newsletter/2017/10 (Link Bibliography)

“newsletter/​2017/​10” links:

  1. https://gwern.substack.com

  2. 09

  3. newsletter

  4. Changelog

  5. https://www.patreon.com/gwern

  6. Tanks

  7. http://arthurjensen.net/?page_id=9

  8. ⁠, Peter K. Joshi, Nicola Pirastu, Katherine A. Kentistou, Krista Fischer, Edith Hofer, Katharina E. Schraut, David W. Clark, Teresa Nutile, Catriona L. K. Barnes, Paul R. H. J. Timmers, Xia Shen, Ilaria Gandin, Aaron F. McDaid, Thomas Folkmann Hansen, Scott D. Gordon, Franco Giulianini, Thibaud S. Boutin, Abdel Abdellaoui, Wei Zhao, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Traci M. Bartz, Stella Trompet, Leslie A. Lange, Laura Raffield, Ashley van der Spek, Tessel E. Galesloot, Petroula Proitsi, Lisa R. Yanek, Lawrence F. Bielak, Antony Payton, Federico Murgia, Maria Pina Concas, Ginevra Biino, Salman M. Tajuddin, Ilkka Seppälä, Najaf Amin, Eric Boerwinkle, Anders D. Børglum, Archie Campbell, Ellen W. Demerath, Ilja Demuth, Jessica D. Faul, Ian Ford, Alessandro Gialluisi, Martin Gögele, MariaElisa Graff, Aroon Hingorani, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, David M. Hougaard, Mikko A. Hurme, M. Arfan Ikram, Marja Jylhä, Diana Kuh, Lannie Ligthart, Christina M. Lill, Ulman Lindenberger, Thomas Lumley, Reedik Mägi, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Sarah E. Medland, Lili Milani, Reka Nagy, William E. R. Ollier, Patricia A. Peyser, Peter P. Pramstaller, Paul M. Ridker, Fernando Rivadeneira, Daniela Ruggiero, Yasaman Saba, Reinhold Schmidt, Helena Schmidt, P. Eline Slagboom, Blair H. Smith, Jennifer A. Smith, Nona Sotoodehnia, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Frank J. A. van Rooij, André L. Verbeek, Sita H. Vermeulen, Peter Vollenweider, Yunpeng Wang, Thomas Werge, John B. Whitfield, Alan B. Zonderman, Terho Lehtimäki, Michele K. Evans, Mario Pirastu, Christian Fuchsberger, Lars Bertram, Neil Pendleton, Sharon L. R. Kardia, Marina Ciullo, Diane M. Becker, Andrew Wong, Bruce M. Psaty, Cornelia M. van Duijn, James G. Wilson, J. Wouter Jukema, Lambertus Kiemeney, André G. Uitterlinden, Nora Franceschini, Kari E. North, David R. Weir, Andres Metspalu, Dorret I. Boomsma, Caroline Hayward, Daniel Chasman, Nicholas G. Martin, Naveed Sattar, Harry Campbell, Tōnu Esko, Zoltán Kutalik & James F. Wilson (2017-10-13):

    Genomic analysis of longevity offers the potential to illuminate the biology of human aging. Here, using genome-wide association meta-analysis of 606,059 parents’ survival, we discover two regions associated with longevity (HLA-DQA1/​​​​DRB1 and LPA). We also validate previous suggestions that APOE, CHRNA3/​​​​5, CDKN2A/​​​​B, SH2B3 and FOXO3A influence longevity. Next we show that giving up smoking, educational attainment, openness to new experience and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are most positively with lifespan while susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD), cigarettes smoked per day, lung cancer, insulin resistance and body fat are most negatively correlated. We suggest that the effect of education on lifespan is principally mediated through smoking while the effect of obesity appears to act via CAD. Using instrumental variables, we suggest that an increase of one unit reduces lifespan by 7 months while 1 year of education adds 11 months to expected lifespan.

  9. ⁠, Emmi Tikkanen, Stefan Gustafsson, David Amar, Anna Shcherbina, Daryl Waggott, Euan A. Ashley, Erik Ingelsson (2017-10-10):

    Background: Hand grip strength, a simple indicator of muscular strength, has been associated with a range of health conditions, including fractures, disability, cardiovascular disease and premature death risk. Twin studies have suggested a high (50-60%) heritability, but genetic determinants are largely unknown.

