erel (2021):

    • Levantine ~1200–950 BCE silver hoards were subjected to chemical and isotopic analysis.
    • Silver was alloyed with copper, reflecting a shortage after the Bronze Age collapse.
    • This debasement was often concealed by adding arsenic.
    • A mixing model distinguishes between isotopic contributions of alloyed metals.
    • Results suggest that silver shortage in the Levant probably lasted until ~950 BCE.

    The study of silver, which was an important mean of currency in the Southern Levant during the Bronze and Iron Age periods (~1950–586 BCE), revealed an unusual phenomenon. Silver hoards from a specific, yet rather long timespan, ~1200–950 BCE, contained mostly silver alloyed with copper. This alloying phenomenon is considered here for the first time, also with respect to previous attempts to provenance the silver using lead isotopes. Eight hoards were studied, from which 86 items were subjected to chemical and isotopic analysis. This is, by far, the largest dataset of sampled silver from this timespan in the Near East. Results show the alloys, despite their silvery sheen, contained high percentages of Cu, reaching up to 80% of the alloy. The Ag-Cu alloys retained a silvery tint using two methods, either by using an enriched silver surface to conceal a copper core, or by adding arsenic and antimony to the alloy. For the question of provenance, we applied a mixing model which simulates the contribution of up to three end members to the isotopic composition of the studied samples. The model demonstrates that for most samples, the more likely combination is that they are alloys of silver from Aegean-Anatolian ores, Pb-poor copper, and Pb-rich copper from local copper mines in the Arabah valley (Timna and Faynan). Another, previously suggested possibility, namely that a substantial part of the silver originated from the West Mediterranean, cannot be validated analytically. Contextualizing these results, we suggest that the Bronze Age collapse around the Mediterranean led to the termination of silver supply from the Aegean to the Levant in the beginning of the 12th century BCE, causing a shortage of silver. The local administrations initiated sophisticated devaluation methods to compensate for the lack of silver—a suspected forgery. It is further suggested that following the Egyptian withdrawal from Canaan around the mid-12th century BCE, Cu-Ag alloying continued, with the use of copper from Faynan instead of Timna. The revival of long-distance silver trade is evident only in the Iron Age IIA (starting ~950 BCE), when silver was no longer alloyed with copper, and was imported from Anatolia and the West Mediterranean.

    [Keywords: silver hoards, alloys, lead isotopic analysis, debasement, arsenic, Bronze age collapse, Mediterranean trade]

  • 2020-akcigit.pdf: ⁠, Ufuk Akcigit, Sina T. Ates (2021):

    In this paper, we review the literature on declining business dynamism and its implications in the United States and propose a unifying theory to analyze the symptoms and the potential causes of this decline. We first highlight 10 pronounced stylized facts related to declining business dynamism documented in the literature and discuss some of the existing attempts to explain them. We then describe a theoretical framework of endogenous markups, innovation, and competition that can potentially speak to all of these facts jointly. We next explore some theoretical predictions of this framework, which are shaped by two interacting forces: a composition effect that determines the market concentration and an incentive effect that determines how firms respond to a given concentration in the economy. The results highlight that a decline in knowledge diffusion between frontier and laggard firms could be an important driver of empirical trends observed in the data. This study emphasizes the potential of growth theory for the analysis of factors behind declining business dynamism and the need for further investigation in this direction.

  • 2020-boeing.pdf: ⁠, Philipp Boeing, Paul Hünermund (2020-12-01):

    Highlights:

    • Replicates findings in for China and Germany.
    • Provides evidence for a decline in research productivity in both countries.
    • Using firm-level R&D panel data for public and private firms spanning three decades.
    • Strong decline in R&D productivity in China due to end of catch-up growth.
    • Conclusion: ideas are not only getting harder to find in the U.S.

    In a recent paper, Bloom et al 2020 find evidence for a substantial decline in research productivity in the U.S. economy during the last 40 years. In this paper, we replicate their findings for China and Germany, using detailed firm-level data spanning three decades. Our results indicate that diminishing returns in idea production are a global phenomenon, not just confined to the U.S.

  • 2020-pennington.pdf: ⁠, Kate Pennington (2020-11-11):

    San Francisco is gentrifying rapidly as an influx of high-income newcomers drives up housing prices and displaces lower-income incumbent residents. In theory, increasing the supply of housing should mitigate increases in rents. However, new construction could also increase demand for nearby housing by improving neighborhood quality. The net impact on nearby rents depends on the relative sizes of these supply and demand effects.

    This paper identifies the causal impact of new construction on nearby rents, displacement, and gentrification by exploiting random variation in the location of new construction induced by serious building fires. I combine parcel-level data on fires and new construction with an original dataset of historic Craigslist rents and panel data on individual migration histories to test the impact of proximity to new construction. I find that rents fall by 2% for parcels within 100m of new construction. Renters’ risk of being displaced to a lower-income neighborhood falls by 17%. Both effects decay linearly to zero within 1.5km. Next, I show evidence of a hyperlocal demand effect, with building renovations and business turnovers spiking and then returning to zero after 100m. Gentrification follows the pattern of this demand effect: parcels within 100m of new construction are 2.5 percentage points (29.5%) more likely to experience a net increase in richer residents.

    Affordable housing and endogenously located construction do not affect displacement or gentrification. These findings suggest that increasing the supply of market rate housing has beneficial spillover effects for incumbent residents, reducing rents and displacement pressures while improving neighborhood quality.

  • 2020-bhaskarabhatla.pdf: ⁠, Ajay Bhaskarabhatla, Luis Cabral, Deepak Hegde, Thomas Peeters (2020-10-07):

    In this study, we empirically assess the contributions of inventors and firms for innovation using a 37-year panel of U.S. patenting activity. We estimate that inventors’ human capital is 5–10 times more important than firm capabilities for explaining the variance in inventor output. We then examine matching between inventors and firms and find highly talented inventors are attracted to firms that (i) have weak firm-specific invention capabilities and (ii) employ other talented inventors. A theoretical model that incorporates worker preferences for inventive output rationalizes our empirical findings of negative assortative matching between inventors and firms and positive assortative matching among inventors.

    This paper was accepted by Ashish Arora, entrepreneurship and innovation.

  • 2020-cummins.pdf: ⁠, Neil Cummins (2020-10-01):

    I test the assumptions of the Malthusian model at the individual, cross-sectional level for France, 1650–1820. Using husband’s occupation from the parish records of 41 French rural villages, I assign three different measures of status. There is no evidence for the existence of the positive check; infant deaths are unrelated to status. However, the preventive check operates strongly, acting through female age at first marriage. The wives of rich men are younger brides than those of poorer men. This drives a positive net-fertility gradient in living standards. However, the strength of this gradient is substantially weaker than it is in pre-industrial England.

    [Keywords: economic history, historical demography, population, Malthus, fertility, mortality, living standards]

  • 2020-hegde.pdf: ⁠, Deepak Hegde, Justin Tumlinson (2020-09-17; backlinks):

    Why do individuals become entrepreneurs? Why do some succeed?

    We propose 2 theories in which information frictions play a central role in answering these questions. Empirical analysis of longitudinal samples from the United States and the United Kingdom reveals the following patterns:

    1. entrepreneurs have higher cognitive ability than employees with comparable education,
    2. employees have better education than equally able entrepreneurs, and
    3. entrepreneurs’ earnings are higher and exhibit greater variance than employees with similar education.

    These and other empirical tests support our asymmetric information theory of entrepreneurship that when information frictions cause firms to undervalue workers lacking traditional credentials, workers’ quest to maximize their private returns drives the most able into successful entrepreneurship.

    Managerial Summary: Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, Rachael Ray, and Oprah Winfrey are all entrepreneurs whose educational qualifications belie their extraordinary success. Are they outliers or do their examples reveal a link between education and success in entrepreneurship? We argue that employers assess potential workers based on their educational qualifications, especially early in their careers when there is little direct information on work accomplishments and productivity. This leads those who correctly believe that they are better than their résumés show to become successful entrepreneurs. Evidence from 2 nationally representative samples of workers (from the United States and the United Kingdom) supports our theory, which applies to equally to the immigrant food vendor lacking a high school diploma as well as the PhD founder of a science-based startup.

  • 2020-grier.pdf: ⁠, Kevin B. Grier, Robin M. Grier (2020-09-08):

    Highlights:

    • Sustained economic reform statistically-significantly raises real GDP per capita over a 5- to 10-year horizon.
    • Despite the unpopularity of the Washington Consensus, its policies reliably raise average incomes.
    • Countries that had sustained reform were 16% richer 10 years later.

    Traditional policy reforms of the type embodied in the Washington Consensus have been out of academic fashion for decades. However, we are not aware of a paper that convincingly rejects the efficacy of these reforms. In this paper, we define generalized reform as a discrete, sustained jump in an index of economic freedom, whose components map well onto the points of the old consensus. We identify 49 cases of generalized reform in our dataset that spans 141 countries from 1970 to 2015. The average treatment effect associated with these reforms is positive, sizeable, and statistically-significant over 5- and 10- year windows. The result is robust to different thresholds for defining reform and different estimation methods. We argue that the policy reform baby was prematurely thrown out with the neoliberal bathwater.

    [Keywords: reform, Washington Consensus, rule of law, property rights, economic development]

  • 2020-fulford.pdf: ⁠, Scott L. Fulford, Ivan Petkov, Fabio Schiantarelli (2020-08-09):

    What impact on local development do immigrants and their descendants have in the short and long term? The answer depends on the attributes they bring with them, what they pass on to their children, and how they interact with other groups. We develop the first measures of the country-of-ancestry composition and of GDP per worker for US counties from 1850 to 2010. We show that changes in ancestry composition are associated with changes in local economic development. We use the long panel and several instrumental variables strategies in an effort to assess different ancestry groups’ effect on county GDP per worker. Groups from countries with higher economic development, with cultural traits that favor cooperation, and with a long history of a centralized state have a greater positive impact on county GDP per worker. Ancestry diversity is positively related to county GDP per worker, while diversity in origin-country economic development or culture is negatively related.

  • 2020-das.pdf: ⁠, Saptarshi Das, Eric Hittinger, Eric Williams (2020-08-01):

    • Economics of wind and solar face 2 opposing drivers: learning and revenue decline.
    • Reduction in revenue from market forces may offset or even outpace learning.
    • Abatement cost may rise from $46 to $66 (solar) and −$7 to $53 (wind) per tonne of CO2.
    • Subsidy requirement to ensure profitability could increase over time.
    • Integration of substantial amount of wind or solar necessitates new grid technologies.

    The economics of wind and solar generation face 2 opposing drivers. Technological progress leads to lower costs and both wind and solar have shown dramatic price reductions in recent decades. At the same time, adding wind and solar lowers market electricity prices and thus revenue during periods when they produce energy. In this work, we analyze these 2 opposing effects of renewable integration: learning and diminishing marginal revenue, investigated using a model that assumes the status quo with regards to generation technology mix and demand. Our modeling results suggest that reduction in revenue from market forces may offset or even outpace technological progress. If deployed on current grids without changes to demand response, storage or other integrating technologies, the cost of mitigating CO2 with wind will increase and will be no cheaper in the future than it is today for solar. This study highlights the need to deploy grid technologies such as storage and new transmission in order to integrate wind and solar in an economically sustainable manner.

    [Keywords: renewable energy, energy modeling, Marginal abatement cost curve (MACC), energy subsidy]

  • 2020-bessen.pdf: ⁠, James Bessen (2020-08-01):

    Industry concentration has been rising in the United States since 1980. Does this signal declining competition and the need for a new antitrust policy? Or are other factors causing concentration to increase? This paper explores the role of proprietary information technology (IT), which could increase the productivity of top firms relative to others and raise their market share. Instrumental variable estimates find a strong link between proprietary IT and rising industry concentration, accounting for most of its growth. Moreover, the top four firms in each industry benefit disproportionately. Large investments in proprietary software—$250 billion per year—appear to substantially impact industry structure.

  • 2020-roodman.pdf: ⁠, David Roodman (2020-07-30; backlinks):

    A scan of the history of gross world product (GWP) over millennia raises fundamental questions about the human past and prospect. What is the distribution of shocks ranging from recession to pandemic? Were the agricultural and industrial revolutions one-offs or did they manifest ongoing dynamics? Is growth exponential, if with occasional step changes in the rate, or is it superexponential? If the latter, how do we interpret the implication that output will become infinite in finite time? This paper introduces the first coherent statistical model of GWP history. It casts a GWP series as a sample path in a stochastic diffusion, one whose specification is novel yet rooted in neoclassical growth theory. After fitting to GWP back to 10,000 BCE, most observations fall between the 40th and 60th percentiles of predicted distributions. The fit implies that GWP explosion is all but inevitable, in a median year of 2047. This projection cuts against the steadiness of growth in income per person seen in the last two centuries in countries at the economic frontier. And it essentially contra-dicts the laws of physics. But neither tension justifies immediate dismissal of the explosive projection. Accelerating economic growth is better explained by theory than constant growth. And if physical limits are articulated in a neoclassical-type model by endogenizing natural resources, explosion leads to implosion, formally avoiding infinities. The quality of the superexponential fit to the past suggests not so much that growth is destined to ascend as that the human system is unstable.

    [Keywords: endogenous growth; macroeconomic history; gross world product; stochastic differential equations]

  • 2020-sehkhri.pdf: ⁠, Sheetal Sekhri (2020-07-01):

    This paper provides evidence that graduates of elite public institutions in India have an earnings advantage in the labor market even though attending these colleges has no discernible effect on academic outcomes.

    Admission to the elite public colleges is based on the scores obtained in the Senior Secondary School Examinations. I exploit this feature in a ⁠.

    Using administrative data on admission and college test scores and an in-depth survey, I find that the salaries of elite public college graduates are higher at the admission cutoff although the exit test scores are no different.

    Figure 2: Continuity in college exit exam scores at the public college admission cutoff

    vs.

    Figure 3: Discontinuity in reported salary at the public college admission cutoff
  • 2020-mamageishvili.pdf: ⁠, Akaki Mamageishvili, Jan Christoph Schlegel (2020-05-06; backlinks):

    We study optimal smart contract design for monitoring an exchange of an item performed offline.

    There are 2 parties, a seller and a buyer. Exchange happens off-chain, but the status update takes place on-chain. The exchange can be verified but with a cost. To guarantee self-enforcement of the smart contract, both parties make a deposit, and the deposits must cover payments made in all possible final states. Both parties have an (opportunity) cost of making deposits.

    We discuss 2 classes of contract: In the first, the mechanism only interacts with the seller, while in the second, the mechanism can also interact with the buyer. In both cases, we derive optimal contracts specifying optimal deposits and verification policies.

    The gains from trade of the first contract are dominated by the second contract, on the whole domain of parameters. However, the first type of contract has the advantage of less communication and, therefore, more flexibility.

  • 2020-bloom.pdf: ⁠, Nicholas Bloom, Charles I. Jones, John Van Reenen, Michael Webb (2020-04-01; backlinks):

    Long-run growth in many models is the product of two terms: the effective number of researchers and their research productivity. We present evidence from various industries, products, and firms showing that research effort is rising substantially while research productivity is declining sharply. A good example is Moore’s Law. The number of researchers required today to achieve the famous doubling of computer chip density is more than 18 times larger than the number required in the early 1970s. More generally, everywhere we look we find that ideas, and the exponential growth they imply, are getting harder to find.

  • 2020-barth.pdf: ⁠, Daniel Barth, Nicholas W. Papageorge, Kevin Thom (2020-04-01; backlinks):

    We show that genetic endowments linked to educational attainment strongly and robustly predict wealth at retirement. The estimated relationship is not fully explained by flexibly controlling for education and labor income. We therefore investigate a host of additional mechanisms that could account for the gene-wealth gradient, including inheritances, mortality, risk preferences, portfolio decisions, beliefs about the probabilities of macroeconomic events, and planning horizons. We provide evidence that genetic endowments related to human capital accumulation are associated with wealth not only through educational attainment and labor income but also through a facility with complex financial decision-making.

  • 2020-pereztruglia.pdf: ⁠, Ricardo Perez-Truglia (2020-04):

    In 2001, Norwegian tax records became easily accessible online, allowing everyone in the country to observe the incomes of everyone else. According to the income comparisons model, this change in transparency can widen the gap in well-being between richer and poorer individuals. Using survey data from 1985–2013 and multiple identification strategies, we show that the higher transparency increased the gap in happiness between richer and poorer individuals by 29%, and it increased the life satisfaction gap by 21%. We provide back-of-the-envelope estimates of the importance of income comparisons, and discuss implications for the ongoing debate on transparency policies.

  • 2020-sauer-howcameoturneddlistcelebsintoamonetizationmachine.html: ⁠, Patrick J. Sauer (2020-03-17; backlinks):

    These formulas have turned an obscure idea that Galanis and his college buddies had a few years ago about making more money for second rate celebs into a thriving two-sided marketplace that has caught the attention of VCs, Hollywood, and professional sports. In June, Cameo raised $50 million in Series B funding, led by Kleiner Perkins (which recently began funding more early stage startups) to boost marketing, expand into international markets, and staff up to meet the growing demand. In the past 15 months, Cameo has gone from 20 to 125 employees, and moved from an 825-square-foot home base in the 1871 technology incubator into its current 6,000-square-foot digs in Chicago’s popping West Loop. Cameo customers have purchased more than 560,000 videos from some 20,000 celebs and counting, including ’80s star Steve Guttenberg and sports legend Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. And now, when the masses find themselves in quarantined isolation—looking for levity, distractions, and any semblance of the human touch—sending each other personalized videograms from the semi-famous has never seemed like a more pitch-perfect offering.

    The product itself is as simple as it is improbable. For a price the celeb sets—anywhere from $5 to $2,500—famous people record video shout-outs, aka “Cameos”, that run for a couple of minutes, and then are delivered via text or email. Most Cameo videos are booked as private birthday or anniversary gifts, but a few have gone viral on social media. Even if you don’t know Cameo by name, there’s a good chance you caught Bam Margera of MTV’s Jackass delivering an “I quit” message on behalf of a disgruntled employee, or Sugar Ray’s Mark McGrath dumping some poor dude on behalf of the guy’s girlfriend. (Don’t feel too bad for the dumpee, the whole thing was a joke.)

    …Back at the whiteboard, Galanis takes a marker and sketches out a graph of how fame works on his platform. “Imagine the grid represents all the celebrity talent in the world”, he says, “which by our definition, we peg at 5 million people.” The X-axis is willingness; the Y-axis is fame. “Say LeBron is at the top of the X-axis, and I’m at the bottom”, he says. On the willingness side, Galanis puts notoriously media-averse Seattle Seahawks running back Marshawn Lynch on the far left end. At the opposite end, he slots chatty celebrity blogger-turned-Cameo-workhorse Perez Hilton, of whom Galanis says, “I promise if you booked him right now, the video would be done before we leave this room.”

    …“The contrarian bet we made was that it would be way better for us to have people with small, loyal followings, often unknown to the general population, but who were willing to charge $5 to $10”, Galanis says. Cameo would employ a revenue-sharing model, getting a 25% cut of each video, while the rest went to the celeb. They wanted people like Galanis’ co-founder (and former Duke classmate) Devon Townsend, who had built a small following making silly Vine videos of his travels with pal Cody Ko, a popular YouTuber. “Devon isn’t Justin Bieber, but he had 25,000 Instagram followers from his days as a goofy Vine star”, explains Galanis. “He originally charged a couple bucks, and the people who love him responded, ‘Best money I ever spent!’”

