Epigrams (Link Bibliography)

“Epigrams” links:

  1. Modus

  2. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/JcpzFpPBSmzuksmWM/the-5-second-level

  3. Everything

  4. Causality

  5. Littlewood-origin

  6. Research-criticism

  7. Mail-delivery#on-model-uncertainty

  8. Complement

  9. 1987-rossi

  10. 1982-perlis.pdf: ⁠, Alan J. Perlis (1982-09-01; cs):

    [130 epigrams on computer science and technology, published in 1982, for ACM’s SIGPLAN journal, by noted computer scientist and programming language researcher ⁠. The epigrams are a series of short, programming-language-neutral, humorous statements about computers and programming, distilling lessons he had learned over his career, which are widely quoted.]

    8. A programming language is low level when its programs require attention to the irrelevant….19. A language that doesn’t affect the way you think about programming, is not worth knowing….54. Beware of the Turing tar-pit in which everything is possible but nothing of interest is easy.

    15. Everything should be built top-down, except the first time….30. In programming, everything we do is a special case of something more general—and often we know it too quickly….31. Simplicity does not precede complexity, but follows it….58. Fools ignore complexity. Pragmatists suffer it. Some can avoid it. Geniuses remove it….65. Make no mistake about it: Computers process numbers—not symbols. We measure our understanding (and control) by the extent to which we can arithmetize an activity….56. Software is under a constant tension. Being symbolic it is arbitrarily perfectible; but also it is arbitrarily changeable.

    1. One man’s constant is another man’s variable. 34. The string is a stark data structure and everywhere it is passed there is much duplication of process. It is a perfect vehicle for hiding information.

    36. The use of a program to prove the 4-color theorem will not change mathematics—it merely demonstrates that the theorem, a challenge for a century, is probably not important to mathematics.

    39. Re graphics: A picture is worth 10K words—but only those to describe the picture. Hardly any sets of 10K words can be adequately described with pictures.

    48. The best book on programming for the layman is Alice in Wonderland; but that’s because it’s the best book on anything for the layman.

    77. The cybernetic exchange between man, computer and algorithm is like a game of musical chairs: The frantic search for balance always leaves one of the 3 standing ill at ease….79. A year spent in artificial intelligence is enough to make one believe in God….84. Motto for a research laboratory: What we work on today, others will first think of tomorrow.

    91. The computer reminds one of Lon Chaney—it is the machine of a thousand faces.

    7. It is easier to write an incorrect program than understand a correct one….93. When someone says “I want a programming language in which I need only say what I wish done”, give him a lollipop….102. One can’t proceed from the informal to the formal by formal means.

    100. We will never run out of things to program as long as there is a single program around.

    108. Whenever 2 programmers meet to criticize their programs, both are silent….112. Computer Science is embarrassed by the computer….115. Most people find the concept of programming obvious, but the doing impossible. 116. You think you know when you can learn, are more sure when you can write, even more when you can teach, but certain when you can program. 117. It goes against the grain of modern education to teach children to program. What fun is there in making plans, acquiring discipline in organizing thoughts, devoting attention to detail and learning to be self-critical?

  11. Tool-AI

  12. 2002-scholz-radiance

  13. Milk

  14. https://www.aboutamazon.com/news/company-news/2016-letter-to-shareholders

  15. http://papers.nips.cc/paper/5185-more-efficient-reinforcement-learning-via-posterior-sampling.pdf#deepmind

  16. ⁠, Malcolm Strens (2000-06-28):

    The problem can be decomposed into two parallel types of inference: (1) estimating the parameters of a model for the underlying process; (2) determining behavior which maximizes return under the estimated model. Following Dearden, Friedman and Andre (1999), it is proposed that the learning process estimates online the full posterior distribution over models. To determine behavior, a hypothesis is sampled from this distribution and the greedy policy with respect to the hypothesis is obtained by ⁠. By using a different hypothesis for each trial appropriate exploratory and exploitative behavior is obtained. This Bayesian method always converges to the optimal policy for a stationary process with discrete states.

