2021-lindsey.pdf: “Lithium in groundwater used for drinking–water supply in the United States”, (2021-05-01):
- Lithium in groundwater has not been comprehensively evaluated in the US.
- Concentrations in groundwater frequently exceed the human-health benchmark.
- The distribution of lithium concentrations varies widely by lithology and climate.
- Higher concentrations are found in arid regions and older groundwater.
- Cation exchange or mixing with saline water lead to highest concentrations.
Lithium concentrations in untreated groundwater from 1464 public-supply wells and 1676 domestic-supply wells distributed across 33 principal aquifers in the United States were evaluated for spatial variations and possible explanatory factors.
Concentrations nationwide ranged from <1 to 396 μg/
L (median of 8.1) for public supply wells and <1 to 1700 μg/ L (median of 6 μg/ L) for domestic supply wells. For context, lithium concentrations were compared to a Health Based Screening Level (HBSL, 10 μg/ L) and a drinking-water only threshold (60 μg/ L). These thresholds were exceeded in 45% and 9% of samples from public-supply wells and in 37% and 6% from domestic-supply wells, respectively. However, exceedances and median concentrations ranged broadly across geographic regions and principal aquifers.
Concentrations were highest in arid regions and older groundwater, particularly in unconsolidated clastic aquifers and sandstones, and lowest in carbonate-rock aquifers, consistent with differences inabundance among major lithologies and rock weathering extent. The median concentration for public-supply wells in the unconsolidated clastic High Plains aquifer (central United States) was 24.6 μg/
L; 24% of the wells exceeded the drinking-water only threshold and 86% exceeded the HBSL. Other unconsolidated clastic aquifers in the arid West had exceedance rates comparable to the High Plains aquifer, whereas no public supply wells in the Biscayne aquifer (southern Florida) exceeded either threshold, and the highest concentration in that aquifer was 2.6 μg/ L.
Multiple lines of evidence indicate natural sources for the lithium concentrations; however, anthropogenic sources may be important in the future because of the rapid increase of lithium battery use and subsequent disposal. Geochemical models demonstrate that extensive evaporation, mineral dissolution, cation exchange, and mixing with geothermal waters or brines may account for the observedand associated constituent concentrations, with the latter two processes as major contributing factors.
2021-steinmetz.pdf: “Lithium in drinking water, altitude, and suicide rates in rural areas of Argentinean Andes”, (2021-02-01; ):
TheTriangle in the Andean plateau involves high altitude (>3,000 m asl) hydrological systems having high graded waters. This research was carried-out in rural areas of north westernmost Argentinean Andes and was aimed: (1) to determine concentrations of in drinking waters; (2) to calculate suicide mortality rates based on available official data (2003–2013); (3) to analyze bivariate differences between lithium concentrations in drinking water, mean rates of suicide mortality, altitude of sampling sites, and water sources; (4) to analyze bivariate correlations between concentrations in drinking water, mean rates of suicide mortality, and altitude; (5) to test predictive models for mean rates of suicide mortality, when considering the predictors concentrations in drinking water, altitude, and water sources.
Lithium determinations in drinking waters were performed by Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer. Nonparametric tests were applied to analyze differences and correlations. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to fitting models for mean rates of suicide. Drinking waters contained up to 2.98 mg L−1 of lithium. Mean rates of suicide mortality (per 100,000 inhabitants) were high, ranging from 19.12 (± 19.83) to 30.22 (± 16.70). Lithium but not altitude was positively correlated with suicide mortality when analyzing bivariate correlations (Li: ρ = 0.76, p < 0.001). However, when GLM were calculated, a statistically-significant interaction effect was found between lithium and altitude (p < 0.001). This interaction effect would act in some way restraining the suicide mortality rates.
[Keywords:in drinking water, altitude, suicide, rural populations, Andes, Argentina]
2020-eyrewatt.pdf: “The association between lithium in drinking water and neuropsychiatric outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis from across 2678 regions containing 113 million”, (2020-10-13; ):
Background:in drinking water may have substantial mental health benefits. We investigated the evidence on the association between concentrations in drinking water and their neuropsychiatric outcomes.
Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis and searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO and CINAHL up to 19 January 2020, for peer-reviewed research examining the association between concentrations in drinking water and neuropsychiatric outcomes. We used a pairwise analysis and a random effects model to meta-analyse suicide rates and psychiatric hospital admissions. We assessed for publication bias using Egger’s test and Duval and Tweedie’s Trim and Fill analysis.
