Questions (Link Bibliography)

“Questions” links:



  3. Statistical-notes#someone-should-do-something-wishlist-of-miscellaneous-project-ideas




  7. 2001-andrade.pdf: ⁠, Chittaranjan Andrade, B. S. Srihari (2001-06-01; biology):

    Background: Rhinotillexomania is a recent term coined to describe compulsive nose picking. There is little world literature on nose-picking behavior in the general population.

    Method: We studied nose-picking behavior in a sample of 200 adolescents from 4 urban schools.

    Results: Almost the entire sample admitted to nose picking [193⁄200 = 96%], with a median frequency of 4 times per day; the frequency was >20 times per day in 7.6% of the sample. Nearly 17% of subjects considered that they had a serious nose-picking problem. Other somatic habits such as nail biting, scratching in a specific spot, or pulling out of hair were also common; 3 or more such behaviors were simultaneously present in 14.2% of the sample, only in males. Occasional nose bleeds complicating nose-picking occurred in 25% of subjects. Several interesting findings in specific categories of nose pickers were identified.

    Conclusion: Nose picking is common in adolescents. It is often associated with other habitual behaviors. Nose picking may merit closer epidemiologic and nosological scrutiny.

    …A need in this study was to identify and eliminate mischievous responses⁠, such as might be expected from adolescent school children who are invited to complete a questionnaire on an offbeat subject. We used the question “Do you occasionally eat the nasal matter that you have picked?” to identify mischievous responses with the that students who answer affirmatively to this question: are likely to respond mischievously to other questions as well. 9 subjects (4.5%) admitted to eating their nasal debris; however, these subjects did not differ from the rest of the group on any of the variables studied. This finding suggests that our expectation may have been wrong; that is, the responses of “eaters” may have been valid and not motivationally distorted. We therefore did not exclude these responses from the data set. The interesting conclusion is that, perhaps, a small percentage of nose pickers do, indeed, eat their nasal debris. In this context, it is worth observing that Tarachow18 reported that persons do eat nasal debris, and find it tasty, too.

    …Subjects varied widely in their response to the question that sought their opinion on the percentage of nose pickers in the population; the mean was found to be 46.7%. Subjects’ opinions on the prevalence of nose picking showed no correlation with the frequency with which they themselves indulged in nose picking (r = 0.01, non-)…Interestingly, the frequency of nose-picking behavior (in an individual) did not correlate statistically-significantly with the perception of the commonness of the behavior in the population. This suggests the hypothesis that the frequency of nose picking is intrinsically driven, or at least that it is influenced by factors other than similar behavior in others.




  11. Order-statistics#sampling-gompertz-distribution-extremes

  12. DNM-survival

  13. ⁠, Young, Robert D. Desjardins, Bertr, McLaughlin, Kirsten Poulain, Michel Perls, Thomas T (2010):

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980-2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110–111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/​​​​or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  14. ⁠, Saul Justin Newman (2019-07-16):

    The observation of individuals attaining remarkable ages, and their concentration into geographic sub-regions or ‘blue zones’, has generated considerable scientific interest. Proposed drivers of remarkable longevity include high vegetable intake, strong social connections, and genetic markers. Here, we reveal new predictors of remarkable longevity and ‘supercentenarian’ status. In the United States, supercentenarian status is predicted by the absence of vital registration. The state-specific introduction of birth certificates is associated with a 69–82% fall in the number of supercentenarian records. In Italy, which has more uniform vital registration, remarkable longevity is instead predicted by low per capita incomes and a short life expectancy. Finally, the designated ‘blue zones’ of Sardinia, Okinawa, and Ikaria corresponded to regions with low incomes, low literacy, high crime rate and short life expectancy relative to their national average. As such, relative poverty and short lifespan constitute unexpected predictors of centenarian and supercentenarian status, and support a primary role of fraud and error in generating remarkable human age records.





