There is a growing literature demonstrating that a short regimen of NeuroTracker—a task that trains 3D multiple object tracking skills—can improve various aspects of cognition (attention, memory) and performance in regular and elite athletes. Vartanian et al 2016 extended the application of NeuroTracker to the military domain by demonstrating that it can result in gains in simple working memory (WM) span (verbal, visual, and matrix) in Canadian Special Forces members who trained under the experimenters’ supervision.
Here, we conducted a follow-up study to determine whether similar gains would accrue if general Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members were to train unsupervised—a much more likely scenario within military contexts. We randomly assigned CAF members (n = 66) to one of the 3 conditions: (1) NeuroTracker, (2) adaptive dual n-back, or (3) passive control. Participants in the training conditions trained for 20 min per day on 10 separate days within a 2-week period. Before and after training, we administered simple WM span measures (verbal and matrix). To examine far transfer to a task drawing on executive functions, we also administered a multitasking paradigm that deploys 4 visual and auditory tasks in parallel, designed to evaluate operator performance and workload analogous to activities that aircraft crew perform in flight (Multi-Attribute Task Battery: MATB-II).
Participants in both training conditions improved on the trained task and exhibited gains in simple verbal WM span. No gains were observed on MATB-II. Our results demonstrate that self-administered training on NeuroTracker or the adaptive dual n-back task can lead to gains in simple verbal WM span but not in simple matrix WM span or multitasking. In other words, in relation to both NeuroTracker and adaptive dual n-back training, we observed near transfer but not far transfer. We discuss the implications for cognitive training interventions in military contexts.
[Keywords: cognitive training, brain training, working memory, multitasking, military]
2020-stojanoski.pdf: “Brain training habits are not associated with generalized benefits to cognition: An online study of over 1000 'brain trainers'”, (2020-09-24; ):
The foundational tenet of brain training is that general cognitive functioning can be enhanced by completing computerized games, a notion that is both intuitive and appealing. Moreover, there is strong incentive to improve our cognitive abilities, so much so that it has driven a billion-dollar industry. However, whether brain training can really produce these desired outcomes continues to be debated. This is, in part, because the literature is replete with studies that use ill-defined criteria for establishing transferable improvements to cognition, often using single training and outcome measures with small samples. To overcome these limitations, we conducted a large-scale online study to examine whether practices and beliefs about brain training are associated with better cognition. We recruited a diverse sample of over 1000 participants, who had been using an assortment of brain training programs for up to 5 years. Cognition was assessed using multiple tests that measure attention, reasoning, working memory and planning. We found no association between any measure of cognitive functioning and whether participants were currently ‘brain training’ or not, even for the most committed brain trainers. Duration of brain training also showed no relationship with any cognitive performance measure. This result was the same regardless of participant age, which brain training program they used, or whether they expected brain training to work. Our results pose a substantial challenge for ‘brain training’ programs that purport to improve general cognitive functioning among the general population.
2020-ma.pdf: “Training and transfer effects of long-term memory retrieval training”, (2020-08-30):
Long-term memory retrieval ability and working memory can share attention control ability. Based on cognitive plasticity, a hypothesis that cognitive training could improve long-term memory retrieval efficiency and that this could transfer to retrieval involving working memory was proposed. 60 undergraduates were randomly assigned to a group of training and an active control group; all the participants completed the same tasks in the same order before and after the training, the tasks included a long-term memory retrieval access task, a intelligence test, a switching task, a working memory updating task, a response inhibition task and an interference control task. The statistics results indicate that cognitive training can improve long-term memory retrieval efficiency and has a transfer effect on working memory updating, interference control and switching ability, but not on response inhibition or intelligence. This reveal the plasticity of long-term memory retrieval and its influence on working memory.
