Modafinil (Link Bibliography)

“Modafinil” links:

  1. http://www.nevapress.com/cnsdr/full/5/3/193.pdf

  2. http://www.smarternootropics.com/2012/01/cephalon-europe-discontinues-olmifon-adrafinil/

  3. https://slatestarcodex.com/2014/02/16/nootropics-survey-results-and-analysis/

  4. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/1eujst/my_modafinil_price_comparison_spreadsheet/ca42qks

  5. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/1eujst/my_modafinil_price_comparison_spreadsheet/ca48knj

  6. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/1eujst/my_modafinil_price_comparison_spreadsheet/ca4gy45

  7. https://web.archive.org/web/20091001221840/http://www.businessweek.com/investor/content/sep2009/pi20090928_251573.htm

  8. http://web.archive.org/web/20090417183624/http://www.askthesleepexperts.com/2007/02/19/is-it-safe-to-buy-modafinil-online/

  9. 1995-lagarde.pdf

  10. 1995-pigeau.pdf

  11. 2005-bonnet.pdf

  12. 2010-repantis.pdf

  13. 2013-bagot.pdf

  14. http://prdupl02.ynet.co.il/ForumFiles_2/15246312.pdf

  15. 2012-sugden.pdf: “SLA202494.dvi

  16. 2004-baranski.pdf

  17. 2009-phillips.pdf⁠, renee.lojewski

  18. 2005-hart.pdf

  19. http://pubget.com/paper/pgtmp_b4e79e3da60614d195183179dcfd470f

  20. 1998-stivalet.pdf

  21. 2002-wesensten.pdf: “260916.qxd”⁠, pm054

  22. 2004-wesensten.pdf

  23. 2005-wesensten.pdf

  24. http://www.journalsleep.org/Articles/290617.pdf

  25. http://stinet.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA365558&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf

  26. 2000-caldwell.pdf: “260450.qxd”⁠, pm025

  27. 2012-estrada.pdf: “asem3129.indd”

  28. https://www.pnas.org/content/93/24/14128.full.pdf

  29. 2003-chapotot.pdf

  30. #tolerance

  31. 2005-cahill.pdf: “template”⁠, Mike

  32. https://bigthink.com/videos/the-ethics-of-designer-brains-2

  33. http://ethics.emory.edu/people/Director.html

  34. 1999-batejat.pdf: ⁠, Denise M. Batéjat, Didier P. Lagarde (1999-05-01; modafinil):

    Disruptions in wake-sleep rhythms, particularly induced by sleep deprivation are limiting factors for military personnel in operations. The role of sleep and naps in the recovery of performance is generally accepted. Pharmacological aids, for example hypnotic or stimulant substances can also be effective countermeasures.

    Recently, a new stimulant compound, modafinil (MODIODAL) has also proven effective. Considering the excellent results obtained with napping and modafinil, we have studied the combined effect of these 2 countermeasures on psychomotor performance under conditions simulating an operational situation. Beneficial effects of a few hours’ nap on performance were confirmed. Consequently naps should be encouraged, even if limited and diurnal. Modafinil, which combines wakening and stimulating properties without any known side effects, was useful for longer periods of sleep deprivation and when there was no real possibility of sleep recovery. Modafinil did not prevent sleep if sleep opportunities were available.

    The combination of naps and modafinil demonstrated the best cognitive performance during sleep deprivation.

  35. ⁠, Shuman, Tristan Wood, Suzanne C. Anagnostaras, Stephan G (2009):

    Modafinil has been shown to promote wakefulness and some studies suggest the drug can improve cognitive function. Because of many similarities, the mechanism of action may be comparable to classical psychostimulants, although the exact mechanisms of modafinil’s actions in wakefulness and cognitive enhancement are unknown. The current study aims to further examine the effects of modafinil as a cognitive enhancer on hippocampus-dependent memory in mice. A high dose of modafinil (75 mg/​​​​kg ip) given before training improved acquisition on a Morris water maze. When given only before testing, modafinil did not affect water maze performance. We also examined modafinil (0.075 to 75 mg/​​​​kg) on Pavlovian fear conditioning. A low dose of pretraining modafinil (0.75 mg/​​​​kg) enhanced memory of contextual fear conditioning (tested off-drug 1 week later) whereas a high dose (75 mg/​​​​kg) disrupted memory. Pretraining modafinil did not affect cued conditioning at any dose tested, and immediate posttraining modafinil had no effect on either cued or contextual fear. These results suggest that modafinil’s effects of memory are more selective than amphetamine or cocaine and specific to hippocampus-dependent memory.

  36. ⁠, McElhiney, Martin Rabkin, Judith Van Gorp, Wilfred Rabkin, Richard (2010):

    Both mild cognitive impairment and fatigue are common among people with HIV/​​​​AIDS. This study examined the efficacy of modafinil for HIV+ patients who sought treatment for fatigue in a placebo-controlled double-blind 4-week trial. A battery of standard neuropsychological tests was administered at study entry and Week 4, and change in performance was compared for 59 patients receiving modafinil versus 44 patients receiving placebo. A statistically-significant effect on fatigue was observed. In addition, cognitive performance, as measured by a global change score, improved more in the modafinil than in the placebo group although the effect was not specific to any cognitive domain.

  37. 2004-randall.pdf

  38. 2004-mueller.pdf: “untitled”

  39. 2006-wesensten.pdf: ⁠, Nancy J. Wesensten (2006-07-01; modafinil):

    The performance-sustaining and alertness-sustaining/​​​​restoring effects of modafinil during sleep deprivation in normal, healthy adults were reviewed.

    Results: indicate that modafinil is efficacious for sustaining/​​​​restoring objective performance and alertness during sleep deprivation with few adverse effects. At appropriate dosages, modafinil restores performance and alertness to non-sleep deprived levels. Modafinil also impairs post-sleep deprivation recovery sleep, but from the few studies available addressing this issue, it is unclear whether these sleep impairments translate into post-sleep performance impairments.

    Further research is needed to determine whether modafinil restores performance on simple cognitive tasks only or whether modafinil additionally restores (e.g., abstract thought, critical reasoning, planning, decision-making, situational awareness, and effective judgment) which are critical in most modern operational settings. In addition, studies are needed to determine whether modafinil use during sleep deprivation is preferable to that of other available controlled stimulants (such as dextroamphetamine) or non-controlled stimulants (such as caffeine).

    Such studies would be comprised of direct, head-to-head comparisons among various stimulants across a range of dosages.

