Nootropics (Link Bibliography)

“Nootropics” links:

  1. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/may/05/stewart-brand-whole-earth-catalog

  2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DGxPHolNU3c

  3. http://www.jonathancoulton.com/wiki/index.php/I_Feel_Fantastic

  4. 2004-cools.pdf: ⁠, Roshan Cools, Trevor W. Robbins (2004-09-20; nootropic):

    A failure to adapt to novel or changing environmental demands is a core feature of a wide variety of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as the normal states of stress and fatigue. We review the neurochemistry of cognitive control, which has been associated primarily with the prefrontal cortex. Many drugs affect the functioning of the prefrontal cortex, but the direction and extent of drug effects vary across individuals and tasks. Apparently paradoxical effects are often observed, where the same medication causes both cognitive enhancement as well as cognitive side effects. We review neurobiological research that is beginning to elucidate the nature of these contrasting effects and the factors underlying the large variability across individuals and behaviours. The work has considerable implications for the understanding of and treatment development for abnormalities such as Parkinson’s disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction.

  5. 2008-dejongh.pdf: ⁠, Reinoud de Jongh, Ineke Bolt, Maartje Schermer, Berend Olivier (2007-12-17; nootropic):

    It has been suggested that the recent rapid developments in the fields of neuroscience and psychopharmacology have increased the possibilities for pharmacological enhancement of mental functioning. Here, evidence is reviewed which shows that drugs acting on a variety of neurotransmitter systems can indeed enhance cognition, and to a lesser extent mood and pro-social behavior. Moreover, it seems possible to interfere with the (re)consolidation of traumatic memories. There are, however, a number of caveats: first, as cognition-enhancing drugs can simultaneously exert both linear and quadratic (U-shaped) effects, doses most effective in facilitating one behavior could at the same time exert null or even detrimental effects on other cognitive domains. Second, individuals with a ‘low memory span’ might benefit from cognition-enhancing drugs, whereas ‘high span subjects’ are ‘overdosed’. And finally, evidence suggests that a number of trade-offs could occur. For example, increases of cognitive stability might come at the cost of a decreased capacity to flexibly alter behavior. A short overview of ethical issues raised by the use of cognition and mood enhancing drugs demonstrates the tremendous variety in views and opinions regarding the subject.

  6. Iodine

  7. Modafinil#fn14

  8. https://www.erowid.org/references/refs_view.php?A=ShowDocPartFrame&ID=6624&DocPartID=6148

  9. http://www.cambridgebrainsciences.com/assets/default/files/pdf/Mehta2000.pdf

  10. 2001-stough.pdf

  11. 2011-hills.pdf: ⁠, Thomas Hills, Ralph Hertwig (2011-12-05; algernon):

    Pharmacological enhancers of cognition promise a bright new future for humankind: more focus, more willpower, and better memory, with applications ranging from education to military combat. Underlying such promises is a linear, more-is-better vision of cognition that makes intuitive sense. This vision is at odds, however, with our understanding of cognition’s evolutionary origins. The mind has evolved under various constraints and consequently represents a delicate balance among these constraints. Evidence of the trade-offs that have shaped cognition include (a) inverted U-shaped performance curves commonly found in response to pharmacological interventions and (b) unintended side effects of enhancement on other traits. Taking an evolutionary perspective, we frame the above two sets of findings in terms of within-task (exemplified by optimal-control problems) and between-task (associated with a gain/​​​​loss asymmetry) trade-offs, respectively. With this framework, psychological science can provide much-needed guidance to enhancement development, a field that still lacks a theoretical foundation.

    [Keywords: cognitive enhancements, trade-offs, constraints, evolution, side effects]

  12. 2010-finke.pdf

  13. http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1038&context=neuroethics_pubs

  14. ⁠, Scott Alexander (2009-04-28):

    [Alexander defines the “typical mind fallacy”: everyone reasons about their mental experiences as if they are universal. People with vivid visual imagery assume everyone can see things in “the mind’s eye” while assume that this is simply a poetic metaphor; people with color-blindness wonder why other people get so worked up about various shades of gray, and people with are puzzled by the focus on flowers etc. Further examples include maladaptive daydreaming, pain insensitivity, the prevalence of visual & auditory hallucinations in mentally-healthy individuals like ‘scintillating scotoma’, misophonia, hearing voices, inner monologues, facial self-awareness, trypophobia, Severely Deficient Autobiographical Memory, hypermnesia, ASMR, face blindness/​​​​prosospagnosia, musical anhedonia, ‘the call of the void’/​​​​intrusive thoughts, hypnagogia, the nasal dilation cycle…

    This phenomenon for visual imagery was discovered only recently by ⁠, who asked if the interminable debate between philosophers/​​​​psychologists like Berkeley or Behaviorists like Skinner, where neither could accept that there was (or was not) visual imagery, was because both were right—some people have extremely vivid mental imagery, while others have none at all. He simply circulated a survey and asked. Turned out, most people do but some don’t.

    The typical mind fallacy may explain many interpersonal conflicts and differences in advice: we underappreciate the sheer cognitive diversity of mankind, because we only have access to our limited personal anecdote, and people typically do not discuss all their differences because they don’t realize they exist nor have a vocabulary/​​​​name.]

