# Gwern.net Website Traffic

Meta page describing gwern.net editing activity, traffic statistics, and referrer details, primarily sourced from Google Analytics (2011-present).
personal, statistics, meta, shell, R, Bayes, Google
3 Feb 201105 Jul 2020 in progress certainty: certain

On a semi-annual basis, since 2011, I review gwern.net website traffic using Google Analytics; although what most readers value is not what I value, I find it motivating to see total traffic statistics reminding me of readers (writing can be a lonely and abstract endeavour), and useful to see what are major referrers.

gwern.net typically enjoys steady traffic in the 50–100k range per month, with occasional spikes from social media, particularly Hacker News; over the first decade (2010–2020), there were 7.98m pageviews by 3.8m unique users.

For background about the goals, tools, design, and implementation of gwern.net, see the page

# 2011

## October 2010–February 2011

My editing activity, as generated by darcs-graph:

### Traffic

“An audience, even an audience of one, is always to be treasured and respected.”

Adalric Brandl (“Uhl Eharl Khoehng”, Patricia A. Jackson)

Popularity-wise, reports that over the 150 days between 1 October 2010 and 28 February 2011, there were 4,346 page-views (average 30/day):

The most popular pages were1:

1. : 1,180
2. : 644
3. : 241
4. : 108
5. : 104
6. : 101
7. : 96

The rankings are not as I would prefer (I imagine Internet archivist feels much the same way about ), but it’s pretty clear that people enjoy my more practical articles the most.

## February 2011–July 2011

darcs-graph for this period:

### Traffic

“Streaming in the wind / the smoke from Fuji / vanishes in the sky; / I know not where / these thoughts of mine go, either.”

the monk ( XVII: #1615)

Google Analytics reports that over the 124 days between 28 February 2011 and 2 July 2011, there were 42,410 page-views (average 342/day):

The most popular pages ranking changed considerably; while the DNB FAQ maintained its pre-eminent popularity, 3 new pages bumped out ‘Links’, ‘Spaced repetition’, ‘The Melancholy of Kyon’, and ‘Haskell Summer of Code’. I am a little surprised that my 2 Death Note essays seemed to’ve struck a chord, and even more surprised that my sloppy & random & un-rigorous notes about nootropics would be consistently popular:

1. DNB FAQ: 10,406
2. : 4,189
3. Modafinil: 3,231
4. : 2,633
5. : 1,779
6. : 1,366
7. Nootropics: 2,056
8. : 706

### Promotion

“They accumulate / but there are none to buy them— / these leaves of words / piling up like wares for sale / beneath the Sumiyoshi Pine.”

; (#180, “Famous Market Town”, ; trans. Steven D. Carter)2

As a writer, I desire feedback. I also want to feel that my work has been of use to people. So while it would be nice if the world beat a path to my website, I recognize that I have to put some effort into marketing my work. I’ve tried a number of methods.

1. Witcoin: I submitted any number of fairly popular articles but my total Witcoin traffic over this period was 132 visits—a traffic total I could have gotten with one slightly popular link on Reddit or a few links in comments. While I didn’t lose any Bitcoins (because my registration was funded by Kiba’s donation of \$20 and actually profited \$55), I have spent at least 6 hours figuring out how to use Witcoin, submitting articles, responding to comments, and voting. Not the best use of time.
2. Google : initially disappointing, with after 3010 impression, there were still no clicks! It was funded by the $129 coupon for signing up for Google’s Webmaster Tools. Interface is decent given complexity of task, but deeply frustrating to have to wait many weeks for the DNB FAQ and Modafinil ads to be approved or rejected. Finally, almost in June, the DNB FAQ ads were approved and the modafinil ads rejected. From 23 March to 2 July 2011, I paid$27.20 for 98,900 impressions yielding 63 clicks through. (Those visitors only spent an average of <1.5 minutes on the site, too.) Again, not a great investment of time.
3. : with just 3 articles ‘stumbled’ (included in the database), specifically DNB FAQ, & Nootropics, StumbleUpon was responsible for 161 visits or 2.77% of all traffic in the period I looked at. How much traffic could I expect with 30 or 40 articles stumbled? Quite a bit. SU has no ‘front page’ like other social news aggregators so traffic is more of a trickle than flood; nevertheless, “Death Note Ending” clicked with SU readers and I got >500 readers out of it in a day or two. In total over this time, SU drove 2,257 visits. SU tended to give a pretty steady 30–50 visits a day with rare spikes when an article clicked. The downside is that after looking at SU comments and at how much time they spend on pages3, I have to agree with Arvind Narayanan’s “StumbleUpon Considered Harmful”—SUers do not want quality content but quick content, for the dopamine boost.
4. : “Girl Scouts and good governance” made it to the front page, resulting in 1,727 visits & setting gwern.net traffic records (it is that giant spike in the traffic graph), but apparently minimal viewing of other pages. Further, while I seem to get a modest amount of Reddit traffic from even unsuccessful submissions, HN submissions will sink without a trace. Kiba calls Hacker News a ‘lottery’, but it seems to be one worth playing.
5. LessWrong is a natural place to post many of my writings. And perhaps unsurprisingly, LW is my second-largest source of traffic, coming in after SU with 1,857 visits. While few of my submissions get upvoted all that highly, most of them drove a fair amount of traffic even in the Discussion ghetto. (Linking in comments also drives a surprising amount of traffic over long periods to my practical articles like on n-back or melatonin.) At some point I hope to have a good Article and see how much of a disparity there is.