2020-blakey.pdf: “The Role of Executive Functions in Socioeconomic Attainment Gaps: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial”, Emma Blakey, Danielle Matthews, Lucy Cragg, Jessica Buck, David Cameron, Ben Higgins, Lisa Pepper, Ellen Ridley, Emma Sullivan, Daniel J. Carroll
2019-takacs.pdf: “The Efficacy of Different Interventions to Foster Children’s Executive Function Skills: A Series of Meta-Analyses”, Zsofia K. Takacs, Reka Kassai
2019-long.pdf: “Suggestion of cognitive enhancement improves emotion regulation”, Quanshan Long, Na Hu, Hanxiao Li, Yi Zhang, Jiajin Yuan, Antao Chen ( )
2019-kassai.pdf: “A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence on the near-transfer and far-transfer effects among children’s executive function skills”, (2019-01-01; ):
In the present meta-analysis we examined the near-transfer and far-transfer effects of training components of children’s executive functions skills: working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility.
We found a statistically-significant near-transfer effect (g+ = 0.44, k = 43, p < 0.001) showing that the interventions in the primary studies were successful in training the targeted components. However, we found no convincing evidence of far-transfer (g+ = 0.11, k = 17, p = 0.11). That is, training a component did not have a statistically-significant effect on the untrained components.
By showing the absence of benefits that generalize beyond the trained components, we question the practical relevance of training specific executive function skills in isolation. Furthermore, the present results might explain the absence of far-transfer effects of working memory training on academic skills (Melby-Lervåg & Hulme 2013; Sala & Gobet 2017).
2018-stojanoski.pdf: “Targeted training_ Converging evidence against the transferable benefits of online brain training on cognitive function”, Bobby Stojanoski, Kathleen M. Lyons, Alexandra A. A. Pearce, Adrian M. Owen
2018-sala.pdf: “Cognitive Training Does Not Enhance General Cognition”, Giovanni Sala, Fern, Gobet
2016-foroughi.pdf: “Placebo effects in cognitive training”, (2016-07-05; ):
Placebo effects pose problems for some intervention studies, particularly those with no clearly identified mechanism. Cognitive training falls into that category, and yet the role of placebos in cognitive interventions has not yet been critically evaluated. Here, we show clear evidence of placebo effects after a brief cognitive training routine that led to substantial fluid intelligence gains. Our goal is to emphasize the importance of ruling out alternative explanations before attributing the effect to interventions. Based on our findings, we recommend that researchers account for placebo effects before claiming treatment effects.
Although a large body of research shows that general cognitive ability is heritable and stable in young adults, there is recent evidence that fluid intelligence can be heightened with cognitive training. Many researchers, however, have questioned the methodology of the cognitive-training studies reporting improvements in fluid intelligence: specifically, the role of placebo effects. W
e designed a procedure to intentionally induce a placebo effect via overt recruitment in an effort to evaluate the role of placebo effects in fluid intelligence gains from cognitive training. Individuals who self-selected into the placebo group by responding to a suggestive flyer showed improvements after a single, 1-h session of cognitive training that equates to a 5-point to 10-point increase on a standard IQ test. Controls responding to a non-suggestive flyer showed no improvement.
These findings provide an alternative explanation for effects observed in the cognitive-training literature and the brain-training industry, revealing the need to account for confounds in future research.
…We also observed differences between groups for scores on the Theories of Intelligence scale, which measures beliefs regarding the malleability of intelligence (34). The participants in the placebo group reported substantially higher scores on this index compared with controls [B = 14.96, SE = 1.93, t(48) = 7.75, p < 0.0001, d = 2.15], indicating a greater confidence that intelligence is malleable. These findings indicate that our manipulation via recruitment flyer produced statistically-significantly different groups with regard to expectancy. We did not detect differences in Need for Cognition scores (41) [B = 0.56, SE = 5.67, t(48) = 0.10, p = 0.922] (Figure 3). Together, these results support the interpretation that participants self-selected into groups based on differing expectations.
2015-hill.pdf: “Effects of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Working Memory: A Systematic Review and Meta–Analysis of Findings From Healthy and Neuropsychiatric Populations”, (2016-03; ):
- We performed a meta-analysis investigating working memory (WM) enhancement with anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) in healthy and neuropsychiatric cohorts.
- We examined both online and offline effects of stimulation.
- We explored the role of current density and stimulation duration on WM performance.
- Our results demonstrate mixed effects of a-tDCS on WM performance.
- A-tDCS enhanced offline WM reaction times in healthy populations, with a trend towards improvement for accuracy, while online WM accuracy in neuropsychiatric populations was improved. No other statistically-significant results were obtained.