  19. ⁠, Zak, Nikolay (2019):

    I present a body of data that, I argue, cumulatively casts serious doubt on the validity of Jeanne Calment’s accepted world record of human life span. First, I assess the plausibility of the record based on the life spans of other centenarians in the International Database of Longevity (IDL) and critique some arguments put forward previously in support of that plausibility, including the longevity of Calment’s ancestors. Second, I review the literature dedicated to Calment and discuss multiple contradictions in her interviews, biographies, photos, and documents. I argue that the evidence from these sources motivates renewed consideration of the previously rejected hypothesis that Jeanne’s daughter Yvonne acquired her mother’s identity after her death to avoid financial problems and that Jeanne Calment’s death was reported as Yvonne’s death in 1934. Finally I discuss the importance of reconsidering the principles of validation, due to the possibility of similar problems regarding other exceptionally long-lived people and the mistaken inferences that researchers may draw from flawed datasets. The phenomenon of Jeanne Calment may prove to be an instructive example of the uncertainty of seemingly well-established facts.


  21. {#linkBibliography-yorker)-2020 .docMetadata}, Lauren Collins () (2020-02-10):

    [Probably not a fraud. Summary of the state of Calment centenarian fraud accusations by Novoselov & Zak: the tax fraud theory appears to rest on wildly overestimated tax burden estimates and has been abandoned in favor of covering up a death from tuberculosis which might affect their department store’s revenue, locals insist they or their relatives knew the two Calments too well for a switch, Yvonne’s child would have had to be in on it as well as a local notary, more of Jeanne’s stories about obscure people she knew appear to have been validated, Yvonne’s funeral was highly public, Jeanne’s anomalously tall late-life height appears to have been mis-measured and the real height much lower as expected from her great age, the nose fibroma argument is inconclusive, the photographs are too low-quality for proper forensic analysis, and one anecdote of calling Jeanne ‘Yvonne’ has been recanted. The fraud theory appears to be on very shaky ground now… but the mystery of Jeanne Calment’s longevity remains.]


  23. Earwax


  25. Cat-Sense

  26. Catnip

  27. Variance-components

  28. ⁠, Eva Weinberger, Dominika Wach, Ute Stephan, Jürgen Wegge (2018-01):

    • We introduce recovery as an important antecedent of entrepreneurs’ creativity.
    • Day-to-day (within-person) variation in entrepreneurs’ creativity exceeds between-person differences in creativity.
    • Sleep efficiency, measured with actigraphy during the night, enhances entrepreneurs’ creativity on the subsequent day.
    • Entrepreneurs who reflect on how to solve problems outside working hours generate more novel ideas.
    • Older entrepreneurs are less creative as they prefer to switch off mentally from work-related thoughts in their leisure time.

    Prior research has shown that trait creativity is important for becoming an entrepreneur and successful in business. We explore a new perspective by investigating how recovery from work stress influences entrepreneurs’ daily idea generation, a key aspect of creativity.

    Physiological and mental recovery enables the cognitive processes of creative problem-solving. Moreover, differences in mental recovery processes help to explain age-related changes in entrepreneurs’ creativity.

    Multilevel analyses based on 415 daily data from 62 entrepreneurs support our predictions. Our study introduces a new “state” perspective to understanding entrepreneurs’ creativity, and highlights the critical role of recovery processes for idea generation.

    [Keywords: recovery, creativity, age, diary study, entrepreneurs]

  29. Weather

  30. Zeo


  32. Music-distraction

  33. Nicotine






  39. Modafinil#tolerance

  40. Morning-writing


  42. Competence

  43. 1935-wechsler-rangeofhumancapacities.pdf: ⁠, David Wechsler (1935; iq):

    saw that the subjects who did well at the start of the training also improved faster as the training progressed compared with the subjects who began more slowly. “As a matter of fact”, ⁠, “in this experiment the larger individual differences increase with equal training, showing a positive correlation with high initial ability with ability to profit by training.” The passage from the Bible doesn’t quite capture Thorndike’s results accurately because every subject improved, but the rich got relatively richer. Everyone learned, but the learning rates were consistently different.