## July 2011–December 2011

Res audita perit, litera scripta manet.

Proverb

darcs-graph for this period (including 1 January 2012):

I ran into a cool post by Christopher Done on a tool that does detailed analysis of patch patterns on a Git repository, GitStats, and this spurred me to create a Git mirror of gwern.net using darcs-to-git. GitStats produces a whole bundle of graphs and figures, some of which I found surprising. (I did not expect to see a large spike on Wednesday and relatively few patches on Saturday, or a spike around 5 PM, as opposed to the early morning.) I think I will update the GitStats output with each output, as a (large) adjunct to the darcs-graph plots.

### Traffic

“Ah! let not Censure term our fate our choice, / The stage but echoes back the public’s voice; / The drama’s laws the drama’s patrons give, / For we that live to please must please to live. / …prompt no more the follies you decry, / As tyrants doom their tools of guilt to die; / ’Tis yours this night to bid the reign commence / Of rescu’d Nature, and reviving Sense; / …Bid scenic Virtue form the rising age, / And Truth diffuse her radiance from the stage.”

Google Analytics reports, that over the 185 days between 2 July 2011 and 2 January 2012, there were 191,015 page-views (average 1,032/day) by 79,346 visitors for a total of 115,585 visits (average 624/day). This is better than I expected and makes me wonder about my prediction for <2000 average daily visits by 2013 (but it still seems unlikely traffic will triple over the next year).

The main change in page popularity did not surprise me; when I was writing “Silk Road 1”, I knew it would almost certainly be popular given how very popular the Gawker article was but also how lacking in practical details it was, and I also suspected that “Bitcoin is Worse is Better” would be fairly popular as it argued an interesting and controversial thesis (the original and promoted version is hosted on BitcoinWeekly.com, so its hit-count ought to be low). I’m surprised at how much the page gwern.net still gets; a surprising number of people must either visit the main page after reading another article or click on my various blog comments.

1. Silk Road: 62,167
2. DNB FAQ: 25,541
3. home/main page: 16,967
4. Modafinil: 10,437
5. Nootropics: 10,219
6. Spaced repetition: 6,570
7. Bitcoin is Worse is Better: 4,297
8. Links: 3,490

### Promotion

Hacker News, Reddit, and LessWrong remain major referral drivers. For recent new pages, I’ve been trying a checklist which includes submission to SU, Google+, Hacker News, Reddit, and LessWrong as appropriate; I am not sure how well it is working since popularity seems very random.

## July 2012–January 2013

“All I say is by way of discourse, and nothing by way of advice. I should not speak so boldly if it were my due to be believed.”

(“Of Cripples”, Essays)

darcs-graph for this period (3 July 2012–2 January 2013):

### Traffic

Analytics traffic records 758,843 page views by 366,028 unique visitors over the 184 days for a daily average of 4,124.1 page-views, which is double the previous half-year average of 2,012 daily page-views; traffic growth is clearly slowing, though, since the previous half-year had quadruple the traffic compared to its predecessor. My prediction of breaking the million page-view mark came true, by a very large margin: the lifetime total page-views is now 1,568,957 page-views.