    Aims

    In this study, our aim was to study genetic variation associated with muscular strength in a large sample of 334,925 individuals of European descent from the ⁠, and to evaluate shared genetic aetiology with and causal effects of grip strength on physical and cognitive health.

    Methods and Results

    In our discovery analysis of 223,315 individuals, we identified 101 loci associated with grip strength at genome-wide statistical-significance (P<5×10−8). Of these, 64 were associated (P<0.01 and consistent direction) also in the replication dataset (n = 111,610). Many of the lead SNPs were located in or near genes known to have a function in developmental disorders (FTO, SLC39A8, TFAP2B, TGFA, CELF1, TCF4, BDNF, FOXP1, KIF1B, ANTXR2), and one of the most significant genes based on a gene-based analysis (ATP2A1) encodes SERCA1, the critical enzyme in calcium uptake to the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which plays a major role in muscle contraction and relaxation. Further, we demonstrated a significant enrichment of gene expression in brain-related transcripts among grip strength associations. Finally, we observed inverse genetic correlations of grip strength with cardiometabolic traits, and positive correlation with parents’ age of death and education; and showed that grip strength was causally related to fitness, physical activity and other indicators of frailty, including cognitive performance scores.

    Conclusion: In our study of over 330,000 individuals from the general population, the genetic findings for hand grip strength suggest an important role of the central nervous system in strength performance. Further, our results indicate that maintaining good muscular strength is important for physical and cognitive performance and healthy aging.

  10. ⁠, Varun Warrier, the 23andMe Research Team, Thomas Bourgeron, Simon Baron-Cohen (2017-10-05):

    Dissatisfaction in social relationships is reported widely across many psychiatric conditions. We investigated the genetic architecture of family relationship satisfaction and friendship satisfaction in the UK Biobank. We leveraged the high genetic correlation between the two phenotypes (rg = 0.87±0.03; P < 2.2×10-16) to conduct multi-trait analysis of Genome Wide Association Study () (Neffective family = 164,112; Neffective friendship = 158,116). We identified two genome-wide statistically-significant associations for both the phenotypes: rs1483617 on chromosome 3 and rs2189373 on chromosome 6, a region previously implicated in ⁠. eQTL and chromosome conformation capture in neural tissues prioritizes several genes including NLGN1. Gene-based association studies identified several significant genes, with highest expression in brain tissues. Genetic correlation analysis identified significant negative correlations for multiple psychiatric conditions including highly significant negative correlation with cross-psychiatric disorder GWAS, underscoring the central role of social relationship dissatisfaction in psychiatric diagnosis. The two phenotypes were enriched for genes that are loss of function intolerant. Both phenotypes had modest, significant additive SNP heritability of approximately 6%. Our results underscore the central role of social relationship satisfaction in mental health and identify genes and tissues associated with it.