    When World War I erupted, Thorndike became a member of the Committee on Classification of Personnel, a group of psychologists commissioned by the U.S. Army to evaluate recruits [see ]. It was there that Thorndike rubbed off on a young man named ⁠, who had just finished his master’s degree in psychology. Wechsler, who would become a famous psychologist, developed a lifelong fascination with tracing the boundaries of humanity, from lower to upper limits.

    In 1935, Wechsler compiled essentially all of the credible data in the world he could find on human measurements. He scoured measures of everything from vertical jump to the duration of pregnancies to the weight of the human liver and the speeds at which card punchers at a factory could punch their cards. He organized it all in the first edition of a book with the aptly momentous title The Range of Human Capacities.

    Wechsler found that the ratio of the smallest to biggest, or best to worst, in just about any measure of humanity, from to hosiery looping [knitting], was between 2 to one and 3 to one. To Wechsler, the ratio appeared so consistent that he suggested it as a kind of universal rule of thumb.

    Phillip Ackerman, a psychologist and skill acquisition expert, is a sort of modern-day Wechsler, having combed the world’s skill-acquisition studies in an effort to determine whether practice makes equal, and his conclusion is that it depends on the task. In simple tasks, practice brings people closer together, but in complex ones, it often pulls them apart. Ackerman has designed computer simulations used to test air traffic controllers, and he says that people converge on a similar skill level with practice on the easy tasks—like clicking buttons to get planes to take off in order—but for the more complex simulations that are used for real-life controllers, “the individual differences go up”, he says, not down, with practice. In other words, there’s a on skill acquisition.

    Even among simple motor skills, where practice decreases individual differences, it never drowns them entirely. “It’s true that doing more practice helps”, Ackerman says, “but there’s not a single study where variability between subjects disappears entirely.”

    “If you go to the grocery store”, he continues, “you can look at the checkout clerk, who is using mostly perceptual motor skill. On average, the people who’ve been doing it for 10 years will get through 10 customers in the time the new people get across one. But the fastest person with 10 years’ experience will still be about 3 times faster than the slowest person with 10 years’ experience.”






  49. 1931-tolkien.pdf: “A Secret Vice”⁠, J. R. R. Tolkien

  50. 2006-atlus.pdf: “Rule of Rose Staff Interview”⁠, Atlus



  53. ⁠, Aaron A. Reed (2021-06-03):

    At the address was “a white crumbling turn-of-the-century house overlooking the tiny fishing village of Burtonport”, where women could take a paid holiday that would immerse them in the life of a proper boarding school girl of an earlier time. “There were no electric lights in the place”, one game journalist wrote upon visiting: “the maid who answered the door was surely not of this decade.” The students wore bonnets and period clothes while attending lessons on mathematics, literature, and penmanship; plastic and other modern materials were forbidden; the headmistress was a severe woman in black who enforced strict discipline—stricter, at times, than some of the students might have preferred. “Quite where computers fit into this situation is difficult to understand”, another journalist wrote⁠; and nobody could really put their finger on what the “situation” even was. Were the group “Victorian cultists?” Were they LARPers? Were they con artists preying on emotionally immature women? Were they a game studio with a very unusual front? Or was there, as one embarrassed Irish reporter asked⁠, “almost a gay element to the activities here?” Answers were not then forthcoming. Few are even today.