Popularity rankings have changed a bit: the Death Note essay and my sleep experiments have fallen out of the top 10 (the former because not many people are still linking it, and the latter probably because my latest experiments were relatively boring), replaced by a sidebar link and one of my terrorism-related essays:

1. Silk Road: 491,934
2. home/main page: 37,853
3. Modafinil: 31,047
4. DNB FAQ: 27,433
5. Nootropics: 22,015
6. Drug heuristics/Algernon’s Law: 18,991
7. Spaced repetition: 11,693
8. Links: 8,123
9. About: 8,075
10. : 7,369

I am quite surprised that my essay does not even make the top 50 pages, given that it deals with an novel thesis on which there’s many interesting things to think and which is easily misunderstood.

Donations: the ebook fell through when O’Reilly decided to cancel the entire series, which was a disappointment; Carmichael had finished her book on mood and is self-publishing, but I haven’t seen tremendous interest in sleep and will probably just roll my draft material into the existing Zeo page. Paypal donations performed outstandingly: I received $10,$25, $10,$15, $200, &$10 ($270). Bitcoiners were not so generous: \$4, \$5, & \$17 (\$26, or$21 at the 2 January 2013 Mt.Gox exchange rate).

### Promotion

To Hacker News, Reddit, and LessWrong, I can add as a major referrer Wikipedia—primarily to the Silk Road article, but also to a few Evangelion-related pages. StumbleUpon has declined to the 10th largest referrer:

1. HN: 16,886
2. Reddit: 15,219
3. Wikipedia: 7,531
4. LessWrong: 6,332
5. Facebook: 3,952
6. brainworkshop.sourceforge.net: 3,733
7. google.com: 2,649
8. youtube.com: 1,798
9. mainstreamlos.tumblr.com: 1,694
10. stumbleupon.com: 1,239

I haven’t spent much time promoting my content, but improving the site with metadata & writing new content: for example, I tripled the size of my database.

# 2013

## January 2013–July 2013

“I was decimated. To program any more would be pointless. My programs would never live as long as . A computer will never live as long as The Trial. …What if was only written for ?”

_why the lucky stiff (CLOSURE)

darcs-graph for this period (3 January 2013–2 July 2013):

### Traffic

Analytics traffic records 832,415 page-views by 422,285 unique visitors over 181 days, or 4598 page-views per day. (The lifetime total page-views has thus reached 2,403,807.) This represents ~11% growth in traffic compared to the previous 6-month period of 4,124 dailies, continuing the slowdown trend—possibly the next half-year won’t see any growth, or a decline.

Popularity rankings have changed: Silk Road lost a lot of Wikipedia traffic when, during an editing dispute, an administrator deleted it from their article on Silk Road, and it was only restored on 2 July. 2 new statistical essays ( & ) enter the top 10, but neither were able to dethrone Silk Road as that darknet market continued to thrive & receive media coverage:

1. Silk Road: 396,993
2. Modafinil: 58,856
3. Google shutdowns: 49,907
4. DNB FAQ: 25,979
5. Death Note script: 25,792
6. Nootropics: 22,702
7. home/main page: 20,051
8. Links: 16,789
9. About: 14,746
10. Spaced repetition: 11,711

Financial: this period was a remarkable period. My contracting work dried up (largely my own fault) and pressed for money, I began exploring alternatives:

1. the easiest strategy was to turn all my Amazon links for books & nootropics & miscellaneous into affiliate links; they are already there, do not affect readers, and coding it up was as simple as appending a string to links in hakyll.hs by a simple modification of my existing code for easily linking to Wikipedia. This worked as far as it went, which was not very far ($47 in Q1 2013 and$130 Q2 2013).
2. more painfully, I decided to try Google’s . While AdWords hadn’t been the most pleasant experience in the world, it was fairly decent, and Google’s ads always seemed reasonable to me in the search engine (before I learned of AdBlock). AdSense has scary language in its terms of service forbidding detailed discussion of revenue, but I should be safe when I say that the mean CTR was 0.17% & the mean CPC was $0.57, ~40% of visitors did not have ad filtering enabled, and so over the 80 days AdSense was enabled, I earned ~$260. Helpful, but not rent-paying.
3. donations made the difference. After “Google shutdowns” hit the front page of Hacker News, an acquaintance mentioned I could use some money. I received $408 in 14 Paypal donations; through Bitcoin, 1.62btc (then$189) in 4 donations (followup). I am grateful to all the HNers who donated.