    …After a customer books a Cameo, the celeb films the video via the startup’s app within four to seven days. Most videos typically come in at under a minute, though some talent indulges in extensive riffs. (Inexplicably, “plant-based activist and health coach” Courtney Anne Feldman, wife of Corey, once went on for more than 20 minutes in a video for a customer.) Cameo handles the setup, technical infrastructure, marketing, and support, with white-glove service for the biggest earners with “whatever they need”—details like help pronouncing a customer’s name or just making sure they aren’t getting burned-out doing so many video shout-outs.

    …For famous people of any caliber—the washed-up, the obscure micro-celebrity, the actual rock star—becoming part of the supply side of the Cameo marketplace is as low a barrier as it gets. Set a price and go. The videos are short—Instagram comedian Evan Breen has been known to knock out more than 100 at $25 a pop in a single sitting—and they don’t typically require any special preparation. Hair, makeup, wardrobe, or even handlers aren’t necessary. In fact, part of the oddball authenticity of Cameo videos is that they have a take-me-as-I-am familiarity—filmed at breakfast tables, lying in bed, on the golf course, running errands, at a stoplight, wherever it fits into the schedule.

  • 2020-johnson.pdf: ⁠, Paul Johnson, Chris Papageorgiou (2020-03-01):

    We examine the record of cross-country growth over the past fifty years and ask if developing countries have made progress on closing the income gap between their per capita incomes and those in the advanced economies. We conclude that, as a group, they have not and then survey the literature on absolute convergence with particular emphasis on that from the last decade or so. That literature supports our conclusion of a lack of progress in closing the income gap between countries. We close with a brief examination of the recent literature on cross-individual distribution of income, which finds that despite the lack of progress on cross country convergence, global inequality has tended to fall since 2000. ( JEL E01, E13, O11, O47, F41, F62)

  • 2020-wright.pdf: “Slavery and Anglo‐American capitalism revisited”⁠, Gavin Wright

  • 2020-greenberg.pdf: ⁠, Adam Eric Greenberg, Cassie Mogilner (2020):

    Life’s major purchases, such as buying a home or going to college, often involve taking on considerable debt. What are the downstream emotional consequences? Does carrying debt influence consumers’ general sense of satisfaction in life?

    7 studies examine the relationship between consumers’ debt holdings and life satisfaction, showing that the effect depends on the type of debt. Though mortgages tend to comprise consumers’ largest debts, and though credit card balances tend to have the highest interest rates, we found among a diverse sample of American adults (n = 5,808) that the type of debt most strongly associated with lower levels of life satisfaction is student loans. We further found that the extent to which consumers mentally label a given debt type as “debt” drives the emotional consequences of those debt holdings, and compared to the other debt types, student loans are perceived more as “debt.”

    Together the findings suggest that carrying debt can spill over to undermine people’s overall subjective well-being, especially when their debt is perceived as such.

    [Keywords: financial decision making, debt, wealth, subjective well-being, life satisfaction, elite overproduction]

  • 2020-arora.pdf: ⁠, Ashish Arora, Sharon Belenzon, Andrea Patacconi, Jungkyu Suh (2020; backlinks):

    A defining feature of modern economic growth is the systematic application of science to advance technology. However, despite sustained progress in scientific knowledge, recent productivity growth in the United States has been disappointing. We review major changes in the American innovation ecosystem over the past century. The past three decades have been marked by a growing division of labor between universities focusing on research and large corporations focusing on development. Knowledge produced by universities is not often in a form that can be readily digested and turned into new goods and services. Small firms and university technology transfer offices cannot fully substitute for corporate research, which had previously integrated multiple disciplines at the scale required to solve substantial technical problems. Therefore, whereas the division of innovative labor may have raised the volume of science by universities, it has also slowed, at least for a period of time, the transformation of that knowledge into novel products and processes.

  • 2019-scholl.pdf: ⁠, Keller Scholl, Robin Hanson (2019-12-27; backlinks):

    Recently, many have predicted an imminent automation revolution, and large resulting job losses. Others have created metrics to predict new patterns in job automation vulnerability. As context to such claims, we test basic theory, two vulnerability metrics, and 251 O*NET job features as predictors of 1505 expert reports regarding automation levels in 832 U.S. job types from 1999 to 2019.

    We find that pay, employment, and vulnerability metrics are predictive (R2~0.15), but add little to the top 25 O*NET job features, which together predict far better (R2~0.55). These best predictors seem understandable in terms of traditional kinds of automation, and have not changed over our time period. Instead, it seems that jobs have changed their features to become more suitable for automation.

    We thus find no evidence yet of a revolution in the patterns or quantity of automation. And since, over this period, automation increases have predicted neither changes in pay nor employment, this suggests that workers have little to fear if such a revolution does come.

    [Keywords: automation, wages, employment, occupations, artificial intelligence, technology]

  • 2019-bazzi.pdf: ⁠, Samuel Bazzi, Gabriel Koehler-Derrick, Benjamin Marx (2019-12-23; backlinks):

    This article explores the foundations of religious influence in politics and society. We show that an important Islamic institution fostered the entrenchment of Islamism at a critical juncture in Indonesia, the world’s largest Muslim country. In the early 1960s, rural elites transferred large amounts of land into waqf—inalienable charitable trusts in Islamic law—to avoid expropriation by the state. Regions facing a greater threat of expropriation exhibit more prevalent waqf land and Islamic institutions endowed as such, including mosques and religious schools. These endowments provided conservative forces with the capital needed to promote Islamist ideology and mobilize against the secular state. We identify lasting effects of the transfers on the size of the religious sector, electoral support for Islamist parties, and the adoption of local sharia laws. These effects are shaped by greater demand for religion in government but not by greater piety among the electorate. Waqf assets also impose costs on the local economy, particularly in agriculture, where these endowments are associated with lower productivity. Overall, our findings shed new light on the origins and consequences of Islamism.

  • 2019-mckenzie.pdf: ⁠, David McKenzie, Dario Sansone (2019-11-01; backlinks):

    We compare the absolute and relative performance of three approaches to predicting outcomes for entrants in a business plan competition in Nigeria: Business plan scores from judges, simple ad-hoc prediction models used by researchers, and machine learning approaches. We find that (1) business plan scores from judges are uncorrelated with business survival, employment, sales, or profits three years later; (2) a few key characteristics of entrepreneurs such as gender, age, ability, and business sector do have some predictive power for future outcomes; (3) modern machine learning methods do not offer noticeable improvements; (4) the overall predictive power of all approaches is very low, highlighting the fundamental difficulty of picking competition winners.

  • 2021-easterley.pdf: ⁠, William Easterly (2019-09-10):

    is not sufficiently recognized as a founder of ⁠.

    Smith challenged the longstanding assumption that inferior development outcomes reflected inferior groups, and that superior groups should coerce inferior groups to make development happen. Smith made clear that the positive-sum benefits of markets required respecting the right to consent of all individuals, from whatever group. These ideas led Smith to be a fierce critic of European conquest, enslavement, and colonialism of non-Europeans.

    The loss of Smith’s insights led to a split in later intellectual history of pro-market and anti-colonial ideas. The importance of the right to consent is still insufficiently appreciated in economic development debates today.

  • 2019-cowen.pdf: ⁠, Tyler Cowen, Ben Southwood (2019-08-05; backlinks):

    Our task is simple: we will consider whether the rate of scientific progress has slowed down, and more generally what we know about the rate of scientific progress, based on these literatures and other metrics we have been investigating. This investigation will take the form of a conceptual survey of the available data. We will consider which measures are out there, what they show, and how we should best interpret them, to attempt to create the most comprehensive and wide-ranging survey of metrics for the progress of science. In particular, we integrate a number of strands in the productivity growth literature, the “science of science” literature, and various historical literatures on the nature of human progress.

    …To sum up the basic conclusions of this paper, there is good and also wide-ranging evidence that the rate of scientific progress has indeed slowed down, In the disparate and partially independent areas of productivity growth, total factor productivity, GDP growth, patent measures, researcher productivity, crop yields, life expectancy, and Moore’s Law we have found support for this claim.

    One implication here is we should not be especially optimistic about the productivity slowdown, as that notion is commonly understood, ending any time soon. There is some lag between scientific progress and practical outputs, and with science at less than its maximum dynamic state, one might not expect future productivity to fare so well either. Under one more specific interpretation of the data, a new General Purpose Technology might be required to kickstart economic growth once again.

  • 2019-hoynes.pdf: ⁠, Hilary Hoynes, Jesse Rothstein (2019-08; backlinks):

    We discuss the potential role of universal basic incomes (UBIs) in advanced countries. A feature of advanced economies that distinguishes them from developing countries is the existence of well-developed, if often incomplete, safety nets. We develop a framework for describing transfer programs that is flexible enough to encompass most existing programs as well as UBIs, and we use this framework to compare various UBIs to the existing constellation of programs in the United States. A UBI would direct much larger shares of transfers to childless, nonelderly, nondisabled households than existing programs, and much more to middle-income rather than poor households. A UBI large enough to increase transfers to low-income families would be enormously expensive. We review the labor supply literature for evidence on the likely impacts of a UBI. We argue that the ongoing UBI pilot studies will do little to resolve the major outstanding questions.

    [Keywords: safety net, income transfer, universal basic income, labor supply, JEL I38, JELH24]

  • 2019-huising.pdf: ⁠, Ruthanne Huising (2019-06-26; backlinks):

    This paper examines how employees become simultaneously empowered and alienated by detailed, holistic knowledge of the actual operations of their organization, drawing on an inductive analysis of the experiences of employees working on organizational change teams. As employees build and scrutinize process maps of their organization, they develop a new comprehension of the structure and operation of their organization. What they had perceived as purposively designed, relatively stable, and largely external is revealed to be continuously produced through social interaction. I trace how this altered comprehension of the organization’s functioning and logic changes employees’ orientation to and place within the organization. Their central roles are revealed as less efficacious than imagined and, in fact, as reproducing the organization’s inefficiencies. Alienated from their central operational roles, they voluntarily move to peripheral change roles from which they feel empowered to pursue organization-wide change. The paper offers two contributions. First, it identifies a new means through which central actors may become disembedded, that is, detailed comprehensive knowledge of the logic and operations of the surrounding social system. Second, the paper problematizes established insights about the relationship between social position and challenges to the status quo. Rather than a peripheral social location creating a desire to challenge the status quo, a desire to challenge the status quo may encourage central actors to choose a peripheral social location.

    …Some held out hope that one or two people at the top knew of these design and operation issues; however, they were often disabused of this optimism. For example, a manager walked the CEO through the map, presenting him with a view he had never seen before and illustrating for him the lack of design and the disconnect between strategy and operations. The CEO, after being walked through the map, sat down, put his head on the table, and said, “This is even more fucked up than I imagined.” The CEO revealed that not only was the operation of his organization out of his control but that his grasp on it was imaginary.

    [See HBR popularization: “Can You Know Too Much About Your Organization?”⁠, Huising 2019.:

    But as the projects ended and the teams disbanded, a puzzle emerged. Some team members returned, as intended by senior management, to their prior roles and careers in the organization. Some, however, chose to leave these careers entirely, abandoning what had been to that point successful and satisfying work to take on organizational change roles elsewhere. Many took new jobs with responsibility for organizational development, Six Sigma, total quality management (TQM), business process re-engineering (BPR), or lean projects. Others assumed temporary contract roles to manage BPR project teams within their own or other organizations.

    …Despite being experienced managers, what they learned was eye-opening. One explained that “it was like the sun rose for the first time….I saw the bigger picture.” They had never seen the pieces—the jobs, technologies, tools, and routines—connected in one place, and they realized that their prior view was narrow and fractured. A team member acknowledged, “I only thought of things in the context of my span of control.”…The maps of the organization generated by the project teams also showed that their organizations often lacked a purposeful, integrated design that was centrally monitored and managed. There may originally have been such a design, but as the organization grew, adapted to changing markets, brought on new leadership, added or subtracted divisions, and so on, this animating vision was lost. The original design had been eroded, patched, and overgrown with alternative plans. A manager explained, “Everything I see around here was developed because of specific issues that popped up, and it was all done ad hoc and added onto each other. It certainly wasn’t engineered.” Another manager described how local, off-the-cuff action had contributed to the problems observed at the organizational level:

    “They see problems, and the general approach, the human approach, is to try and fix them….Functions have tried to put band-aids on every issue that comes up. It sounds good, but when they are layered one on top of the other they start to choke the organization. But they don’t see that because they are only seeing their own thing.”

    Finally, analyzing a particular work process, another manager explained that she had been “assuming that somebody did this [the process] on purpose. And it wasn’t done on purpose. It was just a series of random events that somehow came together.”]

  • 2019-bouguen.pdf: ⁠, Adrien Bouguen, Yue Huang, Michael Kremer, Edward Miguel (2019-05-13):

    We assess evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on long-run economic productivity and living standards in poor countries. We first document that several studies estimate large positive long-run impacts, but that relatively few existing RCTs have been evaluated over the long run. We next present evidence from a systematic survey of existing RCTs, with a focus on cash transfer and child health programs, and show that a meaningful subset can realistically be evaluated for long-run effects. We discuss ways to bridge the gap between the burgeoning number of development RCTs and the limited number that have been followed up to date, including through new panel (longitudinal) data; improved participant tracking methods; alternative research designs; and access to administrative, remote sensing, and cell phone data. We conclude that the rise of development economics RCTs since roughly 2000 provides a novel opportunity to generate high-quality evidence on the long-run drivers of living standards.

  • 2019-brynjolfsson-3.pdf: ⁠, Erik Brynjolfsson, Daniel Rock, Chad Syverson (2019-05-01):

    We live in an age of paradox. Systems using artificial intelligence match or surpass human-level performance in more and more domains, leveraging rapid advances in other technologies and driving soaring stock prices. Yet measured productivity growth has declined by half over the past decade, and real income has stagnated since the late 1990s for a majority of Americans. We describe four potential explanations for this clash of expectations and statistics: false hopes, mismeasurement, redistribution and implementation lags. While a case can be made for each explanation, we argue that lags have likely been the biggest contributor to the paradox. The most impressive capabilities of AI, particularly those based on machine learning, have not yet diffused widely. More importantly, like other general purpose technologies, their full effects won’t be realized until waves of complementary innovations are developed and implemented. The adjustment costs, organizational changes, and new skills needed for successful AI can be modeled as a kind of intangible capital. A portion of the value of this intangible capital is already reflected in the market value of firms. However, going forward, national statistics could fail to measure the full benefits of the new technologies and some may even have the wrong sign.

    …The discussion around the recent patterns in aggregate productivity growth highlights a seeming contradiction. On the one hand, there are astonishing examples of potentially transformative new technologies that could greatly increase productivity and economic welfare (see Brynjolfsson and McAfee 2014 []). There are some early concrete signs of these technologies’ promise, recent leaps in artificial intelligence (AI) performance being the most prominent example. However, at the same time, measured productivity growth over the past decade has slowed importantly. This deceleration is large, cutting productivity growth by half or more in the decade preceding the slow-down. It is also widespread, having occurred throughout the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and, more recently, among many large emerging economies as well (Syverson 2017).1

    We thus appear to be facing a redux of the Solow (1987) paradox: we see transformative new technologies everywhere but in the productivity statistics.

    In this chapter, we review the evidence and explanations for the modern productivity paradox and propose a resolution. Namely, there is no inherent inconsistency between forward-looking technological optimism and backward-looking disappointment. Both can simultaneously exist. Indeed, there are good conceptual reasons to expect them to simultaneously exist when the economy undergoes the kind of restructuring associated with transformative technologies. In essence, the forecasters of future company wealth and the measurers of historical economic performance show the greatest disagreement during times of technological change. In this chapter, we argue and present some evidence that the economy is in such a period now.

  • 2019-paul.pdf: “Antitrust As Allocator of Coordination Rights”⁠, Sanjukta Paul (backlinks)

  • 2019-sun.pdf: ⁠, Sun Ping (2019-03-26):

    This study examines the use of “algorithms in everyday labor” to explore the labor conditions of three Chinese food delivery platforms: Baidu Deliveries, ⁠, and ⁠. In particular, it examines how delivery workers make sense of these algorithms through the parameters of temporality, affect, and gamification. The study also demonstrates that in working for food delivery platforms, couriers are not simply passive entities that are subjected to a digital “panopticon.” Instead, they create their own “organic algorithms” to manage and, in some cases, even subvert the system. The results of the approach used in this study demonstrate that digital labor has become both more accessible and more precarious in contemporary China. Based on these results, the notion of “algorithmic making and remaking” is suggested as a topic in future research on technology and digital labor.

    [Keywords: delivery workers, food delivery platform, algorithms, labor]

  • 2019-mewes.pdf: ⁠, Lars Mewes (2019-03-01):

    Cities are epicenters for invention. Scaling analyses have verified the productivity of cities and demonstrate a superlinear relationship between cities’ population size and invention performance. However, little is known about what kinds of inventions correlate with city size. Is the productivity of cities only limited to invention quantity?

    I shift the focus on the quality of idea creation by investigating how cities influence the art of knowledge combinations. Atypical combinations introduce novel and unexpected linkages between knowledge domains. They express creativity in inventions and are particularly important for technological breakthroughs. My study of 174 years of invention history in metropolitan areas in the US reveals a superlinear scaling of atypical combinations with population size. The observed scaling grows over time indicating a geographic shift toward cities since the early twentieth century.

    The productivity of large cities is thus not only restricted to quantity but also includes quality in invention processes.

    [Keywords: cities, invention, historic patent data, scaling analysis, atypical knowledge combinations]

    Figure 1: Technological diversity as a function of population size at 3 different levels of technological resolution. Diversity is normalized in A by Dmax for comparability reasons. Scaling relations between population and technological diversity B at the subclass level (Dmax = 654), C at the group level (Dmax = 10,154), and D at the subgroup level (Dmax = 218,570).
    Figure 3: Scaling exponent of diversity with respect to the number of distinct combinations over time. [Note: Dashed lines indicate the 95% confidence interval.]
    Figure 5: Scaling exponent of population size over time for atypical (red line) and typical combinations (blue line). [Note: Dashed lines indicate the 95% confidence interval.]

    …I attribute the growing importance to the opportunities given in large cities. In particular, knowledge diversity in large cities provides opportunities for knowledge combinations not found in smaller and less diverse towns. Beyond diversity, larger cities also concentrate the skills to exploit the given diversity. Inventors in large cities realize a disproportionate number of distinct knowledge combinations, which also affects the exploration of new combinations. Given the cumulative nature of knowledge, wealth, innovation, and human skill, my results suggest a self-reinforcing process that favors metropolitan centers for knowledge creation. Thus, knowledge creation plays a major role for creating and maintaining spatial inequalities.

    Increasing spatial inequalities have profound implications for regional development and policy making. Inequalities unfold in the form of invention activities, as one crucial economic activity that transforms our economy and society. The benefits of knowledge creation in large cities are not shared by all regions and reinforces a widening divergence between large cities—as centers of knowledge exploration–and smaller towns. Given the importance of geography for knowledge generation, it is unlikely that spatial concentration of invention activities will stop. Earlier research, moreover, observes a decreasing productivity of R&D and highlights that more resources and capabilities are necessary to yield useful R&D outcomes (Lanjouw and Schankerman 2004; Wuchty, Jones, and Uzzi 2007; Jones, Wuchty, and Uzzi 2008). Large cities provide the required resources and capabilities in close geographic proximity. Smaller towns lack the requirements to compete, get disconnected, and fall behind. It should be, furthermore, in the interest of policy makers that all places benefit from urban externalities. That is, policy has to consider how to distribute the novelty created in the centers down the urban hierarchy to smaller towns and lagging regions.

