1989-stern.pdf: “A brief history of magnetospheric physics before the spaceflight era”, David P. Stern
1957-clark.pdf: “The Break-Off Phenomenon a Feeling of Separation from the Earth Experienced by Pilots at High Altitude”, Brant Clark, Captain Ashton Graybiel
1960-simons-manhigh.pdf#page=58: “Man High”, David G. Simons, Donald A. Schanche
1963-gussow.pdf: “A Preliminary Report of Kayak Angst Among the Eskimo of West Greenland: A Study in Sensory Deprivation”, (1963; ):
Sensory deprivation experiences and isolation phenomena belong to the broader field of environmental stress and, as such, research in this area is of importance to the anthropologist concerned with mental disorder. In one form or another sensory deprivation is a universal experience. It is present in such diverse events as research experiments, sleep, vision experiences, ‘highway hypnosis’ and kayak-angst. Sensory deprivation and isolation may be culturally required, recommended, unavoidable or even individually sought out. Reactions are variable and are dependent upon the interplay of a number of factors. Experiences may be occupationally linked, as in the confused and disoriented reactions reported by aviators flying solo or in positions cut off from the rest of the crew. Creative people who seek out retreats in order to work more efficiently and productively, as well as persons on the couch in psychoanalytic treatment are also experiencing sensory deprivation, though in a mild form.
In kayak-angst the Eskimo of West Greenland provide us with an instance of a group where severe sensory deprivation reactions are culturally typical for the adult male segment of the population and forms a part of their routinized, seasonal, if not everyday, round of life.
Kayak-angst (kayak-phobia, kayak-dizziness) is well known throughout all districts of West Greenland. It is also known to occur among the Polar Eskimo and in East Greenland, though an intensive search of the literature, extensive correspondence, and interviews with eastern Canadian Eskimos has failed so far to document it for other Eskimo groups. Kayak-angst is scarcely mentioned in English written accounts, with the exception of brief references in Freuchen, Birket-Smith and a few others. On the other hand there is a considerable body of material in the Scandinavian languages, much of it gathered by Danish physicians. The condition was reported as early as 1806 and in 1949 Dr. Av M. Ch. Ehrstrom diagnosed 24 cases in one of the northern districts. Kenneth I. Taylor, a student of anthropology with considerable kayak experience informs me (private communication) that as recently as 1959 he met three such individuals in Northwest Greenland. In 1900, Meldorf estimated that 10% of all men in the Julianhaab district over the age of 18 suffered from kayak-angst. Others have regarded it as the ‘national disease’ of the West Greenland Eskimo.
Material for the present paper is based on an analysis of 13 cases out of the 60 kayak-angst individuals medically examined and interviewed by Bertelsen in 1905.
Typically, kayak-angst afflict male hunters out alone on a calm, ‘mirroring’ slightly wavy sea or lake, close to or at a distance from shore, either while paddling or sitting quietly. Under these conditions of sea, and especially with the sun directly overhead or in his eyes, there develops a lowering in the level of consciousness brought on by the absence of external reference points at a time when the hunter is involved in a visually ‘fixed’ or staring position demanding minimal or repetitive movements. A lesser number report they are equally affected in storms, windy or rough weather. Some claim not to have attacks when in the company of others and consequently will never hunt alone. A few report attacks when others are around, though claim they are less severe at this time. On the other hand some report that the presence of others increases their anxiety. One man was afraid their kayaks might collide, particularly in storms. Another said he felt at ease only in the company of men he trusted.
1990-amering.pdf: “Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder in Cross-Cultural Perspective”, M. Amering, H. Katschnig
2014-bimm.pdf: “quest21-1-v1.qxp”, Scott
1967-satloff.pdf: “Psychiatry and the Nuclear Submarine”, (1967-10-01; ):
[Survey of naval personnel at a shipyard and all attached vessels, with examination of psychiatry referrals. The results indicate that formal records on psychiatric casualties from submarine patrols grossly underestimate the true rate of psychiatric issues among submarine crew, with a more plausible rate of ~3.8%, despite intensive screening.]
1968-serxner.pdf: “An Experience in Submarine Psychiatry”, (1968-07-01; ):
The psychiatric experience of a medical officer on two submerged Polaris submarine patrols, each lasting two months, is presented. One psychiatric emergency—an acute paranoid schizophrenic reaction—was managed, and some minor anxiety reactions and depressions were treated. The author suggests the nature of the submarine’s psychological atmosphere by means of a brief discussion of the submarine as a physical entity, the patrol cycle, and the procedures of personnel selection and training.
1969-earls.pdf: “Human Adjustment to an Exotic Environment: The Nuclear Submarine”, (1969-01; ):
My intention here is to provide observational data on one aspect of the submarine environment: the adjustment of men to prolonged submergence aboard a nuclear-propelled Polaris-missile-firing submarine. These observations were made while I was serving as the medical officer aboard two Polaris submarines. Discussions with fellow submarine medical officers led me to believe that adjustment patterns reported herein are not isolated occurrences but are perhaps common to many Polaris submarine crews. It is recognized, however, that human adjustment is a complex function and is affected by many variables. It is not my intention to claim that the adjustment pattern described in this paper applies to all submarine crews.
…The Polaris submariner is a highly screened individual placed into a chronically stressful and frustrating environment. When the individual begins to develop feelings of anger in response to the frustrations, he is faced by a cultural structure which does not readily permit the expression of anger. He is then forced to turn the anger inward and then experiences a depressive phenomenon in reaction to operative stresses. The course of this depressive phenomenon is believed to be a ubiquitous phenomenon among the Polaris submarine crews. A similar adjustment pattern has been reported from other isolated environments. It is believed that the Polaris submarine represents an ideal laboratory in which to study the dynamics of group adjustment to unusual environments.
1996-moes.pdf: “Personality Characteristics of Successful Navy Submarine Personnel”, (1996-04-01; ):
This study evaluated the personality characteristics of senior enlisted and occupationally successful Navy submarine personnel. One hundred subjects completed the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP). Results indicated that the traits of detachment, propriety, and workaholism were most descriptive of the sample. 37% met SNAP criteria for a personality disorder, typically antisocial, obsessive-compulsive, or avoidant. The results are discussed in terms of adaptation to environmental demands aboard submarines. Suggestions for further research are offered.