  15. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/6NvbSwuSAooQxxf7f/beware-of-other-optimizing

  16. http://www.scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=40

  17. Drug-heuristics

  18. Melatonin#health-performance

  19. Melatonin#self-discipline

  20. Replication

  21. Modafinil#ordering-behavior

  22. Zeo

  23. Zeo#melatonin-analysis

  24. Vitamin-D

  25. https://old.reddit.com/r/nootropics/

  26. Modafinil

  27. Melatonin

  28. #powder-advantages

  29. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/Zmfo388RA9oky3KYe/no-seriously-just-try-it

  30. #modafinil

  31. #armodafinil

  32. #melatonin

  33. #caffeine

  34. #theanine

  35. #nicotine

  36. #piracetam

  37. #vitamin-d

  38. #sulbutiamine

  39. http://examine.com/supplements/L-Carnitine/

  40. https://fis.fda.gov/sense/app/d10be6bb-494e-4cd2-82e4-0135608ddc13/sheet/45beeb74-30ab-46be-8267-5756582633b4/state/analysis

  41. https://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v37/n3/full/npp2011276a.html

  42. http://thelastpsychiatrist.com/2007/08/how_to_take_ritalin_correctly.html

  43. Silk-Road

  44. #creatine

  45. http://web.archive.org/web/20100704174112/http://interactive.usc.edu/members/splott/2009/02/the_marginal_advantage.html

  46. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2010/12/21/adderall-concentration-benefits-in-doubt-new-study.html

  47. #modalert-blind-day-trial

  48. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/3138

  49. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/3139

  50. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/3140

  51. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/3141

  52. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/3142

  53. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/3143

  54. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/3144

  55. Hafu

  56. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/3145

  57. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/3146

  58. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/3147

  59. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/n7E2FC63MZGnvZAdr/why-epidemiology-will-not-correct-itself

  60. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/3148

  61. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/3149

  62. https://www.amazon.com/The-Grand-Strategy-Byzantine-Empire/dp/0674062078/

  63. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/3150

  64. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/3151

  65. Modafinil#ordering-when-learning-isnt-free

  66. Zeo#value-of-information-voi

  67. https://www.lesswrong.com/r/discussion/lw/cih/value_of_information_8_examples/6mns

  68. http://wiki.lesswrong.com/wiki/Litany_of_Gendlin

  69. #hydergine

  70. http://antiagingcentral.com/store/catalog/index.php?cPath=32

  71. Bacopa

  72. https://hplusmagazine.com/2010/04/14/nutraceutical-brain-boosting-free-schwag/

  73. http://pihkal.info/read.php?domain=pk&id=142

  74. #selegiline-deprenyl

  75. http://examine.com/supplements/Caffeine/

  76. 2004-juliano.pdf

  77. http://www.med.upenn.edu/uep/user_documents/dfd23.pdf

  78. http://roar.uel.ac.uk/1347/1/Dawkins_2011b.pdf.pdf

  79. 2008-lorist.pdf

  80. 2010-nehlig.pdf

  81. http://quantifiedself.com/2009/10/the-false-god-of-coffee/

  82. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/dW9DTLZcScAPj98eR/coffee-when-it-helps-when-it-hurts

  83. 2004-lesk.pdf

  84. http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/pha-18-6-553.pdf

  85. 2010-drake.pdf

  86. 2008-haskell.pdf

  87. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/95/2/488.long

  88. http://jtoomim.org/brain-training/han2007-caffeine-hurts-learning.pdf

  89. ⁠, Christian T. Wentz, Sanjay S. P. Magavi (2009-02-13):

    Neurogenesis continues through adulthood in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of mammals. Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in learning and memory, and linked with depression. Hippocampal neurogenesis is increased in response to a number of stimuli, including exposure to an enriched environment, increased locomotor activity, and administration of antidepressants. Adult neurogenesis is depressed in response to aging, stress and sleep deprivation. Intriguingly, caffeine modulates a number of these same stimuli in a dose-dependent manner. We examined the dose and duration dependent effects of caffeine on the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of newly generated hippocampal neurons in adult mice. Extended, 7-day caffeine administration, alters the proliferation of adult hippocampal precursors in the mouse in a dose dependent manner; moderate to high doses (20–30mg/​​​​kg/​​​​day) of caffeine depress proliferation while supraphysiological doses (60mg/​​​​kg/​​​​day) increase proliferation of neuronal precursors. Acute, 1-day administration had no affect on proliferation. Caffeine administration does not affect the expression of early or late markers of neuronal differentiation, or rates of long-term survival. However, neurons induced in response to supraphysiological levels of caffeine have a lower survival rate than control cells; increased proliferation does not yield an increase in long-term neurogenesis. These results demonstrate that physiologically relevant doses of caffeine can statistically-significantly depress adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  90. 1997-marret.pdf: “PII: S0006-8993(97)00938-4, ALY

  91. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/bjmbr/v35n10/4559.pdf

  92. 2011-abreu.pdf: “Chronic coffee and caffeine ingestion effects on the cognitive function and antioxidant system of rat brains”⁠, Renata Viana Abreu, Eliane Moretto Silva-Oliveira, Márcio Flávio Dutra Moraes, Grace Schenatto Pereira, Tasso Moraes-Santos

  93. 2005-james.pdf

  94. ⁠, Sigmon, Stacey C. Herning, Ronald I. Better, Warren Cadet, Jean L. Griffiths, Rol, R (2009):

    Rationale: Although the subjective effects of caffeine abstinence, acute and chronic administration, and tolerance are well described, the corresponding neurophysiological effects are not.

    Objectives: Caffeine withdrawal, acute caffeine effects, caffeine tolerance, and net beneficial effects of chronic caffeine administration were investigated using cerebral blood flow velocity, quantitative electroencephalography (EEG), and subjective effects.

    Materials and Methods: Sixteen regular caffeine users participated in this double-blind, within-subject study during which they received acute caffeine and placebo challenges (1) while maintained on 400 mg caffeine daily for > or = 14 days and (2) while maintained on placebo for > or = 14 days. Blood flow velocity was determined for the middle (MCA) and anterior (ACA) cerebral arteries using pulsed transcranial Doppler sonography. EEG was recorded from 16 scalp sites. Subjective effects were assessed with questionnaires.

    Results: Acute caffeine abstinence (evaluated 24 h after placebo substitution) increased mean, systolic, and diastolic velocity in the MCA and ACA and decreased pulsatility index in the MCA. Acute caffeine abstinence increased EEG theta and decreased beta 2 power. Acute caffeine abstinence also increased measures of Tired, Fatigue, Sluggish, and Weary and decreased ratings of Energetic, Friendly, Lively, and Vigor. Acute caffeine effects were demonstrated across a wide range of measures, including cerebral blood flow, EEG, and subjective effects. Tolerance and “complete” tolerance were observed on subjective but not physiological measures. Chronic caffeine effects were demonstrated only on the measure of EEG beta 2 power.

