1999-donovan.pdf: “Previous Meta˚Analytic Review” ( )
2021-yang.pdf: “Testing (Quizzing) Boosts Classroom Learning: A Systematic And Meta–Analytic Review”, (2021-03-08; ):
Testing (class quizzing) yields a variety of learning benefits, even though learners, instructors, and policymakers tend to lack full metacognitive insight into the virtues of testing. The current meta-analysis finds a reliable advantage of testing over other strategies in facilitating learning of factual knowledge, concept comprehension, and knowledge application in the classroom. Overall, testing is not only an assessment of learning but also an assessment for learning.
Over the last century hundreds of studies have demonstrated that testing is an effective intervention to enhance long-term retention of studied knowledge and facilitate mastery of new information, compared with restudying and many other learning strategies (e.g., concept mapping), a phenomenon termed the testing effect. How robust is this effect in applied settings beyond the laboratory?
The current review integrated 48,478 students’ data, extracted from k = 222 independent studies, to investigate the magnitude, boundary conditions, and psychological underpinnings of test-enhanced learning in the classroom. The results show that overall testing (quizzing) raises student academic achievement to a medium extent (g = 0.499). The magnitude of the effect is modulated by a variety of factors, including learning strategy in the control condition, test format consistency, material matching, provision of corrective feedback, number of test repetitions, test administration location and timepoint, treatment duration, and experimental design.
The documented findings support 3 theories to account for the classroom testing effect: additional exposure, transfer-appropriate processing, and motivation. In addition to their implications for theory development, these results have practical importance for enhancing teaching practice and guiding education policy and highlight important directions for future research.
[Keywords: meta-analysis, motivation, academic achievement, testing effect, transfer-appropriate processing]
2021-emeny.pdf: “Spaced mathematics practice improves test scores and reduces overconfidence”, (2021-02-27):
The practice assignments in a mathematics textbook or course can be arranged so that most of the problems relating to any particular concept are massed together in a single assignment, or these related problems can be distributed across many assignments—a format known as spaced practice.
Here we report the results of two classroom experiments that assessed the effects of mathematics spacing on both test scores and students’ predictions of their test scores. In each experiment, students in Year 7 (11–12 years of age) either massed their practice into a single session or divided their practice across three sessions spaced 1 week apart, followed 1 month later by a test.
In both experiments, spaced practice produced higher test scores than did massed practice, and test score predictions were relatively accurate after spaced practice yet grossly overconfident after massed practice.
2010-seamon.pdf: “Memorising Milton's Paradise Lost: A study of a septuagenarian exceptional memoriser”, (2020-04-23; ):
At age 58, JB [John Basinger] began memorizing Milton’s epic poem Paradise Lost. 9 years and thousands of study hours later, he completed this process in 2001 and recalled from memory all 12 books of this 10,565-line poem over a 3-day period. Now 74, JB continues to recite this work. We tested his memory accuracy by cueing his recall with two lines from the beginning or middle of each book and asking JB to recall the next 10 lines. JB is an exceptional memoriser of Milton, both in our laboratory tests in which he did not know the specific tests or procedures in advance, and in our analysis of a videotaped, prepared performance. Consistent with deliberate practice theory, JB achieved this remarkable ability by deeply analysing the poem’s structure and meaning over lengthy repetitions. Our findings suggest that exceptional memorizers such as JB are made, not born, and that cognitive expertise can be demonstrated even in later adulthood.
[Keywords: Exceptional memory, Prose memory, Age and memory]
2019-rohrer.pdf: “A randomized controlled trial of interleaved mathematics practice”, Doug Rohrer, Robert F. Dedrick, Marissa K. Hartwig, Chi-Ngai Cheung ( )
2016-mazza.pdf: “Relearn Faster and Retain Longer: Along With Practice, Sleep Makes Perfect”, (2016-08-16; ):
Both repeated practice and sleep improve long-term retention of information. The assumed common mechanism underlying these effects is memory reactivation, either on-line and effortful or off-line and effortless.
In the study reported here, we investigated whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation could help to save practice time during relearning. During two sessions occurring 12 hr apart, 40 participants practiced foreign vocabulary until they reached a perfect level of performance. Half of them learned in the morning and relearned in the evening of a single day. The other half learned in the evening of one day, slept, and then relearned in the morning of the next day. Their retention was assessed 1 week later and 6 months later. We found that interleaving sleep between learning sessions not only reduced the amount of practice needed by half but also ensured much better long-term retention.
Sleeping after learning is definitely a good strategy, but sleeping between two learning sessions is a better strategy.
[Keywords: learning, sleep-wake cycle, relearning, sleep-dependent memory consolidation, repeated practice]
2015-colbran.pdf: “The impact of student-generated digital flashcards on student learning of constitutional law”, Stephen Colbran ( )
2014-mcmullen.pdf: “Why is there so much resistance to Direct Instruction?”, (2014-12-04):
Direct Instruction (DI) has been the subject of empirical research since its inception in the 1960s and has garnered a strong research base to support it. Despite its proven efficacy, Direct Instruction is not widely implemented and draws much criticism from some educators. This literature review details the components of Direct Instruction, research to support it and reported attitudes towards it. The aspects of Direct Instruction that attract the most criticism are broken down to determine just what it is that educators do not like about it. In addition, this review attempts to outline possible ways to improve the landscape for Direct Instruction by reviewing research on how best to achieve a shift in beliefs when adopting change in schools. This includes pre-service teacher education and professional development and support for practising teachers as a means of improving rates of implementation of Direct Instruction.
