Music-distraction (Link Bibliography)

“Music-distraction” links:

  1. 2011-kampfe.pdf: ⁠, Juliane Kämpfe, Peter Sedlmeier, Frank Renkewitz (2010-11-08; music-distraction):

    Background music has been found to have beneficial, detrimental, or no effect on a variety of behavioral and psychological outcome measures.

    This article reports a that attempts to summarize the impact of background music. A global analysis shows a null effect, but a detailed examination of the studies that allow the calculation of effects sizes reveals that this null effect is most probably due to averaging out specific effects. In our analysis, the probability of detecting such specific effects was not very high as a result of the scarcity of studies that allowed the calculation of respective ⁠.

    Nonetheless, we could identify several such cases: a comparison of studies that examined background music compared to no music indicates that background music disturbs the reading process, has some small detrimental effects on memory, but has a positive impact on emotional reactions and improves achievements in sports. A comparison of different types of background music reveals that the tempo of the music influences the tempo of activities that are performed while being exposed to background music.

    It is suggested that effort should be made to develop more specific theories about the impact of background music and to increase the methodological quality of relevant studies.

    [Keywords: background music, effects of music, healthy adults, meta-analysis, methodological problems]

  2. 2006-spherion.pdf

  3. 2017-kirschner.pdf: “The myths of the digital native and the multitasker”⁠, Paul A. Kirschner, Pedro De Bruyckere

  4. http://bps-research-digest.blogspot.com/2012/08/music-we-like-is-more-distracting-than.html

  5. 2012-perham.pdf: ⁠, Nick Perham, Martinne Sykora (2012-01-12; music-distraction):

    Although liked music is known to improve performance through boosting one’s mood and arousal, both liked music and disliked music impair serial recall performance. Given that the key acoustical feature of this impairment is the acoustical variation, it is possible that some music may contain less acoustical variation and so produce less impairment. In this situation, unliked, unfamiliar music could be better for performance than liked, familiar music. This study tested this by asking participants to serially recall eight-item lists in either quiet, liked or disliked music conditions. Results showed that performance was statistically-significantly poorer in both music conditions compared with quiet. More importantly, performance in the liked music condition was statistically-significantly poorer than in the disliked music condition. These findings provide further illustration of the irrelevant sound effect and limitations of the impact of liked music on cognition.

  6. ⁠, Karageorghis, Costas I. Priest, David-Lee (2012):

    Since a 1997 review by Karageorghis and Terry, which highlighted the state of knowledge and methodological weaknesses, the number of studies investigating musical reactivity in relation to exercise has swelled considerably. In this two-part review paper, the development of conceptual approaches and mechanisms underlying the effects of music are explicated (Part I), followed by a critical review and synthesis of empirical work (spread over Parts I and II). Pre-task music has been shown to optimise arousal, facilitate task-relevant imagery and improve performance in simple motoric tasks. During repetitive, endurance-type activities, self-selected, motivational and stimulative music has been shown to enhance affect, reduce ratings of perceived exertion, improve energy efficiency and lead to increased work output. There is evidence to suggest that carefully selected music can promote ergogenic and psychological benefits during high-intensity exercise, although it appears to be ineffective in reducing perceptions of exertion beyond the anaerobic threshold. The effects of music appear to be at their most potent when it is used to accompany self-paced exercise or in externally valid conditions. When selected according to its motivational qualities, the positive impact of music on both psychological state and performance is magnified. Guidelines are provided for future research and exercise practitioners.

  7. ⁠, Karageorghis, Costas I. Priest, David-Lee (2012):

    Since a 1997 review by Karageorghis and Terry, which highlighted the state of knowledge and methodological weaknesses, the number of studies investigating musical reactivity in relation to exercise has swelled considerably. In this two-part review paper, the development of conceptual approaches and mechanisms underlying the effects of music are explicated (Part I), followed by a critical review and synthesis of empirical work (spread over Parts I and II). Pre-task music has been shown to optimise arousal, facilitate task-relevant imagery and improve performance in simple motoric tasks. During repetitive, endurance-type activities, self-selected, motivational and stimulative music has been shown to enhance affect, reduce ratings of perceived exertion, improve energy efficiency and lead to increased work output. There is evidence to suggest that carefully selected music can promote ergogenic and psychological benefits during high-intensity exercise, although it appears to be ineffective in reducing perceptions of exertion beyond the anaerobic threshold. The effects of music appear to be at their most potent when it is used to accompany self-paced exercise or in externally valid conditions. When selected according to its motivational qualities, the positive impact of music on both psychological state and performance is magnified. Guidelines are provided for future research and exercise practitioners.