    [Keywords: stimulants, alertness, executive function, modafinil, reaction time, sleep deprivation]

  40. 2012-geng.pdf

  41. ⁠, Roberto Esposito, Franco Cilli, Valentina Pieramico, Antonio Ferretti, Antonella Macchia, Marco Tommasi, Aristide Saggino, Domenico Ciavardelli, Antonietta Manna, Riccardo Navarra, Filippo Cieri, Liborio Stuppia, Armando Tartaro, Stefano L. Sensi (2013-06-05):

    Background:

    There is growing debate on the use of drugs that promote cognitive enhancement. Amphetamine-like drugs have been employed as cognitive enhancers, but they show important side effects and induce addiction. In this study, we investigated the use of modafinil which appears to have less side effects compared to other amphetamine-like drugs. We analyzed effects on cognitive performances and brain resting state network activity of 26 healthy young subjects.

    Methodology:

    A single dose (100 mg) of modafinil was administered in a double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Both groups were tested for neuropsychological performances with the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices II set (APM) before and three hours after administration of drug or placebo. Resting state functional magnetic resonance (rs-FMRI) was also used, before and after three hours, to investigate changes in the activity of resting state brain networks. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was employed to evaluate differences in structural connectivity between the two groups. Protocol ID: Modrest_2011; NCT01684306; http:    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​clinicaltrials.gov    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​ct2    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​show    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​NCT01684306⁠.

    Principal Findings:

    Results indicate that a single dose of modafinil improves cognitive performance as assessed by APM. Rs-fMRI showed that the drug produces a increased activation of Frontal Parietal Control (FPC; p < 0.04) and Dorsal Attention (DAN; p < 0.04) networks. No modifications in structural connectivity were observed.

    Conclusions and Significance:

    Overall, our findings support the notion that modafinil has cognitive enhancing properties and provide functional connectivity data to support these effects.

    Trial Registration:

    ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01684306 http:    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​clinicaltrials.gov    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​ct2    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​show    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​NCT01684306⁠.

  42. https://www.erowid.org/references/refs_view.php?A=ShowDocPartFrame&ID=6624&DocPartID=6148

  43. http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/25909789/1430612787/name/Meth+Article_2011.pdf

  44. ⁠, Roberto Esposito, Franco Cilli, Valentina Pieramico, Antonio Ferretti, Antonella Macchia, Marco Tommasi, Aristide Saggino, Domenico Ciavardelli, Antonietta Manna, Riccardo Navarra, Filippo Cieri, Liborio Stuppia, Armando Tartaro, Stefano L. Sensi (2013-06-05):

    Background:

    There is growing debate on the use of drugs that promote cognitive enhancement. Amphetamine-like drugs have been employed as cognitive enhancers, but they show important side effects and induce addiction. In this study, we investigated the use of modafinil which appears to have less side effects compared to other amphetamine-like drugs. We analyzed effects on cognitive performances and brain resting state network activity of 26 healthy young subjects.

    Methodology:

    A single dose (100 mg) of modafinil was administered in a double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Both groups were tested for neuropsychological performances with the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices II set (APM) before and three hours after administration of drug or placebo. Resting state functional magnetic resonance (rs-FMRI) was also used, before and after three hours, to investigate changes in the activity of resting state brain networks. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was employed to evaluate differences in structural connectivity between the two groups. Protocol ID: Modrest_2011; NCT01684306; http:    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​clinicaltrials.gov    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​ct2    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​show    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​NCT01684306⁠.

    Principal Findings:

    Results indicate that a single dose of modafinil improves cognitive performance as assessed by APM. Rs-fMRI showed that the drug produces a statistically-significant increased activation of Frontal Parietal Control (FPC; p < 0.04) and Dorsal Attention (DAN; p < 0.04) networks. No modifications in structural connectivity were observed.

    Conclusions and Significance:

    Overall, our findings support the notion that modafinil has cognitive enhancing properties and provide functional connectivity data to support these effects.

    Trial Registration:

    ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01684306 http:    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​clinicaltrials.gov    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​ct2    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​show    /​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​NCT01684306⁠.

  45. 2012-mueller.pdf: “Effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognition, task enjoyment and creative thinking in healthy volunteers”⁠, U. MUller, J. B. Rowe, T. Rittman, C. Lewis, T. W. Robbins, B. J. Sahakian, J. B. Rowe, T. Rittman, C. Lewis, T. W. Robbins, B. J. Sahakian

  46. ⁠, J. Lynn Caldwell, Valarie M. Schroeder, Christina L. Kunkle, Henry G. Stephenson (2020-09):

    Highlights:

    • Some people are more vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss than others.
    • Modafinil (200mg) administered to 22 men over 36 hours of continuous wakefulness.
    • Modafinil did not help the best performers compared to their performance with placebo.
    • The worst performers statistically-significantly improved after receiving modafinil compared to placebo.

    Background: Individual responses to the effects of inadequate sleep have been well documented; some people are more vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss than others. Fatigue-vulnerable individuals generally require access to effective fatigue countermeasures; however, the question arises as to whether these fatigue-vulnerable individuals receive the same benefits shown in group efficacy data. The present study administered modafinil to individuals to determine its differential effects on performance of best and worst performers during sleep deprivation.

    Methods: A sample of 22 men, age 21–40 yrs., was tested on 2 separate occasions during which they were kept awake for 36 h. During one period they received 200 mg modafinil; during the other they received placebo. Participants were tested on a variety of tasks while rested and at 5-hr intervals across the continuous wakefulness period. Performance for each cognitive task and subjective measure of fatigue from the placebo period was used to group individuals into high (HP) or low performance (LP) groups to indicate fatigue vulnerability for each task.

    Results: Results indicated that on the MTS task, the HP group performed the same throughout the testing period, regardless of whether they received modafinil or not. However, the LP group statistically-significantly improved after receiving modafinil compared to placebo. Performance on the PVT showed the HP group had a small decrease in the number of lapses after receiving modafinil compared to placebo, whereas the LP group had a large decrease in lapses after receiving modafinil compared to placebo. Performance on the RDM showed no difference between groups, regardless of drug condition. Groups did not differ after receiving modafinil on subjective fatigue measured by the POMS.

    Conclusions: Depending on the task, HP individuals did not benefit substantially when administered modafinil compared to placebo. However, the LP individuals improved after receiving modafinil compared to placebo.

    [Keywords: Individual differences, Modafinil, Sleep deprivation]

  47. 2003-turner.pdf

  48. 2013-schmaal.pdf: “Effects of Modafinil on Neural Correlates of Response Inhibition in Alcohol-Dependent Patients”⁠, Lianne Schmaal, Leen Joos, Marte Koeleman, Dick J. Veltman, Wim van den Brink, Anna E. Goudriaan

  49. 2012-kelley.pdf: “asem3212.indd”

  50. 2015-battleday.pdf

  51. 2019-kredlow.pdf: ⁠, M. Alexandra Kredlow, Ani Keshishian, Sarah Oppenheimer, Michael W. Otto (2019-08-19; modafinil):

    Background: Animal models and human studies have identified the potential of modafinil as a cognitive enhancing agent, independent of its effects on promoting wakefulness in sleep-deprived samples. Given that single-dose applications of other putative memory enhancers (eg, D-cycloserine, yohimbine, and methylene blue) have shown success in enhancing clinical outcomes for anxiety-related disorders, we conducted a meta-analytic review examining the potential for single-dose effects for modafinil on cognitive functioning in non-sleep-deprived adults.