Results: Twenty-seven studies including 113 million subjects were included in this systematic review. Meta-analysis of 14 studies including 94 million people found higher lithium concentrations were associated with reduced suicide rates (r = −0.191, 95% confidence interval = [−0.287, −0.090], p < 0.001) and meta-analysis of two studies including 5 million people found higherconcentrations were associated with fewer hospital admissions (r = −0.413, 95% confidence interval = [−0.689, −0.031], p = 0.035). We found statistically-significant heterogeneity between studies (Q = 67.4, p < 0.001, I2 = 80.7%) and the presence of publication bias (Egger’s test; t value = 2.90, p = 0.013). Other included studies did not provide sufficient data to analyse other neuropsychiatric outcomes quantitatively.
Conclusion: Higherconcentrations in drinking water may be associated with reduced suicide rates and inpatient psychiatric admissions. The relationship with other neuropsychiatric outcomes and complications remains unclear. Further research is required before any public health recommendations can be made.
Trial registration number: The study was registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018090145.
[Keywords: Neuropsychiatric outcomes,, drinking water, suicide, public health]
2020-kugimiya.pdf: “Lithium in drinking water and suicide prevention: The largest nationwide epidemiological study from Japan”, (2020-08-11; ):
Objectives: The aims of the present study thus were (a) to further investigate the association betweenlevels in drinking water and suicide rates by adjusting relevant factors using the so far largest available dataset in Japan, (b) to confirm sex differences, (c) to estimate the effects of long-term exposure to trace , (d) to investigate the effects of drinking bottled instead of tap water, and (e) to exploratorily investigate which levels may be associated with lower suicide rates.
Methods: Mean SMRs) during the 7 years from 2010 to 2016. Multiple regression analyses adjusted for the size of each population were used to investigate the association of lithium levels with suicide SMRs with adjustments for relevant factors.levels in drinking water of all 808 cities and wards (ie, 785 cities of 46 prefectures and 23 wards of Tokyo) in Japan were examined in relation to mean suicide standardized mortality ratios (
Results: The adjusted model showed statistically-significant inverse associations of SMRs, but not with female SMRs. Neither the proportion of residents who continued to live in the same city nor the consumption of bottled water changed the association between levels and suicide SMRs. Finally, it was 30 μg/levels with total and male
L or more that was associated with lower suicide SMRs.
Conclusions: The present findings reconfirm the inverse association betweenlevels in drinking water and suicide rates particularly in the male population.
Background: The prevalence of mental health conditions and national suicide rates are increasing in many countries. Lithium is widely and effectively used in pharmacological doses for the treatment and prevention of manic/
depressive episodes, stabilising mood and reducing the risk of suicide. Since the 1990s, several ecological studies have tested the hypothesis that trace doses of naturally occurringin drinking water may have a protective effect against suicide in the general population.
Aims: To synthesise the global evidence on the association betweenlevels in drinking water and suicide mortality rates.
Method: The MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases were searched to identify eligible ecological studies published between 1 January 1946 and 10 September 2018. Standardised regression coefficients for total (ie. both genders combined), male and female suicide mortality rates were extracted and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. The study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42016041375).
Results: The literature search identified 415 articles; of these, 15 ecological studies were included in the synthesis. The random-effects meta-analysis showed a consistent protective (or inverse) association betweenlevels/
concentration in publicly available drinking water and total (pooled β = −0.27, 95% CI −0.47 to −0.08; p = 0.006, I2 = 83.3%), male (pooled β = −0.26, 95% CI −0.56 to 0.03; p = 0.08, I2 = 91.9%) and female (pooled β = −0.13, 95% CI −0.24 to −0.02; p = 0.03, I2 = 28.5%) suicide mortality rates. A similar protective association was observed in the six studies included in the narrative synthesis, and subgroup meta-analyses based on the higher/ lower suicide mortality rates and lithium levels/ concentration.
Conclusions: This synthesis of ecological studies, which are subject to the ecological fallacy/
bias, supports the hypothesis that there is a protective (or inverse) association between lithium intakes from public drinking water and suicide mortality at the population level. Naturally occurringin drinking water may have the potential to reduce the risk of suicide and may possibly help in mood stabilisation, particularly in populations with relatively high suicide rates and geographical areas with a greater range of concentration in the drinking water. All the available evidence suggests that randomised community trials of supplementation of the water supply might be a means of testing the hypothesis, particularly in communities (or settings) with demonstrated high prevalence of mental health conditions, violent criminal behaviour, chronic substance misuse and risk of suicide.
