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TBI directory


“Personality Traits, Mental Abilities and Other Individual Differences: Monozygotic Female Twins Raised Apart in South Korea and the United States”, Segal & Hur 2022

2022-segal.pdf: “Personality traits, mental abilities and other individual differences: Monozygotic female twins raised apart in South Korea and the United States”⁠, Nancy L. Segal, Yoon-Mi Hur (2022-08-01; ; backlinks):

[n = 1, MZA] Twins reared apart are rare, especially twins raised in different countries and cultures.

This report documents the behavioral, physical, and medical similarities and differences of monozygotic female co-twins, raised separately by an adoptive family in the United States and the biological family in South Korea.

Similarities were evident in personality, self-esteem, mental health, job satisfaction and medical life history, consistent with genetic influence found by the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart and related studies. An overall twin correlation across 38 measures was r = 0.95, p < 0.001. In contrast with previous research, the twins’ general intelligence and non-verbal reasoning scores showed some marked differences.

Adding these cases to the psychological literature enhances understanding of genetic, cultural, and environmental influences on human development.

[Keywords: twins, adoption, personality, culture, intelligence, values]

1.2. Twins’ separation and discovery: SK and US were separated due to unusual circumstances. They were born in 1974 in Seoul, South Korea. At age 2, their maternal grandmother took them to a market where US was lost. US was later seen wandering alone before being taken to a hospital where she was diagnosed with the measles; the hospital was ~100 miles from her family’s residence. US then entered a home of a loving foster mother, then transferred to the then Kyong Dong Baby Home in Suwon City. Her case was eventually managed by South Korea’s Holt International Adoption Agency whose staff arranged for her adoption by a United States couple. She has no recollection of having been lost. The twins’ biological parents circulated flyers in the hope of finding her and appeared on a television program for missing persons.

US submitted a DNA sample in 2018 as part of South Korea’s program for reuniting family members. In March 2020, she received a telephone call informing her of a genetic match—her biological mother had been identified in South Korea. During an online meeting in October 2020, US learned that she had not been born on April 25, but on October 8. She also learned that she has a twin, a biological brother 4 years older and a biological sister 2 years older.

…US had 3 concussions as an adult, caused by car accidents and from falling on ice. The most recent and severe incident occurred in January 2018, resulting in classic symptoms of light sensitivity and concentration difficulty. US feels she is a “different person”, with increased anger and anxiety. She requires additional time to process information in some problem-solving situations, although she has always seen herself as a poor test taker.

…US obtained a score of 31 on the SPM⁠. US’s testing time was 105 min, but she stopped at D7 (42 items) from frustration with difficult items. SK completed all 60 items in 54 min with a score of 43.

…[contrast Segal & Cortez 2014] It is striking that the twins showed substantial differences in cognitive abilities (WAIS IV and SPM) that have been linked to strong genetic influence. In composite scores of the WAIS-IV, they were nearly identical in WM and VC, but US was considerably lower than SK in PR and PS, with an overall IQ difference of 16 points. The mean IQ difference for MZA twins in the MISTRA was 7.07 (SD = 5.83), with a range of 0–29 points. Larger IQ differences in some MZA pairs were variously associated with brain damage resulting from accidents (Born together—reared apart: The landmark Minnesota twin study, Segal 2012). US’s SPM score was also considerably lower than SK’s score. Given that the SPM measures reasoning abilities to form perceptual relations and identify perceptual distractors, independent of language (Van der Ven & Ellis 2000), and that US worked much longer than SK, it can be concluded that US is lower than SK in perceptual reasoning and processing speed. US’s lower scores in these cognitive domains may reflect her history of concussions.

Segal 2012, pg206:

An interesting and novel feature of David DiLalla’s work was the multivariate profile analysis, looking at the score elevation and tracing the peaks and valleys of the twins’ MMPI scores. The average score elevation looks at each twin’s average scale score, while the profile shape looks at the difference of each twin’s MMPI scale from the average…In one case, the twins became discordant for major affective disorder with psychosis, and in the other case a head injury 5 years before assessment had probably caused neurological damage in one twin. These last 2 cases showed that MZA twins raised in the same culture could differ in personality and psychopathology for a variety of reasons.