    Methods: A total of 19 placebo- that examined the effects of single-dose modafinil versus placebo on the cognitive domains of attention, executive functioning, memory, or processing speed were identified, allowing for the calculation of 67 cognitive domain-specific ⁠.

    Results: The overall positive effect of modafinil over placebo across all cognitive domains was small and statistically-significant (g = 0.10; 95% ⁠, 0.05–0.15; p < 0.001). No statistically-significant differences between cognitive domains were found. Likewise, no statistically-significant moderation was found for modafinil dose (100 mg vs 200 mg) or for the populations studied (psychiatric vs nonpsychiatric).

    Conclusions: In conclusion, the available evidence indicates only limited potential for modafinil to act as a cognitive enhancer outside sleep-deprived populations.

  52. 2020-roberts.pdf: ⁠, Carl A. Roberts, Andrew Jones, Harry Sumnall, Suzanne H. Gage, Catharine Montgomery (2020-07-21; modafinil):

    Modafinil, methylphenidate (MPH) and d-amphetamine (d-amph) are putative cognitive enhancers. However, efficacy of cognitive enhancement has yet to be fully established. We examined cognitive performance in healthy non-sleep-deprived adults following modafinil, MPH, or d-amph vs placebo in 3 meta-analyses, using subgroup analysis by cognitive domain; executive functions (updating, switching, inhibitory control, access to semantic/​​​​long term memory), spatial ⁠, recall, selective attention, and sustained attention. We adhered to PRISMA. We identified k = 47 studies for analysis; k = 14 studies (64 effect sizes) for modafinil, k = 24 studies (47 effect sizes) for Methylphenidate, and k = 10 (27 effect sizes) for d-amph. There was an overall effect of modafinil (SMD = 0.12, p = 0.01). Modafinil improved memory updating (SMD = 0.28, p = 0.03). There was an overall effect of MPH (SMD = 0.21, p = 0.0004) driven by improvements in recall (SMD = 0.43, p = 0.0002), sustained attention (SMD = 0.42, p = 0.0004), and inhibitory control (SMD = 0.27, p = 0.03). There were no effects for d-amph. MPH and modafinil show enhancing effects in specific sub-domains of cognition. However, data with these stimulants is far from positive if we consider that effects are small, in experiments that do not accurately reflect their actual use in the wider population. There is a user perception that these drugs are effective cognitive enhancers, but this is not supported by the evidence so far.

  53. 2003-randall.pdf

  54. 2004-becker.pdf

  55. 2002-macdonald.pdf

  56. 2007-taneja.pdf

  57. 2006-vaishnavi.pdf

  58. 2013-goss.pdf

  59. http://www.pharma.uzh.ch/research/chronobiology/areas/psychopharmacology/publications/Bodenmann_2009_ClinPharmacolTher85.pdf

  60. ⁠, Bodenmann, Sereina Landolt, Hans-Peter (2010):

    Study Objectives: Modafinil may promote wakefulness by increasing cerebral dopaminergic neurotransmission, which importantly depends on activity of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in prefrontal cortex. The effects of modafinil on sleep homeostasis in humans are unknown. Employing a novel sleep-pharmacogenetic approach, we investigated the interaction of modafinil with sleep deprivation to study dopaminergic mechanisms of sleep homeostasis.

    Design: Placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized crossover study.

    Setting: Sleep laboratory in temporal isolation unit.

    Participants: 22 healthy young men (23.4 ± 0.5 years) prospectively enrolled based on genotype of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of COMT(10 Val/​​​​Val and 12 Met/​​​​Met homozygotes).

    Interventions: 2 x 100 mg modafinil and placebo administered at 11 and 23 hours during 40 hours prolonged wakefulness.

    Measurements and Results: Subjective sleepiness and EEG markers of sleep homeostasis in wakefulness and sleep were equally affected by sleep deprivation in Val/​​​​Val and Met/​​​​Met allele carriers (placebo condition). Modafinil attenuated the evolution of sleepiness and EEG 5–8 Hz activity during sleep deprivation in both genotypes. In contrast to ⁠, modafinil did not reduce EEG slow wave activity (0.75-4.5 Hz) in recovery sleep, yet specifically increased 3.0-6.75 Hz and > 16.75 Hz activity in NREM sleep in the Val/​​​​Val genotype of COMT.

    Conclusions: The Val158Met polymorphism of COMT modulates the effects of modafinil on the NREM sleep EEG in recovery sleep after prolonged wakefulness. The sleep EEG changes induced by modafinil markedly differ from those of caffeine, showing that pharmacological interference with dopaminergic and adenosinergic neurotransmission during sleep deprivation differently affects sleep homeostasis.

  61. http://www.snpedia.com/index.php/Rs4680

  62. https://old.reddit.com/r/afinil/comments/2aytup/your_genes_and_modafinil/ck775xu

  63. https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=1525334

  64. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/16mgh2/how_you_can_tell_if_youll_respond_to_modafinil/c7xgzwm

  65. https://old.reddit.com/r/afinil/comments/22k76c/im_metmet_at_rs4680_for_the_comt_gene_and/

  66. https://old.reddit.com/r/afinil/comments/38smx5/modafinil_and_rs4680_snp_if_you_have_genome_data/

  67. 2011-ioannidis.pdf

  68. ⁠, Chabris, Christopher F. Hebert, Benjamin M. Benjamin, Daniel J. Beauchamp, Jonathan Cesarini, David van der Loos, Matthijs Johannesson, Magnus Magnusson, Patrik K. E Lichtenstein, Paul Atwood, Craig S. Freese, Jeremy Hauser, Taissa S. Hauser, Robert M. Christakis, Nicholas Laibson, David (2012):

    General intelligence (g) and virtually all other behavioral traits are heritable. Associations between g and specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several candidate genes involved in brain function have been reported. We sought to replicate published associations between g and 12 specific genetic variants (in the genes DTNBP1, CTSD, DRD2, ANKK1, CHRM2, SSADH, COMT, BDNF, CHRNA4, DISC1, APOE, and SNAP25) using data sets from three independent, well-characterized longitudinal studies with samples of 5,571, 1,759, and 2,441 individuals. Of 32 independent tests across all three data sets, only 1 was nominally statistically-significant. By contrast, power analyses showed that we should have expected 10 to 15 statistically-significant associations, given reasonable assumptions for genotype effect sizes. For positive controls, we confirmed accepted genetic associations for Alzheimer’s disease and ⁠, and we used SNP-based calculations of genetic relatedness to replicate previous estimates that about half of the in g is accounted for by common genetic variation among individuals. We conclude that the molecular genetics of psychology and social science requires approaches that go beyond the examination of candidate genes.