2020-barjastehaskari.pdf: “Relationship between suicide mortality and , Fateme Barjasteh-Askari, Mojtaba Davoudi, Homayoun Amini, Mohammad Ghorbani, Mehdi Yaseri, Masoud Yunesian, Amir Hossein Mahvi, David Lester ( in drinking water_ A systematic review and meta-analysis” )
2019-guttuso.pdf: “High , Thomas Guttuso levels in tobacco may account for reduced incidences of both Parkinson’s disease and melanoma in smokers through enhanced β-catenin-mediated activity”
2019-liaugaudaite.pdf: “Inverse relationship between , V. Liaugaudaite, R. Naginiene, N. Raskauskiene, N. Mickuviene, A. Bunevicius, L. Sher ( levels in drinking water and suicide rates” )
2019-seidel.pdf: “Lithium‐Rich Mineral Water is a Highly Bioavailable , Ulrike Seidel, Elena Baumhof, FranziskaA Hägele, Anja Bosy-Westphal, Marc Birringer, Gerald Rimbach Source for Human Consumption”
2019-schullehner.pdf: “Lithium in drinking water associated with adverse mental health effects”, Jörg Schullehner, Diana Paksarian, Birgitte Hansen, Malene Thygesen, Søren Munch Kristiansen, Søren Dalsgaard, Torben Sigsgaard, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen ( )
2019-ng.pdf: “Adding Lithium to Drinking Water for Suicide Prevention—The Ethics”, (2019):
Recent observations associate naturally occurring trace levels of Lithium in ground water with statistically-significantly lower suicide rates. It has been suggested that adding traceto drinking water could be a safe and effective way to reduce suicide. This article discusses the many ethical implications of such population-wide medication. It compares this policy to more targeted solutions that introduce trace amounts of Lithium to groups at higher risk of suicide or lower risk of adverse effects. The question of mass treatment with recalls other choices in public health between population-wide and more targeted interventions. The framework we propose could be relevant to some of these other dilemmas.
2018-shimodera.pdf: “Lithium levels in tap water and psychotic experiences in a general population of adolescents”, Shinji Shimodera, Shinsuke Koike, Shuntaro Ando, Syudo Yamasaki, Ryosuke Fujito, Kaori Endo, Yudai Iijima, Yu Yamamoto, Masaya Morita, Ken Sawada, Nobuki Ohara, Yuji Okazaki, Atsushi Nishida ( )
2018-brown.pdf: “Psychiatric benefits of , Eric E. Brown, Philip Gerretsen, Bruce Pollock, Ariel Graff-Guerrero in water supplies may be due to protection from the neurotoxicity of lead exposure”
2018-palmer.pdf: “The Association Between Lithium in Drinking Water and Incidence of Suicide Across 15 Alabama Counties”, (2018; ):
Background: Recent studies have shown thatmay be effective at reducing suicide at low doses, such as those found in drinking water.
Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare suicide rates with naturallevels in the drinking water of various Alabama counties.
Method: Five drinking water samples from each of 15 Alabama counties were collected. confounding variables.levels were measured in triplicate using an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer and compared with suicide rate data for the period 1999–2013. Age, gender, and poverty were evaluated as potential
Results: The average measuredconcentrations ranged from 0.4 ppb to 32.9 ppb between the counties tested. The plot of suicide rate versus concentration showed a statistically-significant inverse relationship (r = −0.6286, p = 0.0141). Evaluation of male-only suicide rate versus lithium concentration data also yielded statistically-significant results; however, the female-only rate was not statistically-significant. Age standardized suicide rates and poverty when individually compared against levels were also found to be statistically-significant; unexpectedly, however, poverty had a parallel trend with suicide rate.
Conclusion:concentration in drinking water is inversely correlated with suicide rate in 15 Alabama counties.
2018-fajardo.pdf: “Trace lithium in Texas tap water is negatively associated with all-cause mortality and premature death”, (2018; ):
Lithium in tap water was previously found to have life-extending effects across 18 Japanese municipalities. Using a larger dataset with several Texas counties, our study shows that lithium concentrations in tap water are negatively associated with all-cause mortality (r = −0.18, p = 0.006, 232 counties) and years of potential life lost (r = −0.22, p = 0.001, 214 counties). Thus, our present findings extend and reinforce lithium’s purported life-prolonging effect in humans.
2017-liaugaudaite.pdf: “Lithium levels in the public drinking water supply and risk of suicide: A pilot study”, (2017-09-01; ):
- The suicide-protective property of natural was confirmed with a positive effect for men.