  8. 1996-abikoff.pdf

  9. 1994-allen.pdf

  10. 2007-anderson.pdf

  11. 2015-bonin.pdf

  12. http://www.davidcenter.com/documents/Publications/Background%20music%20and%20task%20performance%20.pdf

  13. 1996-boyle.pdf

  14. 2013-brodsky.pdf: “Background music as a risk factor for distraction among young-novice drivers”⁠, Warren Brodsky, Zack Slor

  15. 2007-cassidy.pdf: ⁠, Gianna Cassidy, Raymond A. R. MacDonald (2007-07-01; music-distraction):

    The study investigated the effects of music with high arousal potential and negative affect (HA), music with low arousal potential and positive affect (LA), and everyday noise, on the cognitive task performance of introverts and extraverts. 40 participants completed 5 cognitive tasks: immediate recall, free recall, numerical and delayed recall, and Stroop. 10 participants completed each of these tasks in one of 4 sound conditions: HA, LA, everyday noise and silence. Participants were also assessed for levels of introversion/ extroversion, and reported their music/​​​​noise and study preferences. Performance was lessened across all cognitive tasks in the presence of background sound (music or noise) compared to silence. HA and LA music produced differential distraction effects, with performance of all tasks being poorer in the presence of HA compared to LA and silence, in the presence of noise than silence across all tasks, and in the presence of noise than LA in 3 of the 4 tasks. Performance was moderated by internal arousal, with introverts performing better overall on each task except the Stroop, and appearing to be more detrimentally affected by the presence of HA music and noise.

  16. http://scholar.utc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1312&context=theses

  17. 1969-davies.pdf

  18. 1973-davies.pdf

  19. http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/articles/1657/the-impact-of-listening-to-music-on-cognitive-performance

  20. 2012-doyle.pdf: “The distracting effects of music on the cognitive test performance of creative and non-creative individuals”⁠, Maddie Doyle, Adrian Furnham

  21. 1973-fogelson.pdf

  22. 1972-fox.pdf

  23. 1952-freeburne.pdf

  24. 1997-furnham.pdf

  25. 1999-furnham.pdf

  26. 1999-furnham-2.pdf

  27. 2002-furnham.pdf: ⁠, Adrian Furnham, Lisa Strbac (2002; music-distraction):

    Previous research has found that introverts’ performance on complex cognitive tasks is more negatively affected by distracters, e.g. music and background television, than by extraverts’ performance. This study extended previous research by examining whether background noise would be as distracting as music.

    In the presence of silence, background garage music and office noise, 38 introverts and 38 extraverts carried out a reading comprehension task, a prose recall task and a mental arithmetic task. It was predicted that there would be an interaction between personality and background sound on all 3 tasks: introverts would do less well on all of the tasks than extraverts in the presence of music and noise but in silence performance would be the same.

    A interaction was found on the reading comprehension task only, although a trend for this effect was clearly present on the other 2 tasks. It was also predicted that there would be a main effect for background sound: performance would be worse in the presence of music and noise than silence. Results confirmed this prediction.

    These findings support the Eysenckian hypothesis of the difference in optimum cortical arousal in introverts and extraverts.

    [Keywords: extraverts, introverts, background noise, music, arousal]

  28. ⁠, Eduardo A. Garza-Villarreal, Victor Pando, Peter Vuust, Christine Parsons (2017-02-02):

    Music is increasingly used as an adjuvant for chronic pain management as it is not invasive, inexpensive, and patients usually report positive experiences with it. However, little is known about its clinical efficacy in chronic pain patients. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated randomized (RCTs) of adult patients that reported any type of music intervention for chronic pain, chosen by the researcher or patient, lasting for any duration. Searches were performed using PsycINFO, Scopus and for RTCs published until the end of May 2016. The primary outcome was reduction in self-reported pain using a standardized pain measurement instrument reported post-intervention. The secondary outcomes were: quality of life measures, depression and anxiety measures, among others. The study was with PROSPERO (CRD42016039837) and the meta-analysis was done using RevMan. We identified 768 titles and abstracts, and we included 14 RTCs that fulfilled our criteria. The sample size of the studies varied between 25 and 200 participants. We found that music reduced chronic pain, and depression, with higher effect size on pain and depression. We also found music had a higher effect when the participant chose the music in contrast with researcher-chosen music. The sample size of RCTs was small and sometimes with different outcome measures. Our analysis suggests that music may be beneficial as an adjuvant for chronic pain patients, as it reduces self-reported pain and its common co-morbidities. Importantly, the analgesic effect of music appears higher with self-chosen over researcher-chosen music.

  29. 2019-gonzalez.pdf: “More than meets the ear: Investigating how music affects cognitive task performance”⁠, Manuel F. Gonzalez, John R. Aiello

  30. 2002-hallam.pdf

  31. 1945-henderson.pdf

  32. 2011-huang.pdf

  33. 1959-jerison.pdf

  34. 2010-judde.pdf: “The effect of post-learning presentation of music on long-term word-list retention”⁠, Sarah Judde, Nikki Rickard

  35. 2009-kantner.pdf

  36. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01683/full

  37. ⁠, Lake, Jessica I. Goldstein, Felicia C (2011):

    While the effect of listening to music on cognitive abilities is highly debated, studies reporting an enhancing effect of music in elderly populations appear to be more consistent. In this study, the effects of listening to music on attention in groups of cognitively normal older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment were considered. Participants were exposed to both a music and silence condition, and after each condition performed Digit Span and Coding tasks which require attention for maximal performance. The hypothesis that listening to music, compared to a silence condition, enhances performance was not supported for either group. Various explanations for these findings are considered.