    Conclusion: Acute caffeine abstinence and administration produced changes in cerebral blood flow velocity, EEG, and subjective effects. Tolerance to subjective but not physiological measures was demonstrated. There was almost no evidence for net effects of chronic caffeine administration on these measures. Overall, these findings provide the most rigorous demonstration to date of physiological effects of caffeine withdrawal.

  95. https://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v35/n9/full/npp201071a.html

  96. ⁠, Adam Hampshire, Roger R. Highfield, Beth L. Parkin, Adrian M. Owen (2012-12-20):

    Highlights:

    • We propose that human intelligence is composed of multiple independent components
    • Each behavioral component is associated with a distinct functional brain network
    • The higher-order g factor is an artifact of tasks recruiting multiple networks
    • The components of intelligence dissociate when correlated with demographic variables

    What makes one person more intellectually able than another? Can the entire distribution of human intelligence be accounted for by just one general factor? Is intelligence supported by a single neural system? Here, we provide a perspective on human intelligence that takes into account how general abilities or “factors” reflect the functional organization of the brain. By comparing factor models of individual differences in performance with factor models of brain functional organization, we demonstrate that different components of intelligence have their analogs in distinct brain networks. Using simulations based on neuroimaging data, we show that the higher-order factor g is accounted for by cognitive tasks co-recruiting multiple networks. Finally, we confirm the independence of these components of intelligence by dissociating them using questionnaire variables. We propose that intelligence is an emergent property of anatomically distinct cognitive systems, each of which has its own capacity.

  97. Nicotine#performance

  98. Spaced-repetition

  99. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/vADtvr9iDeYsCDfxd/value-of-information-four-examples

  100. ⁠, Schwalfenberg, Gerry Genuis, Stephen J. Rodushkin, Ilia (2013):

    Background. Increasing concern is evident about contamination of foodstuffs and natural health products. Methods. Common off-the-shelf varieties of black, green, white, and oolong teas sold in tea bags were used for analysis in this study. Toxic element testing was performed on 30 different teas by analyzing (i) tea leaves, (ii) tea steeped for 3–4 minutes, and (iii) tea steeped for 15–17 minutes. Results were compared to existing preferred endpoints. Results. All brewed teas contained lead with 73% of teas brewed for 3 minutes and 83% brewed for 15 minutes having lead levels considered unsafe for consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Aluminum levels were above recommended guidelines in 20% of brewed teas. No mercury was found at detectable levels in any brewed tea samples. Teas contained several beneficial elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Of trace minerals, only manganese levels were found to be excessive in some black teas. Conclusions. Toxic contamination by heavy metals was found in most of the teas sampled. Some tea samples are considered unsafe. There are no existing guidelines for routine testing or reporting of toxicant levels in “naturally” occurring products. Public health warnings or industry regulation might be indicated to protect consumer safety.

  101. Tea

  102. http://www.arborteas.com/teablog/tea-preparation/how-to-decaffeinate-your-tea-at-home/

  103. http://www.smartpowders.com/p-5261-caffeine-anhydrous-400-grams.aspx

  104. http://diysupplements.com/add-caffeine-to-everything/

  105. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1324722/Party-goer-killed-2-spoonfuls-caffeine-powder--equivalent-70-Red-Bulls.html

  106. http://examine.com/supplements/DMAE/

  107. #oxiracetam

  108. http://examine.com/supplements/Cocoa+Polyphenols/

  109. ⁠, Macready, Anna L. Kennedy, Orla B. Ellis, Judi A. Williams, Claire M. Spencer, Jeremy P. E Butler, Laurie T (2009):

    Evidence in support of the neuroprotective effects of flavonoids has increased significantly in recent years, although to date much of this evidence has emerged from animal rather than human studies. Nonetheless, with a view to making recommendations for future good practice, we review 15 existing human dietary intervention studies that have examined the effects of particular types of flavonoid on cognitive performance. The studies employed a total of 55 different cognitive tests covering a broad range of cognitive domains. Most studies incorporated at least one measure of ⁠/​​​​working memory, with nine reporting significant improvements in performance as a function of flavonoid supplementation compared to a control group. However, some domains were overlooked completely (e.g. implicit memory, prospective memory), and for the most part there was little consistency in terms of the particular cognitive tests used making across study comparisons difficult. Furthermore, there was some confusion concerning what aspects of cognitive function particular tests were actually measuring. Overall, while initial results are encouraging, future studies need to pay careful attention when selecting cognitive measures, especially in terms of ensuring that tasks are actually sensitive enough to detect treatment effects.

  110. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=%28cocoa+OR+chocolate%29+%28cognitive+OR+mental+OR+brain%29+performance

  111. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/139/1/120.long

  112. http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/875/1/Scholey_Consumption%20of%20cocoa%20flavanols.pdf

  113. http://www.ajcn.org/content/87/4/872.long

  114. 2006-francis.pdf

  115. http://groups.google.com/group/brain-training

  116. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/02/dining/02Appe.html

  117. http://www.blog.sethroberts.net/2011/01/29/the-buttermind-experiment/

  118. http://www.cambridgebrainsciences.com/

  119. http://www.smarternootropics.com/coluracetam/

  120. http://www.ceretropic.com/

  121. https://web.archive.org/web/20130428014622/http://users4.jabry.com/isochroma/Coluracetam%20Experiences.htm

  122. http://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/58609-coluracetam-user-feedback/

  123. http://examine.com/supplements/Creatine/

  124. Creatine

  125. http://www.smartpowders.com/p-5280-creatine-monohydrate-powder-1000-grams.aspx