  69. Replication

  70. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=modafinil+Rs4680&as_sdt=20000005&sciodt=0%2C21&cites=6102047214006674202&scipsc=1

  71. https://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/26/business/advisory-panel-endorses-more-uses-for-stimulant.html?pagewanted=all

  72. https://www.erowid.org/smarts/modafinil/modafinil_interactions.shtml

  73. https://www.erowid.org/references/texts/show/6336docid5904

  74. 2003-wang.pdf: ⁠, Jun-Sheng Wang, C. Lindsay DeVane (2003-06-01; biology):

    To clarify the oxidative metabolism of methadone (R)- and (S)-enantiomers, the depletion of parent (R)- and (S)-methadone and the formation of racemic 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphe-nylpyrolidine were studied using human liver microsomes and recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes. Based on studies with isoform-selective chemical inhibitors and expressed enzymes, CYP3A4 was the predominant enzyme involved in the metabolism of (R)-methadone. However, it has different stereoselectivity toward (R)- and (S)-methadone. In recombinant CYP3A4, the metabolic clearance of (R)-methadone was about 4-fold higher than that of (S)-methadone. CYP2C8 is also involved in the metabolism of methadone, but its contribution to the metabolism of (R)-methadone was smaller than that of CYP3A4. But for the metabolism of (S)-methadone, the roles of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 appeared equal. Although CYP2D6 is involved in the metabolism of (R)- and (S)-methadone, its role was smaller compared with CYP3A4 and CYP2C8. Using clinically relevant concentrations of ketoconazole (1 μM, selective CYP3A4 inhibitor), trimethoprim (100 μM, selective CYP2C8 inhibitor), and paroxetine (5 μM, potent CYP2D6 inhibitor), these inhibitors decreased the hepatic metabolism of (R)-[(S)-]methadone by 69% (47%), 22% (51%), and 41% (77%), respectively. However, inhibition of the metabolism of (R)- and (S)-methadone by paroxetine was due to inhibition not only of CYP2D6, but also CYP3A4 and, to a minor extent, CYP2C8. The present in vitro findings indicated that CYP3A4, CYP2C8, and CYP2D6 are all involved in the stereoselective metabolism of methadone (R)- and (S)-enantiomers. These data suggest that coadministration of inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 may produce clinically-significant drug-drug interactions with methadone.

  75. https://www.erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=34028

  76. 2004-makris.pdf

  77. https://ask.metafilter.com/47324/How-well-does-Modafinil-work#720855

  78. https://ask.metafilter.com/47324/How-well-does-Modafinil-work#1072382

  79. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/jafuo/my_urine_doesnt_smell_on_modafinil_anyone_else/

  80. 2008-minzenberg.pdf

  81. http://chronopause.com/chronopause.com/index.php/2011/08/12/interventive-gerontology-101-01-the-basics/index.html

  82. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a602016.html#side-effects

  83. https://fis.fda.gov/sense/app/d10be6bb-494e-4cd2-82e4-0135608ddc13/sheet/45beeb74-30ab-46be-8267-5756582633b4/state/analysis

  84. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm363041.htm

  85. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/UCM154835.pdf

  86. http://pro.psychcentral.com/sparlon-and-adhd-the-power-of-a-7-year-old/002889.html

  87. http://www.provigil.com/media/PDFs/prescribing_info.pdf

  88. http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/07/briefing/2007-4325b_04_05_Modafinil%20Adverse%20Event%20Review.pdf

  89. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/DrugSafetyNewsletter/ucm115974.htm#ModafinilmarketedasProvigil:SeriousSkinReactions

  90. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/1or4vo/friend_got_stevenjohnson_syndrome_due_to_modafinil/

  91. http://hstlj.org/articles/provigil-a-case-study-of-anticompetitive-behavior/

  92. 2008-norman.pdf

  93. 2004-jama.pdf

  94. http://www.drugs.com/stats/provigil

  95. http://www.crazymeds.us/CrazyTalk/index.php?/topic/11439-what-do-provigilnuvigil-cost-out-of-pocket/

  96. http://www.hdlf.org/phorum/read.php?5,78327,78328

  97. ⁠, Steven Holfinger, Asim Roy, Markus Schmidt (2018-05-15):

    We present the case of a 21-year-old woman in whom Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) developed after initiation of armodafinil. Although this rare and life-threatening reaction is listed on armodafinil’s label, no cases have been reported in the literature. This case, in addition to an update of the drug’s label after post-marketing research, both support the link between armodafinil and SJS. Providers should maintain a high clinical suspicion for SJS when starting therapy to minimize associated morbidity and mortality by discontinuing armodafinil at the onset of first symptoms.

  98. 2020-kandasamy.pdf: ⁠, Rohan Oliver Kandasamy, Viktorija Kaminskaite (2020-07-05; modafinil):

    Modafinil is a non-amphetamine stimulant that is prescribed for narcolepsy-associated sleepiness as well as reported off-licence uses among university students looking to improve wakefulness and focus. There is limited information in the medical literature about supratherapeutic modafinil dosage, symptomatology and management of overdose. We report a case of a healthy 32-year-old man who was found unconscious, having vomited, with an empty modafinil blister strip. At the emergency department, he presented with reduced Glasgow Coma Scale and prolonged episodes of vomiting. This acute presentation was conservatively managed in the intensive care unit. Antibiotics were also given for a suspected aspiration pneumonia. CT of the head showed cerebral oedema and biochemistry investigations revealed hyponatraemia. Result aetiology was unclear, however, it has been theorised to be secondary to a sizeable modafinil overdose.

  99. #discount-rate-applications-swapping-time-for-time

  100. https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=5477934

  101. https://web.archive.org/web/20140516141910/http://guswatson.com/modafinil.html

  102. Drug-heuristics

  103. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/1coemc/modafinil_tolerance_possible_modes_of_action/

  104. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/04/27/brain-gain?currentPage=5

  105. https://predictionbook.com/predictions/4051

  106. 2005-vorspan.pdf

  107. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleID=96732

  108. http://www.pediatricsdigest.mobi/content/116/6/e777.full

  109. 1988-bastuji.pdf

  110. 1991-lyons.pdf

  111. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.6.970-a

  112. http://jnnp.bmj.com/content/72/2/179.full

  113. 2006-nasr.pdf

  114. http://www.sleep-journal.com/article/S1389-9457%2800%2900031-9/abstract

  115. 2002-deroche-gamonet.pdf: “261080.qxd”⁠, macftz01

  116. 2012-shuman.pdf: “Interactions between modafinil and cocaine during the induction of conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization in mice: Implications for addiction”⁠, Tristan Shuman, Denise J. Cai, Jennifer R. Sage, Stephan G. Anagnostaras