- We provide limited evidence that higher current densities and longer stimulation durations might be more effective at modulating WM.
Background: Several studies have trialed anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) for the enhancement of working memory (WM) in both healthy and neuropsychiatric populations. However, the efficacy of this technique remains to be clearly established.
Objective: This review provides a quantitative synthesis of the published literature investigating the effects of a-tDCS, compared to sham, on WM, as assessed using the n-back, Sternberg and digit-span tasks. We also separated results from tasks performed ‘online’ (during stimulation) and ‘offline’ (following stimulation). The secondary aim was to assess for any additional effects of current density and stimulation duration.
Methods: Comprehensive literature searches were performed using MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO, CENTRAL and Scopus from July 1998 to June 2014.
Results: In healthy cohorts, a-tDCS produced a trend towards improvement for offline WM accuracy (p = 0.05) and a small, but statistically-significant improvement in reaction time (p = 0.04); however, no statistically-significant effects were observed for online tasks (accuracy [p = 0.29], reaction time [p = 0.42]). In the neuropsychiatric cohort, a-tDCS statistically-significantly improved accuracy for online (p = 0.003), but not offline (p = 0.87) tasks, and no effect was seen for either online (p = 0.20) or offline (p = 0.49) reaction times. Secondary analyses controlling for current density and stimulation duration provided limited support for the role of these factors in influencing a-tDCS efficacy.
Conclusions: This review provides some evidence of a beneficial effect of a-tDCS on WM performance. However, the small effect sizes obtained, coupled with non-significant effects on several analyses require cautious interpretation and highlight the need for future research aimed at investigating more optimised stimulation approaches.
[Keywords: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), cognition, working memory, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, psychiatry]
2016-minear.pdf: “A simultaneous examination of two forms of working memory training: Evidence for near transfer only”, Meredith Minear, Faith Brasher, Claudia Brandt Guerrero, Mandy Brasher, Andrew Moore, Joshua Sukeena ( )
2016-heinzel.pdf: “Neural correlates of training and transfer effects in working memory in older adults”, Stephan Heinzel, Robert C. Lorenz, Patricia Pelz, Andreas Heinz, Henrik Walter, Norbert Kathmann, Michael A. Rapp, Christine Stelzel ( )
2016-vartanian.pdf: “3D Multiple Object Tracking Boosts Working Memory Span: Implications for Cognitive Training in Military Populations”, (2016; ):
Recently, there has been much theoretical and applied interest in the prospects of cognitive training for improving cognition. NeuroTracker is a relatively recent training device for improving dynamic attention in athletes by training 3D multiple-object tracking skills.
We examined its effectiveness for improving working memory (WM) span in members of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) by randomly assigning participants to the experimental (NeuroTracker), active control (adaptive dual n-back task), or passive control (no contact) conditions. NeuroTracker training resulted in statistically-significant gains in verbal, visual, and matrix span. No gain was observed in the active or passive control group.
These results suggest that NeuroTracker could be a useful training tool for increasing WM span in military samples. Future studies could examine the effects of NeuroTracker training on militarily relevant performance measures that draw on WM span.
[Keywords: working memory, cognitive training, attention]
2015-putter.pdf: “Combining tDCS and Working Memory Training to Down Regulate State Rumination: A Single-Session Double Blind Sham-Controlled Trial”, Laura M. S. De Putter, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Chris Baeken, Rudi Raedt, Ernst H. W. Koster ( )
2015-moreno.pdf: “Effects of acute transcranial direct current stimulation in hot and cold working memory tasks in healthy and depressed subjects”, Marina L. Moreno, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Andre F. Carvalho, Adriano H. Moffa, Paulo A. Lotufo, Isabela M. Benseñor, Andre R. Brunoni ( )
2015-estrada.pdf: “A general factor of intelligence fails to account for changes in tests’ scores after cognitive practice: A longitudinal multi-group latent-variable study”, Eduardo Estrada, Emilio Ferrer, Francisco J. Abad, Francisco J. Román, Roberto Colom ( )
2015-colom.pdf: “Fluid intelligence and working memory capacity: Is the time for working on intelligence problems relevant for explaining their large relationship?”, Roberto Colom, Jesús Privado, Luis F. García, Eduardo Estrada, Lara Cuevas, Pei-Chun Shih ( )
2015-chuderski.pdf: “The broad factor of working memory is virtually isomorphic to fluid intelligence tested under time pressure”, Adam Chuderski ( )
2014-carvalho.pdf: “Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Based Metaplasticity Protocols in Working Memory”, Sandra Carvalho, Paulo S. Boggio, Óscar F. Gonçalves, Ana Rita Vigário, Marisa Faria, Soraia Silva, Gabriel Gaudencio do Rego, Felipe Fregni, Jorge Leite ( )
2013-boot.pdf: “The Pervasive Problem With Placebos in Psychology: Why Active Control Groups Are Not Sufficient to Rule Out Placebo Effects”, (2013-07-09; ):
To draw causal conclusions about the efficacy of a psychological intervention, researchers must compare the treatment condition with a control group that accounts for improvements caused by factors other than the treatment.