  11. ⁠, Aurélien Macé, Marcus A. Tuke, Patrick Deelen, Kati Kristiansson, Hannele Mattsson, Margit Nõukas, Yadav Sapkota, Ursula Schick, Eleonora Porcu, Sina Rüeger, Aaron F. McDaid, David Porteous, Thomas W. Winkler, Erika Salvi, Nick Shrine, Xueping Liu, Wei Q. Ang, Weihua Zhang, Mary F. Feitosa, Cristina Venturini, Peter J. van der Most, Anders Rosengren, Andrew R. Wood, Robin N. Beaumont, Samuel E. Jones, Katherine S. Ruth, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Jessica Tyrrell, Aki S. Havulinna, Harmen Boers, Reedik Mägi, Jennifer Kriebel, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Markus Perola, Markku Nieminen, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Mika Kähönen, Jorma S. Viikari, Frank Geller, Jari Lahti, Aarno Palotie, Päivikki Koponen, Annamari Lundqvist, Harri Rissanen, Erwin P. Bottinger, Saima Afaq, Mary K. Wojczynski, Petra Lenzini, Ilja M. Nolte, Thomas Sparsø, Nicole Schupf, Kaare Christensen, Thomas T. Perls, Anne B. Newman, Thomas Werge, Harold Snieder, Timothy D. Spector, John C. Chambers, Seppo Koskinen, Mads Melbye, Olli T. Raitakari, Terho Lehtimäki, Martin D. Tobin, Louise V. Wain, Juha Sinisalo, Annette Peters, Thomas Meitinger, Nicholas G. Martin, Naomi R. Wray, Grant W. Montgomery, Sarah E. Medland, Morris A. Swertz, Erkki Vartiainen, Katja Borodulin, Satu Männistö, Anna Murray, Murielle Bochud, Sébastien Jacquemont, Fernando Rivadeneira, Thomas F. Hansen, Albertine J. Oldehinkel, Massimo Mangino, Michael A. Province, Panos Deloukas, Jaspal S. Kooner, Rachel M. Freathy, Craig Pennell, Bjarke Feenstra, David P. Strachan, Guillaume Lettre, Joel Hirschhorn, Daniele Cusi, Iris M. Heid, Caroline Hayward, Katrin Männik, Jacques S. Beckmann, Ruth J. F. Loos, Dale R. Nyholt, Andres Metspalu, Johan G. Eriksson, Michael N. Weedon, Veikko Salomaa, Lude Franke, Alexandre Reymond, Timothy M. Frayling, Zoltán Kutalik (2017-09-29):

    There are few examples of robust associations between rare copy number variants () and complex continuous human traits. Here we present a large-scale CNV association on anthropometric traits in up to 191,161 adult samples from 26 cohorts. The study reveals five CNV associations at 1q21.1, 3q29, 7q11.23, 11p14.2, and 18q21.32 and confirms two known loci at 16p11.2 and 22q11.21, implicating at least one anthropometric trait. The discovered CNVs are recurrent and rare (0.01–0.2%), with large effects on height (>2.4 cm), weight (>5 kg), and body mass index (BMI) (>3.5 kg/​​​​m2). Burden analysis shows a 0.41 cm decrease in height, a 0.003 increase in waist-to-hip ratio and increase in BMI by 0.14 kg/​​​​m2 for each Mb of total deletion burden (p = 2.5 × 10−10, 6.0 × 10−5, and 2.9 × 10−3). Our study provides evidence that the same genes (eg., MC4R, FIBIN, and FMO5) harbor both common and rare variants affecting body size and that anthropometric traits share genetic loci with developmental and psychiatric disorders.

  12. ⁠, Yilan Xu, Daniel A. Briley, Jeffrey R. Brown, William G. Karnes, Brent W. Roberts (2017-01-08):

    Heterogeneity of household financial outcomes emerges from various individual and environmental factors, including personality, cognitive ability, and (SES), among others. Using a genetically informative data set, we decompose the variation in financial management behavior into genetic, shared environmental and non-shared environmental factors. We find that about half of the variation in financial distress is genetically influenced, and personality and cognitive ability are associated with financial distress through genetic and within-family pathways. Moreover, the genetic influences of financial distress are highest at the extremes of SES, which in part can be explained by neuroticism and cognitive ability being more important predictors of financial distress at low and high levels of SES, respectively.

  13. 2013-ludeke.pdf

  14. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/370/1683/20150015

  15. 2017-segal-twinmythconceptions-ch12.pdf

  16. 2013-segal-1.pdf

  17. 2013-segal-2.pdf

  18. 2017-hilker.pdf: ⁠, Rikke Hilker, Dorte Helenius, Birgitte Fagerlund, Axel Skytthe, Kaare Christensen, Thomas M. Werge, Merete Nordentoft, Birte Glenthøj (2017-08-30; genetics  /​ ​​ ​heritable):

    Background: Twin studies have provided evidence that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to schizophrenia (SZ) risk. Heritability estimates of SZ in twin samples have varied methodologically. This study provides updated heritability estimates based on nationwide twin data and an improved statistical methodology.

    Methods: Combining 2 nationwide registers, the Danish Twin Register and the Danish Psychiatric Research Register, we identified a sample of twins born between 1951 and 2000 (n = 31,524 twin pairs). Twins were followed until June 1, 2011. Liability threshold models adjusting for with inverse probability weighting were used to estimate proband-wise concordance rates and heritability of the diagnoses of SZ and SZ spectrum disorders.