- Higher levels in drinking water might have a protective effect on the risk of suicide in men.
- Evaluation of in a local drinking water, might provide regional effective prevention programs.
Suicide is a major public health concern affecting both the society and family life. There are data indicating that higher levelintake with drinking water is associated with lower suicide rate. This pilot study examined the relationship between lithium levels in drinking water and suicide rates in Lithuania.
22 samples from public drinking water systems were taken in 9 cities of Lithuania. The ICP-MS). The suicide data were obtained from the Lithuania Database of Health Indicators, and comprised all registered suicides across all ages and gender within the 5-year period from 2009 to 2013.concentration in these samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (
The study demonstrated an inverse correlation between levels of lithium (log natural transformed), number of women for 1000 men and standardized mortality rate for suicide among total study population. After adjusting for confounder (the number of women for 1000 men), thelevel remained statistically-significant in men, but not in women.
Our study suggested that higher levels ofin public drinking water are associated with lower suicide rates in men. It might have a protective effect on the risk of suicide in men.
2017-matsuzaki.pdf: “Re-analysis of the association of temperature or sunshine with hyperthymic temperament using , Hideki Matsuzaki, Takeshi Terao, Takeshi Inoue, Yoshikazu Takaesu, Nobuyoshi Ishii, Kentaro Kohno, Minoru Takeshima, Hajime Baba, Hiroshi Honma ( levels of drinking water” )
2017-ishii.pdf: “Trace , Nobuyoshi Ishii, Takeshi Terao and mental health”
2016-shiotsuki.pdf: “Trace , Ippei Shiotsuki, Takeshi Terao, Nobuyoshi Ishii, Shouhei Takeuchi, Yoshiki Kuroda, Kentaro Kohno, Yoshinori Mizokami, Koji Hatano, Sanshi Tanabe, Masayuki Kanehisa, Noboru Iwata, Shinya Matusda ( is inversely associated with male suicide after adjustment of climatic factors” )
2015-pompili.pdf: “IWBP_A_1062551.indd”, Maurizio Pompili, Monica Vichi, Enrico Dinelli, Roger Pycha, Paolo Valera, Stefano Albanese, Annamaria Lima, Benedetto De Vivo, Domenico Cicchella, Andrea Fiorillo, Mario Amore, Paolo Girardi, Ross J. Baldessarini ( )
2014-mauer.pdf: “Standard and trace-dose lithium: A systematic review of dementia prevention and other behavioral benefits”, (2014-06-11; ):
Objective: Dementia is a major public health issue, with notably high rates in persons with mood illnesses.has been shown to have considerable neuroprotective effects, even in trace or low doses. The aim of this review is to summarize the current understanding of benefits in trace or low doses in dementia prevention and for other behavioral or medical benefits.
Methods: A systematic review identified 24 clinical, epidemiological, and biological reports that met inclusion criteria of assessingin standard or low doses for dementia or other behavioral or medical benefits.
Results: 5 out of 7 epidemiological studies found an association between standard-doseand low dementia rates. 9 out of 11 epidemiological studies, usually of drinking water sources, found an association between trace-dose and low suicide/
homicide/ mortality and crime rates. All four small randomized clinical trials of RCT) of trace lithium has been conducted, assessing mood symptoms in former substance abusers, and found benefit with versus placebo.for Alzheimer’s dementia have found at least some clinical or biological benefits versus placebo. Only one small randomized clinical trial (
Conclusions: RCT research of trace lithium in dementia is warranted., in both standard and trace doses, appears to have biological benefits for dementia, suicide, and other behavioral outcomes. Further
[Keywords: Cognition, dementia,, prevention, standard dose, trace]
2013-helbich.pdf: “GH_7_2 ORDINATO+_announcement”, .::Gold::. ( )
2013-bluml.pdf: “Lithium in the public water supply and suicide mortality in Texas”, Victor Blüml, Michael D. Regier, Gerald Hlavin, Ian R. H. Rockett, Franz König, Benjamin Vyssoki, Tom Bschor, Nestor D. Kapusta ( )
2009-ohgami.pdf: “Lithium levels in drinking water and risk of suicide”, (2009-05-01; ):
Although SMR) in each municipality. We found that levels were statistically-significantly and negatively associated with SMR averages for 2002–2006. These findings suggest that even very low levels of in drinking water may play a role in reducing suicide risk within the general population.is known to prevent suicide in people with mood disorders, it is uncertain whether in drinking water could also help lower the risk in the general population. To investigate this, we examined levels in tap water in the 18 municipalities of Oita prefecture in Japan in relation to the suicide standardised mortality ratio (
2009-terao.pdf: “Even very low but sustained , Takeshi Terao, Shinjiro Goto, Masatoshi Inagaki, Yasumasa Okamoto ( intake can prevent suicide in the general population?” )
2008-shiotsuki.pdf: “Drinking Spring Water and Lithium Absorption: A Preliminary Study”, (2008-11-14; ):
Background: In Japan, there are several resorts with cold springs that have mineral water containing relatively high levels ofcompared to tap water. Visitors to such cold-spring resorts traditionally drink 2 to 4 L of mineral water for several hours in the early morning in the belief that the water has properties which maintain physical health. The present study aimed to investigate whether drinking the water increase serum lithium levels despite frequent urination, and to examine the mental effects of drinking mineral water containing and related factors.