  126. https://www.amazon.com/BulkSupplements-Micronized-Creatine-Monohydrate-Kilogram/dp/B00E9M4XEE

  127. http://careyryan.com/creatine/

  128. https://www.ceretropic.com/cytisine-solution

  129. http://examine.com/supplements/Fish+Oil/

  130. http://chriskresser.com/the-definitive-fish-oil-buyers-guide

  131. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110324153712.htm

  132. http://www.nutrociencia.com.br/upload_files/artigos_download/Kiecolt-Glaser%20et%20al.,%202011.pdf

  133. http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/is-fish-oil-the-cure-for-schizophrenia-1157380.html

  134. http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/67/2/146

  135. http://www.upi.com/Health_News/2011/04/27/Omega-3-may-up-aggressive-prostate-cancer/UPI-31131303903320/

  136. https://www.nature.com/news/fish-oil-supplement-research-remains-murky-1.11484

  137. http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/play/snake-oil-supplements/

  138. http://www.tritolonen.fi/files/pdf/Cai-2012-review.PDF

  139. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090309092957.htm

  140. ⁠, Cleland, Leslie G. James, Michael J. Proudman, Susanna M (2006):

    There is a general belief among doctors, in part grounded in experience, that patients with arthritis need nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Implicit in this view is that these patients require the symptomatic relief provided by inhibiting synthesis of nociceptive prostaglandin ⁠, a downstream product of the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase (COX), which is inhibited by NSAIDs. However, the concept of ‘safe’ NSAIDs has collapsed following a multiplicity of observations establishing increased risk for cardiovascular events associated with NSAID use, especially but not uniquely with the new COX-2-selective NSAIDs. This mandates greater parsimony in the use of these agents. Fish oils contain a natural inhibitor of COX, reduce reliance on NSAIDs, and reduce cardiovascular risk through multiple mechanisms. Fish oil thus warrants consideration as a component of therapy for arthritis, especially rheumatoid arthritis, in which its symptomatic benefits are well established. A major barrier to the therapeutic use of fish oil in inflammatory diseases is ignorance of its mechanism, range of beneficial effects, safety profile, availability of suitable products, effective dose, latency of effects and instructions for administration. This review provides an evidence-based resource for doctors and patients who may choose to prescribe or take fish oil.

  141. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/booster_shots/2010/02/fish-oil-can-head-off-first-psychotic-episodes.html

  142. http://www.blog.sethroberts.net/2010/02/03/schizophrenia-prevented-by-fish-oil/

  143. http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/61005/title/Fish_oil_may_fight_breast_cancer

  144. http://www.webmd.com/prostate-cancer/news/20090324/fatty-fish-may-cut-prostate-cancer-risk

  145. http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/57701/title/Science_%2B_the_Public__Walnuts_slow_prostate_cancer_growth

  146. http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/55362/title/Benefits_of_omega-3_fatty_acids_tally_up

  147. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/early/2010/02/24/jn.109.119578.abstract

  148. http://www.blog.sethroberts.net/category/nutrition/omega-3/omega-3-directory/

  149. https://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2007/07/todays-happines.html

  150. https://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/24/health/24real.html

  151. https://web.archive.org/web/20130128122757/http://www.naturalproductsinsider.com/news/2010/03/major-fish-oil-products-face-prop-65-suit.aspx

  152. http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/65600/title/Fish_oil_fails_to_hold_off_heart_arrhythmia

  153. http://www.sciencenews.org/view/feature/id/67709/title/2010_Science_News_of_the_Year_Nutrition

  154. https://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/20/health/research/20fishoil.html

  155. https://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303550904575562053166893846.html

  156. http://fn.bmj.com/content/early/2006/12/21/adc.2006.099085.short

  157. http://www.pediatricsdigest.mobi/content/111/1/e39.full

  158. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/122/2/e472.short

  159. http://www.ajcn.org/content/83/6/1337.short

  160. http://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Abstract/2003/03000/A_Randomized_Trial_of_Docosahexaenoic_Acid.11.aspx

  161. http://rnd.edpsciences.org/index.php?option=com_article&access=standard&Itemid=129&url=/articles/rnd/pdf/2005/05/r5502.pdf

  162. http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/304/17/1903.abstract

  163. http://evolutionarypsychiatry.blogspot.com/2011/08/omega-3-inflammation-and-anxiety-in.html

  164. http://www.psychologytoday.com/print/57150

  165. http://www.tohtoritolonen.fi/files/pdf/fontani_2005.pdf

  166. http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/304/7/R523.full.pdf

  167. http://groups.google.com/group/brain-training/browse_thread/thread/78e54d222e2c268b/44526d276379dded

  168. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/BEST/index.html

  169. #value-of-information-voi

  170. http://www.iherb.com/Nature-s-Answer-Liquid-Omega-3-Deep-Sea-Fish-Oil-EPA-DHA-Natural-Orange-Flavor-16-fl-oz-480-ml/7908

  171. #lithium-experiment

  172. http://www.bayesianinvestor.com/blog/index.php/2012/08/18/omega-6-revisited/

  173. https://www.amazon.com/Bobs-Red-Mill-Flaxseed-24-Ounce/dp/B00282W8F8/

  174. http://examine.com/supplements/Huperzine-A/

  175. http://groups.google.com/group/brain-training/browse_thread/thread/6e35c60f904c2417

  176. https://www.amazon.com/Huperzine-A-200mcg-120-tabs/dp/B000WJH2HI/

  177. #adrafinil

  178. http://antiagingcentral.com/store/catalog/index.php?cPath=29

  179. Iodine#meta-analysis

  180. http://www.iherb.com/Potassium-Iodide

  181. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/RpQam9yPw3SwByMEv/rationality-quotes-september-2011?commentId=BoK8ceiWNgkeycuqr

  182. http://www.iherb.com/Now-Foods-Kelp-150-mcg-200-Tablets/685

  183. https://web.archive.org/web/20131026191606/http://altmedangel.com/iodine.htm