    Results: The proband-wise concordance rate of SZ is 33% in monozygotic twins and 7% in dizygotic twins. We estimated the heritability of SZ to be 79%. When expanding illness outcome to include SZ spectrum disorders, the heritability estimate was almost similar (73%).

    Conclusions: The key strength of this study is the application of a novel statistical method accounting for censoring in the follow-up period to a nationwide twin sample. The estimated 79% heritability of SZ is congruent with previous reports and indicates a substantial genetic risk. The high genetic risk also applies to a broader phenotype of SZ spectrum disorders. The low concordance rate of 33% in monozygotic twins demonstrates that illness vulnerability is not solely indicated by genetic factors.

    [Keywords: censoring, concordance, heritability, register, schizophrenia, twin study]

  19. https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-017-0269-y

  20. ⁠, Eero Vuoksimaa, Matthew S. Panizzon, Carol E. Franz, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Donald J. Hagler, Michael J. Lyons, Anders M. Dale, William S. Kremen (2017-09-01):

    Height and general cognitive ability (GCA) are positively associated, but the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are unclear. We used a sample of 515 middle-aged male twins with structural magnetic resonance imaging data to study if the association between height and cognitive ability is mediated by cortical size. We used genetically, ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct cortical metrics of cortical surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT). Our results indicate that the well-replicated height-GCA association is accounted for by individual differences in total cortical SA (highly heritable metric related to global brain size), and not mean CT, and that the genetic association between SA and GCA underlies the phenotypic height-GCA relationship.

  21. 1987-plomin.pdf: “Unconfounding genetic and nonshared environmental effects”⁠, Arthur R. Jensen

  22. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0717/7feac98fc3e751e34db14493bf159ade56d0.pdf

  23. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-08-07/horse-clones-start-heading-to-the-races

  24. 2017-silver.pdf#deepmind: ⁠, David Silver, Julian Schrittwieser, Karen Simonyan, Ioannis Antonoglou, Aja Huang, Arthur Guez, Thomas Hubert, Lucas Baker, Matthew Lai, Adrian Bolton, Yutian Chen, Timothy Lillicrap, Fan Hui, Laurent Sifre, George van den Driessche, Thore Graepel, Demis Hassabis (2017-10-19; reinforcement-learning):

    A long-standing goal of artificial intelligence is an algorithm that learns, tabula rasa, superhuman proficiency in challenging domains. Recently, became the first program to defeat a world champion in the game of Go. The tree search in AlphaGo evaluated positions and selected moves using deep neural networks. These neural networks were trained by supervised learning from human expert moves, and by from self-play. Here we introduce an algorithm based solely on reinforcement learning, without human data, guidance or domain knowledge beyond game rules. AlphaGo becomes its own teacher: a neural network is trained to predict AlphaGo’s own move selections and also the winner of AlphaGo’s games. This neural network improves the strength of the tree search, resulting in higher quality move selection and stronger self-play in the next iteration. Starting tabula rasa, our new program AlphaGo Zero achieved superhuman performance, winning 100–0 against the previously published, champion-defeating AlphaGo.

  25. https://old.reddit.com/r/reinforcementlearning/comments/778vbk/mastering_the_game_of_go_without_human_knowledge/

  26. ⁠, Thomas Anthony, Zheng Tian, David Barber (2017-05-23):

    Sequential decision making problems, such as structured prediction, robotic control, and game playing, require a combination of planning policies and generalisation of those plans. In this paper, we present Expert Iteration (ExIt), a novel reinforcement learning algorithm which decomposes the problem into separate planning and generalisation tasks. Planning new policies is performed by tree search, while a deep neural network generalises those plans. Subsequently, tree search is improved by using the neural network policy to guide search, increasing the strength of new plans. In contrast, standard deep Reinforcement Learning algorithms rely on a neural network not only to generalize plans, but to discover them too. We show that ExIt outperforms for training a neural network to play the board game ⁠, and our final tree search agent, trained tabula rasa, defeats MoHex 1.0, the most recent Olympiad Champion player to be publicly released.