Methods: 43 subjects who were not psychiatrically ill gave informed consent to this study. Before and just after drinking the water, serum STAI) scores, Profiles of Mood States Test (POMS) scores and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were measured.levels, the State-Trait of Anxiety Inventory (
Results: The subjects drank 3.64 L of the water in the early morning. Serumlevels were statistically-significantly increased from 0.026 to 0.073 mEq/
L, which were much lower than the ones used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. After drinking, most ratings of POMS statistically-significantly improved. Serum levels were positively and statistically-significantly associated with serum BDNF levels, and changes in serum BDNF were negatively and statistically-significantly associated with changes in STAI state scores.
Conclusion: The present findings suggest that drinking mineral water containing very low BDNF levels, although improvement in subjective well-being may have been due to placebo effect. Taking several methodological limitations into consideration, further studies are required to confirm this suggestion.levels may increase serum lithium levels and improve mental state as a likely consequence of changes in
[Keywords: STAI, POMS, BDNF], mineral water, cold spring,
2008-yeh.pdf: “Lithium may be useful in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease in individuals at risk of presenile familial Alzheimer’s disease”, Heng-Liang Yeh, Shih-Jen Tsai ( )
2008-servello.pdf: “Microsoft Word - J_Servello_Adv_GIS_Paper.doc”, Karla ( )
2007-guzzetta.pdf: “Lithium Treatment Reduces Suicide Risk in Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder”, Guzzetta, et al ( )
2005-cipriani.pdf: “Lithium in the Prevention of Suicidal Behavior and All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Mood Disorders: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials”, (2005-10-01; ):
Objective: Observational studies suggest that long-term lithium treatment has a strong antisuicidal effect in mood disorders, but it is uncertain whether this association is a genuine therapeutic effect or is due tofactors in nonrandomized studies. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials to investigate the effect of , compared to placebo and other active treatments, on the risk of suicide, deliberate self-harm, and all-cause mortality in patients with mood disorder.
Method: The data source was the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register, incorporating results of searches of MEDLINE (1966–June 2002), EMBASE (1980–June 2002), CINAHL (1982–March 2001), PsycLIT (1974–June 2002), PSYNDEX (1977–October 1999), and LILACS (1982–March 2001). The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) was searched with the term “lithium” for new records entered into the database from 1999 to 2003. Studies selected included randomized, controlled trials comparing lithium with placebo or all other compounds used in long-term treatment for mood disorders (unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, dysthymia, and rapid cycling, diagnosed according to DSM or ICD criteria). Of 727 references identified in the search, 52 articles were marked as possibly relevant on the basis of the abstract, and 32 randomized, controlled trials were eligible for inclusion in the review. Two independent reviewers extracted the data, and disagreements were resolved by consensus with a third reviewer. Methodological quality was assessed according to the criteria of the Cochrane Collaboration. When the outcomes of interest were not reported, an attempt was made to obtain the required data from the original authors.
Results: In 32 trials, 1,389 patients were randomly assigned to receiveand 2,069 to receive other compounds. Patients who received were less likely to die by suicide (data from seven trials; two versus 11 suicides; odds ratio = 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.09–0.77). The composite measure of suicide plus deliberate self-harm was also lower in patients who received (odds ratio = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.08–0.50). There were fewer deaths overall in patients who received (data from 11 trials; nine versus 22 deaths; odds ratio = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.21–0.87).
Conclusions:is effective in the prevention of suicide, deliberate self-harm, and death from all causes in patients with mood disorders.
1993-schrauzer.pdf: “effects of nutritional ( supplementation on Mood.pdf” )