  184. http://thyroid.about.com/library/derry/bl2a.htm

  185. http://www.optimox.com/pics/Iodine/updates/UNIOD-02/UNIOD_02.htm

  186. http://www.hakalalabs.com/testing.html

  187. http://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/44985-eye-color-change-with-iodine-supplementation/

  188. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8352

  189. https://www.amazon.com/dp/B002NLUBA8/

  190. 2012-gwern-iodine-eye.zip

  191. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/11521

  192. https://www.erowid.org/plants/kratom/kratom.shtml

  193. https://old.reddit.com/r/kratom/

  194. http://www.getkratom.com/

  195. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/gztAhEueePQi3RNHs/a-rational-education?commentId=qEzE4XkXP4fRZqkt5

  196. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/gg9rMscx687RXFGg3/in-which-i-fantasize-about-drugs?commentId=24BJpQ4zBCcfwBX2v

  197. http://www.speciosapro.com/starter-pack-test-drive-b1st-time-customers-only-p-76.html

  198. http://examine.com/supplements/Yamabushitake/

  199. http://www.imminst.org/forum/

  200. Lithium

  201. 1987-cella.pdf

  202. http://darcs.nomeata.de/arbtt/doc/users_guide/

  203. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/815523-overview#a0104

  204. https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B003B6X66U/

  205. https://web.archive.org/web/20121011231948/https://www.amazon.com/Life-Extension-GELATIN-CAPSULES-BOVINE/dp/B002R3JJ8W

  206. Vitamin-D#vitamin-d-at-morn-helps

  207. http://www.intechopen.com/source/html/17370/media/image3.jpeg

  208. ⁠, Chung, Hoon Dai, Tianhong Sharma, Sulbha K. Huang, Ying-Ying Carroll, James D. Hamblin, Michael R (2012):

    Soon after the discovery of lasers in the 1960s it was realized that laser therapy had the potential to improve wound healing and reduce pain, inflammation and swelling. In recent years the field sometimes known as photobiomodulation has broadened to include light-emitting diodes and other light sources, and the range of wavelengths used now includes many in the red and near infrared. The term “low level laser therapy” or LLLT has become widely recognized and implies the existence of the biphasic dose response or the Arndt-Schulz curve. This review will cover the mechanisms of action of LLLT at a cellular and at a tissular level and will summarize the various light sources and principles of dosimetry that are employed in clinical practice. The range of diseases, injuries, and conditions that can be benefited by LLLT will be summarized with an emphasis on those that have reported randomized ⁠. Serious life-threatening diseases such as stroke, heart attack, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury may soon be amenable to LLLT therapy.

  209. 2013-rojas.pdf: ⁠, Julio C. Rojas, F. Gonzalez-Lima (2013; nootropic):

    Transcranial brain stimulation with low-level light/​​​​laser therapy (LLLT) is the use of directional low-power and high-fluency monochromatic or quasimonochromatic light from lasers or LEDs in the red-to-near-infrared wavelengths to modulate a neurobiological function or induce a neurotherapeutic effect in a nondestructive and non-thermal manner. The mechanism of action of LLLT is based on photon energy absorption by cytochrome oxidase, the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Cytochrome oxidase has a key role in neuronal physiology, as it serves as an interface between oxidative energy metabolism and cell survival signaling pathways. Cytochrome oxidase is an ideal target for cognitive enhancement, as its expression reflects the changes in metabolic capacity underlying higher-order brain functions. This review provides an update on new findings on the neurotherapeutic applications of LLLT. The photochemical mechanisms supporting its cognitive-enhancing and brain-stimulatory effects in animal models and humans are discussed. LLLT is a potential non-invasive treatment for cognitive impairment and other deficits associated with chronic neurological conditions, such as large vessel and lacunar hypoperfusion or neurodegeneration. Brain photobiomodulation with LLLT is paralleled by pharmacological effects of low-dose USP methylene blue, a non-photic electron donor with the ability to stimulate cytochrome oxidase activity, redox and free radical processes. Both interventions provide neuroprotection and cognitive enhancement by facilitating mitochondrial respiration, with hormetic dose-response effects and brain region activational specificity. This evidence supports enhancement of mitochondrial respiratory function as a generalizable therapeutic principle relevant to highly adaptable systems that are exquisitely sensitive to energy availability such as the nervous system.

  210. https://www.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fnsys.2014.00036/full

  211. LLLT

  212. http://www.longecity.org/forum/user/11887-lostfalco/

  213. http://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/63228-lostfalcos-extensive-nootropic-experiments/

  214. http://www.epjournal.net/blog/2011/08/glucose-is-not-willpower-fuel/

  215. 2013-kurzban.pdf: ⁠, Robert Kurzban, Angela Duckworth, Joseph W. Kable, Justus Myers (2013-12-04; psychology):

    Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternative explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost—that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/​​​​benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/​​​​benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternative explanations for both the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across sub-disciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternative models might be empirically distinguished.

  216. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/HWvqNAc7aeeeWngEh/kurzban-et-al-on-opportunity-cost-models-of-mental-fatigue

  217. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/RWo4LwFzpHNQCTcYt/how-to-beat-procrastination

  218. http://www.ebay.com/itm/251266500210

  219. Magnesium#experiment-1

  220. LSD-microdosing

  221. Magnesium

  222. Zeo#melatonin

  223. Modafinil#suppliers-prices

  224. Modafinil#effects

  225. https://www.nickbostrom.com/ethics/statusquo.pdf

  226. https://www.amazon.com/Seeing-Like-State-Institution-University/dp/0300078153/

  227. https://www.ribbonfarm.com/2010/07/26/a-big-little-idea-called-legibility/

  228. #adderall-blind-testing

  229. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/4790

  230. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/4805

  231. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/4857

  232. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/4880

  233. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/4913

  234. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/4923

  235. #nicotine-gum

  236. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/4954

  237. Greenland

  238. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/4989

  239. 2009-garnockjones.pdf

  240. 2003-donovan.pdf

  241. https://web.archive.org/web/20130113015023/http://www.genemedrx.com/ArmodafinilR.pptx