    …Oxford, 1971. 2 years after Stonewall, a wave of student and activist groups are loosely uniting under the mantle of the Gay Liberation Front, accelerating queer and feminist conversations about equal rights and alternatives to hegemonic patriarchy. At women’s college Lady Margaret Hall, one student group bonds over a difference with most of their sisters-in-arms: they reject the crass, drug-fueled and sex-fueled decadence of the 1960s, even while admitting it “left openings for a new feminist consciousness”, as one member would later write: “We welcome [the rock culture of the sixties] as we would welcome typhoid in the enemy’s water supply. But we do not drink it ourselves.” Out of this group would arise several radical separatist movements with overlapping membership, including a religious one called Lux Madriana—worshiping a female god with rituals supposedly passed down from a “magical matriarchal community” in a distant past—and an elaborately fleshed-out otherworld called Aristasia⁠. Much like the rich fantasy worlds created by Tolkien or the Brontë sisters, Aristasia became an ever-growing obsession for its creators, with its own customs, calendar, literature, and history, to the extent that some of the worldbuilders eventually dropped out of university to attend their own unofficial Aristasian school instead. In Aristasia there were 2 genders, both female (assertive brunettes and demure blondes); the decadent modern world was known as The Pit; and the word for person was not man but maid.

    Eventually some number of this group took up residence in the remote coastal house in Burtonport, which would become the stage for their next decade of inventing new realities. At first they styled themselves a community of “Rhennish” folk, the last descendants of a five-thousand-year-old matriarchal culture, and called themselves the “Silver Sisterhood.” But their plans to live off the land fell through, and after a few seasons it seemed a quite different group was occupying the house, now called St. Bride’s School. St. Bride’s billed itself as something between a real school and a holiday retreat, posting ads for week-long terms where students would “spend 24 hours a day living in a different time, living a different life.” The staff and students observed a strict hierarchy, with obedient students appointed prefects to keep the others in line, and prefects reporting in turn to teachers: “Some maids like to tell others what to do”, as a visitor summarized the philosophy during the Silver Sisterhood days, “and some maids like to be told what to do.” Both the Sisterhood and St. Bride’s attracted copious media attention—which seems likely to have been deliberately sought out—and from news clips it’s clear at least some residents of both groups were the same people, though going by different names and speaking with changed accents. It was the first of many transformations.

    …One of these was a title called Silverwolf, which was to be released alongside an original comic by Langridge. It was based on a serialized fantasy story appearing in a lesbian periodical called Artemis, which the St. Bride’s crew were also distributing under yet different aliases. The stories were credited to “Laeretta Krenne-Genovene with illustrations by Michele Dennis”; one or both of these people may, or may not, have been Langridge. The stories tapped into the deep well of Aristasian mythology, and the recap at the start of one episode gives a sense of their flavor:

    Modern English schoolgirl Petra Stone is a reincarnation of the matriarchal warrior princess Mayanna. The princess and the schoolgirl exist as 2 independent personalities. She has been taken back into ancient matriarchal Britain by an Amazon group: Rahiyana, the leader; Thunder, a 7-foot powerhouse; Whirlwind, the teen tornado and a shape-shifting imp called Uisce. But the evil patriarchal Lord Fear is determined to kill Petra and has sent in pursuit of the group a powerful and mysterious band known only as the Swarm.

    In the text adventure based on the stories, you play as Petra’s 4 Amazon companions, switching between them on a quest to help the reincarnated princess gain the power to become Silverwolf. The game is split into 2 parts which can be played in either order: they may originally have come on 2 sides of the same cassette tape. In one part you play as Rahiyana and Whirlwind, trying to escort Petra to the Holy Mountain where she can complete the ritual to transform into Silverwolf; in the other, you play Thunder and Uisce trying to retrieve the enchanted sword that Silverwolf will wield. Each of the 4 Amazon women has their own special power, and you must switch between them using commands like BECOME WHIRLWIND to complete the game. Transformation is in fact a recurring motif: Uisce can turn into any creature she sees by typing TURN INTO, and this includes other people—in some sequences you’ll need to BECOME UISCE and then TURN INTO THUNDER to complete a puzzle. To activate Rahiyana’s archery skills, the player needs to summon the power of Diana into her body by typing the phrase HAYA DYANA. The game, like its creators, is obsessed with becoming other people, or allowing them to become you…In one puzzle sequence, you must make use of Uisce’s shape-shifting to reach a series of progressively more unlikely areas. Spotting a bullfrog in the rushes of a lake, you can transform into it to leap to a lily pad. From the lily pad you can see a dragonfly, which you can in turn become to fly to a hidden beach. On the beach is a sand-castle, and the dragonfly is small enough to see that it’s a fortress home for a band of fairies. Becoming a fairy lets you enter the castle and recover a buried key.