  38. 2005-lesiuk.pdf

  39. 2013-li.pdf

  40. 1988-martin.pdf

  41. 1989-mayfield.pdf

  42. 2014-miller.pdf: “MASTER THESIS 5⁠, Cameron Miller

  43. 1948-mitchell.pdf

  44. 1990-morris.pdf

  45. 1973-mowsesian.pdf

  46. 2013-pachecounguetti.pdf

  47. 1976-parente.pdf

  48. ⁠, Vittoria Maria Patania, Johnny Padulo, Enzo Iuliano, Luca Paolo Ardigò, Dražen Čular, Alen Miletić, Andrea De Giorgio (2020-02-05):

    The use of music during training represents a special paradigm for trainers to stimulate people undertaking different types of exercise. However, the relationship between the tempo of music and perception of effort during different metabolic demands is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine whether high intensity exercise is more sensitive to the beneficial effects of music than endurance exercise. This study assessed 19 active women (age 26.4 ± 2.6 years) during endurance (walking for 10′ at 6.5 km/​​​​h on a treadmill) and high intensity (80% on 1-RM) exercise under four different randomly assigned conditions: no music (NM), with music at 90–110 bpm (LOW), with music at 130–150 bpm (MED), and with music at 170–190 bpm (HIGH). During each trial, heart rate (HR) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed. Repeated analysis of variance measures was used to detect any differences between the four conditions during high intensity and low intensity exercise. RPE showed more substantial changes during the endurance exercises (11%), than during high intensity exercise (6.5%), between HIGH and NM conditions. The metabolic demand during the walking exercise increased between NM and HIGH bpm conditions. This study indicates the benefits of music under stress conditions as well as during endurance and high intensity training. The results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of music are more likely to be seen in endurance exercise. Consequently, music may be considered an important tool to stimulate people engaging in low intensity physical exercise.

  49. 2014-perham.pdf

  50. 2003-pool.pdf: ⁠, Marina M. Pool, Cees M. Koolstra, Tom H. A. Van Der Voort (2003; music-distraction):

    An experiment was conducted to examine the impact of background soap operas on homework performance and time.

    Students in grade 8 (aged 14) (n = 192) did paper-and-pencil and memorization assignments with 2 types of soap opera episodes in the background, or the soundtrack of soap operas, or no medium. In each condition, half of the students were observed.

    Results: indicated that students in the television conditions performed worse and used more time than students in the control condition. No statistically-significant differences were found between the audio-only and control conditions.

    Observational data showed that the extension of time in the television conditions was completely due to the fact that students used time to look at the screen. Although the television did not reduce time spent looking at the task, performance did decrease, probably because the alternation of resources between homework and television led to less thorough processing of the assignments.

  51. 2001-ransdell.pdf

  52. 1989-salame.pdf

  53. 1947-super.pdf

  54. ⁠, Emma Threadgold, John E. Marsh, Neil McLatchie, Linden J. Ball (2019-02-02):

    Background music has been claimed to enhance people’s creativity. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of background music on performance of Compound Remote Associate Tasks (CRATs), which are widely thought to tap creativity. Background music with foreign (unfamiliar) lyrics (Experiment 1), instrumental music without lyrics (Experiment 2), and music with familiar lyrics (Experiment 3) all statistically-significantly impaired CRAT performance in comparison with quiet background conditions. Furthermore, Experiment 3 demonstrated that background music impaired CRAT performance regardless of whether the music induced a positive mood or whether participants typically studied in the presence of music. The findings challenge the view that background music enhances creativity and are discussed in terms of an auditory distraction account (interference-by-process) and the processing disfluency account.

  55. 1991-tucker.pdf

  56. http://ir.library.tohoku.ac.jp/re/bitstream/10097/54719/1/0040-8743-2005-64-68.pdf

  57. 1978-zimmer.pdf

  58. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/665048

  59. http://www.psytj.net/attachments/article/1305/2012.71.pdf

  60. https://files.ifi.uzh.ch/stiller/CLOSER%202014/CSEDU/CSEDU/Information%20Technologies%20Supporting%20Learning/Full%20Papers/CSEDU_2014_40_CR.pdf

  61. 2012-shih.pdf: “Background music: Effects on attention performance”⁠, Yi-Nuo Shih, Rong-Hwa Huang, Hsin-Yu Chiang

  62. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/6084963.pdf

  63. 2019-wu.pdf: “The effects of background music on the work attention performance between musicians and non-musicians”⁠, Chia-Chun Wu, Yi-Nuo Shih, Yi-Nuo Shih