  242. 2009-darwish.pdf

  243. 2006-dinges.pdf

  244. #adderall

  245. http://chronopause.com/chronopause.com/index.php/2011/07/15/902/index.html

  246. Genshiken

  247. Charity-is-not-about-helping

  248. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/kejkc/nootropics_that_dont_workbad_stacks/c2jq83e

  249. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/uR4r3eZZqLmjZDqFj/prize-new-contest-for-spaced-repetition-literature-review

  250. Spaced-repetition#literature-review

  251. http://qntm.org/structure

  252. Notes#the-morality-of-sperm-donation

  253. 2005-murakami

  254. 2005-sawaragi

  255. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/xiojTDJP6FWdb2Fmb/value-of-information-8-examples

  256. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/is-this-the-secret-of-eternal-life-1674005.html

  257. http://www.novateinbio.com/en/home/74791-b-NGF-Human.html

  258. http://www.biotrend-usa.com/us/shop/search-query?itemid=N199-500&gclid=CKbL27u417YCFcU5Qgoduj8AGQ

  259. https://web.archive.org/web/20131022131147/http://www.sinobiological.com/NGF-Protein-g-454.html

  260. http://www.prospecbio.com/beta_NGF_Human_6

  261. http://www.genwaybio.com/recombinant-human-beta-ngf

  262. http://www.abbiotec.com/proteins/human-ngf-beta

  263. Nicotine

  264. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8179

  265. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8180

  266. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/eD6TZm2r25HzYzZzY/spaced-repetition-literature-review-prize-and-the-winner-is

  267. http://www.nicvape.com/store/p/28-250-ml-of-12-mg-ml.aspx

  268. http://www.cognitiongroup.com/publication/Cognitive_Effects_of_Nicotine_fMRI_published.pdf

  269. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2012/05/nicotine-and-the-chemistry-of-murder/

  270. http://www.timesofisrael.com/police-investigating-toddler-death-from-nicotine-overdose/

  271. https://www.erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=56793

  272. 2003-page.pdf

  273. http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/164/6/529.long

  274. http://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft8489p25j&chunk.id=d0e2683&toc.id=d0e2575&brand=eschol

  275. http://pharmrev.aspetjournals.org/content/57/1/79.long

  276. http://pharmrev.aspetjournals.org/content/57/1/79/T1.expansion.html

  277. ⁠, Green, J. T Evans, B. K Rhodes, J. Thomas, G. A Ranshaw, C. Feyerabend, C. Russell, M. A (1999):

    Aims: Ulcerative colitis is predominantly a disease of nonsmokers and transdermal nicotine has therapeutic value in active disease; however side-effects are troublesome. The aim of this study was to develop an oral formulation of nicotine which would be slowly released in the colon over 6 h, and to examine its pharmacokinetic profile in 12 healthy volunteers, with measurements of serum nicotine and cotinine, its principal metabolite.

    Methods: Nicotine was combined with a polyacrylic carbomer, Carbopol 974P which was incorporated into 13 different vehicles and their release profiles examined in vitro. The polyglycolized glyceride, Gelucire 50/​​​​13, was chosen for subsequent kinetic studies because it consistently produced a suitable release pattern which was linear. Capsules containing 3 mg nicotine, combined with carbomer in Gelucire 50/​​​​13, were coated with an acrylic resin Eudragit L; this ensured the capsule would remain intact until the ileum. On 2 separate days, 6 and 15 mg nicotine, contained in 2 and 5 capsules, respectively, were administered to 12 subjects, all nonsmokers, mean age 28 years. Serial blood measurements were taken for 36 h, serum nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured by gas liquid chromatography.

    Results: There was considerable intersubject variability in the nicotine and cotinine values. Plasma nicotine levels began to rise about 4 h after ingestion of the capsules, corresponding with the oro-caecal transit time. Cmax nicotine values were 2.2 and 5 ng ml−1, obtained 7 h after the ingestion of 6 and 15 mg, respectively, of the formulation. The corresponding Cmax values for cotinine were 37 and 94.4 ng ml−1, occurring after 9–10 h. The mean for elimination half-lives in the 24 studies, including the 6 and 15 mg doses, for nicotine were 4.3±2.7 h and for cotinine 16.8±7.5 h. With 6 mg nicotine-carbomer, only 1 of 12 volunteers had possible side-effects, but with the 15 mg dose 11 out of the 12 reported adverse effects which were systemic or gastrointestinal in nature-their timing corresponded with peak serum concentrations of nicotine.

    Conclusions: An oral formulation of nicotine has been developed; in the ileum and colon, this becomes available for slow linear release over 6 h and delivers high concentrations of nicotine for topical effect on the colon. 6 mg Nicotine was well tolerated, whilst 15 mg gave both systemic and gastrointestinal side-effects. High concentrations of topical nicotine in the colon are achieved with relatively low systemic bioavailablity-reflected by the Cmax and AUC values for nicotine. This, or comparable formulations, may be of therapeutic value in ulcerative colitis.