    However, much research remains to be done. Why did it take longer for atypical combinations to scale that strongly with city size? Has this process stopped, or will it continue? Moreover, atypical knowledge combinations do not automatically imply a high technological impact or economic value. Thus, it remains unclear precisely how (a)typical combinations relate to the economic performance of cities and how they explain local stories of success and failure.

  • 2019-hjort.pdf: ⁠, Jonas Hjort, Jonas Poulsen (2019-03-01):

    To show how fast Internet affects employment in Africa, we exploit the gradual arrival of submarine Internet cables on the coast and maps of the terrestrial cable network. Robust difference-in-differences estimates from 3 datasets, covering 12 countries, show large positive effects on employment rates—also for less educated worker groups—with little or no job displacement across space. The sample-wide impact is driven by increased employment in higher-skill occupations, but less-educated workers’ employment gain less so. Firm-level data available for some countries indicate that increased firm entry, productivity, and exporting contribute to higher net job creation. Average incomes rise.

  • 2019-quinn.pdf: ⁠, William Quinn (2019-01-29; backlinks):

    This article examines the extent to which Victorian investors were constrained. While previous research suggests that there were relatively few limits on arbitrage, this article argues that short-sales of stocks outside the Official List were indirectly constrained by the risk of being cornered. Evidence for this hypothesis comes from three corners in cycle company shares [during the ] which occurred in 1896–1897, two of which resulted in substantial losses for short-sellers. Legal efforts to retrieve funds lost in a corner were unsuccessful, and the court proceedings reveal a widespread contempt for short-sellers, or ‘bears’, among the general public. Consistent with the hypothesis that these episodes affected the market, this study’s findings show that cycle companies for which cornering risk was greater experienced disproportionately lower returns during a subsequent crash in the market for cycle shares. This evidence suggests that, under certain circumstances, short-selling shares in Britain prior to 1900 could have been much riskier than previously thought.

    …Cycle share prices are found to have risen by over 200% in the early months of 1896, and remained at a relatively high level until March 1897. This boom was accompanied by the promotion of many new cycle firms, with 363 established in 1896 and another 238 during the first half of 1897. This was followed by a crash, with cycle shares losing 76% of their peak value by the end of 1898. The financial press appears to have been aware that a crash was imminent, repeatedly advising investors to sell cycle shares during the first half of 1897. Interestingly, however, these articles never explicitly recommended short-selling cycle shares…Between 1890 and 1896, a succession of major technological innovations substantially increased the demand for British bicycles.37 Bicycle production increased in response, with the number of British cycle companies in existence quadrupling between 1889 and 1897.38 Cycle firms, most of which were based in and around Birmingham, took advantage of the boom of 1896 by going public, resulting in the successful promotion of £17.3 million worth of cycle firms in 1896 and a further £7.4 million in 1897.39 By 1897 there was an oversupply problem in the trade, which was worsened by an exponential increase in the number of bicycles imported from the US.40 The bicycle industry entered recession, and the number of Birmingham-based cycle firms fell by 54% between 1896 and 1900.41

    …The total paid for the 200 shares [by the short-trader Hamlyn] was £2,550, to be delivered at a price of £231.25, for a loss of £2,318.75. To put this loss in context, Hamlyn’s barrister noted that, had he succeeded in obtaining the shares at allotment, the profit would have been only £26.

    Figure 1: Cycle share index vs. subsequent reported dividends, 1895–1898
  • 2019-scott.pdf: “Entrepreneurial Uncertainty and Expert Evaluation: An Empirical Analysis”⁠, Erin L. Scott, Pian Shu, Roman M. Lubynsky (backlinks)

  • 2019-saito.pdf: “Lighthouse Provision in Premodern Japan”⁠, Kuniyoshi Saito

  • 2019-brynjolfsson.pdf: “GDP-B: Accounting for the Value of New and Free Goods in the Digital Economy”⁠, Erik Brynjolfsson, Avinash Collis, W. Erwin Diewert, Felix Eggers, Kevin J. Fox

  • 2019-atack.pdf: ⁠, Jeremy Atack, Robert A. Margo, Paul W. Rhode (2019-01-01; backlinks):

    Recent advances in artificial intelligence and robotics have generated a robust debate about the future of work. An analogous debate occurred in the late nineteenth century when mechanization first transformed manufacturing. We analyze an extraordinary dataset from the late nineteenth century, the Hand and Machine Labor study carried out by the US Department of Labor in the mid-1890s. We focus on transitions at the task level from hand to machine production, and on the impact of inanimate power, especially of steam power, on labor productivity. Our analysis sheds light on the ability of modern task-based models to account for the effects of historical mechanization.

    [Summary by Jack Clark & Matthew van der Merwe:

    Quantifying automation in the Industrial Revolution: We all know that the Industrial Revolution involved the substantial substitution of human labour for machine labour. This 2019 paper from a trio of economists paints a clear quantitative picture of automation in this period, using the 1899 US Hand and Machine Labor Study⁠.

    The dataset: The HML study is a remarkable data-set that has only recently been analyzed by economic historians. Commissioned by Congress and collected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the study collected observations on the production of 626 manufactured units (eg. ‘men’s laced shoes’) and recorded in detail the tasks involved in their production and relevant inputs to each task. For each unit, this data was collected for machine-production, and hand-production.

    Key findings: The paper looks at transitions between hand-labour and machine-labour across tasks. It finds clear evidence for both the displacement and productivity effects of automation on labour:

    • 67% of hand tasks transitioned 1-to-1 to being performed by machines and a further 28% of hand tasks were subdivided or consolidated into machine tasks. Only 4% of hand tasks were abandoned.
    • New tasks (not previously done by hand) represented one-third of machine tasks.
    • Machine labour reduced total production time by a factor of 7.
    • The net effect of new tasks on labour demand was positive—time taken up by new machine-tasks was 5× the time lost on abandoned hand-tasks

    Matthew’s view: The Industrial Revolution is perhaps the most transformative period in human history so far, with massive effects on labour, living standards, and other important variables. It seems likely that advances in AI could have a similarly transformative effect on society, and that we are in a position to influence this transformation and ensure that it goes well. This makes understanding past transitions particularly important. Aside from the paper’s object-level conclusions, I’m struck by how valuable this diligent empirical work from the 1890s, and the foresight of people who saw the importance in gathering high-quality data in the midst of this transition. This should serve as inspiration for those involved in efforts to track metrics of AI progress.]

  • 2019-ager.pdf: “The Intergenerational Effects of a Large Wealth Shock: White Southerners After the Civil War”⁠, Philipp Ager, Leah Platt Boustan, Katherine Eriksson (backlinks)

  • 2018-buterin.pdf: ⁠, Vitalik Buterin, Zoë Hitzig, E. Glen Weyl (2018-12-31; backlinks):

    We propose a design for philanthropic or publicly-funded seeding to allow (near) optimal provision of a decentralized, self-organizing ecosystem of public goods. The concept extends ideas from Quadratic Voting to a funding mechanism for endogenous community formation. Citizens make public goods contributions to projects of value to them. The amount received by the project is (proportional to) the square of the sum of the square roots of contributions received. Under the “standard model” this yields first best public goods provision. Variations can limit the cost, help protect against collusion and aid coordination. We discuss applications to campaign finance, open source software ecosystems, news media finance and urban public projects. More broadly, we relate our mechanism to political theory, discussing how this solution to the public goods problem may furnish neutral and non-authoritarian rules for society that nonetheless support collective organization.

  • 2018-leckelt.pdf: ⁠, Marius Leckelt, David Richter, Carsten Schröder, Albrecht C. P. Küfner, Markus M. Grabka, Mitja D. Back (2018-11-22):

    Beyond money and possessions, how are the rich different from the general population?

    Drawing on a unique sample of high-net-worth individuals from Germany (≥1 million Euro in financial assets; n = 130), nationally representative data (n = 22,981), and an additional online panel (n = 690), we provide the first direct investigation of the stereotypically perceived and self-reported personality profiles of high-net-worth individuals.

    Investigating the broad personality traits of the and the more specific traits of narcissism and locus of control, we find that stereotypes about wealthy people’s personality are accurate albeit somewhat exaggerated and that wealthy people can be characterized as stable, flexible, and agentic individuals who are focused more on themselves than on others.

  • 2018-hasan.pdf: ⁠, Haya R. Hasan, Khaled Salah (2018-06-22; backlinks):

    To date, building a highly trustworthy, credible, and decentralized proof of delivery (POD) systems to trace and track physical items is a very challenging task. This paper presents a blockchain based POD solution of shipped physical items that uses smart contracts of Ethereum blockchain network, in which tracking, and tracing activities, logs, and events can be done in a decentralized manner, with high integrity, reliability, and immutability.

    Our solution incentivizes each participating entity including the seller, transporter, and buyer to act honestly, and it totally eliminates the need for a third party as escrow. Our proposed POD solution ensures accountability, punctuality, integrity and auditability. Moreover, the proposed solution makes use of a Smart Contract Attestation Authority to ensure that the code follows the terms and conditions signed by the participating entities. It also allows the cancellation of the transaction by the seller, buyer and transporter based on the contract state. Furthermore, the buyer can also ask for a refund in certain justifiable cases.

    The full code, implementation discussion with sequence diagrams, testing and verification details are all included as part of the proposed solution.

    [Keywords: proof of delivery, blockchain, Ethereum, smart contracts]

  • 2018-bruhn.pdf: ⁠, Miriam Bruhn, Dean Karlan, Antoinette Schoar (2018-03-07; backlinks):

    A randomized control trial with 432 small and medium enterprises in Mexico shows positive impact of access to 1 year of management consulting services on total factor productivity and return on assets. Owners also had an increase in “entrepreneurial spirit” (an index that measures entrepreneurial confidence and goal setting). Using Mexican social security data, we find a persistent large increase (about 50%) in the number of employees and total wage bill even 5 years after the program. We document large heterogeneity in the specific managerial practices that improved as a result of the consulting, with the most prominent being marketing, financial accounting, and long-term business planning.

  • 2019-henderson.pdf: “CEO Traits and Firm Outcomes: Do Early Childhood Experiences Matter?”⁠, M. Todd Henderson, Irena Hutton (backlinks)

  • 2018-sampat.pdf: “A Survey of Empirical Evidence on Patents and Innovation”⁠, Bahven N. Sampat

  • 2018-maitland.pdf: “Why The Business Case for Diversity Is Wrong”⁠, Ian Maitland

  • 2018-magniberton.pdf: ⁠, Raul Magni-Berton, Diego Ríos (2018-01-01):

    In this article, the authors explore why academics tend to oppose the market. To this intent the article uses normative political theory as an explanatory mechanism, starting with a conjecture originally suggested by Robert Nozick. Academics are over-represented amongst the best students of their cohort. School achievement engenders high expectations about future economic prospects. Yet markets are only contingently sensitive to school achievement. This misalignment between schools and markets is perceived by academics—and arguably by intellectuals in general—as morally unacceptable. To test this explanation, the article uses an online questionnaire with close to 1500 French academic respondents. The data resulting from this investigation lend support to Nozick’s hypothesis.

  • 2018-horowitz.pdf: ⁠, Jonathan Horowitz (2018-01-01):

    What is the worth of a college degree when higher education expands? The relative education hypothesis posits that when college degrees are rare, individuals with more education have less competition to enter highly-skilled occupations. When college degrees are more common, there may not be enough highly-skilled jobs to go around; some college-educated workers lose out to others and are pushed into less-skilled jobs. Using new measurements of occupation-level verbal, quantitative, and analytic skills, this study tests the changing effect of education on skill utilization across 70 years of birth cohorts from 1971 to 2010, net of all other age, period, and cohort trends. Higher-education expansion erodes the value of a college degree, and college-educated workers are at greater risk for underemployment in less cognitively demanding occupations. This raises questions about the sources of rising income inequality, skill utilization across the working life course, occupational sex segregation, and how returns to education have changed across different life domains.

  • 2018-gimpelson.pdf: “Misperceiving inequality”⁠, Vladimir Gimpelson, Daniel Treisman (backlinks)

  • 2018-frakes.pdf: “Microsoft Word - frakes_gruber_nber.docx”⁠, pubdat

  • 2018-cui.pdf: “Pursuing sustainable productivity with millions of smallholder farmers”⁠, Zhenling Cui, Hongyan Zhang, Xinping Chen, Chaochun Zhang, Wenqi Ma, Chengdong Huang, Weifeng Zhang, Guohua Mi, Yuxin Miao, Xiaolin Li, Qiang Gao, Jianchang Yang, Zhaohui Wang, Youliang Ye, Shiwei Guo, Jianwei Lu, Jianliang Huang, Shihua Lv, Yixiang Sun, Yuanying Liu, Xianlong Peng, Jun Ren, Shiqing Li, Xiping Deng, Xiaojun Shi, Qiang Zhang, Zhiping Yang, Li Tang, Changzhou Wei, Liangliang Jia, Jiwang Zhang, Mingrong He, Yanan Tong, Qiyuan Tang, Xuhua Zhong, Zhaohui Liu, Ning Cao, Changlin Kou, Hao Ying, Yulong Yin, Xiaoqiang Jiao, Qingsong Zhang, Mingsheng Fan, Rongfeng Jiang, Fusuo Zhang, Zhengxia Dou

  • 2018-azoulay.pdf: “Funding Breakthrough Research: Promises and Challenges of the "ARPA Model"”⁠, Pierre Azoulay, Erica Fuchs, Anna P. Goldstein, Michael Kearney (backlinks)

  • 2018-aiyar.pdf: “Are Resettled Oustees from the Sardar Sarovar Dam Project Better off Today than their Former Neighbors who were not Ousted?”⁠, times (backlinks)

  • 2017-gard.pdf: ⁠, Elizabeth Townsend Gard (2017-10-02; backlinks):

    [IA blog] Section 108(h) has not been utilized by libraries and archives, in part because of the uncertainty over definitions (eg. “normal commercial exploitation”), determination of the eligibility window (last 20 years of the copyright term of published works), and how to communicate the information in the record to the general public.

    This paper seeks to explore the elements necessary to implement the Last Twenty exception, otherwise known as Section 108(h) and create a Last Twenty (L20) collection. In short, published works in the last 20 years of the copyright may be digitized and distributed by libraries, archives, and museums, as long as there is no commercial sale of the works and no reasonably priced copy is available. This means that Section 108(h) is available for the forgotten and neglected works, 1923-1941, including millions of foreign works restored by ⁠. Section 108(h) is less effective for big, commercially available works.

    In many ways, that is the dividing line created by Section 108(h): allow for commercial exploitation of works throughout their term, but allow libraries to rescue works that had no commercial exploitation or copies available for sale and make them available through copying and distribution for research, scholarship, and preservation. In fact, Section 108(h) when it was being debated in Congress was called labeled This paper suggests ways to think about the requirements of Section 108(h) and to make it more usable for libraries. Essentially, by confidently using Section 108(h) we can continue to make the past usable one query at a time.

    The paper ends with an evaluation of the recent Discussion Paper by the U.S. Copyright Office on Section 108 and suggests changes/recommendations related to the proposed changes to Section 108(h).

    [Keywords: copyright, ⁠, library, archives, museum, Section 108(h), ⁠, orphan works]

  • 2017-nagaraj.pdf: ⁠, Abhishek Nagaraj (2017-07-26; backlinks):

    While digitization has greatly increased the reuse of knowledge, this study shows how these benefits might be mitigated by copyright restrictions. I use the digitization of in-copyright and out-of-copyright issues of Baseball Digest magazine by Google Books to measure the impact of copyright on knowledge reuse in Wikipedia. I exploit a feature of the 1909 Copyright Act whereby material published before 1964 has lapsed into the public domain, allowing for the causal estimation of the impact of copyright across this sharp cutoff. I find that, while digitization encourages knowledge reuse, copyright restrictions reduce citations to copyrighted issues of Baseball Digest by up to 135% and affect readership by reducing traffic to affected pages by 20%. These impacts are highly uneven: copyright hurts the reuse of images rather than text and affects Wikipedia pages for less-popular players greater than more-popular ones.

    The online appendix is available at https: /  / doi.org / 10.1287 / mnsc.2017.2767⁠.

  • 2017-akam-theexquisitelyenglishandamazinglylucrativeworldoflondonclerks.html: ⁠, Simon Akam (Bloomberg News) (2017-05-23; backlinks):

    Alex/John/Mark Taylor belongs to one of the last surviving professions of Dickensian London. Clerks have co-existed with chimney sweeps and gene splicers. It’s a trade that one can enter as a teenager, with no formal qualifications, and that’s astonishingly well-paid. A senior clerk can earn a half-million pounds per year, or more than $650,000, and some who are especially entrenched make far more.

    Clerks—pronounced “clarks”—have no equivalent in the U.S. legal system, and have nothing in common with the Ivy League-trained Supreme Court aides of the same spelling. They exist because in England and Wales, to simplify a bit, the role of lawyer is divided in two: There are solicitors, who provide legal advice from their offices, and there are barristers, who argue in court. Barristers get the majority of their business via solicitors, and clerks act as the crucial middlemen between the tribes—they work for and sell the services of their barristers, steering inquiring solicitors to the right man or woman. Clerks are by their own cheerful admission “wheeler-dealers”, what Americans might call hustlers. They take a certain pride in managing the careers of their bosses, the barristers—a breed that often combines academic brilliance with emotional fragility. Many barristers regard clerks as their pimps. Some, particularly at the junior end of the profession, live in terror of clerks. The power dynamic is baroque and deeply English, with a naked class divide seen in few other places on the planet. Barristers employ clerks, but a bad relationship can strangle their supply of cases. In his 1861 novel Orley Farm, Anthony Trollope described a barrister’s clerk as a man who “looked down from a considerable altitude on some men who from their professional rank might have been considered as his superiors.”…One of the most peculiar aspects of the clerk-barrister relationship is that clerks handle money negotiations with clients. Barristers argue that avoiding fee discussions keeps their own interactions with clients clean and uncomplicated, but as a consequence, they’re sometimes unaware of how much they actually charge. The practice also insulates and coddles them. Clerks become enablers of all sorts of curious, and in some cases self-destructive, behavior.

    …John Flood, a legal sociologist who in 1983 published the only book-length study of barristers’ clerks, subtitled The Law’s Middlemen, uses an anthropological lens to explain the relationship. He suggests that barristers, as the de facto priests of English law—with special clothes and beautiful workplaces—require a separate tribe to keep the temple flames alight and press money from their congregation. Clerks keep barristers’ hands clean; in so doing they accrue power, and they’re paid accordingly. I asked more than a dozen clerks and barristers, as well as a professional recruiter, what the field pays. Junior clerks, traditionally recruited straight after leaving school at 16 and potentially with no formal academic qualifications, start at £15,000 to £22,000 ($19,500 to $28,600); after 10 years they can make £85,000. Pay for senior clerks ranges from £120,000 to £500,000, and a distinct subset can earn £750,000. The Institute of Barristers’ Clerks disputed these figures, saying the lows were too low and the highs too high. But there’s no doubt that the best clerks are well-rewarded. David Grief, 63, a senior clerk at the esteemed Essex Court Chambers, spoke to me enthusiastically about his personal light airplane, a TB20 Trinidad.