### Promotion: Late 2015

As before, I did minimal active promotion of my content.

1. news.ycombinator.com: 51,256
2. reddit.com: 25,479
3. Twitter (t.co): 7,748
4. Slate Star Codex: 3,166
5. Facebook: 3,044
6. lesswrong.com: 3,035
7. Disqus: 2,042
8. Bullet Proof Exec: 1,931
9. Longecity: 1,887
10. Wired: 1,854

(I have no idea why Facebook traffic increased so much, since the referrers are useless.)

My monthly mailing list has reached 857 subscribers.

# 2016

## January 2016–July 2016

“It is easy enough to say that man is immortal simply because he will endure: that when the last ding-dong of doom has clanged and faded from the last worthless rock hanging tideless in the last red and dying evening, that even then there will still be one more sound: that of his puny inexhaustible voice, still talking. I refuse to accept this. I believe that man will not merely endure: he will prevail.”

William Faulkner (1950 Nobel Prize speech)

Activity graph for this period (4 January 2016–3 July 2016):

### Traffic: Early 2016

Analytics traffic records 294,009 page-views by 141,795 unique visitors over the 182 days, or 1615 page-views per day for a daily decrease of 937 compared to the previous six months. (Lifetime total: 5,036,804 page-views by 2,329,713 unique visitors.)

Page rankings:

1. homepage/index: 35,673
2. Modafinil: 33,928
3. LSD microdosing: 21,712
4. DNM arrests: 14,322
5. Spaced repetition: 14,044
6. Nootropics: 12,117
7. DNB FAQ: 10,983
8. Silk Road: 7,654
9. About: 6,642
10. Links: 6,410

My Patreon profile continues to be a success.

### Promotion: Early 2016

As before, I did minimal active promotion of my content.

1. Reddit: 17,792
2. Facebook: 4119
3. Twitter: 2,572
4. HN: 2,518
5. Slate Star Codex: 2,467
6. LessWrong: 2,135
7. Longecity: 1,555
8. rs.io: 1,440
9. brainworkshop.sourceforge.net: 1,035
10. MetaFilter: 1,018

My monthly mailing list has reached 1053 subscribers.

## July 2016–January 2017

“With the people of the past / How I wish I could share the beauty / Of these cherry blossoms. // Have each of us across the years / Left behind this very thought?”

(“Shogaku Hyakushu”, 1181 AD, trans. Bundy 1990)

Activity graph for this period (4 July 2016–3 January 2017):

### Traffic: Late 2016

Analytics traffic records 339,529 page-views by 172,203 unique visitors over the 184 days, or 1845 page-views per day for a daily increase of 230 compared to the previous six months. (Lifetime total: 5,376,333 page-views by 2,499,949 unique visitors.)

Page rankings:

1. Nootropics: 43,266
2. index/main page: 39,161
3. Spaced repetition: 26,965
4. Modafinil: 26,849
5. DNM arrests: 16,279
6. LSD microdosing: 12,943
7. DNB FAQ: 10,501
8. : 8,026
9. In Defense of Inclusionism: 7,037
10. Links: 6,677

### Promotion: Early 2017

As before, I did minimal active promotion of my content. Referrals:

1. HN: 10,881 (“Story Of Your Life” was an unexpected hit)
2. Reddit: 9,538
3. Twitter: 3,702
4. Facebook: 2,274
5. LessWrong: 1,568
6. Slate Star Codex: 1,462
7. rs.io: 1,315
8. Longecity: 1,071
9. Brain Workshop: 861
10. DuckDuckGo: 820

My monthly mailing list has reached 1419 subscribers, up ~207.

## July 2017–January 2018

“It is only the attempt to write down your ideas that enables them to develop.”

Wittgenstein to Drury (Recollections of Wittgenstein, Rhees 1984)

Activity graph for this period (4 July 2017–3 January 2018):

### Traffic: Late 2017

Analytics traffic records 326,852 page-views by 155,532 unique visitors over the 184 days, or 1776 page-views per day for a daily increase of 513 visits compared to the previous six months. (Lifetime total: 5,931,837 page-views by 2,763,402 unique visitors.)