  117. 2013-quisenberry.pdf

  118. 2013-heal.pdf: “A preclinical evaluation of the discriminative and reinforcing properties of lisdexamfetamine in comparison to d-amfetamine, methylphenidate and modafinil”⁠, David J. Heal, Niki W. Buckley, Jane Gosden, Nigel Slater, Charles P. France, David Hackett

  119. 1995-gold.pdf

  120. 2020-mereu.pdf: ⁠, Maddalena Mereu, Takato Hiranita, Chloe J. Jordan, Lauren E. Chun, Jessica P. Lopez, Mark A. Coggiano, Juliana C. Quarterman, Guo-Hua Bi, Jacqueline D. Keighron, Zheng-Xiong Xi, Amy Hauck Newman, Jonathan L. Katz, Gianluigi Tanda (2020-04-27; modafinil):

    Modafinil and methylphenidate are medications that inhibit the neuronal reuptake of dopamine, a mechanism shared with cocaine. Their use as “smart drugs” by healthy subjects poses health concerns and requires investigation. We show that methylphenidate, but not modafinil, maintained intravenous self-administration in Sprague-Dawley rats similar to cocaine. Both modafinil and methylphenidate pretreatments potentiated cocaine self-administration. Cocaine, at self-administered doses, stimulated mesolimbic dopamine levels. This effect was potentiated by methylphenidate, but not by modafinil pretreatments, indicating dopamine-dependent actions for methylphenidate, but not modafinil. Modafinil is known to facilitate electrotonic neuronal coupling by actions on gap junctions. Carbenoxolone, a gap junction inhibitor, antagonized modafinil, but not methylphenidate potentiation of cocaine self-administration. Our results indicate that modafinil shares mechanisms with cocaine and methylphenidate but has a unique pharmacological profile that includes facilitation of electrotonic coupling and lower abuse liability, which may be exploited in future therapeutic drug design for cocaine use disorder.

  121. 2021-haney.pdf: ⁠, Margaret Haney, Eric Rubin, Rebecca K. Denson, Richard W. Foltin (2021-04; modafinil):

    • Modafinil has had mixed efficacy for treating cocaine use disorder.
    • This study tested modafinil’s effects on cocaine self-administration under a range of conditions.
    • Modafinil robustly reduced self-administration when cocaine was costly and no cocaine was ‘on board.’
    • Modafinil had little effect if cocaine was recently used or could be self-administered at low cost.
    • Modafinil may be most effective for preventing relapse rather than initiating abstinence.

    Background: The absence of an FDA-approved medication for the treatment of cocaine use disorder (CUD) may, in part, reflect the varying conditions present when the decision to use cocaine is made, with one medication unlikely to work under all conditions. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study was to test the effects of modafinil, a medication with mixed efficacy for the treatment of CUD, using a novel self-administration procedure designed to model distinct clinical scenarios.

    Methods: During modafinil maintenance (0, 300 mg/​​​​day), participants chose to self-administer up to 7 doses of smoked cocaine (25 mg) under 9 conditions: immediately after exposure to: (a) cues associated with cocaine and a non-contingent cocaine administration, ie. ‘prime’ (25 mg), (b) only cocaine cues, and (c) neither cues nor cocaine. Each condition was tested when self-administered cocaine cost $5, $10 and $15/​​​​dose.

    Results: Nontreatment-seeking cocaine smokers (3 F,13 M), spending $388 ± $218/​​​​week on cocaine and with no history of alcohol use disorder, completed the study. Relative to placebo, modafinil robustly attenuated self-administration when cocaine was expensive ($10 or $15/​​​​dose) and when there was no ‘prime.’ Modafinil had no effect on self-administration when cocaine was inexpensive ($5/​​​​dose) or when participants received a ‘prime.’

    Conclusions: Modafinil’s effects on cocaine-taking varied substantially as a function of recent cocaine exposure and cost, which may help explain the mixed clinical findings. Modafinil may be most effective for preventing relapse in abstinent patients, particularly under conditions in which cocaine is costly, rather than initiating abstinence for those continuing to use cocaine.

    [Keywords: cocaine use disorder, smoked cocaine, modafinil self-administration, relapse prevention, medications development]

  122. 2000-jasinski.pdf: ⁠, Donald R. Jasinski (2000-01-01; modafinil):

    Modafinil is a unique wake-promoting agent. Preclinical studies indicate a mechanism of action which is distinct from that of amphetamine or methylphenidate. To compare the pharmacodynamic profiles of modafinil, methylphenidate, and placebo in humans, a double-blind Latin square crossover study was conducted in 24 male volunteers with a history of polysubstance abuse that included the stimulant cocaine. Each subject was given single oral doses of methylphenidate (45 mg or 90 mg), modafinil (200 mg, 400 mg or 800 mg) and placebo. Measures of subjective, behavioural, and physiological responses were evaluated at fixed intervals during 72h after each dosing occasion. Subjects discriminated both modafinil and methylphenidate from placebo. Subjects liked the effects of both drugs. However, modafinil differed from methylphenidate in its lack of a statistically-significant response on the Amphetamine Scale of the Addiction Research Center Inventory. The profile of physiological effects for modafinil differed from methylphenidate in that it showed greater inhibition of observed and reported sleep, less facilitation of orthostatic tachycardia and less reduction of caloric intake. These findings are consistent with preclinical pharmacological data suggesting that modafinil is not an amphetamine-like agent.

  123. 1993-warot.pdf

  124. 1988-chait.pdf

  125. http://www.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fneur.2013.00139/full

  126. 2002-rush.pdf

  127. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22310006

  128. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583757/

  129. 2015-mete.pdf: “Compulsive modafinil use in a patient with a history of alcohol use disorder”⁠, Melek Cengiz Mete, Ömer Şenormancı, Özge Saraçlı, Nuray Atasoy, Levent Atik

  130. ⁠, Raman Krishnan, Krishnan Vengadaragava Chary (2015-01):

    Modafinil, a non-amphetamine psychostimulant, is indicated for narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder and severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Modafinil is prescribed at the dose of 100 mg once in a day or as two doses, 12 h apart in a day. It has also been found that it reduces cocaine dependence and withdrawal phenomenon. Modafinil is claimed to have very low liability for abuse and dependence. Here we report a rare case of modafinil dependence.

    [Keywords: Drug dependence, modafinil, psychostimulant]

    …During follow-up, the patient complained of episodes of depressed mood, anxiety and sleep disturbance, lethargy and sleepiness that affected his shift work, for which he was prescribed modafinil 200 mg, along with the antipsychotics Risperidone 4 mg and Amisulpride 400 mg. The patient himself gradually increased the dose to overcome the drowsiness that interrupted his shift work. He started with 100 mg every 3–4 h over a shift work of 12 h. For the last 6 months he was unable to overcome his sleepiness during work without modafinil 100 mg/​​​​h thus making a total of 1200 mg/​​​​day of modafinil which he used to obtain over the counter. He claimed to have symptoms of worsening of lethargy, tremors of hands, anxiety and erratic sleep hours when he skipped modafinil, patient reported a sense of well-being only with the drug and with the above dose…The dose was tapered slowly over a period of 1 month with 100 mg every 2–3 days and started on bupropion. He reported sleep disturbance, increased sense of body warmth, lethargy and low mood during the process of tapering the drug. Low dose of clonazepam was added to reduce the withdrawal symptoms. Patient reported substantial improvement in his sleep pattern. His dysphoric mood and lethargy improved and his level of anhedonia and amotivation decreased.