    …The group’s former publisher suspects their primary motive was always financial: “I think, basically, St Bride’s were in business: they were doing it on a commercial basis, however un-commercial they may have looked!” But some of the school’s pupils in later years would come to characterize the group as dangerously earnest, with one describing it as a cult. “There was something sinister at the heart of it”, she wrote: “The founder was a remarkable person but was leading a fantasy life—we were living in someone else’s fantasy.” While much about the Games Mistresses would shift across their decades of fronts and personas, disconnection from the everyday world was a constant theme. “We really, truly are not living in the same place as you”, one once wrote⁠; “I don’t like the modern world, and I don’t live in it”, Scarlett has said⁠. “We don’t concern ourselves with the present at all. We live in a little world inside our house… it’s a world apart, really, where we are.” Perhaps from this perspective, an interest in the transporting power of games, electronic or otherwise, becomes less difficult to understand.




  57. Red




  61. 2017-boland.pdf: “Meta-Analysis of the Antidepressant Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation”⁠, Elaine M. Boland, Hengyi Rao, David F. Dinges, Rachel V. Smith, Namni Goel, John A. Detre, Mathias Basner, Yvette I. Sheline, Michael E. Thase, Philip R. Gehrman

  62. 2021-daghlas.pdf: ⁠, Iyas Daghlas, Jacqueline M. Lane, Richa Saxena, Céline Vetter (2021-05-26; genetics  /​ ​​ ​correlation):

    • Question: Does a tendency toward sleeping and waking earlier have a potential causal role in reducing the risk of major depressive disorder?
    • Findings: This 2-sample analysis of data from nearly 840 000 adults of European ancestry found an association between earlier sleep timing patterns and lower risk of major depressive disorder.
    • Meaning: These data suggest that sleep timing patterns are a risk factor for major depressive disorder, and they should be examined further in randomized clinical trials of sleep interventions.
    • Importance: Morning diurnal preference is associated with reduced risk of major depressive disorder (MDD); however, causality in this association is uncertain.
    • Objective: To examine the association of genetically proxied morning diurnal preference with depression risk using Mendelian randomization.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: This 2-sample Mendelian randomization study used summary-level genetic associations with diurnal preference and MDD. Up to 340 genetic loci associated with diurnal preference in a of the and 23andMe cohorts were considered as genetic proxies for diurnal preference. The of these variants was scaled using genetic associations with accelerometer-based measurement of sleep midpoint. Genetic associations with MDD were obtained from a meta-analysis of data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and UK Biobank. The inverse- weighted method was used to estimate the association of genetically proxied morning diurnal preference, corresponding to a 1-hour earlier sleep midpoint, with MDD risk.

    Exposures: Morning diurnal preference scaled to a 1-hour earlier, objectively measured sleep midpoint.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk of MDD, including self-reported and clinically diagnosed cases, as ascertained in meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies.