Page rankings (somewhat scrambled due to the big renaming and GA not merging analytics across URLs):

1. index: 43,863
2. : 20,013
3. Modafinil: 14,340
4. DNM arrests: 14,115
5. : 13,808
6. DNB FAQ: 13,650
7. : 11,401
8. Spaced repetition: 12,428
9. : 11,150
10. Nootropics: 7,615

My A/B test of banner ads turned in an unexpected result of substantial harm, which was of considerable general interest (especially to anyone who runs an ad-supported website), so no surprise that had a lot of traffic. I wrote off the obscure neural net/tank story years ago after some cursory investigation showed it had all the classic traits of an urban legend; but it has kept coming up, and at Anders Sandberg’s request, I wrote it up in considerably more detail, and was surprised that people took such an interest in it and even defended it as probably genuine, in the absence of all evidence—I guess people like debunkings? The final oddity was the resurgence of my old essay on an extremely obscure bit of US historical trivia, that it had tried to acquire Greenland in the early Cold War, where I noted that Denmark’s refusal was a costly one; I don’t know why anyone was reading it, but I was annoyed at the idiotic objections people made, typically either pure fantasy, already refuted like the many suggestions that Greenland oil would yet pay off, or illogical virtue signaling—ironically demonstrating my point. (Considerable effort invested in defining hundreds of redirects for 404 errors didn’t pay off as people kept discovering ever new ways to misspell URLs, but it did allow me to rename pages without destroying traffic by breaking most incoming links, switching from spaces to hyphens in order to idiot-proof them.)

### Promotion: Early 2018

Referrals:

1. HN: 13,533
2. Reddit: 6,686
3. Twitter: 6,529
4. Slate Star Codex: 6,246
5. Facebook: 2,830
6. adme.ru: 2,414
7. Android Google Search: 788
8. The Browser: 562
9. 4chan: 523
10. Duck Duck Go: 521

My monthly mailing list has reached 2183 subscribers, up ~307. By crossing the 2000 subscriber mark, MailChimp disabled my account and began charging ~$30 a month to send out a single newsletter; as it’s a little hard for me to justify spending anywhere up to$400/year on my newsletter, which I don’t directly make any money on, I had to stop using MailChimp. after looking around some, I switched to TinyLetter, which oddly enough is also run by MailChimp but doesn’t have that arbitrary subscriber limit (though it lacks many features of MailChimp proper).

## July 2018–January 2019

“Is not a patron, my lord, one who looks with unconcern on a man struggling for life in the water, and when he has reached ground, encumbers him with help?”

Samuel Johnson (, 1755)

Activity graph for this period (4 July 2018–3 January 2019):

### Traffic: Late 2018

Analytics traffic records 407,395 page-views by 185,141 unique visitors over the 184 days, or 2214 page-views per day for an increase of 396 pageviews a day compared to the previous six months. (Lifetime total: 6,638,722 page-views by 3,113,460 unique visitors.)

1. index: 50,849
2. : 27,241
3. Turing-complete: 26,662
4. Notes: (for /): 17,706
5. Spaced repetition: 14,471
6. Modafinil: 13,958
7. “Bitcoin Is Worse Is Better”: 13,169
8. DNB FAQ: 10,344
9. Links: 9,729
10. Drug heuristics/Algernon’s Law: 9,724
11. And honorable mentions for the new pages which almost made it to the top 10 (#13) despite being released mid-way December 2018, and (on cat psychology, genetics, domestication, & dysgenics) at #21.

I was disappointed that two of my new ones had little or no interest ( & ), and that Danbooru2017, despite its use in the impressive , saw little uptake. Maybe Danbooru2018 will do better.

### Promotion: Early 2019

Referrals changed dramatically, driven mostly by TWDNE:

1. thiswaifudoesnotexist.net: 75,707
2. news.ycombinator.com: 34,761
3. t.co: 12,744
4. reddit.com: 7,993
5. slatestarcodex.com: 4,754
6. m.facebook.com: 2,476
7. link.zhihu.com: 1,886
8. github.com: 1,746
9. mail01.tinyletterapp.com: 1,342
10. old.reddit.com: 1,164

My monthly mailing list has reached 3559 subscribers, up ~806.

## July 2019–January 2020

“Editing is a rewording activity.”