  27. ⁠, Edward Groshev, Maxwell Goldstein, Aviv Tamar, Siddharth Srivastava, Pieter Abbeel (2017-08-24):

    We present a new approach to learning for planning, where knowledge acquired while solving a given set of planning problems is used to plan faster in related, but new problem instances. We show that a deep neural network can be used to learn and represent a generalized reactive policy (GRP) that maps a problem instance and a state to an action, and that the learned GRPs efficiently solve large classes of challenging problem instances. In contrast to efforts in this direction, our approach significantly reduces the dependence of learning on handcrafted domain knowledge or feature selection. Instead, the GRP is trained from scratch using a set of successful execution traces. We show that our approach can also be used to automatically learn a heuristic function that can be used in directed search algorithms. We evaluate our approach using an extensive suite of experiments on two challenging planning problem domains and show that our approach facilitates learning complex decision making policies and powerful heuristic functions with minimal human input. Videos of our results are available at goo.gl/​​​​Hpy4e3.

  28. ⁠, Tero Karras, Timo Aila, Samuli Laine, Jaakko Lehtinen (2017-10-27):

    We describe a new training methodology for generative adversarial networks. The key idea is to grow both the generator and discriminator progressively: starting from a low resolution, we add new layers that model increasingly fine details as training progresses. This both speeds the training up and greatly stabilizes it, allowing us to produce images of unprecedented quality, e.g., CelebA images at 1024^2. We also propose a simple way to increase the variation in generated images, and achieve a record inception score of 8.80 in unsupervised CIFAR10. Additionally, we describe several implementation details that are important for discouraging unhealthy competition between the generator and discriminator. Finally, we suggest a new metric for evaluating results, both in terms of image quality and variation. As an additional contribution, we construct a higher-quality version of the CelebA dataset.

  29. https://github.com/tkarras/progressive_growing_of_gans

  30. https://www.youtube.com/XOxxPcy5Gr4

  31. ⁠, Han Zhang, Tao Xu, Hongsheng Li, Shaoting Zhang, Xiaogang Wang, Xiaolei Huang, Dimitris Metaxas (2017-10-19):

    Although Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown remarkable success in various tasks, they still face challenges in generating high quality images. In this paper, we propose Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks () aiming at generating high-resolution photo-realistic images. First, we propose a two-stage generative adversarial network architecture, StackGAN-v1, for text-to-image synthesis. The Stage-I GAN sketches the primitive shape and colors of the object based on given text description, yielding low-resolution images. The Stage-II GAN takes Stage-I results and text descriptions as inputs, and generates high-resolution images with photo-realistic details. Second, an advanced multi-stage generative adversarial network architecture, StackGAN-v2, is proposed for both conditional and unconditional generative tasks. Our StackGAN-v2 consists of multiple generators and discriminators in a tree-like structure; images at multiple scales corresponding to the same scene are generated from different branches of the tree. StackGAN-v2 shows more stable training behavior than StackGAN-v1 by jointly approximating multiple distributions. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed stacked generative adversarial networks significantly outperform other state-of-the-art methods in generating photo-realistic images.

  32. ⁠, Bril, Hitaj, Paolo Gasti, Giuseppe Ateniese, Fernando Perez-Cruz (2017-09-01):

    State-of-the-art password guessing tools, such as HashCat and John the Ripper, enable users to check billions of passwords per second against password hashes. In addition to performing straightforward dictionary attacks, these tools can expand password dictionaries using password generation rules, such as concatenation of words (e.g., “password123456”) and leet speak (e.g., “password” becomes “p4s5w0rd”). Although these rules work well in practice, expanding them to model further passwords is a laborious task that requires specialized expertise. To address this issue, in this paper we introduce PassGAN, a novel approach that replaces human-generated password rules with theory-grounded machine learning algorithms. Instead of relying on manual password analysis, PassGAN uses a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) to autonomously learn the distribution of real passwords from actual password leaks, and to generate high-quality password guesses. Our experiments show that this approach is very promising. When we evaluated PassGAN on two large password datasets, we were able to surpass rule-based and state-of-the-art machine learning password guessing tools. However, in contrast with the other tools, PassGAN achieved this result without any a-priori knowledge on passwords or common password structures. Additionally, when we combined the output of PassGAN with the output of HashCat, we were able to match 51%-73% more passwords than with HashCat alone. This is remarkable, because it shows that PassGAN can autonomously extract a considerable number of password properties that current state-of-the art rules do not encode.