    Results: A total of 697 828 individuals (all of European ancestry) were in the UK Biobank and 23andMe cohorts; 85 502 in the UK Biobank had measurements of the sleep midpoint. A further 170 756 individuals with MDD and 329 443 control participants (all of European ancestry) were in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and UK Biobank data. Genetically proxied earlier diurnal preference was associated with a 23% lower risk of depression (odds ratio [OR] per 1-hour earlier sleep midpoint, 0.77 [95% ⁠, 0.63–0.94]; p = 0.01). This association was similar when restricting analysis to individuals with MDD as stringently defined by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (OR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.54–1.00]; p = 0.05) but not statistically-significant when defined by hospital-based billing codes in the UK Biobank (OR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.39–1.06]; p = 0.08). Sensitivity analyses examining potential bias due to pleiotropy or reverse causality showed similar findings (eg, intercept [SE], 0.00 [0.001]; p = 0.66 by Egger intercept test).

    Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this Mendelian randomization study support a protective association of earlier diurnal preference with risk of MDD and provide estimates contextualized to an objective sleep timing measure. Further investigation in the form of randomized clinical trials may be warranted. [See also how depression (Boland et al 2017)]

  63. Danbooru2020#danbooru2019







  70. Lithium

  71. ⁠, Gwern Branwen (2011-12-18):

    [Discussion of “inverse p-zombies” via excerpts of ⁠, Mashour & LaRock 2008: the problem of telling when someone is conscious but otherwise appears and acts unconscious, a problem of particular concern in anesthesia for surgery—anesthesia occasionally fails, resulting in ‘anesthesia awareness’, leaving the patient fully conscious and feeling every last bit of the surgery, as they are completely paralyzed but are cut open and operated on for hours, which they describe as being every bit as horrific as one would think, leading to tortured memories and PTSD symptoms. Strikingly, death row executions by lethal injection use a cocktail of chemicals which are almost designed to produce this (rather than the simple single reliable drug universally used for euthanasia by veterinarians), suggesting that, as peaceful as the executions may look, the convicts may actually be enduring extraordinary agony and terror during the several minutes it takes to kill them.

    Further, anesthesia appears to often operate by erasing memories, so it is possible that anesthesia awareness during surgery is much more common than realized, and underestimated because the victims’ long-term memories are blocked from forming. There are some indications that surgery is associated with bad psychiatric symptoms even in cases where the patient does not recall any anesthesia awareness, suggesting that the trauma is preserved in other parts of the mind.

    While doctors continue to research the problem of detecting consciousness, it is far from solved. Most people, confronted with a hypothetical about getting money in exchange for being tortured but then administered an amnesiac, would say that the torture is an intrinsically bad thing even if it is then forgotten; but perhaps we are, unawares, making the opposite choice every time we go in for surgery under general anesthesia?]

  72. TBI


  74. Potassium

  75. Magnesium

  76. Collecting

  77. Mouse-Utopia


  79. ⁠, Sam Worboys (2020-08-18):

    …if an idea comes to mind of artwork I would like to see which doesn’t exist yet, I need to pay real money to commission an artist to do so. In the English-language market, there are quite a few options. These range from art websites such as DeviantArt and FurAffinity, to services which provide you with YCH (Your Character Here) artwork to bid for such as YCH.commishes.

    But if you have favourite Japanese artists on services such as ⁠, then the language barrier may prevent you from outright enquiring whether an artist is taking a commission. This is where comes in, a Japanese artwork and voice-over commissioning service, which to date has received over 100,000 requests and has thousands of artists taking requests from the public. Like a small but growing number of Japanese artwork sites, English-language support is incorporated into the website. But even more substantial, is the ability for English-writing users to submit requests of their own through the ⁠.

    …Each artist profile provides a direct Yes/​​​​No answer around whether they are taking requests, a sample of their public works, approximate rates (minimum and recommended), and the time it takes them to deliver the requested artwork typically. Doing this saves much unreasonable back-and-forth between client and artist about simple information. Instead, the website has you fill out a request form (example below) which allows you to provide specifics and payment. The simple one-page form allows you to enter an overview of the artwork you want to be commissioned (which is translated into English), provide a sum you are happy to pay, determine whether or not you want the artwork to be SFW (Safe for Work) or NSFW (Not Safe for Work) and a few other specifications. Some components of this form (eg. whether NSFW requests are acceptable) can be dictated directly by the artist. Otherwise whichever the client dictates cannot be switched by either party after being submitted. The application is then sent off to the artist, which they have the exclusive right to accept or decline. Depending on the deadline selected, the artist either has 30 days to accept with a delivery deadline of 60 days after submission, or 7 days to take with a delivery deadline of 90 days after submission.