Using an active control helps to control for the possibility that improvement by the experimental group resulted from a placebo effect. Although active control groups are superior to “no-contact” controls, only when the active control group has the same expectation of improvement as the experimental group can we attribute differential improvements to the potency of the treatment. Despite the need to match expectations between treatment and control groups, almost no psychological interventions do so.
This failure to control for expectations is not a minor omission—it is a fundamental design flaw that potentially undermines any causal inference. We illustrate these principles with a detailed example from the video-game-training literature showing how the use of an active control group does not eliminate expectation differences. The problem permeates other interventions as well, including those targeting mental health, cognition, and educational achievement.
Fortunately, measuring expectations and adopting alternative experimental designs makes it possible to control for placebo effects, thereby increasing confidence in the causal efficacy of psychological interventions.
[Keywords: intervention design, research methods, placebo effect, demand characteristics]
2013-elpus.pdf: “Is It the Music or Is It Selection Bias? A Nationwide Analysis of Music and Non-Music Students’ SAT Scores”, (2013-05-21; ):
This study examined the college entrance examination scores of music and non-music students in the United States, drawing data from the restricted-use data set of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS), a nationally representative education study (n = 15,630) conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. Analyses of high school transcript data from ELS showed that 1.127 million students (36.38% of the U.S. class of 2004) graduated high school having earned at least one course credit in music. Fixed-effects regression procedures were used to compare standardized test scores of these music students to their non-music peers while controlling for variables from the domains of demography, prior academic achievement, time use, and attitudes toward school. Results indicated that music students did not outperform non-music students on the SAT once these systematic differences had been statistically controlled. The obtained pattern of results remained consistent and robust through internal replications with another standardized math test and when disaggregating music students by type of music studied.
2013-heinzel.pdf: “Working memory training improvements and gains in non–trained cognitive tasks in young and older adults”, (2013-05-02; ):
Previous studies on working memory training have indicated that transfer to non-trained tasks of other cognitive domains may be possible.
The aim of this study is to compare working memory training and transfer effects between younger and older adults (n = 60). A novel approach to adaptive n-back training (12 sessions) was implemented by varying the working memory load and the presentation speed. All participants completed a neuropsychological battery of tests before and after the training.
On average, younger training participants achieved difficulty level 12 after training, while older training participants only reached difficulty level 5. In younger participants, transfer to Verbal Fluency and Digit Symbol Substitution test was found. In older participants, we observed a transfer to Digit Span Forward, CERAD Delayed Recall, and Digit Symbol Substitution test.
Results suggest that working memory training may be a beneficial intervention for maintaining and improving cognitive functioning in old age.
[Keywords: aging, working memory, training, transfer, processing speed, executive functions]
2013-vartanian.pdf: “Working memory training is associated with lower prefrontal cortex activation in a divergent thinking task”, (2013-04-16; ):
- We examined the effects of working memory (WM) training on divergent thinking.
- WM training led to improvements in WM capacity and fluid intelligence.
- WM training did not improve divergent thinking performance.
- WM training was correlated with lower prefrontal activation.
- Gain in fluid intelligence mediated the effect of training on activation in the prefrontal cortex.