  278. 1978-ivey.pdf

  279. http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/210

  280. 2004-yildiz.pdf

  281. https://www.amazon.com/Tobacco-Shamanism-America-Psychoactive-Plants/dp/0300057903/

  282. 2002-ahdaya.pdf

  283. https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B000UD7P1E/

  284. https://code.google.com/p/amphetype/

  285. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/7934

  286. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/7985

  287. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/7991

  288. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8035

  289. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8045

  290. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8077

  291. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8145

  292. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8168

  293. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8220

  294. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8232

  295. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8245

  296. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8258

  297. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8282

  298. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8288

  299. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8306

  300. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8312

  301. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8363

  302. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8379

  303. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8392

  304. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8398

  305. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8445

  306. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8452

  307. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8488

  308. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8530

  309. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8598

  310. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8605

  311. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8649

  312. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8679

  313. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8782

  314. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8831

  315. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8853

  316. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8890

  317. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/8930

  318. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/9059

  319. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/9095

  320. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/9143

  321. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/9220

  322. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/9299

  323. gwern-bw-stats.txt

  324. http://www.indiana.edu/~kruschke/articles/Kruschke2012JEPG.pdf

  325. http://forum.quantifiedself.com/thread-nicotine-n-backing?pid=2052#pid2052

  326. http://stats.stackexchange.com/a/44376/16897

  327. https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B000GU6ENQ/

  328. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=noopept

  329. http://examine.com/supplements/Noopept/

  330. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/search?q=noopept&sort=relevance&restrict_sr=on

  331. http://www.longecity.org/forum/tags/forums/noopept/

  332. http://www.google.com/cse?cx=009513296995230692334%3Afaadujg162k&q=noopept

  333. Weather

  334. 2013-gwern-noopept.csv

  335. Magnesium#l-threonate

  336. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/2b14v6/anyone_heard_of_this_about_hsw/

  337. http://www.powdercity.com/

  338. https://web.archive.org/web/20130915000609/http://healthsupplementwholesalers.com/products/noopept

  339. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/wiki/faq#wiki_is_health_supplement_wholesalers_.28hsw.29_.2F_your_brain_and_body_supplements_.2F_build_own_blend_supplements_.28byob.29__.2F_supplement_nexus_.2F_nootropicnexus_.2F_supplements4less_.28they_go_by_many_names.29_a_reliable_supplier.3F

  340. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/search?q=%22Health+Supplement+Wholesalers%22+OR+HSW&sort=new&restrict_sr=on

  341. noopept-hsw-packet.jpg

  342. noopept-hsw-powder.jpg

  343. http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/mice/index.html

  344. http://doc.utwente.nl/78938/1/Buuren11mice.pdf

  345. http://www.smartpowders.com/p-5342-oxiracetam-powder.aspx

  346. http://examine.com/supplements/Piracetam/

  347. http://web.archive.org/web/20111221021650/http://users4.jabry.com/isochroma/Racetam%20Prices.htm

  348. DNB-FAQ

  349. 1981-bartus.pdf

  350. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20095391

  351. Drug-heuristics#piracetam

  352. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/yMKfih99nSqRyphkD/quantified-health-prize-results-announced

  353. https://www.lesswrong.com/user/Kevin/

  354. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/SmgMiErTGSTWm7CRW/rationality-drugs?commentId=QjM26qeJDhbcWonxo

  355. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/SmgMiErTGSTWm7CRW/rationality-drugs?commentId=WzmAZLSq6jDTpZnJu

  356. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/WbLAA8qZQNdbRgKte/firewalling-the-optimal-from-the-rational7lco

  357. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/WbLAA8qZQNdbRgKte/firewalling-the-optimal-from-the-rational7lh1

  358. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/WbLAA8qZQNdbRgKte/firewalling-the-optimal-from-the-rational

  359. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/WbLAA8qZQNdbRgKte/firewalling-the-optimal-from-the-rational7lbz

  360. https://www.amazon.com/Potassium-Citrate-TriPotassium-Granular-Powder/dp/B00BPURQ88/

  361. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/WbLAA8qZQNdbRgKte/firewalling-the-optimal-from-the-rational7r4z

  362. Potassium

  363. Potassium#potassium-morning-use

  364. https://www.erowid.org/experiences/subs/exp_Pharms_Selegeline.shtml

  365. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/search?q=selegiline+OR+deprenyl&restrict_sr=on&sort=relevance

  366. http://www.petcarerx.com/pcrx/ProductPages/Product.aspx?pid=10983

  367. http://www.engadget.com/2010/09/18/intel-wants-to-charge-50-to-unlock-stuff-your-cpu-can-already-d/

  368. http://mikebeauchamp.com/misc/sennheiser-hd-555-to-hd-595-mod/

  369. https://old.reddit.com/r/Pets/comments/f4skp/ltheanine_a_natural_nutraceutical_my_vet_just/

  370. https://web.archive.org/web/20100312232315/http://www.nubrain.com/index.php?act=viewProd&productId=12

  371. #beta-phenylethylamine-pea

  372. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/an862/whos_had_experience_with_sulbutiamine/

  373. http://examine.com/supplements/Sulbutiamine/

  374. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/RE29oZchhDTmG5Kgp/intelligence-amplification-open-thread?commentId=DBw8r6PZDvm7utbzT

  375. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/Ge3EueY5kfogfbd7e/open-thread-august-2010-part-2?commentId=mATFiEWTLv2mA5s4Q

  376. http://examine.com/supplements/Taurine/

  377. 2004-franconi.pdf: “475445.qxd”, INTEGRA

  378. http://www.smartpowders.com/p-5356-taurine-powder-500-grams.aspx

  379. http://examine.com/topics/Testosterone/

  380. 2011-eisenegger.pdf

  381. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/uRg5Q2vAteDem5b5S/social-status-and-testosterone

  382. https://www.nytimes.com/2000/04/02/magazine/the-he-hormone.html?pagewanted=all

  383. http://andrewsullivan.thedailybeast.com/2011/09/the-subtlety-of-testosterone.html

  384. http://www.isteve.com/ManlyMolecule.htm

  385. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/oL3usa3bWHtLa4fGZ/not-insane-unsane?commentId=kPcXNmPBdpmDGz8oB

  386. http://examine.com/supplements/Theanine/

  387. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/NYPmCBfrDfXfhwBog/a-rationalist-s-guide-to-psychoactive-drugs

  388. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/dW9DTLZcScAPj98eR/coffee-when-it-helps-when-it-hurts1qiu

  389. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/hMv7JhPMN8SuSrk7m/open-thread-april-2010?commentId=TxnfzvHopCAxH9WPX

  390. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=theanine+anxiety

  391. 2010-einother.pdf: ⁠, Suzanne J. L. Einöther, Vanessa E. G. Martens, Jane A. Rycroft, Eveline A. De Bruin (2010-04-01; nootropic):

    Tea ingredients and have repeatedly been shown to deliver unique cognitive benefits when consumed in combination.