  17. #gwern-modus

  18. Unseeing

  19. http://web.mit.edu/krugman/www/ricardo.htm

  20. https://www.lesswrong.com/tag/risks-of-astronomical-suffering-s-risks

  21. DNM-arrests

  22. https://www.ribbonfarm.com/2013/11/13/the-gooseberry-fallacy/

  23. https://scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=40

  24. https://grognor.blogspot.com/2016/12/umeshism.html

  25. GPT-3-nonfiction#umeshisms

  26. http://forums.autosport.com/topic/63818-the-perfect-race-car-crosses-the-finish-line-in-first-place-and-then-falls-to-pieces/#entry1484059

  27. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/4755982/Keeping-track-Chunkys-life-would-make-a-great-movie.html

  28. End-to-end

  29. https://www.scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=418

  30. ⁠, Stephen M. Hedrick (2004-11-01):

    The immunity exhibited by plants and animals is often viewed as the evolutionary response to the problem of infectious agents. In this respect, the combination of the innate immune system and the acquired immune system has been characterized as the “optimal solution.” In this essay, I propose that there is no possibility of an optimal solution to the problem of parasitism. Regardless of the immunological mechanisms evolved, infectious agents establish a dynamic interaction with common strains of their host species, weighing virulence against transmissibility. In the endless host-parasite coevolution, the immune system can never gain an upper hand on the millions of parasitic microbes and viruses. Rather, evolution of the immune system is driven, most importantly, by the small advantages conferred as a result of host variation. By selecting for ever-more-devious parasites, the immune system is the cause of its own necessity.

  31. https://nitter.hu/sarahdoingthing/status/877018612447313920

  32. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/2TPph4EGZ6trEbtku/explainers-shoot-high-aim-low

  33. https://distill.pub/2017/research-debt/

  34. 1989-diaconis.pdf#page=6: ⁠, Persi Diaconis, Frederick Mosteller (1989-01-01; statistics  /​ ​​ ​bias):

    The New Word: …Because of our different reading habits, we readers are exposed to the same words at different observed rates, even when the long-run rates are the same Some words will appear relatively early in your experience, some relatively late. More than half will appear before their expected time of appearance, probably more than 60% of them if we use the exponential model, so the appearance of new words is like a ⁠. On the other hand, some words will take more than twice the average time to appear, about 1⁄7 of them (1⁄e2) in the exponential model. They will look rarer than they actually are. Furthermore, their average time to reappearance is less than half that of their observed first appearance, and about 10% of those that took at least twice as long as they should have to occur will appear in less than 1⁄20 of the time they originally took to appear. The model we are using supposes an exponential waiting time to first occurrence of events. The phenomenon that accounts for part of this variable behavior of the words is of course the regression effect.

    …We now extend the model. Suppose that we are somewhat more complicated creatures, that we require k exposures to notice a word for the first time, and that k is itself a Poisson random variable…Then, the mean time until the word is noticed is (𝜆 + 1)T, where T is the average time between actual occurrences of the word. The of the time is (2𝜆 + 1)T2. Suppose T = 1 year and 𝜆 = 4. Then, as an approximation, 5% of the words will take at least time [𝜆 + 1 + 1.65 (2𝜆 + 1)(1⁄2)]T or about 10 years to be detected the first time. Assume further that, now that you are sensitized, you will detect the word the next time it appears. On the average it will be a year, but about 3% of these words that were so slow to be detected the first time will appear within a month by natural variation alone. So what took 10 years to happen once happens again within a month. No wonder we are astonished. One of our graduate students learned the word on a Friday and read part of this manuscript the next Sunday, two days later, illustrating the effect and providing an anecdote. Here, sensitizing the individual, the regression effect, and the recall of notable events and the non-recall of humdrum events produce a situation where coincidences are noted with much higher than their expected frequency. This model can explain vast numbers of seeming coincidences. [See also the ⁠; Brockman’s law⁠.]