“Changes in Jail Admissions Before and After Traumatic Brain Injury”, Schwartz et al 2021

2021-schwartz.pdf: “Changes in Jail Admissions Before and After Traumatic Brain Injury”⁠, Joseph A. Schwartz, Emily M. Wright, Ryan Spohn, Michael F. Campagna, Benjamin Steiner, Ebonie Epinger et al (2021-08-11; ; backlinks; similar):

Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is differentially concentrated within incarcerated populations. Despite the consistency of this observation, the timing of within-individual changes in criminal justice contact in relation to TBI remains under-investigated. For example, previous studies have primarily considered TBI as a causal influence of later criminal justice contact. However, TBI may also serve as a consequence of criminal justice contact or a criminogenic lifestyle. The current study simultaneously observes both possibilities by examining criminal justice contact before, around the time of, and after the first reported TBI.

Methods: Drawing from a combination of self-report and lifetime official record data from a jail cohort admitted between February 2017 and September 2017 and who sustained their first reported TBI at age 21 or older (n = 531), the current study examines jail admissions in the 24 months before and 24 months after the first reported TBI and across 8 biannual intervals (n = 4,248 person-periods).

Results: Any and misdemeanor admissions slightly increased pre-TBI and continued to increase around the time of and following TBI, never returning to pre-TBI levels. Felony admissions remained stable around the time of injury and increased post-TBI. Further analyses that incorporated a comparison group revealed that these patterns are unique to the TBI group and not a result of a larger systematic process.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that the probability of jail admission is greatest post-TBI, but also increases leading up to sustaining a TBI.

[Keywords: Traumatic Brain Injury, collateral consequences, criminal justice contact, jail]

“Head Injury and 25-year Risk of Dementia”, Schneider et al 2021

2021-schneider.pdf: “Head injury and 25-year risk of dementia”⁠, Andrea L. C. Schneider, Elizabeth Selvin, Lawrence Latour, L. Christine Turtzo, Josef Coresh, Thomas Mosley et al (2021-03-09; ; backlinks; similar):

Introduction: Head injury is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Long-term associations of head injury with dementia in community-based populations are less clear.

Methods: Prospective cohort study of 14,376 participants (mean age 54 years at baseline, 56% female, 27% Black, 24% with head injury) enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Head injury was defined using self-report and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth/​Tenth Revision (ICD-9/​10) codes. Dementia was defined using cognitive assessments, informant interviews, and ICD-9/​10 and death certificate codes.

Results: Head injury was associated with risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3–1.57), with evidence of dose-response (1 head injury: HR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.13–1.39, 2+ head injuries: HR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.86–2.46). There was evidence for stronger associations among female participants (HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.51–1.90) versus male participants (HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.00–1.32), p-for-interaction < 0.001, and among White participants (HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.40–1.72) versus Black participants (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.02–1.45), p-for-interaction = 0.008.

Discussion: In this community-based cohort with 25-year follow-up, head injury was associated with increased dementia risk in a dose-dependent manner, with stronger associations among female participants and White participants.

Figure 2: Kaplan-Meier curve for cumulative dementia incidence by head injury frequency, n = 14,376. Log-rank p-value < 0.001

“Remembering Allan McDonald: He Refused To Approve Challenger Launch, Exposed Cover-Up”, Berkes 2021

“Remembering Allan McDonald: He Refused To Approve Challenger Launch, Exposed Cover-Up”⁠, Howard Berkes (2021-03-08; ; backlinks; similar):

On Jan. 27, 1986, Allan McDonald stood on the cusp of history. McDonald directed the booster rocket project at NASA contractor Morton Thiokol. He was responsible for the two massive rockets, filled with explosive fuel, that lifted space shuttles skyward. He was at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida for the launch of the Challenger “to approve or disapprove a launch if something came up”, he told me in 2016, 30 years after Challenger exploded. His job was to sign and submit an official form. Sign the form, he believed, and he’d risk the lives of the 7 astronauts set to board the spacecraft the next morning. Refuse to sign, and he’d risk his job, his career and the good life he’d built for his wife and 4 children. “And I made the smartest decision I ever made in my lifetime”, McDonald told me. “I refused to sign it. I just thought we were taking risks we shouldn’t be taking.”

…Now, 35 years after the Challenger disaster, McDonald’s family reports that he died Saturday in Ogden, Utah, after suffering a fall and brain damage. He was 83 years old.

“Disability Caused by Minor Head Injury”, Rimel et al 1981

1981-rimel.pdf: “Disability Caused by Minor Head Injury”⁠, Rebecca W. Rimel, Bruno Giordani, Jeffrey T. Barth, Thomas J. Boll, John A. Jane (1981-01-01; ; backlinks)

Traumatic brain injury