2014-vlach.pdf: “Equal spacing and expanding schedules in childrenâ€™s categorization and generalization”, Haley A. Vlach, Catherine M. Sandhofer, Robert A. Bjork ( )
2013-philips.pdf: “Pattern and predictability in memory formation: From molecular mechanisms to clinical relevance”, Gary T. Philips, Ashley M. Kopec, Thomas J. Carew ( )
2013-larsen.pdf: “Chapter 38: Test-Enhanced Learning”, Douglas P. Larsen, Andrew C. Butler ( )
2012-mcdaniel.pdf: “Using quizzes to enhance summative-assessment performance in a web-based class: An experimental study”, Mark A. McDaniel, Kathleen M. Wildman, Janis L. Anderson ( )
2011-zulkiply.pdf: “Spacing and induction: Application to exemplars presented as auditory and visual text”, Norehan Zulkiply, John McLean, Jennifer S. Burt, Debra Bath ( )
2009-goverover.pdf: “A functional application of the spacing effect to improve learning and memory in persons with multiple sclerosis”, (2009-05-20; ):
The present study examined the utility of using spaced learning trials (when trials are distributed over time) versus massed learning trials (consecutive learning trials) in the acquisition of everyday functional tasks.
In a within-subjects design, 20 participants with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 18 healthy controls (HC) completed 2 route learning tasks and 2 paragraph reading tasks. One task in each area was presented in the “spaced” condition, in which the task was presented to the participants 3 times with 5-minutes break between each trial, and the second task in each area was presented in the “massed” condition, in which the task was presented 3 consecutive times to the participants. The dependent variables consisted of recall and recognition of the paragraphs and routes both immediately and 30 minutes following initial learning.
Results showed that for paragraph learning, the spaced condition statistically-significantly enhanced memory performance for this task relative to the massed condition. However, this effect was not demonstrated in the route learning task. Thus, the spacing effect can be beneficial to enhance recall and performance of activities of daily living for individuals with MS; however, this effect was statistically-significant for verbal tasks stimuli, but not for visual tasks stimuli.
It will be important during future investigations to better characterize the factors that maximize the spacing effect.
[Keywords: memory, activities of daily living, cognitive rehabilitation, multiple sclerosis, spacing effect]
2006-parker.pdf: “A Case of Unusual Autobiographical Remembering”, (2007-02-16; ):
This report describes AJ, a woman whose remembering dominates her life. Her memory is “nonstop, uncontrollable, and automatic.” AJ spends an excessive amount of time recalling her personal past with considerable accuracy and reliability. If given a date, she can tell you what she was doing and what day of the week it fell on. She differs from other cases of superior memory who use practiced mnemonics to remember vast amounts of personally irrelevant information.
We propose the name hyperthymestic syndrome, from the Greek word thymesis meaning remembering, and that AJ is the first reported case. [Since renamed Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM).]
2006-roediger.pdf: “untitled” ( )
2006-balch.pdf: “04faculty.vp”, Judy Levine ( )
2004-lee.pdf: “Chapter 2: Contextual interference”, Timothy D. Lee, Dominic A. Simon ( )
2002-mammarella.pdf: “Spacing effects in cued-memory tasks for unfamiliar faces and nonwords” ( )
2002-childers.pdf: “EBSCOhost”, Tarn Somervell Fletcher ( )
2000-jamieson.pdf: “99202” ( )
1997-revak.pdf: “Florida Journal of Educational Research” ( )
/, WainnerRS ( ) gateway.ut.ovid.com/ gw2/ ovidweb.cgi”
1994-dunlosky.pdf: “rnvb085.PDF” ( )
1993-bahrick.pdf: “Maintenance of Foreign Language Vocabulary and the Spacing Effect”, (1993-09-01; ):
In a 9-year longitudinal investigation, 4 subjects learned and relearned 300 English-foreign language word pairs. Either 13 or 26 relearning sessions were administered at intervals of 14, 28, or 56 days. Retention was tested for 1, 2, 3, or 5 years after training terminated. The longer intersession intervals slowed down acquisition slightly, but this disadvantage during training was offset by substantially higher retention. 13 retraining sessions spaced at 56 days yielded retention comparable to 26 sessions spaced at 14 days. The retention benefit due to additional sessions was independent of the benefit due to spacing, and both variables facilitated retention of words regardless of difficulty level and of the consistency of retrieval during training. The benefits of spaced retrieval practice to long-term maintenance of access to academic knowledge areas are discussed.
1973-standing.pdf: “Learning 10000 pictures”, (1973-05-01; ):
Four experiments are reported which examined memory capacity and retrieval speed for pictures and for words. Single-trial learning tasks were employed throughout, with memory performance assessed by forced-choice recognition, recall measures or choice reaction-time tasks. The main experimental findings were: (1) memory capacity, as a function of the amount of material presented, follows a general power law with a characteristic exponent for each task; (2) pictorial material obeys this power law and shows an overall superiority to verbal material. The capacity of recognition memory for pictures is almost limitless, when measured under appropriate conditions; (3) when the recognition task is made harder by using more alternatives, memory capacity stays constant and the superiority of pictures is maintained; (4) picture memory also exceeds verbal memory in terms of verbal recall; comparable recognition/
recall ratios are obtained for pictures, words and nonsense syllables; (5) verbal memory shows a higher retrieval speed than picture memory, as inferred from reaction-time measures. Both types of material obey a power law, when reaction-time is measured for various sizes of learning set, and both show very rapid rates of memory search.
From a consideration of the experimental results and other data it is concluded that the superiority of the pictorial mode in recognition and free recall learning tasks is well established and cannot be attributed to methodological artifact.
1969-allen.pdf: “PII: S0022-5371(69)80090-3” ( )
1967-keppel.pdf: “PII: S0022-5371(67)80004-5” ( )