  35. Spaced-repetition

  36. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/9o3QBg2xJXcRCxGjS/working-hurts-less-than-procrastinating-we-fear-the-twinge

  37. Socks

  38. 2010-richardson-bythenumbers-vectors30

  39. Startup-ideas

  40. https://slatestarcodex.com/tag/tom-swifties/

  41. GPT-3#tom-swifties

  42. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-40822269

  43. http://dangerousminds.net/comments/f_for_fake_orson_welles_asks_what_is_reality_in_dazzling_masterpiece_of_odd

  44. https://web.archive.org/web/20171002170619/http://quillette.com/2017/06/11/no-voice-vox-sense-nonsense-discussing-iq-race/

  45. https://www.wired.com/story/fighting-high-drug-prices

  46. http://ludix.com/moriarty/psalm46.html

  47. https://theintercept.com/2016/08/03/gop-lawyer-chinese-owned-company-us-presidential-politics/

  48. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/15/technology/personaltech/when-websites-wont-take-no-for-an-answer.html

  49. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Man-forced-to-surrender-his-offensive-Star-Trek-11110176.php

  50. https://www.businessinsider.com/how-fling-social-media-app-died-2016-11

  51. https://www.filfre.net/2017/05/the-many-faces-of-middle-earth-1954-1989/

  52. https://www.wsj.com/articles/memo-sparks-firestorm-at-google-1502246996

  53. http://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/military-history/patton-in-wwi/

  54. http://www.grg.org/

  55. https://nitter.hu/edyong209/status/779391091959267330

  56. http://www.avmf.org/clientuploads/documents/News%20Articles/Cat%20Health%20Network%20Feline%20SNP%20Chip%20Studies%20-%20Final%20Accomplishments%20MAFFINAL%2005-23-13.pdf

  57. https://voices.nationalgeographic.org/2013/10/23/a-conversation-with-world-famous-cat-geneticist-dr-leslie-lyons/

  58. Catnip

  59. http://blog.nuclearsecrecy.com/2013/09/20/worst-manhattan-project-leaks/

  60. http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/sdut-3-years-into-nations-hemp-experiment-crops-future-2016aug12-story.html

  61. http://nordicfoodlab.org/blog/2015/9/4/bee-bread

  62. ⁠, Yann C. Klimentidis, David A. Raichlen, Jennifer Bea, David O. Garcia, Lawrence J. Mandarino, Gene E. Alexander, Zhao Chen, Scott B. Going (2017-11-07):

    Background/​​​​Objectives

    Physical activity (PA) protects against a wide range of diseases. Engagement in habitual PA has been shown to be heritable, motivating the search for specific genetic variants that may ultimately inform efforts to promote PA and target the best type of PA for each individual.

    Subjects/​​​​Methods

    We used data from the to perform the largest genome-wide association study of PA to date, using three measures based on self-report (n = 277,656) and two measures based on wrist-worn accelerometry data (n = 67,808). We examined genetic correlations of PA with other traits and diseases, as well as tissue-specific gene expression patterns. With data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC; n = 8,556) study, we performed a of our top hits for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA).

    Results: We identified 26 genome-wide loci across the five PA measures examined. Upon meta-analysis of the top hits for MVPA with results from the ARIC study, 8 of 10 remained significant at p < 5×10−8. Interestingly, among these, the rs429358 variant in the APOE gene was the most strongly associated with MVPA. Variants in CADM2, a gene recently implicated in risk-taking behavior and other personality and cognitive traits, were found to be associated with regular engagement in strenuous sports or other exercises. We also identified thirteen loci consistently associated (p < 0.005) with each of the five PA measures. We find of PA with educational attainment traits, chronotype, psychiatric traits, and obesity-related traits. Tissue enrichment analyses implicate the brain and pituitary gland as locations where PA-associated loci may exert their actions.

    Conclusion: These results provide new insight into the genetic basis of habitual PA, and the genetic links connecting PA with other traits and diseases.