  33. https://hackernoon.com/wheres-waldo-terminator-edition-8b3bd0805741

  34. ⁠, Daigo Shoji (2017-08-18):

    Many people see a human face or animals in the pattern of the maria on the moon. Although the pattern corresponds to the actual variation in composition of the lunar surface, the culture and environment of each society influence the recognition of these objects (i.e., symbols) as specific entities. In contrast, a convolutional neural network () recognizes objects from characteristic shapes in a training data set. Using CNN, this study evaluates the probabilities of the pattern of lunar maria categorized into the shape of a crab, a lion and a hare. If Mare Frigoris (a dark band on the moon) is included in the lunar image, the lion is recognized. However, in an image without Mare Frigoris, the hare has the highest probability of recognition. Thus, the recognition of objects similar to the lunar pattern depends on which part of the lunar maria is taken into account. In human recognition, before we find similarities between the lunar maria and objects such as animals, we may be persuaded in advance to see a particular image from our culture and environment and then adjust the lunar pattern to the shape of the imagined object.

  35. https://www.buzzfeed.com/peteraldhous/hidden-spy-planes

  36. https://sappingattention.blogspot.com/2017/09/peer-review-is-younger-than-you-think.html

  37. https://www.the-tls.co.uk/articles/public/the-end-of-an-error-peer-review/

  38. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/437a/902934056604855cde3dcf8dff959ed29b68.pdf

  39. https://www.nature.com/news/wikipedia-shapes-language-in-science-papers-1.22656

  40. https://projecteuclid.org/download/pdfview_1/euclid.aoas/1372338470

  41. http://bwc.thelab.dc.gov/

  42. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/20/upshot/a-big-test-of-police-body-cameras-defies-expectations.html

  43. 1987-rossi

  44. https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/oct/10/the-science-of-spying-how-the-cia-secretly-recruits-academics

  45. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/10/23/hating-on-herbert-hoover

  46. 1969-torrance.pdf: “The Creative Personality and the Ideal Pupil”⁠, E. Paul Torrance

  47. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2053168017716547

  48. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1851/20162562

  49. ⁠, Andrew Drucker (2011):

    In this informal article, I’ll describe the “recognition method”—a simple, powerful technique for memorization and mental calculation. Compared to traditional memorization techniques, which use elaborate encoding and visualization processes [1], the recognition method is easy to learn and requires relatively little effort…The method works: using it, I was able to mentally multiply two random 10-digit numbers, by the usual grade-school algorithm, on my first attempt! I have a normal, untrained memory, and the task would have been impossible by a direct approach. (I can’t claim I was speedy: I worked slowly and carefully, using about 7 hours plus rest breaks. I practiced twice with 5-digit numbers beforehand.)

    …It turns out that ordinary people are incredibly good at this task [recognizing whether a photograph has been seen before]. In one of the most widely-cited studies on ⁠, Standing [2] showed participants an epic 10,000 photographs over the course of 5 days, with 5 seconds’ exposure per image. He then tested their familiarity, essentially as described above. The participants showed an 83% success rate, suggesting that they had become familiar with about 6,600 images during their ordeal. Other volunteers, trained on a smaller collection of 1,000 images selected for vividness, had a 94% success rate.

  50. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/rabble-rouser/201707/why-brilliant-girls-tend-favor-non-stem-careers

  51. https://magazine.atavist.com/promethea-unbound-child-genius-montana

  52. 1996-jensen.pdf

  53. http://blogs.sciencemag.org/pipeline/archives/2017/10/04/a-nobel-for-cryo-em

  54. ⁠, Ng Annalyn, Maarten W. Bos, Leonid Sigal, Boyang Li (2017-07-20):

    Psychological studies have shown that personality traits are associated with book preferences. However, past findings are based on questionnaires focusing on conventional book genres and are unrepresentative of niche content. For a more comprehensive measure of book content, this study harnesses a massive archive of content labels, also known as ‘tags’, created by users of an online book catalogue, Goodreads.com. Combined with data on preferences and personality scores collected from Facebook users, the tag labels achieve high accuracy in personality prediction by psychological standards. We also group tags into broader genres, to check their validity against past findings. Our results are robust across both tag and genre levels of analyses, and consistent with existing literature. Moreover, user-generated tag labels reveal unexpected insights, such as cultural differences, book reading behaviors, and other non-content factors affecting preferences. To our knowledge, this is currently the largest study that explores the relationship between personality and book content preferences.

