2007-cassidy.pdf: “The effect of background music and background noise on the task performance of introverts and extraverts”, Gianna Cassidy, Raymond A.R. MacDonald (2007-07-01):
The study investigated the effects of music with high arousal potential and negative affect (HA), music with low arousal potential and positive affect (LA), and everyday noise, on the cognitive task performance of introverts and extraverts. 40 participants completed 5 cognitive tasks: immediate recall, free recall, numerical and delayed recall, and Stroop. 10 participants completed each of these tasks in one of 4 sound conditions: HA, LA, everyday noise and silence. Participants were also assessed for levels of introversion/
extroversion, and reported their music/ noise and study preferences. Performance was lessened across all cognitive tasks in the presence of background sound (music or noise) compared to silence. HA and LA music produced differential distraction effects, with performance of all tasks being poorer in the presence of HA compared to LA and silence, in the presence of noise than silence across all tasks, and in the presence of noise than LA in 3 of the 4 tasks. Performance was moderated by internal arousal, with introverts performing better overall on each task except the Stroop, and appearing to be more detrimentally affected by the presence of HA music and noise.
2011-kampfe.pdf: “The impact of background music on adult listeners: A meta-analysis”, Juliane Kämpfe, Peter Sedlmeier, Frank Renkewitz (2010-11-08):
Background music has been found to have beneficial, detrimental, or no effect on a variety of behavioral and psychological outcome measures. This article reports a meta-analysis that attempts to summarize the impact of background music. A global analysis shows a null effect, but a detailed examination of the studies that allow the calculation of effects sizes reveals that this null effect is most probably due to averaging out specific effects. In our analysis, the probability of detecting such specific effects was not very high as a result of the scarcity of studies that allowed the calculation of respective effect sizes. Nonetheless, we could identify several such cases: a comparison of studies that examined background music compared to no music indicates that background music disturbs the reading process, has some small detrimental effects on memory, but has a positive impact on emotional reactions and improves achievements in sports. A comparison of different types of background music reveals that the tempo of the music influences the tempo of activities that are performed while being exposed to background music. It is suggested that effort should be made to develop more specific theories about the impact of background music and to increase the methodological quality of relevant studies. [Keywords: background music, effects of music, healthy adults, meta-analysis, methodological problems.]
2012-perham.pdf: “Disliked Music can be Better for Performance than Liked Music”, Nick Perham, Martinne Sykora (2012-01-12):
Although liked music is known to improve performance through boosting one’s mood and arousal, both liked music and disliked music impair serial recall performance. Given that the key acoustical feature of this impairment is the acoustical variation, it is possible that some music may contain less acoustical variation and so produce less impairment. In this situation, unliked, unfamiliar music could be better for performance than liked, familiar music. This study tested this by asking participants to serially recall eight-item lists in either quiet, liked or disliked music conditions. Results showed that performance was statistically-significantly poorer in both music conditions compared with quiet. More importantly, performance in the liked music condition was statistically-significantly poorer than in the disliked music condition. These findings provide further illustration of the irrelevant sound effect and limitations of the impact of liked music on cognition.