  131. http://www.psychiatryinvestigation.org/journal/view.php?number=865

  132. http://www.sleep-journal.com/article/S1389-9457%2802%2900240-X/abstract

  133. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=183580

  134. 1994-mignot.pdf

  135. 1995-simon.pdf

  136. 1994-desereville.pdf

  137. 1994-simon.pdf

  138. 1990-duteil.pdf

  139. ⁠, Lin, J. S Hou, Y. Jouvet, M (1996):

    Much experimental and clinical data suggest that the pharmacological profile of modafinil, a newly discovered waking substance, differs from those of amphetamine and methylphenidate, two classical psychostimulants. The brain targets on which modafinil acts to induce wakefulness, however, remain unknown.

    A double-blind study using the protooncogene c-fos as experimental marker in the was, therefore, carried out to identify the potential target neurons of modafinil and compare them with those for amphetamine and methylphenidate. Cats were sacrificed after a single oral administration of amphetamine, methylphenidate, or modafinil at equivalent doses for wake induction (1, 2.5, or 5 mg/​​​​kg, respectively) and brain sections examined for Fos by immunocytochemistry.

    Administration of either amphetamine or methylphenidate evoked Fos-like immunoreactivity in a large number of neurons in the striatum and whole cortex, especially in the caudate nucleus and mediofrontal cortex, which are known to be dopaminergic targets. In contrast, administration of modafinil resulted in the labeling of few cells in these structures, but did induce marked Fos labeling in neurons of the anterior hypothalamic nucleus and adjacent areas.

    These results provide evidence for the potential brain targets of modafinil, which differ from those of amphetamine or methylphenidate, and suggest that modafinil induces wakefulness by mechanisms distinct from those of the two stimulants.

    [Keywords: immediate-early gene, protooncogene, anterior hypothalamic nucleus, striatum, dopaminergic system]

  140. https://scienceblogs.com/corpuscallosum/2009/03/18/effect-of-modafinil-on-dopamin/

  141. ⁠, Kyle C. Schmitt, Maarten E. A. Reith (2011-09-11):

    Modafinil is a mild psychostimulant with pro-cognitive and antidepressant effects. Unlike many conventional stimulants, modafinil has little appreciable potential for abuse, making it a promising therapeutic agent for cocaine addiction. The chief molecular target of modafinil is the dopamine transporter (DAT); however, the mechanistic details underlying modafinil’s unique effects remain unknown. Recent studies suggest that the conformational effects of a given DAT ligand influence the magnitude of the ligand’s reinforcing properties. For example, the atypical DAT inhibitors benztropine and GBR12909 do not share cocaine’s notorious addictive liability, despite having greater binding affinity.

    Here, we show that the binding mechanism of modafinil is different than cocaine and similar to other atypical inhibitors. We previously established two mutations (W84L and D313N) that increase the likelihood that the DAT will adopt an outward-facing conformational state—these mutations increase the affinity of cocaine-like inhibitors considerably, but have little or opposite effect on atypical inhibitor binding. Thus, a compound’s WT/​​​​mutant affinity ratio can indicate whether the compound preferentially interacts with a more outward-facing or inward-facing conformational state.

    Modafinil displayed affinity ratios similar to those of benztropine, GBR12909 and bupropion (which lack cocaine-like effects in humans), but far different than those of cocaine, β-CFT or methylphenidate. Whereas treatment with zinc (known to stabilize an outward-facing transporter state) increased the affinity of cocaine and methylphenidate two-fold, it had little or no effect on the binding of modafinil, benztropine, bupropion or GBR12909. Additionally, computational modeling of inhibitor binding indicated that while β-CFT and methylphenidate stabilize an “open-to-out” conformation, binding of either modafinil or bupropion gives rise to a more closed conformation.

    Our findings highlight a mechanistic difference between modafinil and cocaine-like stimulants and further demonstrate that the conformational effects of a given DAT inhibitor influence its phenomenological effects.

  142. http://www.justice.gov/dea/druginfo/ftp3.shtml

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  169. http://gazette.com/air-force-academy-cadet-sentenced-for-dealing-drugs/article/1562468

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  171. http://www.nwherald.com/2018/01/08/wife-of-former-mchenry-county-undersheriff-pleads-guilty-to-drug-charge/aosqc15/

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  173. https://whdh.com/news/nh-authorities-arrest-13-in-nashua-as-part-of-operation-granite-shield/

  174. ⁠, Julie Rae Rickard (2019-12-11):

    A former area physician charged with forging prescriptions was placed into a special program Monday. John Sylvester O’Shea, 69, of Washington, D.C. was charged by the attorney general’s office with procuring for self/​​​​other drug by fraud, identity theft and forgery, all misdemeanors, in July after a tip from a DuBois pharmacist led to an investigation into his prescriptions. According to the affidavit of probable cause, O’Shea was receiving prescriptions for Modafinil and Armodafinil from doctors in DuBois, Washington, D.C., and Raleigh, N.C., as well as others.

    …In his interview with police, O’Shea explained he was taking the drugs because of his shift work. He stated he knew the maximum dosage for the drugs was 200 mg for the Modafinil and 250 mg for the Armodafinil per day. O’Shea admitted he was taking approximately 800 mg per day or three to four pills per shift since he had built up a tolerance to the drugs. He reportedly admitted he was “doctor shopping” and the other doctors did not know about his other prescriptions. He said his need for the drug “got out of hand.”

    On Monday President Judge Fredric J. Ammerman placed O’Shea into the accelerated rehabilitative disposition program, which is for first-time offenders. He must serve two years ARD probation and was ordered to complete drug and alcohol counseling. He will not be able to prescribe any drugs for this time period and he is not to be practicing medicine for one year. O’Shea’s attorney noted that O’Shea’s medical license has been suspended and he is on a drug monitoring program already in his home area.

  175. https://www.justice.gov/usao-wdpa/pr/indian-businessman-charged-drug-importation-smuggling-and-money-laundering-offenses

  176. https://www.justice.gov/usao-wdpa/pr/indian-businessman-sentenced-drug-importation-smuggling-and-international-money

  177. https://www.courtlistener.com/docket/15843802/united-states-v-belani/

  178. {#linkBibliography-news-tribune)-2020 .docMetadata}, Doug Walker (Rome News-Tribune) (2020-10-23):

    Police conducting a road check outside Rolater Park in Cave Spring Thursday arrested a Rome woman on multiple drug charges.