Working memory (WM) training has been shown to lead to improvements in WM capacity and fluid intelligence. Given that divergent thinking loads on WM and fluid intelligence, we tested the hypothesis that WM training would improve performance and moderate neural function in the Alternate Uses Task (AUT)—a classic test of divergent thinking.
We tested this hypothesis by administering the AUT in the functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner following a short regimen of WM training (experimental condition), or engagement in a choice reaction time task not expected to engage WM (active control condition). Participants in the experimental group exhibited statistically-significant improvement in performance in the WM task as a function of training, as well as a statistically-significant gain in fluid intelligence. Although the 2 groups did not differ in their performance on the AUT, activation was statistically-significantly lower in the experimental group in ventrolateral prefrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices—two brain regions known to play dissociable and critical roles in divergent thinking. Furthermore, gain in fluid intelligence mediated the effect of training on brain activation in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.
These results indicate that a short regimen of WM training is associated with lower prefrontal activation—a marker of neural efficiency—in divergent thinking.
2013-stephenson.pdf: “Improved matrix reasoning is limited to training on tasks with a visuospatial component”, Clayton L. Stephenson, Diane F. Halpern ( )
2013-sprenger.pdf: “Training working memory: Limits of transfer”, Amber M. Sprenger, Sharona M. Atkins, Donald J. Bolger, J. Isaiah Harbison, Jared M. Novick, Jeffrey S. Chrabaszcz, Scott A. Weems, Vanessa Smith, Steven Bobb, Michael F. Bunting, Michael R. Dougherty ( )
2013-smith.pdf: “Exploring the effectiveness of commercial and custom-built games for cognitive training”, Shamus P. Smith, Marina Stibric, David Smithson ( )
2013-rapport.pdf: “Do programs designed to train working memory, other executive functions, and attention benefit children with ADHD? A meta-analytic review of cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes”, Mark D. Rapport, Sarah A. Orban, Michael J. Kofler, Lauren M. Friedman ( )
2013-oelhafen.pdf: “Increased parietal activity after training of interference control”, Stephan Oelhafen, Aki Nikolaidis, Tullia Padovani, Daniela Blaser, Thomas Koenig, Walter J. Perrig ( )
2013-colom.pdf: “Adaptive n-back training does not improve fluid intelligence at the construct level: Gains on individual tests suggest that training may enhance visuospatial processing”, Roberto Colom, Francisco J. Román, Francisco J. Abad, Pei Chun Shih, Jesús Privado, Manuel Froufe, Sergio Escorial, Kenia Martínez, Miguel Burgaleta, M. A. Quiroga, Sherif Karama, Richard J. Haier, Paul M. Thompson, Susanne M. Jaeggi ( )
2012-takeuchi.pdf: “Effects of working memory training on functional connectivity and cerebral blood flow during rest”, Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Hiroshi Hashizume, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Calros M. Miyauchi, Yuko Sassa, Ryuta Kawashima ( )
2012-studerluethi.pdf: “Influence of neuroticism and conscientiousness on working memory training outcome”, Barbara Studer-Luethi, Susanne M. Jaeggi, Martin Buschkuehl, Walter J. Perrig ( )
2011-shiran.pdf: “The effect of cognitive training on recall range and speed of information processing in the working memory of dyslexic and skilled readers”, Amir Shiran, Zvia Breznitz ( )
2011-schubert.pdf: “The efficacy and psychophysiological correlates of dual-attention tasks in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)”, Sarah J. Schubert, Christopher W. Lee, Peter D. Drummond ( )
2011-jaeggi-poster.pdf: “The Title of the Poster” ( )
2011-andrews.pdf: “Improving working memory: the effect of combining cognitive activity and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex”, Sophie C. Andrews, Kate E. Hoy, Peter G. Enticott, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Paul B. Fitzgerald ( )
2010-zeidan.pdf: “Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: Evidence of brief mental training”, Fadel Zeidan, Susan K. Johnson, Bruce J. Diamond, Zhanna David, Paula Goolkasian ( )
2010-seidler.pdf: “M-CASTL Synthesis Report”, SBA ( )
2010-schmeichel.pdf: “WM and Spontaneous ER_resubmission”, Joseph Weaver ( )
2010-moe.pdf: “Beyond genetics in Mental Rotation Test performance”, Angelica Moè, Francesca Pazzaglia ( )