    …Before the U.K. decimalized its currency in 1971, clerks received “shillings on the guinea” for each case fee. Under the new money system, the senior clerks’ take was standardized at 10% of their chambers’ gross revenue. Sometimes, but not always, they paid their junior staff and expenses out of this tithe. Chambers at the time were typically small, four to six barristers strong, but in the 1980s, they grew. As they added barristers and collected more money, each chambers maintained just one chief clerk, whose income soared. The system was opaque: The self-employed barristers didn’t know what their peers within their own chambers were paid, and in a precomputer age, with all transactions recorded in a byzantine paper system, barristers sometimes didn’t know what their clerks earned, either. Jason Housden, a longtime clerk who now works at Matrix Chambers, told me that, when he started out in the 1980s at another office, his senior clerk routinely earned as much as the top barristers and on occasion was the best-paid man in the building. · One anecdote from around the same time, possibly apocryphal, is widely shared. At a chambers that had expanded and was bringing in more money, three silks decided their chief clerk’s compensation, at 10%, had gotten out of hand. They summoned him for a meeting and told him so. In a tactical response that highlights all the class baggage of the clerk-barrister relationship, as well as the acute British phobia of discussing money, the clerk surprised the barristers by agreeing with them. “I’m not going to take a penny more from you”, he concluded. The barristers, gobsmacked and paralyzed by manners, never raised the pay issue again, and the clerk remained on at 10% until retirement. · Since the 1980s, fee structures have often been renegotiated when a senior clerk retires. Purely commission-based arrangements are now rare—combinations of salary and incentive are the rule, though some holdouts remain. Goddard told me last summer that he receives 3% of the entire take of the barristers at 4 Stone; later he said this was inaccurate, and that his pay was determined by a “complicated formula.” (Pupil barristers, as trainees are known, start there at £65,000 per year, and the top silks each make several million pounds.) · The huge sums that clerks earn, at least relative to their formal qualifications, both sit at odds with the feudal nature of their employment and underpin it. In some chambers, clerks still refer to even junior barristers as “sir” or “miss.” Housden remembers discussing this issue early in his career with a senior clerk. He asked the man whether he found calling people half his age “sir” demeaning. The reply was straightforward: “For three-quarters of a million pounds per year, I’ll call anyone sir.”

  • 2017-sacerdote.pdf: ⁠, Bruce Sacerdote (2017-05-16; backlinks):

    Despite the large increase in U.S. income inequality, consumption for families at the 25th and 50th percentiles of income has grown steadily over the time period 1960–2015. The number of cars per household with below median income has doubled since 1980 and the number of bedrooms per household has grown 10% despite decreases in household size. The finding of zero growth in American real wages since the 1970s is driven in part by the choice of the CPI-U as the price deflator (Broda & Weinstein 2008, Prices, Poverty, And Inequality: Why Americans Are Better Off Than You Think). Small biases in any price deflator compound over long periods of time. Using a different deflator such as the Personal Consumption Expenditures index (PCE) yields modest growth in real wages and in median household incomes throughout the time period. Accounting for the and estimates of CPI bias yields estimated wage growth of 1% per year during 1975–2015. Meaningful growth in consumption for below median income families has occurred even in a prolonged period of increasing income inequality, increasing consumption inequality and a decreasing share of national income accruing to labor.

  • 2017-levine.pdf: ⁠, Ross Levine, Yona Rubinstein (2017-05-01; backlinks):

    We disaggregate the self-employed into incorporated and unincorporated to distinguish between “entrepreneurs” and other business owners. We show that the incorporated self-employed and their businesses engage in activities that demand comparatively strong nonroutine cognitive abilities, while the unincorporated and their firms perform tasks demanding relatively strong manual skills. People who become incorporated business owners tend to be more educated and—as teenagers—score higher on learning aptitude tests, exhibit greater self-esteem, and engage in more illicit activities than others. The combination of “smart” and “illicit” tendencies as youths accounts for both entry into entrepreneurship and the comparative earnings of entrepreneurs. Individuals tend to experience a material increase in earnings when becoming entrepreneurs, and this increase occurs at each decile of the distribution.

  • 2017-sichel.pdf: ⁠, Daniel E. Sichel (2017-04; backlinks):

    Many products—such as lighting and computing—have undergone revolutionary changes since the beginning of the industrial revolution. This paper considers the opposite end of the spectrum of product change, focusing on nails. Nails are a simple, everyday product whose form has changed relatively little over the last three centuries, and this paper constructs a continuous, constant-quality price index for nails since 1695. These data indicate that the price of nails fell substantially relative to an overall basket of consumption goods as reflected in the CPI, with the preferred index falling by a factor of about 15 times from the mid 1700s to the mid 1900s. While these declines were nowhere near as rapid as those for lighting and computing, they were still quite sizable and large enough to enable the development of other products and processes and contribute to downstream changes in patterns of economic activity. Moreover, with the relative price of nails having been so much higher in an earlier period, nails played a much more important role in economic activity in an earlier period than they do now. [A not yet completed section of the paper will use a growth accounting framework to assess the proximate sources of the change in the price of nails.]

  • 2017-hjorthoj.pdf: “Years of potential life lost and life expectancy in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis”⁠, Carsten Hjorthøj, Anne Emilie Stürup, John J. McGrath, Merete Nordentoft DMSc (backlinks)

  • 2017-glitz.pdf: “Industrial Espionage and Productivity”⁠, Albrecht Glitz, Erik Meyersson (backlinks)

  • 2017-hornbeck.pdf: ⁠, Richard Hornbeck, Daniel Keniston (2017; backlinks):

    Urban growth requires the replacement of outdated buildings, yet growth may be restricted when landowners do not internalize positive spillover effects from their own reconstruction. The Boston Fire of 1872 created an opportunity for widespread simultaneous reconstruction, initiating a virtuous circle in which building upgrades encouraged further upgrades of nearby buildings. Land values increased substantially among burned plots and nearby unburned plots, capitalizing economic gains comparable to the prior value of burned buildings. Boston had grown rapidly prior to the Fire, but negative spillovers from outdated durable buildings had substantially constrained its growth by dampening reconstruction incentives.

  • 2016-kopp.pdf: ⁠, Henning Kopp, Christoph Bösch, Frank Kargl (2016-11-05; backlinks):

    One of the current problems of peer-to-peer-based file storage systems like Freenet is missing participation, especially of storage providers. Users are expected to contribute storage resources but may have little incentive to do so. In this paper we propose KopperCoin, a token system inspired by Bitcoin’s blockchain which can be integrated into a peer-to-peer file storage system.

    In contrast to ⁠, KopperCoin does not rely on a proof of work (PoW) but instead on a proof of retrievability (PoR). Thus it is not computationally expensive and instead requires participants to contribute file storage to maintain the network. Participants can earn digital tokens by providing storage to other users, and by allowing other participants in the network to download files. These tokens serve as a payment mechanism.

    Thus we provide direct reward to participants contributing storage resources.

    [Keywords: blockchain, cloud storage, cryptocurrency, peer-to-peer, proof of retrievability]

    3.4: Fetching Files: In order to fetch a file the client application needs to know the identifiers of the corresponding chunks. The file is restored by retrieving sufficiently many chunks. For successful retrieval not all chunks have to be fetched, depending on the erasure code that was applied before storing the file in the KopperCoin-network. The erasure code solves the problem of missing chunks and storage providers demanding unrealistically high prices for chunk retrieval.

    Fetching chunks works with 2-of-2 multi-signature transactions. These are transactions which can be spent if and only if 2 out of 2 parties agree to spend them. To our knowledge the mechanism was first used by NashX [23].

    Let U be a user who wants to retrieve a chunk which is stored at the provider P. Suppose U wants to pay the amount p for retrieving his file. Then U and P create a 2-of-2 multi-signature transaction where the user U inputs β+p and P inputs α . The amounts α and β are security deposits. In a next step P sends the chunk to U. The user U checks if he has received the correct chunk. In that case he signs a multi-signature transaction with 2 outputs: The provider P gets back his security deposit α, together with the price p for the chunk. In the other output the user U gets back his security deposit β. The process is illustrated in Figure 1. Above the arrows are the amounts and below the arrows are the owners of the respective amounts.

    If U wants to cheat he cannot set his security deposit β to zero or otherwise change the first transaction since this will be detected by the provider P who then refuses to sign. Nevertheless the user U can refuse to sign the 2-of-2 multi-signature transaction after retrieving the chunk, thereby losing his security deposit β.

    If the provider P cheats he can either refuse to send the chunk or refuse to sign the 2-of-2 multi-signature transaction. In both cases he will suffer a financial damage of his security deposit α and not receive the price p for retrieval of the chunk.

  • 2016-donaldson.pdf: ⁠, Dave Donaldson, Adam Storeygard (2016-09-01; backlinks):

    The past decade or so has seen a dramatic change in the way that economists can learn by watching our planet from above. A revolution has taken place in remote sensing and allied fields such as computer science, engineering, and geography.

    Petabytes of satellite imagery have become publicly accessible at increasing resolution, many algorithms for extracting meaningful social science information from these images are now routine, and modern cloud-based processing power allows these algorithms to be run at global scale.

    This paper seeks to introduce economists to the science of remotely sensed data, and to give a flavor of how this new source of data has been used by economists so far and what might be done in the future.

    We group the main advantages of such remote sensing data to economists into 3 categories:

    1. access to information difficult to obtain by other means:

      The first advantage is simply that remote sensing technologies can collect panel data at low marginal cost, repeatedly, and at large scale on proxies for a wide range of hard-to-measure characteristics. We discuss below economic analysis that already uses remotely sensed data on night lights, precipitation, wind speed, flooding, topography, forest cover, crop choice, agricultural productivity, urban development, building type, roads, pollution, beach quality, and fish abundance. Many more characteristics of potential interest to economists have already been measured remotely and used in other fields. Most of these variables would be prohibitively expensive to measure accurately without remote sensing, and there are settings in which the official government counterparts of some remotely sensed statistics (such as pollution or forestry) may be subject to manipulation…

    2. unusually high spatial resolution:

      The second advantage of remote sensing data sources is that they are typically available at a substantially higher degree of spatial resolution than are traditional data. Much of the publicly available satellite imagery used by economists provides readings for each of the hundreds of billions of 30-meter-by-30-meter grid cells of land surface on Earth. Many economic decisions (particularly land use decisions such as zoning, building types, or crop choice) are made at approximately this same level of spatial resolution. But since 1999, private companies have offered submeter imagery and, following a 2014 US government ruling, American companies are able to sell imagery at resolutions below 0.5 meters to nongovernment customers for the first time. This is important because even when a coarser unit of analysis is appropriate, 900 1-meter pixels provide far more information available for signal extraction than a single 30-meter pixel covering the same area. In addition, some innovative identification strategies used by economists exploit stark policy changes that occur at geographic boundaries; these high-spatial-resolution research designs rely intimately on high-spatial-resolution outcome data (for example, Turner, Haughwout, and van der Klaauw 2014)…

    3. wide geographic coverage.

      The third key advantage of remotely sensed data lies in their wide geographic coverage. Only rarely do social scientists enjoy the opportunities, afforded by satellites, to study data that have been collected in a consistent manner—without regard for local events like political strife or natural disasters—across borders and with uniform spatial sampling on every inhabited continent. Equally important, many research satellites (or integrated series of satellites) offer substantial temporal coverage, capturing data from the same location at weekly or even daily frequency for several decades and counting.

      An example of this third feature—global scope—can be seen in work on the economic impacts of climate change in agriculture by Costinot, Donaldson, and Smith (2016). These authors draw on an agronomic model that is partly based on remotely sensed data. The agronomic model, when evaluated under both contemporary and expected (2070–2099) climates, predicts a change in agricultural productivity for any crop in any location on Earth. For example, the relative impact for 2 of the world’s most important crops, rice and wheat, is shown in Figure 5: Costinot, Donaldson, and Smith feed these pixel-by-pixel changes into a general equilibrium model of world agricultural trade and then use the model to estimate that climate change can be expected to reduce global agricultural output by about 1⁄6th (and that international trade is unlikely to mitigate this damage, despite the inherently transnational nature of the shock seen in Figure 5). Given the rate at which algorithms for crop classification and yield measurement have improved in recent years, future applications of satellite data are likely to be particularly rich in the agricultural arena.

  • 2016-gubby.pdf: ⁠, Robin Gubby, David Wade, David Hoffer (2016-05-31; backlinks):

    Approximately 30 satellite launches are insured each year, and insurance coverage is provided for about 200 in-orbit satellites. The total insured exposure for these risks is currently in excess of US$25 billion. Commercial communications satellites in geostationary Earth orbit represent the majority of these, although a larger number of commercial imaging satellites, as well as the second-generation communication constellations, will see the insurance exposure in low Earth orbit start to increase in the years ahead, from its current level of US$1.5 billion. Regulations covering Lloyd’s of London syndicates require that each syndicate reserves funds to cover potential losses and to remain solvent. New regulations under the European Union’s Solvency II directive now require each syndicate to develop models for the classes of insurance provided to determine their own solvency capital requirements. Solvency II is expected to come into force in 2016 to ensure improved consumer protection, modernized supervision, deepened EU market integration, and increased international competitiveness of EU insurers. For each class of business, the inputs to the solvency capital requirements are determined not just on previous results, but also to reflect extreme cases where an unusual event or sequence of events exposes the syndicate to its theoretical worst-case loss. To assist syndicates covering satellites to reserve funds for such extreme space events, a series of realistic disaster scenarios (RDSs) has been developed that all Lloyd’s syndicates insuring space risks must report upon on a quarterly basis. The RDSs are regularly reviewed for their applicability and were recently updated to reflect changes within the space industry to incorporate such factors as consolidation in the supply chain and the greater exploitation of low Earth orbit. The development of these theoretical RDSs will be overviewed along with the limitations of such scenarios. Changes in the industry that have warranted the recent update of the RDS, and the impact such changes have had will also be outlined. Finally, a look toward future industry developments that may require further amendments to the RDSs will also be covered by the article.

  • 2016-mclean.pdf: ⁠, R. David McLean, Jeffrey Pontiff (2016-02-01; backlinks):

    We study the out-of-sample and post-publication return predictability of 97 variables shown to predict cross-sectional stock returns. Portfolio returns are 26% lower out-of-sample and 58% lower post-publication. The out-of-sample decline is an upper bound estimate of data mining effects. We estimate a 32% (58%–26%) lower return from publication-informed trading. Post-publication declines are greater for predictors with higher in-sample returns, and returns are higher for portfolios concentrated in stocks with high idiosyncratic risk and low liquidity. Predictor portfolios exhibit post-publication increases in correlations with other published-predictor portfolios. Our findings suggest that investors learn about mispricing from academic publications.

  • 2016-lu.pdf: ⁠, Qian Lu (2016-01-01):

    Urbanization is a process in which separated and dispersed property rights become concentrated in a specific location. This process involves a large volume of contracts to redefine and rearrange various property rights, producing various and high transaction costs. Efficient urbanization implies the reduction of these costs. This paper studies how efficient urbanization reduces transaction costs in the real world, based on a series of contracts rather than the coercive power. Specifically, this paper shows that Jiaolong Co. built a city by being a central contractor, which acquired planning rights by contract, and signed a series of tax sharing contracts with government, farmers, tenants, and business enterprises. These contractual arrangements greatly reduced the transaction costs and promoted the development.

  • 2016-howes.pdf: “Book review of Ryan Patrick Hanley, ed. 2016, _Adam Smith: His Life, Thought, and Legacy”⁠, Anton Howes

  • 2016-baade.pdf: ⁠, Robert Baade, Victor A. Matheson (2016-01-01; backlinks):

    In this paper, we explore the costs and benefits of hosting the Olympic Games. On the cost side, there are three major categories: general infrastructure such as transportation and housing to accommodate athletes and fans; specific sports infrastructure required for competition venues; and operational costs, including general administration as well as the opening and closing ceremony and security. Three major categories of benefits also exist: the short-run benefits of tourist spending during the Games; the long-run benefits or the “Olympic legacy” which might include improvements in infrastructure and increased trade, foreign investment, or tourism after the Games; and intangible benefits such as the “feel-good effect” or civic pride. Each of these costs and benefits will be addressed in turn, but the overwhelming conclusion is that in most cases the Olympics are a money-losing proposition for host cities; they result in positive net benefits only under very specific and unusual circumstances. Furthermore, the cost–benefit proposition is worse for cities in developing countries than for those in the industrialized world. In closing, we discuss why what looks like an increasingly poor investment decision on the part of cities still receives significant bidding interest and whether changes in the bidding process of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) will improve outcomes for potential hosts.

  • 2016-kuran.pdf: ⁠, Timur Kuran (2016; backlinks):

    In the legal system of the premodern Middle East, the closest thing to an autonomous private organization was the Islamic waqf. This non-state institution inhibited political participation, collective action, and rule of law, among other indicators of democratization. It did so through several mechanisms. Its activities were essentially set by its founder, which limited its capacity to meet political challenges. Being designed to provide a service on its own, it could not participate in lasting political coalitions. The waqf’s beneficiaries had no say in evaluating or selecting its officers, and they had trouble forming a political community. Thus, for all the resources it controlled, the Islamic waqf contributed minimally to building civil society. As a core element of Islam’s classical institutional complex, it perpetuated authoritarian rule by keeping the state largely unrestrained. Therein lies a key reason for the slow pace of the Middle East’s democratization process.

  • 2015-bigi.pdf: ⁠, Giancarlo Bigi, Andrea Bracciali, Giovanni Meacci, Emilio Tuosto (2015-11-20; backlinks):

    Decentralised smart contracts represent the next step in the development of protocols that support the interaction of independent players without the presence of a coercing authority. Based on protocols à la BitCoin for digital currencies, smart contracts are believed to be a potentially enabling technology for a wealth of future applications.

    The validation of such an early developing technology is as necessary as it is complex. In this paper we combine game theory and formal models to tackle the new challenges posed by the validation of such systems [as ].

    …The purpose of BitHalo is to create unbreakable trade contracts without the need of arbiters or escrow agents, lowering substantially the costs for the 2 parties involved in the contract. Since it does not require trust, nothing in the BitHalo system is centralised. It does not require a server, just the Internet. Its peer-to-peer communication system allows the 2 parties to use email, Bitmessage, IRC, or other methods to exchange messages and data. BitHalo is off-blockchain in the sense that the record of BitHalo contracts is not kept in the blockchain, and therefore the use of BitHalo will not bloat the blockchain.

    BitHalo can be used for bartering, self-insuring, backing commodities, performing derivatives, making good-faith employment contracts, performing 2-party escrow, and more general business contracts.

    Transactions are insured by a deposit in one of the supported digital currencies (including BTC) on a joint account, double-deposit escrow. The BitHalo protocol forces each party to uphold the contract in order to achieve the most economically optimal outcome. In a typical contract exchanging a payment for goods or services, the payment can be sent either separately, using checks, money transfer, crypto-currencies, etc., or paid directly with the deposit. The deposit will only be refunded to both parties on shared consent, which has to be expressed by both parties. In the lack of expression of shared consent, the joint account will self-destruct after a time-out. Time limits and deposit amounts are all flexible and agreed upon by both parties. Dissatisfaction about the outcome of the transaction by one of the parties, for instance because of theft or deception, will lead to the destruction of the deposit due to the lack of shared consensus. When the deposit exceeds the amount being transacted, the loss typically results larger than the benefits possibly obtainable by a fraudulent behaviour. However, deposits exceeding the transacted amount may be in some cases unfeasible. In some situations, smaller deposits may incentivize one or both parties to break the contract.