    According to Floyd County Jail reports:

    Heather Leighann McLemore, 44, was charged with felonies for possession of methamphetamine with the intent to distribute, possession of methamphetamine, possession of a Schedule IV controlled substance and a felony probation violation after a K-9 unit alerted to a vehicle which resulted in a search and recovery of three bags of methamphetamine and numerous modafinil pills scattered about her purse.

    McLemore was also charged with misdemeanors for having drugs not in an original container and possession of drug-related objects. She remained in jail Friday morning on a $10,100 bond.

  179. https://www.justice.gov/usao-nh/pr/georgia-man-sentenced-five-years-probation-conspiracy-distribute-unapproved-drugs-and

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  202. #ordering-with-learning

  203. #amateur

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  216. http://thepharmacyexpress.com/Products2.asp?Brand=Modvigil+%28Provigil%2C+Modalert%2C+Modapro%2C+Generic+Modafinil%29&T=d

  217. http://thepharmacyexpress.com/Products2.asp?Brand=MODALERT+%28+Provigil%2C+Modapro%2C+Modvigil%2C+Generic+Modafinil+%29&T=d

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  219. http://desiredmeds.com/detail.php?id=1680&medication=Modafinil&gid=601

  220. http://www.edandmore.com/brand-sun-modalert/sun-modalert-200mg-3-37-127,KQWZF.html

  221. https://edandmore.com/generic-alertec

  222. http://www.modup.net/#GwernT

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  225. http://www.superdrugsaver.com/generic-medicine/451/Provigil--Generic.html

  226. http://www.controlledpills.com/prices_new.php?cid=&sub=1259

  227. https://littlebiggy.com/viewSubject/p/4756248

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  235. http://www.unitedpharmacies-uk.md/Modavigil_Modafinil_100mg_30_Tablets_p_759.html

  236. http://shop.biogenesis-antiaging.com/mental/memory-and-cognition/alertec-modafinil-modiodal-30-x-100mg-tablets.html

  237. http://www.aurapharm.com/modafinil_provigil.htm

  238. http://medsforbitcoin.com/

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  241. http://sunmodalert.ru/buy_waklert.php

  242. https://mymodafinil.net/armodafinil/

  243. http://armodafinilnowin.com/

  244. http://www.unitedpharmacies-uk.md/Waklert_150_Armodafinil_150mg_10_Tablets_p_1498.html

  245. http://www.unitedpharmacies-uk.md/Waklert_50_Armodafinil_50mg_10_Tablets_p_1497.html

  246. http://www.4nrx-uk.md/general-health/waklert-armodafinil.html

  247. https://pharmacyreviewer.co/?q=modafinil&option=com_medicine&view=search

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  250. http://pharm-marketing.com/bulk_drug_other_eng.htm#modafinil

  251. http://drugspowerstore.com/product_info.php/products_id/76

  252. http://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/59652-bulk-powder-modafinil-site-legit/

  253. http://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/59652-bulk-powder-modafinil-site-legit/page__view__findpost__p__545411

  254. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/1isd9j/modafinil_in_bulk_powder_are_there_any_more/

  255. http://www.rechem.ca/index.php?_a=viewCat&catId=51

  256. http://www.rechem.ca/index.php?_a=viewDoc&docId=8

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  265. 2013-11-03.tar.xz

  266. 2013-11-12.tar.xz

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  283. 2015-07-03.tar.xz

  284. #assaying

  285. http://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/48559-modalert-side-effect/page__p__462110#entry462110

  286. http://www.paulnewcomb.com/modafinil-provigil-adhd-experiment/

  287. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/1gvt1f/my_review_of_modupnet_with_pictures/

  288. http://i.imgur.com/cNDbfFj.png

  289. http://i.imgur.com/tt8dzHK.jpg

  290. 2009-samosseiko.pdf: “Samosseiko-VB2009.indd”⁠, HelenMartin

  291. http://thepharmacyexpress.com/Default.asp?ID=20

  292. http://www.goodhealthpharmacy.com/new/catalog/affiliate_info.php

  293. http://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/10464-modalert-is-this-what-modafinil-is-like/page__st__40__p__193725#entry193725

  294. http://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/44117-modafinil-sources/page__st__20__p__454877#entry454877

  295. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/18b5go/waklertmodalert_by_sun_pharma_which_is_sold/

  296. http://www.healthkartplus.com/details/drugs/45641/waklert-150-mg

  297. http://www.healthkartplus.com/details/drugs/19043/modalert-200-mg

  298. https://old.reddit.com/r/afinil/comments/3k8jq9/bought_modalert_200mg_40_pills_in_india_for_96/

  299. http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rnc1/proofwork.pdf

  300. http://www.indiapost.gov.in/SP_Int.aspx

  301. http://web.archive.org/web/20060322040019/http://www.nutraceuticalsworld.com/articles/2000/09/how-to-get-your-supplement-right-and-avoid-disaste.php

  302. ⁠, Robert Cockburn, Paul N. Newton, E. Kyeremateng Agyarko, Dora Akunyili, Nicholas J. White ():

    The production of substandard and fake drugs is a vast and under-reported problem, particularly affecting poorer countries. It is an important cause of unnecessary morbidity, mortality, and loss of public confidence in medicines and health structures. The prevalence of counterfeit drugs appears to be rising (see “The Scale of the Problem”) and has not been opposed by close cooperation between drug companies, governments, or international organizations concerned with trade, health, customs and excise, and counterfeiting.

    In this article we suggest that many pharmaceutical companies and governments are reluctant to publicize the problem to health staff and the public, apparently motivated by the belief that the publicity will harm the sales of brand-name products in a fiercely competitive business. Publicly, at least, several industry sources say the justification for secrecy is to avoid any alarm that could prevent patients taking their genuine medicines. We argue that this secrecy, and the subsequent lack of public health warnings, is harming patients and that it is also not in the long-term interests of the legitimate pharmaceutical industry. We urge a change to mandatory reporting to governmental authorities, which should also have a legal duty to investigate, issue appropriate public warnings, and share information across borders. This is not a role for the pharmaceutical industry, which has a serious conflict of interest.