  63. http://www.michaellight.net/suns-intro/

  64. https://www.amazon.com/Full-Moon-Michael-Light/dp/0375406344/

  65. https://academic.oup.com/jla/article/9/2/247/4430792

  66. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/07/23/how-e-commerce-is-transforming-rural-china

  67. https://nitter.hu/JonathanMTweet

  68. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/20/obituaries/dennis-wrong-dead.html

  69. https://slate.com/human-interest/2019/07/the-boy-who-came-back-from-heaven-christian-book-scandal.html

  70. https://www.economist.com/business/2019/10/03/from-rags-to-richer

  71. {#linkBibliography-eagle)-2020 .docMetadata}, Chelsea Katz (The Eagle) (2020-01-02):

    The first of her kind, CC the cloned is breaking more boundaries as she turns 18 years old. There are no big plans locally to mark the day, but CC—Carbon Copy or Copy Cat—will be the focus of a Dutch cartoon set for release today to celebrate her birthday, researcher and owner Duane Kraemer said.

    …CC is not only enjoying life as the Kraemers’ pet, but she has her own condo called the “kitty house” behind the Kraemers’ house where she lives with her three offspring, sired by a cat named Smokey. Those offspring, just by existing, helped CC make headlines in the scientific community. There had not been much research done in the reproduction success of clones—and none had been done with a cat. Tim, Zip and Tess were born Sept. 1, 2006, along with a fourth kitten that was stillborn. Not knowing CC’s reaction would be to her kittens, Kraemer said, they found CC was “the perfect mother” and had the innate maternal instincts they were hoping she would exhibit. Besides proving clones can successfully reproduce, CC also proved not all clones die young. “Dolly the sheep, that was the first of the mammals to be cloned by nuclear transfer, had died at, I think, at 6 years of age”, Kraemer said. “So the fact that CC didn’t die young was news.” About 20% of cloned animals have developmental abnormalities of some kind, he said, with some being serious enough to result in the animal’s death at a young age or at birth. However, the other 80% born without those conditions “would probably live to a normal variation of ages.”

  72. ⁠, Tali Weiss, Kobi Snitz, Adi Yablonka, Rehan M. Khan, Danyel Gafsou, Elad Schneidman, Noam Sobel (2012-12-04):

    In vision, two mixtures, each containing an independent set of many different wavelengths, may produce a common color percept termed “white.” In audition, two mixtures, each containing an independent set of many different frequencies, may produce a common perceptual hum termed “white noise.” Visual and auditory whites emerge upon two conditions: when the mixture components span stimulus space, and when they are of equal intensity. We hypothesized that if we apply these same conditions to odorant mixtures, “whiteness” may emerge in olfaction as well. We selected 86 molecules that span olfactory stimulus space and individually diluted them to a point of about equal intensity. We then prepared various odorant mixtures, each containing various numbers of molecular components, and asked human participants to rate the perceptual similarity of such mixture pairs. We found that as we increased the number of non-overlapping, equal-intensity components in odorant mixtures, the mixtures became more similar to each other, despite not having a single component in common. With ~30 components, most mixtures smelled alike. After participants were acquainted with a novel, arbitrarily named mixture of ~30 equal-intensity components, they later applied this name more readily to other novel mixtures of ~30 equal-intensity components spanning stimulus space, but not to mixtures containing fewer components or to mixtures that did not span stimulus space. We conclude that a common olfactory percept, “olfactory white”, is associated with mixtures of ~30 or more equal-intensity components that span stimulus space, implying that olfactory representations are of features of molecules rather than of molecular identity.