    …As standard, DSCP allows 2 parties, ie. the 2 players of the protocol, to autonomously exchange money against goods without the need of a centralised arbiter. It is worth remarking that the 2 players are completely independent, not subject to any third party authority in the execution of the exchange protocol, and can, for instance, decide to leave the protocol at any time…DSCP is based on the mentioned notion of “enforced trust” in the fact that none of the 2 parties will ever be in a position in which breaking the protocol is for them advantageous. We will see that this, as expected, will be properly enforced only when the deposit, whose payment is a pre-requisite for the execution of the protocol, exceeds the value of the goods.

  • 2015-bronnenberg.pdf: ⁠, Bart J. Bronnenberg, Jean-Pierre Dubé, Matthew Gentzkow, Jesse M. Shapiro (2015-07-15; backlinks):

    We estimate the effect of information and expertise on consumers’ willingness to pay for national brands in physically homogeneous product categories. In a detailed case study of headache remedies, we find that more informed or expert consumers are less likely to pay extra to buy national brands, with pharmacists choosing them over store brands only 9% of the time, compared to 26% of the time for the average consumer. In a similar case study of pantry staples such as salt and sugar, we show that chefs devote 12 percentage points less of their purchases to national brands than demographically similar non-chefs. We extend our analysis to cover 50 retail health categories and 241 food and drink categories. The results suggest that misinformation and related consumer mistakes explain a sizable share of the brand premium for health products, and a much smaller share for most food and drink products. We tie our estimates together using a stylized model of demand and pricing.

  • 2015-wilcox.pdf: “Beer, wine, or spirits? Advertising's impact on four decades of category sales”⁠, Gary B. Wilcox, Eun Yeon Kang, Lindsay A. Chilek

  • 2015-niemesh.pdf: “WIS JHR504 14082.indd” (backlinks)

  • 2015-murray.pdf: “Roundtable of Reviews for _The Half Has Never Been Told_, Baptist 2014 [The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism. By Edward E. Baptist. New York: Basic Books, 2014. Pp. xxvii, 498. 5.00, cloth.]”⁠, John E. Murray, Alan L. Olmstead, Trevon D. Logan, Jonathan B. Pritchett, Peter L. Rousseau

  • 2015-heldring.pdf: “Monks, Gents and Industrialists: The Long-Run Impact of the Dissolution of the English Monasteries”⁠, Leander Heldring, James A. Robinson, Sebastian Vollmer (backlinks)

  • 2014-heald.pdf: ⁠, Paul J. Heald (2014-10-28; backlinks):

    A random sample of new books for sale on Amazon.com shows more books for sale from the 1880s than the 1980s. Why? This article presents new data on how copyright stifles the reappearance of works. First, a random sample of more than 2,000 new books for sale on Amazon.com is analyzed along with a random sample of almost 2,000 songs available on new DVDs. Copyright status correlates highly with absence from the Amazon shelf. Together with publishing business models, copyright law seems to deter distribution and diminish access. Further analysis of eBook markets, used books on Abebooks.com, and the Chicago Public Library collection suggests that no alternative marketplace for out-of-print books has yet developed. Data from iTunes and YouTube, however, tell a different story for older hit songs. The much wider availability of old music in digital form may be explained by the differing holdings in two important cases, Boosey & Hawkes v. Disney (music) and Random House v. Rosetta Stone (books).

  • 2014-zimbeck.pdf: ⁠, David Zimbeck (2014-06-07; backlinks):

    Crypto-currency is a form of decentralized digital currency that has changed the world of finance over the past several years. Bitcoin[6] lacks a central authority and protects anonymity, while allowing a relatively low-cost alternative to fiat. It opens the doors for international exchange of commodities and has the potential to change how business is conducted.

    The signature and scripting system that Bitcoin uses allows for the creation of smart contracts. Also using signatures, it is possible to create accounts that require multiple signatures (multisig accounts) as well as transactions with multiple inputs and outputs. There has been discussion of some of the current weaknesses with smart contracts.

    We address these weaknesses to make smart contracts immediately accessible on the Bitcoin network. As proposed, this protocol offers a system of commitment schemes and business protocols that greatly reduces the issues of extortion and malleability from two-party escrow⁠.

  • 2014-lewis.pdf: ⁠, Tasha L. Lewis, Brittany Haas (2014-03; backlinks):

    The Hermès brand is synonymous with a wealthy global elite clientele and its products have maintained an enduring heritage of craftsmanship that has distinguished it among competing luxury brands in the global market. Hermès has remained a family business for generations and has successfully avoided recent acquisition attempts by luxury group LVMH. Almost half of the luxury firm’s revenue ($1.90$1.52012B in 2012) is derived from the sale of its leather goods and saddlery, which includes its handbags. A large contributor to sales is global demand for one of its leather accessories, the Birkin bag, ranging in price from $12,298$10,0002014 to $307,458$250,0002014. Increased demand for the bag in the United States since 2002 resulted in an extensive customer waitlist lasting from months to a few years. Hermès retired the famed waitlist (sometimes called the ‘dream list’) in the United States in 2010, and while the waitlist has been removed, demand for the Birkin bag has not diminished and making the bag available to luxury consumers requires extensive, careful distribution management. In addition to inventory constraints related to demand for the Birkin bag in the United States, Hermès must also manage a range of other factors in the US market. These factors include competition with ‘affordable’ luxury brands like Coach, monitoring of unsolicited brand endorsers as well as counterfeit goods and resellers. This article examines some of the allocation practices used to carefully manage the Hermès brand in the US market.

  • 2013-creditsuisse.pdf: “Credit Suisse Global Investment Returns Yearbook 2013”⁠, Elroy Dimson, Paul Marsh, Mike Staunton, Andrew Garthwaite (backlinks)

  • 2013-srinivasan.pdf: “Market Research, Wireframing, and Design”⁠, Balaji S. Srinivasan (backlinks)

  • 2012-bloom.pdf: ⁠, Nicholas Bloom, Benn Eifert, Aprajit Mahajan, David McKenzie, John Roberts (2012-11-18; backlinks):

    A long-standing question is whether differences in management practices across firms can explain differences in productivity, especially in developing countries where these spreads appear particularly large. To investigate this, we ran a management field experiment on large Indian textile firms. We provided free consulting on management practices to randomly chosen treatment plants and compared their performance to a set of control plants. We find that adopting these management practices raised productivity by 17% in the first year through improved quality and efficiency and reduced inventory, and within three years led to the opening of more production plants. Why had the firms not adopted these profitable practices previously? Our results suggest that informational barriers were the primary factor explaining this lack of adoption. Also, because reallocation across firms appeared to be constrained by limits on managerial time, competition had not forced badly managed firms to exit.

  • 2012-gordon.pdf: ⁠, Bob Gordon (2012-08-01; backlinks):

    This paper raises basic questions about the process of economic growth. It questions the assumption, nearly universal since Solow’s seminal contributions of the 1950s, that economic growth is a continuous process that will persist forever. There was virtually no growth before 1750, and thus there is no guarantee that growth will continue indefinitely. Rather, the paper suggests that the rapid progress made over the past 250 years could well turn out to be a unique episode in human history. The paper is only about the United States and views the future from 2007 while pretending that the financial crisis did not happen. Its point of departure is growth in per-capita real GDP in the frontier country since 1300, the U.K. until 1906 and the U.S. afterwards. Growth in this frontier gradually accelerated after 1750, reached a peak in the middle of the 20th century, and has been slowing down since. The paper is about “how much further could the frontier growth rate decline?”

    The analysis links periods of slow and rapid growth to the timing of the three industrial revolutions (IR’s), that is, IR #1 (steam, railroads) from 1750 to 1830; IR #2 (electricity, internal combustion engine, running water, indoor toilets, communications, entertainment, chemicals, petroleum) from 1870 to 1900; and IR #3 (computers, the web, mobile phones) from 1960 to present. It provides evidence that IR #2 was more important than the others and was largely responsible for 80 years of relatively rapid productivity growth between 1890 and 1972. Once the spin-off inventions from IR #2 (airplanes, air conditioning, interstate highways) had run their course, productivity growth during 1972–96 was much slower than before. In contrast, IR #3 created only a short-lived growth revival between 1996 and 2004. Many of the original and spin-off inventions of IR #2 could happen only once—urbanization, transportation speed, the freedom of females from the drudgery of carrying tons of water per year, and the role of central heating and air conditioning in achieving a year-round constant temperature.

    Even if innovation were to continue into the future at the rate of the two decades before 2007, the U.S. faces six headwinds that are in the process of dragging long-term growth to half or less of the 1.9% annual rate experienced between 1860 and 2007. These include demography, education, inequality, globalization, energy/environment, and the overhang of consumer and government debt. A provocative “exercise in subtraction” suggests that future growth in consumption per capita for the bottom 99% of the income distribution could fall below 0.5% per year for an extended period of decades.

  • 2012-oboyle.pdf: ⁠, Ernest O''Boyle Junior, Herman Aguinis (2012-02-27; backlinks):

    We revisit a long-held assumption in human resource management, organizational behavior, and industrial and organizational psychology that individual performance follows a Gaussian (normal) distribution.

    We conducted 5 studies involving 198 samples including 633,263 researchers, entertainers, politicians, and amateur and professional athletes.

    Results are remarkably consistent across industries, types of jobs, types of performance measures, and time frames and indicate that individual performance is not normally distributed—instead, it follows a Paretian () distribution. [This is a statistical mistake; they should also test which would likely fit many better; however, this would probably not meaningfully change the conclusions.]

    Assuming normality of individual performance can lead to misspecified theories and misleading practices. Thus, our results have implications for all theories and applications that directly or indirectly address the performance of individual workers including performance measurement and management, utility analysis in pre-employment testing and training and development, personnel selection, leadership, and the prediction of performance, among others.

    Figure 2: Distribution of Individual Performance for Researchers (n = 490,185), Emmy Nominees (n = 5,826), United States Representatives (nn = n = 45,885). Note: for all Y axes, “Frequency” refers to number of individuals. For clarity, individuals with more than 20 publications (Panel a) and more than 15 Emmy nominations (Panel b) were included in the last bins. For panels c–e, participants were divided into 15 equally spaced bins.

    …Regarding performance measurement and management, the current zeitgeist is that the median worker should be at the mean level of performance and thus should be placed in the middle of the performance appraisal instrument. If most of those rated are in the lowest category, then the rater, measurement instrument, or both are seen as biased (ie., affected by severity bias; Cascio & Aguinis, 2011 chapter 5). Performance appraisal instruments that place most employees in the lowest category are seen as psychometrically unsound. These basic tenets have spawned decades of research related to performance appraisal that might “improve” the measurement of performance because such measurement would result in normally distributed scores given that a deviation from a normal distribution is supposedly indicative of rater bias (cf. Landy & Farr, 1980; Smither & London, 2009a). Our results suggest that the distribution of individual performance is such that most performers are in the lowest category. Based on Study 1, we discovered that nearly 2⁄3rds (65.8%) of researchers fall below the mean number of publications. Based on the Emmy-nominated entertainers in Study 2, 83.3% fall below the mean in terms of number of nominations. Based on Study 3, for U.S. representatives, 67.9% fall below the mean in terms of times elected. Based on Study 4, for NBA players, 71.1% are below the mean in terms of points scored. Based on Study 5, for MLB players, 66.3% of performers are below the mean in terms of career errors.

    Moving from a Gaussian to a Paretian perspective, future research regarding performance measurement would benefit from the development of measurement instruments that, contrary to past efforts, allow for the identification of those top performers who account for the majority of results. Moreover, such improved measurement instruments should not focus on distinguishing between slight performance differences of non-elite workers. Instead, more effort should be placed on creating performance measurement instruments that are able to identify the small cohort of top performers.

    As a second illustration of the implications of our results, consider the research domain of utility analysis in pre-employment testing and training and development. Utility analysis is built upon the assumption of normality, most notably with regard to the standard deviation of individual performance (SDy), which is a key component of all utility analysis equations. In their seminal article, defined SDy as follows: “If job performance in dollar terms is normally distributed, then the difference between the value to the organization of the products and services produced by the average employee and those produced by an employee at the 85th percentile in performance is equal to SDy” (p. 619). The result was an estimate of $37,598$11,3271979. What difference would a Paretian distribution of job performance make in the calculation of SDy? Consider the distribution found across all 54 samples in Study 1 and the productivity levels in this group at (a) the median, (b) 84.13th percentile, (c) 97.73rd percentile, and (d) 99.86th percentile. Under a normal distribution, these values correspond to standardized scores (z) of 0, 1, 2, and 3. The difference in productivity between the 84.13th percentile and the median was 2, thus a utility analysis assuming normality would use SDy = 2.0. A researcher at the 84th percentile should produce $37,598$11,3271979 more output than the median researcher (adjusted for inflation). Extending to the second standard deviation, the difference in productivity between the 97.73rd percentile and median researcher should be 4, and this additional output is valued at $75,189$22,6521979. However, the difference between the 2 points is actually 7. Thus, if SDy is 2, then the additional output of these workers is $131,594$39,6451979 more than the median worker. Even greater disparity is found at the 99.86th percentile. Productivity difference between the 99.86th percentile and median worker should be 6.0 according to the normal distribution; instead the difference is more than quadruple that (ie., 25.0). With a normality assumption, productivity among these elite workers is estimated at $112,793$33,9811979 ($37,598$11,3271979 × 3) above the median, but the productivity of these workers is actually $469,974$141,5881979 above the median.

    We chose Study 1 because of its large overall sample size, but these same patterns of productivity are found across all 5 studies. In light of our results, the value-added created by new pre-employment tests and the dollar value of training programs should be reinterpreted from a Paretian point of view that acknowledges that the differences between workers at the tails and workers at the median are considerably wider than previously thought. These are large and meaningful differences suggesting important implications of shifting from a normal to a Paretian distribution. In the future, utility analysis should be conducted using a Paretian point of view that acknowledges that differences between workers at the tails and workers at the median are considerably wider than previously thought.

    …Finally, going beyond any individual research domain, a Paretian distribution of performance may help explain why despite more than a century of research on the antecedents of job performance and the countless theoretical models proposed, explained variance estimates (R2) rarely exceed 0.50 (). It is possible that research conducted over the past century has not made important improvements in the ability to predict individual performance because prediction techniques rely on means and variances assumed to derive from normal distributions, leading to gross errors in the prediction of performance. As a result, even models including theoretically sound predictors and administered to a large sample will most often fail to account for even half of the variability in workers’ performance. Viewing individual performance from a Paretian perspective and testing theories with techniques that do not require the normality assumptions will allow us to improve our understanding of factors that account for and predict individual performance. Thus, research addressing the prediction of performance should be conducted with techniques that do not require the normality assumption.

  • 2012-bloom-2.pdf: ⁠, Nicholas Bloom, Raffaella Sadun, John Van Reenen (2012-02-01):

    US productivity growth accelerated after 1995 (unlike Europe’s), particularly in sectors that intensively use information technologies (IT). Using two new micro panel datasets we show that US multinationals operating in Europe also experienced a “productivity miracle.” US multinationals obtained higher productivity from IT than non-US multinationals, particularly in the same sectors responsible for the US productivity acceleration. Furthermore, establishments taken over by US multinationals (but not by non-US multinationals) increased the productivity of their IT. Combining pan-European firm-level IT data with our management practices survey, we find that the US IT related productivity advantage is primarily due to its tougher “people management” practices.

  • 2011-dube.pdf: ⁠, Arindrajit Dube, Ethan Kaplan, Suresh Naidu (2011-08-11):

    We estimate the impact of coups and top-secret coup authorizations on asset prices of partially nationalized multinational companies that stood to benefit from U.S.-backed coups. Stock returns of highly exposed firms reacted to coup authorizations classified as top-secret. The average cumulative abnormal return to a coup authorization was 9% over 4 days for a fully nationalized company, rising to more than 13% over 16 days. Precoup authorizations accounted for a larger share of stock price increases than the actual coup events themselves. There is no effect in the case of the widely publicized, poorly executed Cuban operations, consistent with abnormal returns to coup authorizations reflecting credible private information. We also introduce two new intuitive and easy to implement nonparametric tests that do not rely on asymptotic justifications.

  • 2011-witkowski.pdf: ⁠, Jens Witkowski, Sven Seuken, David C. Parkes (2011-08-04; backlinks):

    The most prominent way to establish trust between buyers and sellers on online auction sites are reputation mechanisms. 2 drawbacks of this approach are the reliance on the seller being long-lived and the susceptibility to whitewashing. In this paper, we introduce so-called escrow mechanisms that avoid these problems by installing a trusted intermediary which forwards the payment to the seller only if the buyer acknowledges that the good arrived in the promised condition.

    We address the incentive issues that arise and design an escrow mechanism that is incentive-compatible, efficient, interim individually rational and ex ante budget-balanced. In contrast to previous work on trust and reputation, our approach does not rely on knowing the sellers’ cost functions or the distribution of buyer valuations.

  • 2011-agriculturalstatisticsboard-agriculturalpricesmay2011.pdf: “Agricultural Prices (May 2011)”⁠, Agricultural Statistics Board (backlinks)

  • 2011-ziobrowski.pdf: “Abnormal Returns From the Common Stock Investments of Members of the U.S. House of Representatives”⁠, Alan J. Ziobrowski, James W. Boyd, Ping Cheng, Brigitte J. Ziobrowski (backlinks)

  • 2010-schuh.pdf: ⁠, Scott Schuh, Oz Shy, Joanna Stavins (2010-08-31; backlinks):

    and generate an implicit monetary transfer to credit card users from non-card (or “cash”) users because merchants generally do not set differential prices for card users to recoup the costs of fees and rewards. On average, each cash-using household pays $196$1492010 to card-using households and each card-using household receives $1,488$1,1332010 from cash users every year. Because credit card spending and rewards are positively correlated with household income, the payment instrument transfer also induces a regressive transfer from low-income to high-income households in general. On average, and after accounting for rewards paid to households by banks, the lowest-income household ($26,260$20,0002010 or less annually) pays $28$212010 and the highest-income household ($196,954$150,0002010 or more annually) receives $985$7502010 every year. We build and calibrate a model of consumer payment choice to compute the effects of merchant fees and card rewards on consumer welfare. Reducing merchant fees and card rewards would likely increase consumer welfare.

  • 2010-glied.pdf: ⁠, Sherry Glied, Matthew Neidell (2010-03-01; backlinks):

    This paper examines the effect of oral health on labor market outcomes by exploiting variation in fluoridated water exposure during childhood. The politics surrounding the adoption of water fluoridation by local governments suggests exposure to fluoride is exogenous to other factors affecting earnings. Exposure to fluoridated water increases women’s earnings by approximately 4%, but has no detectable effect for men. Furthermore, the effect is largely concentrated amongst women from families of low socioeconomic status. We find little evidence to support occupational sorting, statistical discrimination, and productivity as potential channels, with some evidence supporting consumer and possibly employer discrimination.