Activity graph for this period (3 July 2019–2 January 2020):

### Traffic: Late 2019

Analytics traffic records 715,601 page-views by 349,472 unique visitors over the 184 days, or 3889 page-views per day for an increase of 277 page-views a day compared to the previous 6 months. This is inflated by hosting various HTML archives, particularly the which I need for my —taking that out, net traffic appears to have decreased. (Lifetime total: 8,004,312 page-views by 3,814,522 unique visitors.)

Page rankings (excluding hosted pages):

1. index: 50,757 + 28,276
2. TWDNE: 44,335
3. Death Note Anonymity: 27,006
4. Greenland: 22,887
5. Faces: 21,124
6. About: 15,678
7. Spaced repetition: 14,918
8. Links: 14,231
9. Modafinil: 14,229
10. Danbooru2018: 14,121
11. DNB FAQ: 10,368

None of the 7 new pages or 5 new long sections were major traffic successes (as much as I was fond of some like or ); I continued several -related projects, but they didn’t finish before 2020. Site design was a major focus of my efforts during this period, and I’m pleased with the suite of new popup tools & new margin notes features;

### Promotion: Early 2020

Referrals changed modestly:

1. HN: 49,090
2. TWDNE: 47,996
3. Twitter: 19,214
4. SlateStarCodex: 9,193
5. Reddit: 7,426
6. Facebook: 6,714
7. LessWrong: 1,556
8. Newsletter: 1,411
9. GitHub: 1,321
10. Medium: 1,030

My monthly mailing list has reached 5,849 subscribers, up 1502; this forced me to leave TinyLetter due to its 5k subscriber limit and move to Substack (despite attendant difficulties).

1. Anecdotally, the rankings seem correct. When I went to a LessWrong meetup in California, many knew of or had read the DNB FAQ, some had read or used my modafinil price-chart, and few remembered reading anything else.↩︎

2. I am sometimes reminded of another waka, by Ikkyu:

To write something and leave it behind us,
Is but a dream.
When we awake we know
There is not even anyone to read it.

↩︎
3. They spend an average of 27 seconds; in comparison, my second largest source of traffic, LessWrongers, average 3 minutes and 29 seconds; even my third largest traffic source, Redditers, manage almost 2 minutes. Even random people coming from Google manage to spend 44 seconds on their visit!↩︎

4. It ultimately fell through as O’Reilly decided the QS moment had passed, and killed the series.↩︎

5. Since I converted the repo to use git, darcs-graph was no longer available, so I wrote my own script in R using splines rather than a 7-day moving average:

start <- as.Date("2014-01-02")
end <- as.Date("2014-07-02")

patches <- as.Date(system(paste0("git log --after=", start, " --before=", end,
" --format='%ad' --date=short master"),
intern=TRUE))
patchFrame <- aggregate( patches , by = list(patches) , length )

days <- seq(start, end, "day")
dayFrame <- aggregate( days , by = list(days) , length )

bar <- rbind(dayFrame, patchFrame)

all <- aggregate(bar$x, by=list(bar$Group.1), FUN=function (x) { sum(as.vector(x));})

plot(x ~ Group.1, data=all, xlab="Date (Jan--July 2014)", ylab="gwern.net daily patches")
library(splines); lines(predict(interpSpline(days, all$x))) ↩︎ 6. I rewrote the script a little to use the nicer plots of ggplot2 and switches to LOESS for the smoothed curve: start <- as.Date("2014-07-03") end <- as.Date("2015-01-02") patches <- as.Date(system(paste0("git --git-dir=/home/gwern/wiki/.git/ log --after=", start, " --before=", end, " --format='%ad' --date=short master"), intern=TRUE)) patchFrame <- aggregate( patches , by = list(patches) , length ) days <- seq(start, end, "day") dayFrame <- aggregate( days , by = list(days) , length ) bar <- rbind(dayFrame, patchFrame) all <- aggregate(bar$x, by=list(bar\$Group.1), FUN=function (x) { sum(as.vector(x));})

library(ggplot2)
qplot(Group.1, x, data=all) +
theme_bw() +
xlab("Date (2014)") + ylab("Patch count") +
theme(legend.title=element_blank()) +
stat_smooth()
↩︎
7. Of writing after 3 spinal surgeries (pg161–162 of Images Of Truth: Remembrances And Criticism, Wescott 1962)↩︎