  55. http://ordinary-gentlemen.com/2014/01/21/lessons-from-bar-fight-litigation/

  56. 2014-fardin.pdf: “On the rheology of cats”⁠, M. A. Fardin

  57. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y37vioBienY

  58. ⁠, Matteo Martini, Ilaria Bufalari, Maria Antonietta Stazi, Salvatore Maria Aglioti (2015-01-27):

    Despite the increasing interest in twin studies and the stunning amount of research on face recognition, the ability of adult identical twins to discriminate their own faces from those of their co-twins has been scarcely investigated. One’s own face is the most distinctive feature of the bodily self, and people typically show a clear advantage in recognizing their own face even more than other very familiar identities. Given the very high level of resemblance of their faces, monozygotic twins represent a unique model for exploring self-face processing.

    Herein we examined the ability of monozygotic twins to distinguish their own face from the face of their co-twin and of a highly familiar individual. Results show that twins equally recognize their own face and their twin’s face. This lack of self-face advantage was negatively predicted by how much they felt physically similar to their co-twin and by their anxious or avoidant attachment style.

    We speculate that in monozygotic twins, the visual representation of the self-face overlaps with that of the co-twin. Thus, to distinguish the self from the co-twin, monozygotic twins have to rely much more than control participants on the multisensory integration processes upon which the sense of bodily self is based. Moreover, in keeping with the notion that attachment style influences perception of self and important others, we propose that the observed self/​​​​co-twin confusion may depend upon insecure attachment.

  59. 2010-nutt.pdf: “Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis”⁠, David J. Nutt, Leslie A. King, Lawrence D. Phillips, on behalf of the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs

  60. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/10/09/how-the-elderly-lose-their-rights

  61. https://helda.helsinki.fi/bof/bitstream/handle/123456789/14908/dp1317.pdf

  62. https://www.irishtimes.com/culture/books/in-1973-i-invented-a-girly-drink-called-baileys-1.3240945

  63. 2013-buckwalter.pdf

  64. https://www.bbc.com/pidgin

  65. http://www.stevenlevy.com/index.php/books/artificial-life

  66. 1973-dobzhansky-geneticdiversityandhumanequality.pdf

  67. 1997-carter-shotetsu-unforgottendreams.pdf: ⁠, Shōtetsu, Steven D. Carter (translator) (1997; japanese):

    [This volume presents translations of over 200 poems by ⁠, who is generally considered to be the last great poet of the uta form. Includes an introduction, a glossary of important names and places and a list of sources of the poems.]

    The Zen monk Shōtetsu (1381–1459) suffered several rather serious misfortunes in his life: he lost all the poems of his first thirty years—more than 30,000 of them—in a fire; his estate revenues were confiscated by an angry shogun; and rivals refused to allow his work to appear in the only imperially commissioned poetry anthology of his time. Undeterred by these obstacles, he still managed to make a living from his poetry and won recognition as a true master, widely considered to be the last great poet of the classical uta, or waka, tradition. Shōtetsu viewed his poetry as both a professional and religious calling, and his extraordinarily prolific corpus comprised more than 11,000 poems—the single largest body of work in the Japanese canon.

    The first major collection of Shōtetsu’s work in English, Unforgotten Dreams presents beautifully rendered translations of more than two hundred poems. The book opens with Steven Carter’s generous introduction on Shōtetsu’s life and work and his importance in Japanese literature, and includes a glossary of important names and places and a list of sources of the poems. Revealing as never before the enduring creative spirit of one of Japan’s greatest poets, this fine collection fills a major gap in the English translations of medieval Japanese literature.

  68. https://twigserial.wordpress.com/

  69. Movies#blade-runner-2049

  70. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iScU3d35ZLM