2010-jaeggi.pdf: “The relationship between n-back performance and matrix reasoning — implications for training and transfer”, Susanne M. Jaeggi, Barbara Studer-Luethi, Martin Buschkuehl, Yi-Fen Su, John Jonides, Walter J. Perrig ( )
2010-colom.pdf: “Improvement in working memory is not related to increased intelligence scores”, Roberto Colom, Mª Ángeles Quiroga, Pei Chun Shih, Kenia Martínez, Miguel Burgaleta, Agustín Martínez-Molina, Francisco J. Román, Laura Requena, Isabel Ramírez ( )
2010-alloway.pdf: “Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment”, Tracy Packiam Alloway, Ross G. Alloway ( )
2009-rodriguezjimenez.pdf: “Differential dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation during a verbal n-back task according to sensory modality”, (2009-12-14; ):
Functional neuroimaging studies carried out on healthy volunteers while performing different n-back tasks have shown a common pattern of bilateral frontoparietal activation, especially of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Our objective was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the pattern of brain activation while performing two similar n-back tasks which differed in their presentation modality. Thirteen healthy volunteers completed a verbal 2-back task presenting auditory stimuli, and a similar 2-back task presenting visual stimuli. A conjunction analysis showed bilateral activation of frontoparietal areas including the DLPFC. The left DLPFC and the superior temporal gyrus showed a greater activation in the auditory than in the visual condition, whereas posterior brain regions and the anterior cingulate showed a greater activation during the visual than during the auditory task. Thus, brain areas involved in the visual and auditory versions of the n-back task showed an important overlap between them, reflecting the supramodal characteristics of working memory. However, the differences found between the two modalities should be considered in order to select the most appropriate task for future clinical studies.
[Keywords: fMRI, Working memory, n-back task, Auditory, Visual, DLPFC]
2009-karbach.pdf: “How useful is executive control training? Age differences in near and far transfer of task-switching training”, (2009-10-14; ):
Although executive functions can be improved by training, little is known about the extent to which these training-related benefits can be transferred to other tasks, or whether this transfer can be modulated by the type of training. This study investigated lifespan changes in near transfer of task-switching training to structurally similar tasks and its modulation by verbal self-instructions and variable training, as well as far transfer to structurally dissimilar ‘executive’ tasks and fluid intelligence. Three age groups (8–10; 18–26; 62–76 years of age) were examined in a pretest-training-posttest design. We found near transfer of task-switching training in all age groups, especially in children and older adults. Near transfer was enhanced in adults and impaired in children when training tasks were variable. We also found substantial far transfer to other executive tasks and fluid intelligence in all age groups, pointing to the transfer of relatively general executive control abilities after training.
2009-stoecker.pdf: “Zinc status and cognitive function of pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia”, B J. Stoecker, Y. Abebe, L. Hubbs-Tait, T. S Kennedy, R. S Gibson, I. Arbide, A. Teshome, J. Westcott, N. F Krebs, K. M Hambidge ( )
2009-qiu.pdf: “Study on Improving Fluid Intelligence through Cognitive Training System Based on Gabor Stimulus”, Feiyue Qiu, Qinqin Wei, Liying Zhao, Lifang Lin ( )
2009-parker.pdf: “Reduced misinformation effects following saccadic bilateral eye movements”, Andrew Parker, Sharon Buckley, Neil Dagnall ( )
2009-jaeggi.pdf: “Microsoft PowerPoint - poster taiwan study”, Susanne
2009-brunye.pdf: “Horizontal saccadic eye movements enhance the retrieval of landmark shape and location information”, Tad T. Brunyé, Caroline R. Mahoney, Jason S. Augustyn, Holly A. Taylor ( )
2008-karbach.pdf: “CAC08_Karbach”, dast003 ( )
2008-jaeggi-transfer.pdf: “Microsoft PowerPoint - Descriptive Data - Jaeggi et al 2008 - Reasoning.pptx”, Susanne Jaeggi ( )
2007-danigelis.pdf: “Population Aging, Intracohort Aging, and Sociopolitical Attitudes”, (2007-10-01; ):
Prevailing stereotypes of older people hold that their attitudes are inflexible or that aging tends to promote increasing conservatism in sociopolitical outlook. In spite of mounting scientific evidence demonstrating that learning, adaptation, and reassessment are behaviors in which older people can and do engage, the stereotype persists.