  73. 2020-thau.pdf: “Cryonics for all?”⁠, Tena Thau

  74. https://billypenn.com/2020/03/17/philly-police-to-halt-narcotics-arrests-other-charges-during-covid-outbreak/

  75. https://www.amazon.com/Being-Certain-Believing-Right-Youre/dp/031254152X

  76. 2008-alper.pdf: ⁠, Ty Alper (2008-08-05; psychology):

    Lawyers challenging lethal injection on behalf of death row inmates have frequently argued that lethal injection protocols do not comport with standard practices for the euthanasia of animals. This article studies state laws governing animal euthanasia and concludes that many more states than have previously been recognized ban the use of paralyzing agents in animal euthanasia. In fact, 97.6% of lethal injection executions in this country have taken place in states that have banned, for use in animal euthanasia, the same drugs that are used in those states during executions. Moreover, a study of the legislative history of state euthanasia laws reveals that the concerns raised about paralyzing drugs in the animal euthanasia context are identical in many ways to the concerns that lawyers for death row inmates are currently raising about the use of those drugs in the lethal injection executions of human beings. This article takes an in depth look at animal euthanasia and its relationship to lethal injection by examining in Part I the history and origins of the paralyzing drugs that veterinarians and animal welfare experts refuse to allow in animal euthanasia; in Part II the standards of professional conduct for veterinary and animal shelter professionals; in Part III, the state laws and regulations governing animal euthanasia; and finally in Part IV, the legislative history that led to the enactment of the various states’ animal euthanasia laws and regulations.

    [Keywords: death penalty, lethal injection, animal euthanasia, capital punishment.]

    In the late 1970s, when Texas was considering whether to adopt Oklahoma’s three-drug lethal injection formula for the execution of prisoners, Dr. Ralph Gray, the doctor in charge of medical care in Texas prisons, consulted with a Texas veterinarian named Dr. Gerry Etheredge.1 Dr. Etheredge told Dr. Gray that veterinarians used an overdose of one drug, an anesthetic called sodium ⁠, to euthanize animals and that it was a “very safe, very effective, and very cheap” method of euthanasia.2 Dr. Etheredge remembers that Dr. Gray had only one objection to using a similar method to execute human beings. “He said it was a great idea”, Dr. Etheredge recalled, “except that people would think we are treating people the same way that we’re treating animals. He was afraid of a hue and cry.”3 Texas rejected Dr. Etheredge’s one-drug, anesthetic-only recommendation and, in 1982, became the first state to actually use lethal injection—via the three-drug formula—as a method of execution.4 This history is almost hard to believe in light of the fact that three decades later, death row inmates in Texas, as well as in nearly every other death penalty state, are challenging the three-drug formula on the grounds that the method is less reliable, and therefore less humane, than the method used to euthanize animals.5

    …It was through the use of in vivisection that people began to consider the implications of what curare did not do, namely serve any anesthetic function. While curare inhibits all voluntary movement, it does nothing at all to affect consciousness, cognition, or the ability to feel pain.46…Dr. Hoggan, described the experience of a dog subjected to vivisection while paralyzed by curare.51 Curare, he testified, was used to:

    render [the] dog helpless and incapable of any movement, even of breathing, which function was performed by a machine blowing through its windpipe. All this time, however, its intelligence, its sensitiveness, and its will, remained intact . . . . In this condition the side of the face, the interior of the belly, and the hip, were dissected out . . . continuously for ten consecutive hours . . . .52

    In 1868, the Swedish physiologist A. F. Holmgren condemned curare as “the most cruel of all poisons.”53…in 1864 Claude Bernard offered another description of such a deceptively peaceful death:

    A gentle sleep seems to occupy the transition from life to death. But it is nothing of the sort; the external appearances are deceitful. . . . [I]n fact . . . we discover that this death, which appears to steal on in so gentle a manner and so exempt from pain is, on the contrary, accompanied by the most atrocious sufferings that the imagination of man can conceive.81

    No inmate has ever survived a botched lethal injection, so we do not know what it feels like to lie paralyzed on a gurney, unable even to blink an eye, consciously suffocating, while potassium burns through the veins on its way to the heart, until it finally causes cardiac arrest. But aided by the accounts of people who have suffered conscious paralysis on the operating table, one can begin to imagine.