  303. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-15600900

  304. Silk-Road#lsd-case-study

  305. http://yudkowsky.net/rational/bayes

  306. http://oscarbonilla.com/2009/05/visualizing-bayes-theorem/

  307. http://sunmodalert.ru/faq.php#shipping

  308. http://www.icir.org/christian/publications/2011-oakland-trajectory.pdf

  309. Zeo#value-of-information-voi

  310. Nootropics#value-of-information-voi

  311. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/vADtvr9iDeYsCDfxd/value-of-information-four-examples

  312. #suppliers-prices

  313. #professional

  314. http://econstudentlog.wordpress.com/2012/03/17/random-thoughts-2/

  315. http://zocalopublicsquare.org/thepublicsquare/2011/11/30/how-doctors-die/read/nexus/

  316. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/bshZiaLefDejvPKuS/dying-outside

  317. http://chronopause.com/chronopause.com/index.php/2011/07/27/would-you-like-another-plate-of-this/

  318. https://web.archive.org/web/20121110120413/http://www.fastcompany.com/node/52717/print

  319. 2001-warner.pdf: ⁠, John T. Warner, Saul Pleeter (2001-03; economics):

    The military drawdown program of the early 1990’s provides an opportunity to obtain estimates of personal discount rates based on large numbers of people making real choices involving large sums. The program offered over 65,000 separatees the choice between an annuity and a lump-sum payment. Despite break-even discount rates exceeding 17%, most of the separatees selected the lump sum—saving taxpayers $2.70$1.72001 billion in separation costs. Estimates of discount rates range from 0 to over 30% and vary with education, age, race, sex, number of dependents, ability test score, and the size of payment.

  320. Nicotine

  321. https://medium.com/backchannel/the-definitive-story-of-information-wants-to-be-free-a8d95427641c

  322. http://www.ecstasydata.org/view.php?id=3111

  323. https://old.reddit.com/r/modup/comments/22e4ej/modvigil_coa_and_further_testing/

  324. https://old.reddit.com/r/afinil/comments/3efz8s/armodafinil_from_rechemca_lab_results/

  325. http://forum.bulletproofexec.com/index.php?/topic/16968-sunpharma-modafinil-modalert-lab-test-results/

  326. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/

  327. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/wiki/faq#wiki_independent_testing_results

  328. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/1jbff1/is_modafinilarmodafinil_purity_testing_possible/cbd0vfa

  329. http://www.ecstasydata.org/search.php?substance1=2027

  330. http://www.ecstasydata.org/results.php?start=0&search_field=all&s=modafinil

  331. http://www.ecstasydata.org/about_data.php

  332. http://www.analytical-lab.com/

  333. http://www.aaclabs.com/

  334. http://www.srcslab.com/

  335. http://www.colmaricanalyticals.com/

  336. https://old.reddit.com/r/afinil/comments/73fm9s/modafinil_extraction_from_modalert/

  337. https://web.archive.org/web/20120730024608/http://www.pharmacyreviewer.com/forum/discussion-online-pharmacies-featured-general-reviews-section/16335-edandmore-feedbacks-10.html

  338. Modafinil#comment-415400874

  339. ⁠, Sulaf Assi, Iftikhar Khan, Aaron Edwards, David Osselton, Hisham Al-Obaidi (2020-08-13):

    Poor quality medicines represent an expanding global public health threat facilitated by the Internet. A recent survey showed that one in five students have used modafinil to enhance learning ability mainly purchased from Internet sources. The aim of this work was to develop on-the-spot and simple methods for the quantification of modafinil in generic medicines using Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR), near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy along with partial least square regression (PLSR). Modafinil tablets were measured in intact form using NIR and Raman and in powdered form using FTIR, NIR and Raman. Additionally, powder mixtures of crushed modafinil tablets and excipient(s) were prepared either by diluting the crushed tablets with excipient(s), or sequentially adding excipient(s) to the crushed tablets. Three PLSR models were constructed in MATLAB 2014a from powder mixtures and two from intact and powdered tablets. For FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, PLSR models based on tablets gave linear calibration curve with correlation coefficient (r2) values above 0.94 and a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) below 0.96% m/​​​​m. Conversely, the PLSR model based on powder sequential addition gave the highest accuracy using the NIR spectra (r2 = 0.99, RMSEC = 1.15% m/​​​​m). The latter model showed accuracy in predicting the concentration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient in modafinil generic medicines proving their authenticity. The overall results showed that the combination of the three spectroscopic methods with PLSR offered a rapid technique for authenticating generic modafinil medicines.

  340. https://old.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/196t61/unusual_reaction_to_mymodafinilnet/c8ti7w9

  341. https://www.erowid.org/smarts/modafinil/modafinil.shtml

  342. http://www.google.com/search?q=modafinil%20site%3Alongecity%2Eorg%2Fforum%2F

  343. http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/tags.php?tag=modafinil

  344. http://google.com/search?q=modafinil%20site%3Abluelight.ru

  345. https://old.reddit.com/search?q=modafinil

  346. http://www.modafinil.com/

  347. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/04/27/brain-gain?currentPage=all

  348. https://slate.com/id/2079113

  349. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/johann-hari/my-experiment-with-smart_b_156954.html

  350. http://www.phillymag.com/articles/medicine-this-will-keep-you-awake/

  351. https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2013/may/03/brain-enhancing-drugs-mj-hyland

  352. http://nymag.com/news/intelligencer/modafinil-2013-4/

  353. http://swombat.com/2012/2/27/modafinil-and-startups

  354. http://www.sebastianmarshall.com/my-experiences-with-modafinil

  355. http://www.sebastianmarshall.com/a-slightly-more-cautious-take-on-modafinil

  356. http://www.bulletproofexec.com/why-you-are-suffering-from-a-modafinil-deficiency/

  357. http://www.bulletproofexec.com/where-to-get-modafinil-bulletproof-readers-chime-in/

  358. https://web.archive.org/web/20131005151408/http://edwardsung.com/archives/758

  359. http://www.dw.de/oxford-academic-i-use-brain-enhancing-drugs/a-18027581

  360. http://blog.practicalethics.ox.ac.uk/2014/11/cog_enhancement_biases/

  361. http://esr.ibiblio.org/?p=7183

  362. http://www.europeanneuropsychopharmacology.com/article/S0924-977X%2817%2930019-6/fulltext

  363. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2649239

  364. https://pirate.london/failed-by-the-system-people-are-turning-to-the-dark-web-for-prescription-drugs-d400250c1f17

  365. http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview/id/777105.html

  366. https://slate.com/blogs/moneybox/2013/01/15/economic_impact_of_non_sleeping.html

  367. https://web.archive.org/web/20121128012443/http://squid314.livejournal.com/331948.html

  368. 2013-scoriels.pdf: “Modafinil effects on cognition and emotion in schizophrenia and its neurochemical modulation in the brain”⁠, Linda Scoriels, Peter B. Jones, Barbara J. Sahakian

  369. 2008-kumar.pdf

  370. 2004-turner.pdf

  371. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/187/1/55.full

  372. 2004-rosenthal.pdf

  373. 2009-kane.pdf

  374. http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/6/1298.full

  375. http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/59/3/292

  376. http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/6/1277.full

  377. 2010-hensch.pdf: “Stimulants in bipolar disorder: beyond common beliefs”⁠, Tilman Hensch, Hubertus Himmerich, Ulrich Hegerl

  378. https://www.erowid.org/smarts/modafinil/modafinil_provigil_prescribing_info1.pdf

  379. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008661/full

  380. 2011-scoriels.pdf