    …DeepL is a fantastic machine-learning translator service which I use regularly. But adding to the game of chance, translations can on the odd occasion come out with surreal interpretations. These include instances of こんばんは [“good evening”] being complemented with a dozen exclamation points, to things which don’t match what you wrote at all. Not only do you have the occasional translation issue to deal with, but character limits. Artists can dictate whether they want requests which are 140 characters in length or 1,000 characters in length. In theory, this is great, as it allows artists to dictate whether they want brief requests which will enable them to use their creativity or extended requests that use more of the client’s creativity. But with the 140 character limit, it can get tough to write more than a small sentence or two in English within the count, before they are shortened considerably into Japanese.

  80. Everything

  81. Dune-genetics

  82. 2016-lane.pdf: “Is there a publication bias in behavioral intranasal oxytocin research on humans? Opening the file drawer of one lab”⁠, A. Lane, O. Luminet, G. Nave, M. Mikolajczak



  85. Pipeline

  86. Emergenesis

  87. The-Melancholy-of-Subculture-Society#a-winner-is-you

  88. Amuse

  89. Small-groups

  90. Beauty

  91. ⁠, Judith H. Langlois, Lisa Kalakanis, Adam J. Rubenstein, Andrea Larson, Monica Hallam, Monica Smoot (2000-05):

    Common maxims about beauty suggest that attractiveness is not important in life. In contrast, both fitness-related evolutionary theory and socialization theory suggest that attractiveness influences development and interaction. In 11 meta-analyses, the authors evaluate these contradictory claims, demonstrating that (a) raters agree about who is and is not attractive, both within and across cultures; (b) attractive children and adults are judged more positively than unattractive children and adults, even by those who know them; (c) attractive children and adults are treated more positively than unattractive children and adults, even by those who know them; and (d) attractive children and adults exhibit more positive behaviors and traits than unattractive children and adults. Results are used to evaluate social and fitness-related evolutionary theories and the veracity of maxims about beauty.

  92. ⁠, Thrasymachus (2014-08-01):

    Many outcomes of interest have pretty good predictors. It seems that height correlates to performance in basketball (the average height in the NBA is around ). Faster serves in tennis improve one’s likelihood of winning. IQ scores are known to predict a slew of factors, from income⁠, to chance of being imprisoned⁠, to lifespan⁠.

    What’s interesting is what happens to these relationships ‘out on the tail’: extreme outliers of a given predictor are seldom similarly extreme outliers on the outcome it predicts, and vice versa. Although 6’7″ is very tall, it lies within a couple of standard deviations of the median US adult male height—there are many thousands of US men taller than the average NBA player, yet are not in the NBA. Although elite tennis players have very fast serves, if you look at the players serving ⁠, they aren’t the very best players of their time. It is harder to look at the IQ case due to test ceilings, but again there seems to be some divergence near the top: the very highest earners tend to be very smart⁠, but their intelligence is not in step with their income (their cognitive ability is around +3 to +4 SD above the mean, yet their wealth is much higher than this) (1).

    The trend seems to be that even when two factors are correlated, their tails diverge: the fastest servers are good tennis players, but not the very best (and the very best players serve fast, but not the very fastest); the very richest tend to be smart, but not the very smartest (and vice versa). Why?

    • The simple graphical explanation
    • An intuitive explanation of the graphical explanation
    • A parallel geometric explanation
  93. The-Existential-Risk-of-Mathematical-Error

  94. Nash


  96. Ads

  97. Design#returns-to-design