  • 2010-rost.pdf: ⁠, Katja Rost, Emil Inauen, Margit Osterloh, Bruno S. Frey (2010-01-12; backlinks):

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse the governance structure of monasteries to gain new insights and apply them to solve agency problems of modern corporations. In an historic analysis of crises and closures it asks, if Benedictine monasteries were and are capable of solving agency problems. The analysis shows that monasteries established basic governance instruments very early and therefore were able to survive for centuries.

    Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses a dataset of all Benedictine abbeys that ever existed in Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, and German-speaking Switzerland to determine their lifespan and the reasons for closures. The governance mechanisms are analyzed in detail. Finally, it draws conclusions relevant to the modern corporation. The theoretical foundations are based upon principal agency theory, psychological economics, as well as embeddedness theory.

    Findings: The monasteries that are examined show an average lifetime of almost 500 years and only a quarter of them dissolved as a result of agency problems. This paper argues that this success is due to an appropriate governance structure that relies strongly on internal control mechanisms.

    Research limitations/implications: Benedictine monasteries and stock corporations differ fundamentally regarding their goals. Additional limitations of the monastic approach are the tendency to promote groupthink, the danger of dictatorship and the life long commitment.

    Practical implications: The paper adds new insights into the corporate governance debate designed to solve current agency problems and facilitate better control.

    Originality/value: By analyzing monasteries, a new approach is offered to understand the efficiency of internal behavioral incentives and their combination with external control mechanisms in corporate governance.

  • 2010-oberholzergee.pdf: ⁠, Felix Oberholzer-Gee, Koleman Strumpf (2010-01-01; backlinks):

    The advent of file sharing has considerably weakened effective copyright protection. Today, more than 60% of Internet traffic consists of consumers sharing music, movies, books, and games. Yet, despite the popularity of the new technology, file sharing has not undermined the incentives of authors to produce new works. We argue that the effect of file sharing has been muted for three reasons. (1) The cannibalization of sales that is due to file sharing is more modest than many observers assume. Empirical work suggests that in music, no more than 20% of the recent decline in sales is due to sharing. (2) File sharing increases the demand for complements to protected works, raising, for instance, the demand for concerts and concert prices. The sale of more expensive complements has added to artists’ incomes. (3) In many creative industries, monetary incentives play a reduced role in motivating authors to remain creative. Data on the supply of new works are consistent with the argument that file sharing did not discourage authors and publishers. Since the advent of file sharing, the production of music, books, and movies has increased sharply.

  • 2009-ferrante.pdf: ⁠, Francesco Ferrante (2009-10-21):

    The idea that expanding work and consumption opportunities always increases people’s wellbeing is well established in economics but finds no support in psychology. Instead, there is evidence in both economics and psychology that people’s life satisfaction depends on how experienced utility compares with expectations of life satisfaction or decision utility.

    In this paper I suggest that expanding work and consumption opportunities is a good thing for decision utility but may not be so for experienced utility. On this premise, I argue that people may overrate their socioeconomic prospects relative to real life chances and I discuss how systematic frustration over unfulfilled expectations can be connected to people’s educational achievement.

    I test the model’s predictions on Italian data and find preliminary support for the idea that education and access to stimulating environments may have a perverse impact on life satisfaction. I also find evidence that the latter effect is mediated by factors such as gender and age.

    Indeed, the model seeks to go beyond the Italian case and provide more general insights into how age/life satisfaction relationships can be modelled and explained.

  • 2009-duarte.pdf: “Frank Ramsey's Notes on Saving and Taxation”⁠, Frank P. Ramsey, Pedro Garcia Duarte (backlinks)

  • 2009-agarwal-slides.pdf: “Microsoft PowerPoint - Age of Reason”⁠, decosta (backlinks)

  • 2009-agarwal.pdf: ⁠, Sumit Agarwal, John C. Driscoll, Xavier Gabaix, David Laibson (2009; backlinks):

    Many consumers make poor financial choices, and older adults are particularly vulnerable to such errors. About half of the population between ages 80 and 89 have a medical diagnosis of substantial cognitive impairment. We study life-cycle patterns in financial mistakes using a proprietary database with information on 10 types of credit transactions. Financial mistakes include suboptimal use of credit card balance transfer offers and excess interest rate and fee payments. In a cross section of prime borrowers, middle-aged adults made fewer financial mistakes than either younger or older adults. We conclude that financial mistakes follow a U-shaped pattern, with the cost-minimizing performance occurring around age 53. We analyze nine regulatory strategies that may help individuals avoid financial mistakes. We discuss laissez-faire, disclosure, nudges, financial “driver’s licenses”, advance directives, fiduciaries, asset safe harbors, and ex post and ex ante regulatory oversight. Finally, we pose seven questions for future research on cognitive limitations and associated policy responses.

  • 2008-hanson.pdf: ⁠, Robin Hanson (2008-01-01; backlinks):

    Human behavior regarding medicine seems strange; assumptions and models that seem workable in other areas seem less so in medicine. Perhaps, we need to rethink the basics. Toward this end, I have collected many puzzling stylized facts about behavior regarding medicine, and have sought a small number of simple assumptions which might together account for as many puzzles as possible.

    The puzzles I consider include a willingness to provide more medical than other assistance to associates, a desire to be seen as so providing, support for nation, firm, or family provided medical care, placebo benefits of medicine, a small average health value of additional medical spending relative to other health influences, more interest in public that private signals of medical quality, medical spending as an individual necessity but national luxury, a strong stress-mediated health status correlation, and support for regulating health behaviors of the low status. These phenomena seem widespread across time and cultures.

    I can explain these puzzles moderately well by assuming that humans evolved deep medical habits long ago in an environment where people gained higher status by having more allies, honestly cared about those who remained allies, were unsure who would remain allies, wanted to seem reliable allies, inferred such reliability in part based on who helped who with health crises, tended to suffer more crises requiring non-health investments when having fewer allies, and invested more in cementing allies in good times in order to rely more on them in hard times.

    These ancient habits would induce modern humans to treat medical care as a way to show that you care. Medical care provided by our allies would reassure us of their concern, and allies would want you and other allies to see that they had pay enough to distinguish themselves from posers who didn’t care as much as they. Private information about medical quality is mostly irrelevant to this signaling process.

    If people with fewer allies are less likely to remain our allies, and if we care about them mainly assuming they remain our allies, then we want them to invest more in health than they would choose for themselves. This tempts us to regulate their health behaviors. This analysis suggests that the future will continue to see robust desires for health behavior regulation and for communal medical care and spending increases as a fraction of income, all regardless of the health effects of these choices.

  • 2008-josephson.pdf: ⁠, Paul Josephson (2008; backlinks):

    [Atlantic summary: Paul Josephson, the self-described “Mr. ”, is probably best at explaining why the fish stick became successful. Josephson teaches Russian and Soviet history at Colby College, in Maine, but his research interests are wide ranging (think sports bras, aluminum cans, and speed bumps). In 2008, he wrote what is the defining scholarly paper on fish sticks. The research for it required him to get information from seafood companies, which proved unexpectedly challenging. “In some ways, it was easier to get into Soviet archives having to do with nuclear bombs”, he recalls.

    Josephson dislikes fish sticks. Even as a kid, he didn’t understand why they were so popular. “I found them dry”, he says. Putting aside personal preference, Josephson insists that the world didn’t ask for fish sticks. “No one ever demanded them.”

    Instead, the fish stick solved a problem that had been created by technology: too much fish. Stronger diesel engines, bigger boats, and new materials increased catches after the Second World War. Fishers began scooping up more fish than ever before, Josephson says. To keep them from spoiling, fishers skinned, gutted, deboned, and froze their hauls on board…Frozen fish, however, had a terrible reputation. Early freezers chilled meat and vegetables slowly, causing the formation of large ice crystals that turned food mushy upon defrosting.

    That all changed in the 1920s, when the entrepreneur developed ⁠, in which food was placed between metal plates. Food froze so quickly that the dreaded ice crystals couldn’t form. But when used on fish, the method created large blocks of intermingled fillets that, when pried apart, tore into “mangled, unappetizing chunks”, Josephson wrote. The fishing industry tried selling the blocks whole, as “fishbricks.” These were packaged like blocks of ice cream, with the idea that a home cook could chop off however much fish she wanted that day. But supermarkets had little luck selling the unwieldy bricks, and many stores even lacked adequate freezer space to display them.

    Success came when the bricks were cut into standardized sticks. In a process that has remained essentially unchanged, factories run the frozen fish blocks through an X-ray machine to ensure they’re bone-free, then use band saws to cut them into slices. These “fingers” are dumped into a batter of egg, flour, salt, and spices, and then breaded. Afterward, they’re briefly tossed into hot oil to set the coating. The whole process takes about 20 minutes, during which the fish remains frozen, even when dunked in the deep fryer.

    In 1953, 13 companies produced 3.4 million kilograms of fish sticks. A year later, 4 million kilograms were produced by another 55 companies. This surge in popularity was partly due to a marketing push that stressed the convenience of the new food: “no bones, no waste, no smell, no fuss”, as one Birds Eye advertisement proclaimed.

    The appeal of fish sticks is somewhat paradoxical. They contain fish, but only that with the mildest flavor—and that fish has been dressed up to resemble chicken tenders. The battered disguise may be needed because, at least in North America, seafood tends to be second-tier. “We’ve mostly considered the eating of fish to be beneath our aspirations”, writes the chef and author Barton Seaver in American Seafood. Traditionally, fish was associated with sacrifice and penance—food to eat when meat was unaffordable or, if you were Catholic, to eat on the many days when red meat was verboten. Fish also spoils fast, smells bad, and contains sharp bones that pose a choking hazard.]

  • 2008-cascio.pdf: ⁠, Wayne F. Cascio, Herman Aguinis (2008; backlinks):

    We highlight important differences between twenty-first-century organizations as compared with those of the previous century, and offer a critical review of the basic principles, typical applications, general effectiveness, and limitations of the current staffing model. That model focuses on identifying and measuring job-related individual characteristics to predict individual-level job performance.

    We conclude that the current staffing model has reached a ceiling or plateau in terms of its ability to make accurate predictions about future performance. Evidence accumulated over more than 80 years of staffing research suggests that general mental abilities and other traditional staffing tools do a modest job of predicting performance across settings and jobs considering that, even when combined and corrected for methodological and statistical artifacts, they rarely predict more than 50% of the variance in performance.

    Accordingly, we argue for a change in direction in staffing research and propose an expanded view of the staffing process, including the introduction of a new construct, in situ performance, and an expanded view of staffing tools to be used to predict future in situ performance that take into account time and context. Our critical review offers a novel perspective and research agenda with the goal of guiding future research that will result in more useful, applicable, relevant, and effective knowledge for practitioners to use in organizational settings.

  • 2007-doran.pdf: ⁠, James Doran, Colbrin A. Wright (2007-01-11; backlinks):

    If publishing an anomaly leads to the dissipation of its profitability, a notion that has mounting empirical support, then publishing a highly profitable market anomaly seems to be irrational behavior. This paper explores the issue by developing and empirically testing a theory that argues that publishing a market anomaly may, in fact, be rational behavior. The theory predicts that researchers with few (many) publications and lesser (stronger) reputations have the highest (lowest) incentive to publish market anomalies. Employing probit models, simple OLS regressions, and principal component analysis, we show that (a) market anomalies are more likely to be published by researchers with fewer previous publications and who have been in the field for a shorter period of time and (b) the profitability of published market anomalies is inversely related to the common factor spanning the number of publications the author has and the number of years that have elapsed since the professor earned his Ph.D. The empirical results suggest that the probability of publishing an anomaly and the profitability of anomalies that are published are inversely related to the reputation of the authors. These results corroborate the theory that publishing an anomaly is rational behavior for an author trying to establish his or her reputation.

  • 2007-schneider.pdf: ⁠, Frederick R. Schneider (2007; backlinks):

    The common law rule against perpetuities maintained alienation of property by voiding interests in property that did not vest within a life in being at the creation of the interest plus twenty-one years. The rule was applied strictly, often producing harsh results. The courts used a what-might-happen test to strike down nonvested interests that might not have vested in a timely manner. During the last half-century, many legislatures have softened the application of the rule against perpetuities by enacting wait-and-see provisions, which require courts to decide cases based on the facts as they actually developed, and reformation, which allowed some nonvested interests to be reformed to save them from invalidity.

    This paper describes the common law rule. Then it traces the modern developments, including promulgation of the widely adopted Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities, which includes an alternate 90 year fixed wait-and-see period to be applied in place of the common law’s lives in being plus twenty-one years.

    The paper continues by exploring the policies which underlie the rule against perpetuities. Then, after finding that there is no substantial movement to repeal the rule except for trusts, it is established that proposals for that federal law, including federal transfer taxes, cannot and should not be used to implement the policies served by the rule itself.

    There is a continuing need for state rules against perpetuities. The paper proposes that the rule be modified to make it more understandable and easier to apply. The proposed rule would replace lives in being plus twenty-one years with a fixed term of years. This would eliminate most of the difficulties encountered in application of the rule. Wait-and-see and reformation are part of the proposed rule. The proposed rule provides for determination of valid interests at the end of the fixed term of year Rule and contains a definition of “vested” to enable judges and attorneys to apply the rule in cases which will arise many years in the future.

  • 2006-mackenzie.pdf: ⁠, Donald Mackenzie (2006-08-23; backlinks):

    The thesis that economics is “performative” (Callon 1998) has provoked much interest but also some puzzlement and not a little confusion. The purpose of this article is to examine from the viewpoint of performativity one of the most successful areas of modern economics, the theory of ⁠, and in so doing hopefully to clarify some of the issues at stake. To claim that economics is performative is to argue that it does things, rather than simply describing (with greater or lesser degrees of accuracy) an external reality that is not affected by economics. But what does economics do, and what are the effects of it doing what it does?

    That the theory of options is an appropriate place around which to look for performativity is suggested by two roughly concurrent developments. Since the 1950s, the academic study of finance has been transformed from a low-status, primarily descriptive activity to a high-status, analytical, mathematical, Nobel-prize-winning enterprise. At the core of that enterprise is a theoretical account of options dating from the start of the 1970s (). Around option theory there has developed a large array of sophisticated mathematical analyses of financial derivatives. (A “derivative” is a contract or security, such as an option, the value of which depends upon the price of another asset or upon the level of an index or interest rate.)

    …Away from the hubbub, computers were used to generate Black-Scholes prices. Those prices were reproduced on sets of paper sheets which floor traders could carry around, often tightly wound cylindrically with only immediately relevant rows visible so that a quick squint would reveal the relevant price. While some individual traders and trading firms produced their own sheets, others used commercial services. Perhaps the most widely used sheets were sold by himself: see figure 2. Each month, Black would produce computer-generated sheets of theoretical prices for all the options traded on U.S. options exchanges, and have them photocopied and sent to those who subscribed to his pricing service. In 1975, for example, sheets for 100 stocks, with 3 volatility estimates for each stock, cost $1,170$3001975 per month, while a basic service with one stock and one volatility estimate cost $59$151975 per month (Black 1975b, “The Option Service: An Introduction”)

    At first sight, Black’s sheets look like monotonous arrays of figures. They were, however, beautifully designed for their intended role in “distributed cognition” (Hutchins 1995a and b). Black included what options traders using the Black-- model needed to know, but no more than they needed to know—there is virtually no redundant information on a sheet—hence their easy portability. He found an ad hoc but satisfactory way of dealing with the consequences of dividends for option pricing (an issue not addressed in the original version of the model), and devoted particular care to the crucial matter of the estimation of volatility. Even the physical size of the sheets was well-judged. Prices had first to be printed on the large computer line-printer paper of the period, but they were then photo-reduced onto standard-sized paper, differently colored for options traded on the different exchanges. The resultant sheets were small enough for easy handling, but not so small that the figures became too hard to read (the reproduction in figure 2 is smaller than full-scale).

    Figure 2: One of Black’s sheets (private papers of Mark Rubinstein; reproduced courtesy of the estate of Fischer Black). The numbers on the extreme left hand side of the table are stock prices, the next set of numbers are strike prices, and the large numbers in the body of the table are the Black-Scholes values for call options with given expiry dates (eg., July 16, 1976) on the Fridays of successive weeks (eg., June 4, 1976). The smaller numbers in the body of the table are the option “deltas” (see text). The data at the head of the table are interest rates, Black’s assumption about stock volatility, and details of the stock dividends.

    How were Black’s sheets and similar option pricing services used? They could, of course, simply be used to set option prices. In April 1976, options trading began on the Pacific Stock Exchange in San Francisco, and financial economist Mark Rubinstein became a trader there. He told me in an interview that he found his fellow traders on the new exchange initially heavily reliant on Black’s sheets: “I walked up [to the most active option trading ‘crowd’] and looked at the screen [of market prices] and at the sheet and it was identical. I said to myself, ‘academics have triumphed’” (Rubinstein 2000).

  • 2006-hong.pdf: ⁠, Harrison Hong, José Scheinkman, Wei Xiong (2006-05-16; backlinks):

    We model the relationship between asset float (tradeable shares) and speculative bubbles.

    Investors with heterogeneous beliefs and short-sales constraints trade a stock with limited float because of insider lockups. A bubble arises as price overweighs optimists’ beliefs and investors anticipate the option to resell to those with even higher valuations. The bubble’s size depends on float as investors anticipate an increase in float with lockup expirations and speculate over the degree of insider selling.

    Consistent with the Internet experience, the bubble, turnover, and volatility decrease with float and prices drop on the lockup expiration date.

  • 2006-lecocq.pdf: ⁠, Xavier Lecocq, Benoît Demil (2006-05-08; backlinks):

    Open systems strategy enables a sponsor to diffuse its technology and promotes standardization in an industry. However, this strategy has been studied in high-tech settings. We hypothesize that, in a non-high-tech industry, a sponsor giving access to its technical knowledge may impact industry structure. Based on a survey of the U.S. (RPG) industry, our results highlight that the introduction of an open system in a sector creates an entry induction phenomenon and that these new entrants adopt more readily the open system than incumbents. Moreover, the average size of the firms in the industry decreases due to vertical specialization.

    Sample and Data: For the purpose of this study we have compared the structure of the RPG sector before and after the introduction of the ⁠. Our comparison is between the 2-year periods of 1998–99 (before the introduction of the d20 license) and 2000–01 (after the introduction of the d20 license). These periods can legitimately be compared, as the U.S. market segment encompassing RPG products did not witness a drastic evolution over these 4 years. 8 After collecting qualitative data on the industry from RPG publications (Comics and Games Retailer, D20 Magazine, Dragon Magazine) and Internet websites (D20 Reviews, Game Manufacturers Association, Game Publishers Association, GameSpy, Gaming Report, RPGA Network, RPGNow, RPG Planet, Wizard’s Attic), we established an exhaustive list of the 193 active U.S. companies publishing RPGs and compiled a database comprising 3 firm variables: age, size (number of employees), and technological system adopted (the open system vs. proprietary systems). These data were collected from company websites. We collected information

    Results: We hypothesized that the introduction of an open system in an industry would favor the arrival of new entrants (Table 1). Hypothesis 1 was strongly supported by our chi-square analysis. The 2000–01 period saw 78 new entrants into the RPG sector, with only 20 new entrants in the 1998–99 period (c2 = 12.35, statistically-significant at the 0.01 level). Of the 78 new entrants in the 2000–01 period, 51 adopted the d20 license (Table 2). This proportion was markedly greater than for incumbents, strongly supporting Hypothesis 2 (c2 = 17.89, statistically-significant at the 0.01 level). New entrants were found to adopt the new open system more readily than incumbents. These new entrants were essentially players and former freelancers operating within the sector who saw the d20 as an opportunity to avoid the prevailing development costs and switching costs for players, and so decided to launch their own company.