We use U.S. General Social Survey (GSS) data from 25 surveys between 1972 and 2004 to formally assess the magnitude and direction of changes in attitudes that occur within cohorts at different stages of the life course. We decompose changes in sociopolitical attitudes into the proportions attributable to cohort succession and intracohort aging for three categories of items: attitudes toward historically subordinate groups, civil liberties, and privacy.
We find that statistically-significant intracohort change in attitudes occurs in cohorts-in-later-stages (age 60 and older) as well as cohorts-in-earlier-stages (ages 18 to 39), that the change for cohorts-in-later-stages is frequently greater than that for cohorts-in-earlier-stages, and that the direction of change is most often toward increased tolerance rather than increased conservatism.
These findings are discussed within the context of population aging and development.
2007-gouzouasis.pdf: “The predictive relationship between achievement and participation in music and achievement in core Grade 12 academic subjects”, (2007-01-31; ):
The relationship between musical training and general intellectual capacity as well as academic achievement has been discussed in numerous contexts.
In our study, we examined the relationship between participation and achievement in music and achievement in academic courses, based on data from 3 consecutive British Columbia student cohorts. Across the 3 cohorts, we consistently found that music participation was associated with generally higher academic achievement, and that Grade 11 music course scores predicted Grade 12 academic achievement scores in linear regression analyses.
Our results support the notion that the time dedicated to music participation does not impede, but rather goes hand in hand with or even fosters academic excellence in other ‘core’ subjects.
2004-costa-giomi.pdf: “Effects of Three Years of Piano Instruction on Children’s Academic Achievement, School Performance and Self-Esteem”, (2004-04-01; ):
This study of the effects of three years of piano instruction is based on a sample of 117 fourth-grade children attending public schools in Montreal. The children had never participated in formal music instruction, did not have a piano at home, and their annual family income was below $40,000 Can. Children in the experimental group (n = 63) received individual piano lessons weekly for three years and were given an acoustic piano at no cost to their families. Children in the control group (n = 54) did not participate in formal music instruction. Participants were administered tests of self-esteem, academic achievement, cognitive abilities, musical abilities, and motor proficiency at the beginning of the project and throughout the three years of piano instruction. The results indicated that piano instruction had a positive effect on children’s self-esteem and school music marks but did not affect their academic achievement in math and language as measured by standardized tests and school report cards.
2002-klauer.pdf: “Inducing Inductive Reasoning: Does It Transfer to Fluid Intelligence?”, Klauer, K. J., et al. ( )
2000-fishbain.pdf: “PME00042”, FrameMaker 5.5 PowerPC: PSPrinter 8.3 ( )
1999-fratiglioni.pdf: “Drugs and Aging 15: 365-375, Nov 1999”, Fratiglioni L, De Ronchi D, Ag;auuero-Torres H ( )
1993-schneider.pdf: “Chess Expertise and Memory for Chess Positions in Children and Adults”, (1993-12-01; ):
This paper presents a replication and extension of Chi′s (1978) classic study on chess expertise [“Knowledge structures and memory development”]. A major outcome of Chi′s research was that although adult novices had a better memory span than child experts, the children showed better memory for chess positions than the adults. The major goal of this study was to explore the effects of the following task characteristics on memory performance: (1) Familiarity with the constellation of chess pieces (ie., meaningful versus random positions) and (2) familiarity with both the geometrical structure of the board and the form and color of chess pieces. The tasks presented to the four groups of subjects (ie., child experts and novices, adult experts and novices) included memory for meaningful and random chess positions as well as memory for the location of wooden pieces of different forms on a board geometrically structured by circles, triangles, rhombuses, etc. (control task 1). Further, a digit span memory task was given (control task 2). The major assumption was that the superiority of experts should be greatest for the meaningful chess positions, somewhat reduced but still statistically-significant for the random positions, and nonsignificant for the board control task. Only age effects were expected for the digit span task. The results conformed to this pattern, showing that each type of knowledge contributed to the experts′ superior memory span for chess positions.