    The current randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study compared a combination of (97 mg) and caffeine (40 mg) to a placebo on 2 attention tasks and a self-report questionnaire before, and 10 and 60 min after consumption.

    The combination of l-theanine and caffeine statistically-significantly improved attention on a switch task as compared to the placebo, while subjective alertness and intersensory attention were not improved statistically-significantly.

    The results support previous evidence that l-theanine and caffeine in combination can improve attention.

  392. 2010-giesbrecht.pdf: “s5.pdf”

  393. 2008-owen.pdf

  394. http://www.scicompdf.se/cooldown/haskell_2008.pdf

  395. http://hydh.hbstl.org.cn/uploadfiles/T8W372ZE1300349825365.pdf

  396. http://www.smartpowders.com/p-5327-l-theanine-powder-20-grams.aspx

  397. https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0093UHQPA/

  398. http://trubrain.com/

  399. https://web.archive.org/web/20130813102756/http://johnback.us:80/blog/2013/08/06/cost-analysis-trubrain-proprietary-nootropic-blend-vs-generic-equivalent/

  400. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/1intcv/we_are_trubrainask_us_anything/cb6uod2

  401. #lions-mane-mushroom

  402. http://examine.com/supplements/L-Tyrosine/

  403. http://www.update-software.com/BCP/WileyPDF/EN/CD007470.pdf

  404. http://examine.com/supplements/Vitamin+D/

  405. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/11/26/us-vitamind-heartdisease-idUSTRE7AO1UM20111126

  406. http://bjo.bmj.com/content/93/8/997

  407. http://wiki.medpedia.com/Vitamin_D#Vitamin_D_and_caffeine

  408. https://web.archive.org/web/20130113015024/http://e2open.org/programmers-need-to-take-vitamin-d/

  409. https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=4524735

  410. http://www.livestrong.com/article/524690-what-effect-does-caffeine-have-on-vitamins/

  411. http://www.livestrong.com/article/510001-does-caffeine-deplete-vitamin-d-in-the-body/

  412. http://www.direct-ms.org/sites/default/files/Caffeine%20Vit%20D%20receptor%2007.pdf

  413. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/74/5/694.full

  414. 2002-rico.pdf

  415. 2006-tucker.pdf

  416. 2002-mikuls.pdf

  417. http://www.direct-ms.org/sites/default/files/RheumatoidArthritisReduc.pdf

  418. 1986-yeh.pdf

  419. 1998-feskanich.pdf

  420. http://www.nutritionj.com/content/pdf/1475-2891-11-56.pdf

  421. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2908269/#S3title

  422. 2013-li.pdf

  423. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/n/es108/pdf/

  424. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/n/erta183/pdf/

  425. http://www.direct-ms.org/sites/default/files/Autier%20Vit%20D%20and%20Mortality%2007.pdf

  426. 2014-bolland.pdf

  427. https://www.bmj.com/content/326/7387/469.full

  428. 1992-heikinheimo.pdf

  429. http://www.ajcn.org/content/69/5/842.full

  430. http://kaluefflab.com/pdfs/recommendedreading/Tuohimaa%282009%29.pdf

  431. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/92/4/841.full

  432. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/140/5/999.full

  433. 2012-amer.pdf

  434. ⁠, Melamed, Michal L. Michos, Erin D. Post, Wendy Astor, Brad (2008):

    Background: In patients undergoing dialysis, therapy with calcitriol or paricalcitol or other vitamin D agents is associated with reduced mortality. Observational data suggests that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25[OH]D) are associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cancers. However, whether low serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with mortality in the general population is unknown.

    Methods: We tested the association of low 25(OH)D levels with all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in 13 331 nationally representative adults 20 years or older from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) linked mortality files. Participant vitamin D levels were collected from 1988 through 1994, and individuals were passively followed for mortality through 2000.

    Results: In cross-sectional multivariate analyses, increasing age, female sex, nonwhite race/​​​​ethnicity, diabetes, current smoking, and higher were all independently associated with higher odds of 25(OH)D deficiency (lowest quartile of 25(OH)D level, <17.8 ng/​​​​mL [to convert to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 2.496]), while greater physical activity, vitamin D supplementation, and nonwinter season were inversely associated. During a median 8.7 years of follow-up, there were 1806 deaths, including 777 from CVD. In multivariate models (adjusted for baseline demographics, season, and traditional and novel CVD risk factors), compared with the highest quartile, being in the lowest quartile (25[OH]D levels <17.8 ng/​​​​mL) was associated with a 26% increased rate of all-cause mortality (mortality rate ratio, 1.26; 95% ⁠, 1.08-1.46) and a population attributable risk of 3.1%. The adjusted models of CVD and cancer mortality revealed a higher risk, which was not statistically-significant.

    Conclusion: The lowest quartile of 25(OH)D level (<17.8 ng/​​​​mL) is independently associated with all-cause mortality in the general population.

  435. https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/97/8/2644/2823270

  436. http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2009/jan2009_Millions-of-Needless-Deaths_01.htm

  437. Melatonin#fn44

  438. https://www.economist.com/node/9414607?story_id=9414607

  439. 2007-06-theeconomist-worldcocaineprices.jpg

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  445. http://www.smartpowders.com/p-5354-sulbutiamine-30-grams.aspx

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  459. https://old.reddit.com/r/QuantifiedSelf/comments/1mfn0a/trying_to_detect_modafinils_stimulant_effect/

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  461. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/2d0rme/lllt_initial_results/

  462. https://old.reddit.com/r/enhance/comments/2dd7r3/lllt_initial_results_gwern/

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