    It should be noted that some firms, both new entrants and incumbents, coupled the open system with development of their own proprietary game’s rules of play. Moreover, 27 new entrants did not adopt the d20 license. This figure corresponds roughly to the number of new entrants during the 1998–99 period (i.e., 20). This confirms that the 2 periods (1998–99 and 2000–01) are comparable and that no exogenous variable has drastically modified the economic context of the industry. We can then attribute the new entries in the RPG industry in 2000–01 to the introduction of the d20 license per se.

    We hypothesized that the diffusion of an open system into an industry should lead to a decrease in the average size of companies in that industry. Our ANOVA result strongly supports this hypothesis (F = 8.739, statistically-significant at the 0.01 level). Indeed, even though RPG companies have traditionally been very small, their average size became even smaller after the diffusion of the d20 system (reducing from an average of 5.02 down to 2.76 employees).

    Table 1Table 2: Technological systems adopted by incumbents and new entrants in 2000–01
  • 2005-smilansky.pdf: ⁠, Saul Smilansky (2005-09-01):

    Morally, when should one retire from one’s job? The surprising answer may be ‘now’. It is commonly assumed that for a person who has acquired professional training at some personal effort, is employed in a task that society considers useful, and is working hard at it, no moral problem arises about whether that person should continue working. I argue that this may be a mistake: within many professions and pursuits, each one among the majority of those positive, productive, hard working people ought to consider leaving his or her job.

  • 2005-wu.pdf: “The Economic Burden of Schizophrenia in the United States in 2002”⁠, Wu, et al. (backlinks)

  • 2005-hirschfeld.pdf: “A126_jun05Hirschfeld_S85toS90”⁠, Charlie (backlinks)

  • 2004-ziobrowski.pdf: ⁠, Alan J. Ziobrowski, Ping Cheng, James W. Boyd, Brigitte J. Ziobrowski (2004-12-01; backlinks):

    The actions of the federal government can have a profound impact on financial markets. As prominent participants in the government decision making process, U.S. Senators are likely to have knowledge of forthcoming government actions before the information becomes public. This could provide them with an informational advantage over other investors. We test for abnormal returns from the common stock investments of members of the U.S. Senate during the period 1993–1998. We document that a portfolio that mimics the purchases of U.S. Senators beats the market by 85 basis points per month, while a portfolio that mimics the sales of Senators lags the market by 12 basis points per month. The large difference in the returns of stocks bought and sold (nearly one percentage point per month) is economically large and reliably positive.

  • 2003-ansolabehere.pdf: ⁠, Stephen Ansolabehere, John M. de Figueiredo, James M. Snyder Jr. (2003-12-01):

    Two extreme views bracket the range of thinking about the amount of money in U.S. political campaigns. At one extreme is the theory that contributors wield considerable influence over legislators. Even modest contributions may be cause for concern and regulation, given the extremely large costs and benefits that are levied and granted by government. An alternative view holds that contributors gain relatively little political leverage from their donations, since the links from an individual campaign contribution to the election prospects of candidates and to the decisions of an individual legislators are not very firm. Although these theories have different implications, they share a common perspective that campaign contributions should be considered as investments in a political marketplace, where a return on that investment is expected.

    In this paper, we begin by offering an overview of the sources and amounts of campaign contributions in the U.S. In the light of these facts, we explore the assumption that the amount of money in U.S. campaigns mainly reflects political investment. We then offer our perspective that campaign contributions should be viewed primarily as a type of consumption good, rather than as a market for buying political benefits. Although this perspective helps to explain the levels of campaign contributions by individuals and organizations, it opens up new research questions of its own.

  • 2003-brynjolfsson.pdf: ⁠, Erik Brynjolfsson, Lorin M. Hitt (2003-11-01; backlinks):

    We explore the effect of computerization on productivity and output growth using data from 527 large U.S. firms over 1987–1994. We find that computerization makes a contribution to measured productivity and output growth in the short term (using 1-year differences) that is consistent with normal returns to computer investments. However, the productivity and output contributions associated with computerization are up to 5 times greater over long periods (using 5- to 7-year differences). The results suggest that the observed contribution of computerization is accompanied by relatively large and time-consuming investments in complementary inputs, such as organizational capital, that may be omitted in conventional calculations of productivity. The large long-run contribution of computers and their associated complements that we uncover may partially explain the subsequent investment surge in computers in the late 1990s.

  • 2003-ruhm.pdf: ⁠, Christopher J. Ruhm (2003-07):

    This study uses microdata from the 1972–1981 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) to examine how health status and medical care utilization fluctuate with state macroeconomic conditions. Personal characteristics, location fixed-effects, general time effects and (usually) state-specific time trends are controlled for. The major finding is that there is a counter-cyclical variation in physical health that is especially pronounced for individuals of prime-working age, employed persons, and males. The negative health effects of economic expansions persist or accumulate over time, are larger for acute than chronic ailments, and occur despite a protective effect of income and a possible increase in the use of medical care. Finally, there is some suggestion that mental health may be procyclical, in sharp contrast to physical well-being.

    [Keywords: Health status, Morbidity, Macroeconomic conditions.]

  • 2003-gaspard.pdf: ⁠, Marion Gaspard (2003-01-01):

    In the December 1928 issue of the Economic Journal, Frank Ramsey asked the question “how much of its income should a nation save?” Few of the Cambridge economists of the 1930s were convinced by his highly formalized answer. His contribution sank quickly into oblivion, remaining there for about thirty-five years. In the 1960s, the success of the Hamiltonian formalism and the increasing interest for optimal growth led on the contrary to a quasi “natural” use of Ramsey’s former intuitions. These mathematical tools became so widespread that, a few years later, new classical macroeconomics uses a new interpretation of the “à la Ramsey” models, within the setting of representative agent models, in order to bypass the Arrow and Sonnenschein-Mantel-Debreu “impossibility results.” The “à la Ramsey” model is the backbone of modern new classical macroeconomics. It is thus not surprising that these successive moves in macro-economic theory came to foster a slanted interpretation of Ramsey’s 1928 article. In this respect, Roger E. A. Farmer’s point of view is representative of the retrospective tribute sometimes paid to Ramsey’s article:

    F. Ramsey was one of the first economists to study how an infinitely lived agent should allocate his resources over time. His work was at the forefront of mathematical economics at the time it was written but his approach has now become a standard part of graduate macroeconomic courses. Many applications of Ramsey’s work assume that there is only one agent in the economy and that this representative agent can be thought of as a stand-in for the workings of the market mechanism (Farmer 1993, p. 77).

  • 2002-skidmore.pdf: ⁠, Mark Skidmore, Hideki Toya (2002-10-01; backlinks):

    In this article, we investigate the long-run relationships among disasters, capital accumulation, total factor productivity, and economic growth.

    The cross-country empirical analysis demonstrates that higher frequencies of climatic disasters are correlated with higher rates of human capital accumulation, increases in total factor productivity, and economic growth.

    Though disaster risk reduces the expected rate of return to physical capital, risk also serves to increase the relative return to human capital. Thus, physical capital investment may fall, but there is also a substitution toward human capital investment. Disasters also provide the impetus to update the capital stock and adopt new technologies, leading to improvements in total factor productivity.

  • 2001-costa.pdf: ⁠, Dora L. Costa (2001-12; backlinks):

    This paper provides the first estimates of overall CPI bias prior to the 1970s and new estimates of bias since the 1970s. It finds that annual CPI bias was −0.1% between 1888 and 1919 and rose to 0.7% between 1919 and 1935. Annual CPI bias was 0.4% in the 1960s and then rose to 2.7% between 1972 and 1982 before falling to 0.6% between 1982 and 1994. The findings imply that we have underestimated growth rates in true income in the 1920s and 1930s and in the 1970s.

  • 2001-fehr.pdf: ⁠, Ernst Fehr, Simon Gächter (2001-11-05; backlinks):

    In this paper we provide experimental evidence indicating that incentive contracts may cause a strong crowding out of voluntary cooperation. This crowding-out effect constitutes costs of incentive provision that have been largely neglected by economists. In our experiments the crowding-out effect is so strong that the incentive contracts are less efficient than contracts without any incentives. Principals, nonetheless, prefer the incentive contracts because they allow them to appropriate a much larger share of the (smaller) total surplus and are, hence, more profitable for them.

  • 2001-bertrand.pdf: ⁠, Marianne Bertrand, Sendhil Mullainathan (2001-08-01; backlinks):

    The contracting view of CEO pay assumes that pay is used by shareholders to solve an agency problem. Simple models of the contracting view predict that pay should not be tied to luck, where luck is defined as observable shocks to performance beyond the CEO’s control.

    Using several measures of luck, we find that CEO pay in fact responds as much to a lucky dollar as to a general dollar.

    A skimming model, where the CEO has captured the pay-setting process, is consistent with this fact. Because some complications to the contracting view could also generate pay for luck, we test for skimming directly by examining the effect of governance. Consistent with skimming, we find that better-governed firms pay their CEO less for luck.

  • 2001-warner.pdf: ⁠, John T. Warner, Saul Pleeter (2001-03; backlinks):

    The military drawdown program of the early 1990’s provides an opportunity to obtain estimates of personal discount rates based on large numbers of people making real choices involving large sums. The program offered over 65,000 separatees the choice between an annuity and a lump-sum payment. Despite break-even discount rates exceeding 17%, most of the separatees selected the lump sum—saving taxpayers $2.70$1.72001 billion in separation costs. Estimates of discount rates range from 0 to over 30% and vary with education, age, race, sex, number of dependents, ability test score, and the size of payment.

  • 2001-macfarquhar.pdf: “The Bench Burner: How did a judge with such subversive ideas become a leading influence on American legal opinion?”⁠, Larissa MacFarquhar

  • 2000-hanson.pdf: ⁠, Robin Hanson (2000-12; backlinks):

    A world product time series covering two million years is well fit by either a sum of four exponentials, or a constant elasticity of substitution (CES) combination of three exponential growth modes: “hunting”, “farming”, and “industry.” The CES parameters suggest that farming substituted for hunting, while industry complemented farming, making the industrial revolution a smoother transition. Each mode grew world product by a factor of a few hundred, and grew a hundred times faster than its predecessor. This weakly suggests that within the next century a new mode might appear with a doubling time measured in days, not years.

  • 2000-brynjolfsson.pdf: ⁠, Erik Brynjolfsson, Lorin M. Hitt (2000-09-01; backlinks):

    To understand the economic value of computers, one must broaden the traditional definition of both the technology and its effects. Case studies and firm-level econometric evidence suggest that: 1) organizational “investments” have a large influence on the value of IT investments; and 2) the benefits of IT investment are often intangible and disproportionately difficult to measure. Our analysis suggests that the link between IT and increased productivity emerged well before the recent surge in the aggregate productivity statistics and that the current macroeconomic productivity revival may in part reflect the contributions of intangible capital accumulated in the past.

  • 2000-delong.pdf: ⁠, J. Bradford DeLong (2000-03-01; backlinks):

    There is one central fact about the economic history of the twentieth century: above all, the century just past has been the century of increasing material wealth and economic productivity. No previous era and no previous economy has seen material wealth and productive potential grow at such a pace. The bulk of America’s population today achieves standards of material comfort and capabilities that were beyond the reach of even the richest of previous centuries. Even lower middle-class households in relatively poor countries have today material standards of living that would make them, in many respects, the envy of the powerful and lordly of past centuries.

  • 1999-prendergast.pdf: ⁠, Canice Prendergast (1999-03-01; backlinks):

    This paper provides an overview of the existing theoretical and empirical work on the provision of incentives. It reviews the costs and benefits of many types of pay-for-performance, such as piece rates, promotions, and long-term incentives. The main conclusions are (i) while there is considerable evidence that individuals respond to pay-for-performance, there is less evidence that contracts are designed as predicted by the theory, (ii) there has been little progress made in distinguishing amongst plausible theories, and (iii) we still know little about how incentives are provided to workers whose output is difficult to measure.

  • 1999-kohn.pdf: “Medieval and Early Modern Coinage and its Problems”⁠, Meir Kohn (backlinks)

  • 1998-brynjolfsson.pdf: ⁠, Erik Brynjolfsson, Lorin M. Hitt (1998-08-01; backlinks):

    What We Now Know About Computers and Productivity: Research on computers and productivity is entering a new phase. While the first wave of studies sought to document the relationship between investments in computers and increases in productivity, new research is focusing on how to make more computerization effective. Computerization does not automatically increase productivity, but it is an essential component of a broader system of organizational changes which does increase productivity. As the impact of computers becomes greater and more pervasive, it is increasingly important to consider these organizational changes as an integral part of the computerization process.

    This is not the first time that a major general purpose technology like computers required an expensive and time-consuming period of restructuring. Substantial productivity improvement from electric motors did not emerge until almost 40 years after their introduction into factories ⁠. The first use involved swapping gargantuan motors for large steam engines with no redesign of work processes. The big productivity gains came when engineers realized that the factory layout no longer had to be dictated by the placement of power transmitting shafts and rods. They re-engineered the factory so that machines were distributed throughout the factory, each driven by a separate, small electric motor. This made it possible to arrange the machines in accordance with the logic of work flow instead of in proximity to the central power unit.

    It has also taken some time for businesses to realize the transformative potential of information technology to revolutionize work. However, the statistical evidence suggests that revolution is occurring much more quickly this time.

  • 1998-hamilton.pdf: ⁠, Bruce W. Hamilton (1998-05-19; backlinks):

    This first purpose of this paper is to utilize the PSID to see whether the anomalies of Figure 1 and Figure 2 can be attributed to some non-CPI cause such as demographics or changes in the distribution of income. The second purpose is to offer a more refined estimate of CPI bias. Third, I will present evidence of strikingly different inflation rates by race. Using the PSID, I estimate a demand function for food at home for 1974 through 1991. Using a standard measure of real income (total family income after federal taxes, the PSID’s best continuously available approximation of disposable income)10 deflated by the CPI, this demand function has shown consistent drift over the sample period; I attribute this drift to unmeasured growth in real income, and in turn I attribute the mismeasurement of income to CPI bias.

    In a nutshell, the results are as follows: On average, in 1974 the PSID sample11 of white households spent 16.64% of its income on at-home food. By 1991 this share had fallen to 12.04%. Measured per-household income grew 7% over this time span, explaining just over half a point of the food-share decline. Decline in the relative CPI of food is sufficient to explain perhaps as much as 1 percentage point of decline in food’s share. Other regressors accounts for less than 0.1 point of additional decline; thus about 3 points of the food-share decline are left to be explained by CPI bias. I estimate that this bias is about 2.5% per year from 1974 through 1981, and slightly under 1% per year since then.

    For blacks, food’s share fell from 21.17% to 12.44%. Approximately 0.8 point of the decline can be explained by measured income growth, and another point by movement in other regressors, and up to another 1 point by the decline in the food CPI. Thus the food-share decline left to be explained by measurement error is 5.9 points. I estimate the bias to be approximately 4% per year from 1974 through 1981 and about 3% per year since then.

  • 1998-noah.pdf: “Essays in learning and the revelation of private information”⁠, Robert Bruce Noah, David Hirshleifer (backlinks)

  • 1998-iannaccone.pdf: “Introduction to the Economics of Religion”⁠, Laurence R. Iannaccone (backlinks)

  • 1998-delong.pdf: ⁠, J. Bradford DeLong (1998-01-01; backlinks):

    I construct estimates of world GDP over the very long run by combining estimates of total human populations with estimates of levels of real GDP per capita.

  • 1996-dempsey.pdf: ⁠, Paul Stephen Dempsey (1996; backlinks):

    During the last fifteen years, Congress has deregulated, wholly or partly, a number of infrastructure industries, including most modes of transport—airlines, motor carriers, railroads, and intercity bus companies. Deregulation emerged in a comprehensive ideological movement which abhorred governmental pricing and entry controls as manifestly causing waste and inefficiency, while denying consumers the range of price and service options they desire.

    In a nation dedicated to free market capitalism, governmental restraints on the freedom to enter into a business or allowing the competitive market to set the price seem fundamentally at odds with immutable notions of economic liberty. While in the late 19th and early 20th Century, market failure gave birth to economic regulation of infrastructure industries, today, we live in an era where the conventional wisdom is that government can do little good and the market can do little wrong.

    Despite this passionate and powerful contemporary political/economic ideological movement, one mode of transportation has come full circle from regulation, through deregulation, and back again to regulation—the taxi industry. American cities began regulating local taxi firms in the 1920s. Beginning a half century later, more than 20 cities, most located in the Sunbelt, totally or partially deregulated their taxi companies. However, the experience with taxicab deregulation was so profoundly unsatisfactory that virtually every city that embraced it has since jettisoned it in favor of resumed economic regulation.

    Today, nearly all large and medium-sized communities regulate their local taxicab companies. Typically, regulation of taxicabs involves: (1) limited entry (restricting the number of firms, and/or the ratio of taxis to population), usually under a standard of “public convenience and necessity”, [PC&N] (2) just, reasonable, and non-discriminatory fares, (3) service standards (eg., vehicular and driver safety standards, as well as a common carrier obligation of non-discriminatory service, 24-hour radio dispatch capability, and a minimum level of response time), and (4) financial responsibility standards (eg., insurance).

    This article explores the legal, historical, economic, and philosophical bases of regulation and deregulation in the taxi industry, as well as the empirical results of taxi deregulation. The paradoxical metamorphosis from regulation, to deregulation, and back again, to regulation is an interesting case study of the collision of economic theory and ideology, with empirical reality. We begin with a look at the historical origins of taxi regulation.

    [Keywords: Urban Transportation, Taxi Industry, Common Carrier, Mass Transit, Taxi Industry Regulation, Taxi Deregulation, Reregulation, Taxicab Ordinance, PUC, Open Entry, Reglated Entry, Operating Efficiency, Destructive Competition, Regulated Competition, Cross Subsidy, Cream Skimming, PC&N, Pollution, Cabs]

  • 1995-bendavid.pdf: ⁠, Dan Ben-David, David H. Papell (1995-12-01; backlinks):

    The ‘stylized fact’ that growth rates remain constant over the long run was a fundamental feature of postwar growth theory.

    Using recently developed tests for structural change in univariate time series, we determine whether, and when, a break in growth rates exists for 16 countries.

    We find that most countries exhibited fairly steady growth for a period lasting several decades, terminated by a statistically-significant, and sudden, drop in GDP levels. Following the break, per capita output in most countries continued to grow at roughly double their prebreak rates for many decades, even after their original growth path had been surpassed.

  • 1995-carr.pdf: “Stability in the Absence of Deposit Insurance: The Canadian Banking System, 1890-1966”⁠, Jack Carr, Frank Mathewson, Neil Quigley

  • 1993-shiller.pdf: ⁠, Robert J. Shiller (1993-07-01; backlinks):

    Two proposals are made that may facilitate the creation of derivative market instruments, such as futures contracts, cash settled based on economic indices.

    The first proposal concerns index number construction: indices based on infrequent measurements of nonstandardized items may control for quality change by using a hedonic repeated measures method, an index number construction method that follows individual assets or subjects through time and also takes account of measured quality variables.

    The second proposal is to establish markets for perpetual claims on cash flows matching indices of dividends or rents. Such markets may help us to measure the prices of the assets generating these dividends or rents even when the underlying asset prices are difficult or impossible to observe directly. A contract is proposed that would cash settle every day in terms of both the change in the futures price and the dividend or rent index for that day.

  • 1992-agriculturalstatisticsboard-agriculturalpricesdecember1992.pdf: “Agricultural Prices (December 1992)”⁠, Agricultural Statistics Board (backlinks)

  • 1991-simon.pdf: ⁠, Herbert A. Simon (1991-01-01; backlinks):

    The economies of modern industrialized society can more appropriately be labeled organizational economies than market economies. Thus, even market-driven capitalist economies need a theory of organizations as much as they need a theory of markets. The attempts of the new institutional economics to explain organizational behavior solely in terms of agency, asymmetric information, transaction costs, opportunism, and other concepts drawn from neoclassical economics ignore key organizational mechanisms like authority, identification, and coordination, and hence are seriously incomplete. The theory presented here is simple and coherent, resting on only a few mechanisms that are causally linked. Better yet, it agrees with empirical observations of organizational phenomena. Large organizations, especially governmental ones, are often caricatured as “bureaucracies,” but they are often highly effective systems, despite the fact that the profit motive can penetrate these vast structures only by indirect means.

  • 1990-bauer.pdf: “Millers and Grinders: Technology and Household Economy in Meso-America”⁠, Arnold J. Bauer (backlinks)

  • 1990-david.pdf: ⁠, Paul A. David (1990-05-01; backlinks):

    Many observers of recent trends in the industrialized economies of the West have been perplexed by the conjecture of rapid technological innovation with disappointingly slow gains in measured productivity. A generation of economists who were brought up to identify increases in total factor productivity indexes with “technical progress” has found it quite paradoxical for the growth accountants’ residual measure of “the advance of knowledge” to have vanished at the very same time that a wave of major innovations was appearing-in microelectronics, in communications technologies based on lasers and fiber optics, in composite materials, and in biotechnology…This latter aspect of the so-called “productivity paradox” attained popular currency in the succinct formulation attributed to Robert Solow: “We see the computers everywhere but in the productivity statistics.”

    …If, however, we are prepared to approach the matter from the perspective afforded by the economic history of the large technical systems characteristic of network industries, and to keep in mind a time-scale appropriate for thinking about transitions from established technological regimes to their respective successor regimes, many features of the so-called productivity paradox will be found to be neither so unprecedented nor so puzzling as they might otherwise appear.

    …Computer and dynamo each form the nodal elements of physically distributed (transmission) networks. Both occupy key positions in a web of strongly complementary technical relationships that give rise to “network externality effects” of various kinds, and so make issues of compatibility standardization important for business strategy and public policy (see my 1987 paper and my paper with Julie Bunn, 1988). In both instances, we can recognize the emergence of an extended trajectory of incremental technical improvements, the gradual and protracted process of diffusion into widespread use, and the confluence with other streams of technological innovation, all of which are interdependent features of the dynamic process through which a general purpose engine acquires a broad domain of specific applications (see Timothy Bresnahan and Manuel Trajtenberg, 1989). Moreover, each of the principal empirical phenomena that make up modem perceptions of a productivity paradox had its striking historical precedent in the conditions that obtained a little less than a century ago in the industrialized West, including the pronounced slowdown in industrial and aggregate productivity growth experienced during the 1890–1913 era by the two leading industrial countries, Britain and the United States (see my 1989 paper, pp. 12–15, for details). In 1900, contemporary observers well might have remarked that the electric dynamos were to be seen “everywhere but in the productivity statistics!”

  • 1989-david.pdf: ⁠, Paul A. David (1989-07-01; backlinks):

    Many observers of contemporary economic trends have been perplexed by the contemporary conjuncture of rapid technological innovation with disappointingly slow gains in measured productivity. The purpose of this essay is to show modern economists, and others who share their puzzlement in this matter, the direct relevance to their concerns of historical studies that trace the evolution of techno-economic regimes formed around “general purpose engines”. For this purpose an explicit parallel is drawn between two such engines—the computer and the dynamo. Although the analogy between information technology and electrical technology would have many limitations were it to be interpreted very literally, it nevertheless proves illuminating. Each of the principal empirical phenomena that go to make up modern perceptions of a “productivity paradox”, had a striking historical precedent in the conditions that obtained a little less than a century ago in the industrialized West. In 1900 contemporaries might well have said that the electric dynamos were to be seen “everywhere but in the economic statistics”. Exploring the reasons for that state of affairs, and the features of commonality between computer and dynamo—particularly in the dynamics of their diffusion and their incremental improvement, and the problems of capturing their initial effects with conventional productivity measures—provides some clues to help understand our current situation. The paper stresses the importance of keeping an appropriately long time-frame in mind when discussing the connections between the information revolution and productivity growth, as well as appreciating the contingent, path-dependent nature of the process of transition between one techno-economic regime and the next.

    [Keywords: productivity slowdown; diffusion of innovations; economics of technology; information technology; electric power industry]

  • 1988-gehr.pdf: ⁠, Adam K. Gehr Jr. (1988-02-01; backlinks):

    This article discusses the mechanics, economics, advantages and disadvantages of undated futures markets with specific reference to the Chinese Gold and Silver Exchange Society of Hong Kong (CGSES). It also suggests a potential application of undated futures markets to the trading of stock index futures.

    An undated futures market is an alternative to conventional futures markets. In conventional futures markets contracts mature at selected times during the year. Several contracts with different maturity dates trade simultaneously. In an undated futures market only a single contract trades, but that contract can serve the hedging purposes of the multiple contracts traded in a dated market. The CGSES is of interest both as a curiosum and as an example of a potentially valuable form of futures market.

    The following section of this paper describes the operation of an undated futures market and the specific mechanics of trading on the CGSES. Sections II and III discuss the economics of price determination and hedging in undated futures markets. Section IV describes the advantages of undated futures markets to futures traders and points out potential problems in certain applications. Section V shows how such markets might be adapted to the US, especially for trading futures on a stock index or on other indices, and Section VI is a conclusion. [See also "".]

  • 1987-rogowski.pdf: ⁠, Ronald Rogowski (1987-12-01):

    Combining the classical theorem of Stolper and Samuelson with a model of politics derived from Becker leads to the conclusion that exogenous changes in the risks or costs of countries’ external trade will stimulate domestic conflict between owners of locally scarce and locally abundant factors. A traditional three-factor model then predicts quite specific coalitions and cleavages among owners of land, labor, and capital, depending only on the given country’s level of economic development and its land-labor ratio. A preliminary survey of historical periods of expanding and contracting trade, and of such specific cases as the German “marriage of iron and rye,” U.S. and Latin American populism, and Asian socialism, suggests the accuracy of this hypothesis. While the importance of such other factors as cultural divisions and political inheritance cannot be denied, the role of exogenous changes in the risks and costs of trade deserves further investigation.

  • 1987-solow.pdf: “We'd Better Watch Out [Review of _Manufacturing Matters: The Myth of the Post-Industrial Economy_, Cohen & Zysman 1987]”⁠, Robert M. Solow (backlinks)

  • 1985-urban.pdf: “Management Training: Justify Costs or Say Goodbye”⁠, Thomas F. Urban, Gerald R. Ferris, Daniel F. Crowe, Robert L. Miller

  • 1982-hax.pdf: ⁠, Arnoldo C. Hax, Nicolas S. Majluf (1982-10-01):

    This is the first of 3 articles about some popular tools that have been widely used since the early 1970’s to support strategic decision-making. The article below deals with the ⁠; subsequent articles will deal with the growth-share matrix and the industry attractiveness-business strength matrix. These tools have inspired a degree of controversy about their uses and limitations, issues that will be explored in this and the subsequent articles.

    (This is the first of the tutorial articles we will be publishing in Interfaces. The objective of a tutorial article is to describe an important technique or an application area for Interfaces readers who are nonexperts in the field. Please write and let me know what area(s) you would like to see covered in tutorial articles (and who you would like to see write them) and what area(s) you would be prepared to cover in a tutorial of your own.)

  • 1981-lazear.pdf: ⁠, Edward P. Lazear, Sherwin Rosen (1981-10-01; backlinks):

    This paper analyzes compensation schemes which pay according to an individual’s ordinal rank in an organization rather than his output level.

    When workers are risk neutral, it is shown that wages based upon rank induce the same efficient allocation of resources as an incentive reward scheme based on individual output levels. Under some circumstances, risk-averse workers actually prefer to be paid on the basis of rank.

    In addition, if workers are heterogeneous in ability, low-quality workers attempt to contaminate high-quality firms, resulting in adverse selection. However, if ability is known in advance, a competitive handicapping structure exists which allows all workers to compete efficiently in the same organization.

  • 1980-arrow.pdf: “Foundations: Essays in Philosophy, Logic, Mathematics and Economics. F. P. Ramsey, D. H. Mellor”⁠, Kenneth J. Arrow (backlinks)

  • 1979-holmstrom.pdf: ⁠, Bengt Holmström (1979; backlinks):

    The role of imperfect information in a principal-agent relationship subject to moral hazard is considered. A necessary and sufficient condition for imperfect information to improve on contracts based on the payoff alone is derived, and a characterization of the optimal use of such information is given.

    …Employing a different problem formulation from Harris and Raviv’s, we are able to simplify their analysis and generalize their results substantially. Both questions posed above are given complete answers (in our particular model).

    It is shown that any additional information about the agent’s action, however imperfect, can be used to improve the welfare of both the principal and the agent. This result, which formalizes earlier references to the value of monitoring in agency relationships (Stiglitz, 1975; Williamson, 1975), serves to explain the extensive use of imperfect information in contracting. Furthermore, we characterize optimal contracts based on such imperfect information in a way which yields considerable insight into the complex structure of actual contracts.

    The formulation we use is an extension of that introduced by Mirrlees (1974, 1976). We start by presenting a slightly modified version of Mirrlees’ model (Section 2), along with some improved statements about the nature of optimal contracts when the payoff alone is observed. In Section 3 a detour is made to show how these results can be applied to prove the optimality of deductibles in accident insurance when moral hazard is present. Section 4 gives the characterization of the optimal use of imperfect information and Section 5 presents the result when imperfect information is valuable. Up to this point homogeneous beliefs are assumed, but in Section 6 this assumption is relaxed to the extent that we allow the agent to be more informed at the time he chooses his action. The analysis is brief, but indicates that qualitatively the same results obtain as for the case with homogeneous beliefs. Section 7 contains a summary and points out some directions for further research.

    …When the payoff alone is observable, optimal contracts will be second-best owing to a problem of moral hazard. By creating additional information systems (as in cost accounting, for instance), or by using other available information about the agent’s action or the state of nature, contracts can generally be improved.

  • 1978-landes.pdf: “The Economics of the Baby Shortage”⁠, Elisabeth M. Landes, Richard A. Posner (backlinks)

  • 1974-feldstein.pdf: ⁠, Martin Feldstein (1974-06):

    The current system of unemployment compensation entails very strong adverse incentives. For a wide variety of “representative” unemployed workers, unemployment benefits replace more than 60% of lost net income. In the more generous states, the replacement rate is over 80% for men and over 100% for women. Most of the $19$51974 billion in benefits go to middle and upper income families. This anomaly in the distribution of benefits is exacerbated by the fact that unemployment compensation benefits are not subject to tax.

  • 1974-allan.pdf: “The Society of Arts and Government, 1754-1800: Public Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce in Eighteenth-Century England”⁠, D. G. C. Allan (backlinks)

  • 1971-mcclelland-theachievingsociety.pdf: “The Achieving Society”⁠, Digitized by the Internet Archive

  • 1969-brooks-businessadventures-ch3-thefederalincometax.pdf: ⁠, John Brooks (1969; backlinks):

    [Profile by the veteran economics New Yorker reporter John Brooks of the post-WWII American federal income tax (history, effects & reform attempts), which taxed incomes at rates as high as 91%, but was riddled with bizarre loopholes and exceptions which meant the real tax rates were typically half that—at the cost of massively distorting human behavior.

    Stars would stop performing halfway through the year, marriages would be scheduled for the right month, films were designed around tax incentives rather than merits, countless oil wells were drilled unnecessarily and rich people would invest in business of no interest to them like bowling alleys, businessmen had to meticulously record every lunch because income tax distorted salaries in favor of fringe benefits. (A similar dynamic was at play in the rise of employer-based health insurance during WWII, contributing to the present grotesquely inefficient American healthcare system.)]

    …the writer David T. Bazelon has suggested that the economic effect of the tax has been so sweeping as to create two quite separate kinds of United States currency—before-tax money and after-tax money. At any rate, no corporation is ever formed, nor are any corporation’s affairs conducted for as much as a single day, without the lavishing of earnest consideration upon the income tax, and hardly anyone in any income group can get by without thinking of it occasionally, while some people, of course, have had their fortunes or their reputations, or both, ruined as a result of their failure to comply with it. As far afield as Venice, an American visitor a few years ago was jolted to find on a brass plaque affixed to a coin box for contributions to the maintenance fund of the Basilica of San Marco the words “Deductible for U.S. Income-Tax Purposes.”

  • 1968-schroeder.pdf: ⁠, Gertrude Schroeder (1968):

    [Matt Lakeman summary (emphasis added): The link is to a declassified CIA document written in 1968….The author is a CIA spy who explains that the CIA was trying to calculate the economy of the USSR, and by their best estimates, the US GDP was more than 2× the USSR GDP, and the US GDP per capita was around 3×. However, she thinks these numbers are overestimating USSR GDP because it’s difficult to account for quality. An American haircut can be priced the same way as a Soviet haircut, but an American refrigerator is probably vastly better than a Soviet refrigerator.

    So the author goes undercover in Moscow for a few months to live as the Russians do and see what economic life is really like for them. She explains that she tried to live the Russian way as an American working at the embassy, but the locals were super nice to her all the time. They always smiled and sent her to the front of every line. So she had to get beat up local clothes, dust off her Russian language skills, put on a grumpy expression (presumably), and pretend to be a Russian (or rather, pretend to be an Estonian due to her accent). Her findings:

    • Lines, lines, and more lines. Everyone had to wait on line for everything. Food, clothes, whatever. Wait times were 10–15 minutes at best, but could easily stretch into hours. Sometimes she waited on lines even when she didn’t know what she was waiting for.
    • Even in Moscow, the variety and quality of goods was atrocious. At a given grocer, they might offer two or three different items each day. So one day she could get pickled fish, the next day cabbage and tomatoes, the next day rice, etc. Bread seemed to be the only thing that was always in stock.
    • Stores were often bureaucratic clusterfucks. The author couldn’t just buy tea; she had to wait on one line to make a tea selection, then collect a piece of paper, then wait on another line to exchange the paper for money, then get another piece of paper, then wait on another line to exchange that piece of paper for tea.
    • Prices were outrageous by the standards of the salaries of the people working in the capital city of the second most powerful nation on earth.
    • The service was awful. She went to some of the nicest restaurants in Moscow (of which there were fewer than a dozen in a city of millions of people), and the meals would take at least 3 hours. Waiters would stand around doing nothing and wouldn’t come over to her even when she called them.
    • Everyone was incredibly rude. She was violently shoved on trains and buses. People screamed at her if she hesitated on lines.
    • There was a general feeling of boredom and malaise. There were no luxury goods to buy or events to look forward to. People expected to just live, get married, and wait to die.
    • Everyone knew the government reports about how awesome the USSR was doing were bullshit. They envied the West.]
  • 1966-boulding.pdf: “The economics of the coming spaceship Earth”⁠, Kenneth E. Boulding

  • 1961-ames.pdf: ⁠, Edward Ames, Stanley Reiter (1961; backlinks):

    This paper presents results, mainly in tabular form, of a sampling experiment in which 100 economic time series 25 years long were drawn at random from the Historical Statistics for the United States. Sampling distributions of coefficients of correlation and autocorrelation were computed using these series, and their logarithms, with and without correction for linear trend.

    We find that the frequency distribution of autocorrelation coefficients has the following properties:

    1. It is roughly invariant under logarithmic transformation of data.
    2. It is approximated by a Type XII function.
    3. It approaches a symmetric about 0 as the lag increases.

    The autocorrelation properties observed are not to be explained by linear trends alone. Correlations and lagged cross-correlations are quite high for all classes of data. eg., given a randomly selected series, it is possible to find, by random drawing, another series which explains at least 50% of the variances of the first one, in from 2 to 6 random trials, depending on the class of data involved. The sampling distributions obtained provide a basis for tests of statistical-significance of correlations of economic time series. We also find that our economic series are well described by exact linear difference equations of low order.

  • 1957-nutter.pdf: “The true story of Russia's weakness [stifled by bad planning, bureaucratic inefficiency, and lack of any real incentive]”⁠, G. Warren Nutter (backlinks)

  • 1948-luckhurst.pdf: “William Shipley And The Royal Society Of Arts: The History of an Idea”⁠, K. W. Luckhurst (backlinks)

  • 1945-radford.pdf: “The Economic Organisation of a P.O.W. Camp”⁠, R. A. Radford

  • 1930-keynes.pdf: “F. P. Ramsey [obituary]”⁠, John Maynard Keynes (backlinks)

  • 1928-ramsey.pdf: “A Mathematical Theory of Saving”⁠, Frank P. Ramsey (backlinks)

  • 1927-ramsey.pdf: “A Contribution to the Theory of Taxation”⁠, Frank P. Ramsey (backlinks)

  • 1688-delavega-confusionofconfusions.pdf: “Confusion de Confusiones (Confusion of Confusions)”⁠, Joseph de la Vega, Hermann Kellenbenz (backlinks)

  • 2019-jongman.pdf

  • 2018-biasi.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2017-schmidt.pdf

  • 2017-houde.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2017-bloom.pdf

  • 2016-shortland.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2016-moser.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2016-michaels.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2016-kelly.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2016-herzer.pdf

  • 2016-beach.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2014-soll-thevanishedgrandeurofaccounting.html (backlinks)

  • 2013-sachs.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2013-nashx-howitworks.html (backlinks)

  • 2013-braun.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2013-adkison-wizardsofthecostequitydistribution.html (backlinks)

  • 2012-varoufakis-teamfortress2arbitrage.html (backlinks)

  • 2011-park.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2010-04-01-shirky-thecollapseofcomplexbusinessmodels.html

  • 2009-friedman-seasteadingapracticalguide.pdf

  • 2006-james315-currintradingponzischeme.html (backlinks)

  • 2003-birnbaum.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2002-schonfeld-thisisyourfathersibmonlysmarter.html (backlinks)

  • 2001-kuran.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2001-chung.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2000-west.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2000-blair.pdf (backlinks)

  • 1999-zuckerman.pdf

  • 1997-freygeeare97.pdf (backlinks)

  • 1995-padmanabhan.pdf (backlinks)

  • 1993-padmanabhan.pdf (backlinks)

  • 1993-frank.pdf

  • 1988-webster.html (backlinks)

  • 1984-axelrod-theevolutionofcooperation-ch4-theliveandletlivesysteminwwi.html (backlinks)

  • 1977-maynard.pdf

  • 1969-brooks-businessadventures-ch7-noncommunicationge.pdf (backlinks)

  • 1968-thomas.pdf (backlinks)

  • 1965-thomas.pdf (backlinks)

  • 1959-nutter.pdf