Culture-is-not-about-Esthetics (Link Bibliography)

“Culture-is-not-about-Esthetics” links:

  1. https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/12/24/AR2009122403326.html

  2. http://blog.laptopmag.com/ebook-price-war

  3. http://scottwesterfeld.com/blog/?p=2138

  4. http://www.tobiasbuckell.com/2010/01/31/why-my-books-are-no-longer-for-sale-via-amazon/

  5. http://yuki-onna.livejournal.com/563086.html

  6. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/04/26/publish-or-perish

  7. http://www.antipope.org/charlie/blog-static/2007/03/why_the_commercial_ebook_marke.html

  8. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/07/06/priced-to-sell

  9. https://slate.com/id/2230821/

  10. https://www.amazon.com/Homer-Langley-Novel-E-L-Doctorow/dp/B006G8670M/

  11. https://www.amazon.com/Good-Plenty-Creative-Successes-American/dp/0691146268/

  12. #subsidies-1

  13. http://blog.talkingphilosophy.com/?p=2971

  14. http://www.newsweek.com/2011/06/26/collectors-who-spend-thousands-on-artist-s-ideas.html

  15. https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2011/07/22/138513048/woman-pays-10-000-for-non-visible-work-of-art

  16. https://web.archive.org/web/20121120040212/http://www.onehundredjobs.ca/2011/06/rise-of-social-media-art.html

  17. 2010-oberholzergee.pdf: ⁠, Felix Oberholzer-Gee, Koleman Strumpf (2010-01-01; economics):

    The advent of file sharing has considerably weakened effective copyright protection. Today, more than 60% of Internet traffic consists of consumers sharing music, movies, books, and games. Yet, despite the popularity of the new technology, file sharing has not undermined the incentives of authors to produce new works. We argue that the effect of file sharing has been muted for three reasons. (1) The cannibalization of sales that is due to file sharing is more modest than many observers assume. Empirical work suggests that in music, no more than 20% of the recent decline in sales is due to sharing. (2) File sharing increases the demand for complements to protected works, raising, for instance, the demand for concerts and concert prices. The sale of more expensive complements has added to artists’ incomes. (3) In many creative industries, monetary incentives play a reduced role in motivating authors to remain creative. Data on the supply of new works are consistent with the argument that file sharing did not discourage authors and publishers. Since the advent of file sharing, the production of music, books, and movies has increased sharply.

  18. https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2010/06/file-sharing-has-weakened-copyrightand-helped-society/

  19. 2003-murray-humanaccomplishment.pdf: “Human Accomplishment”⁠, Charles Murray

  20. https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/hume-essays-moral-political-literary-lf-ed#lf0059_label_095

  21. http://digitalcollections.library.cmu.edu/awweb/awarchive?type=file&item=33748

  22. https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/21/AR2007082101045.html

  23. https://www.npr.org/2011/04/18/135508305/the-sad-beautiful-fact-that-were-all-going-to-miss-almost-everything

  24. http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/09c6fee4-ee8a-11e0-a2ed-00144feab49a.html

  25. #the-experimental-results

  26. The-Melancholy-of-Subculture-Society

  27. https://www.overcomingbias.com/2008/03/fantasy-and-rea.html

  28. https://www.amazon.com/Video-Learning-Literacy-Second-Edition/dp/1403984530/

  29. http://www.idsia.ch/~juergen/creativity.html

  30. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/18/opinion/sunday/the-neuroscience-of-your-brain-on-fiction.html

  31. http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/36/31/28/PDF/Article_JOCN.pdf

  32. http://www.yorku.ca/mar/Mar%202011_ARP_neural%20bases%20of%20soc%20cog%20and%20story%20comp.pdf

  33. http://individual.utoronto.ca/jacobhirsh/publications/Mar_Oatley_Hirsh_delaPaz_Peterson.pdf

  34. http://www.yorku.ca/mar/Mar%20et%20al%202009_reading%20fiction%20and%20empathy.pdf

  35. http://lchc.ucsd.edu/MCA/Mail/xmcamail.2009_12.dir/pdfJEO79Qqyg3.pdf

  36. http://www.yorku.ca/mar/mar%20et%20al%20in%20press_CogDev_media%20exposure%20and%20child%20ToM.pdf

  37. 2013-kidd.pdf: “Title: Reading Fiction Improves Theory of Mind and Reduces Intergroup Bias”

  38. 2016-panero.pdf

  39. DNB-FAQ

  40. https://www.overcomingbias.com/2009/01/why-fiction-lies.html

  41. https://www.overcomingbias.com/2009/01/new-data-on-fiction.html

  42. 2008-johnson.pdf: ⁠, John A. Johnson, Joseph Carroll, Jonathan Gottschall, Daniel Kruger (2008-10-01; culture):

    The current research investigated the psychological differences between protagonists and antagonists in literature and the impact of these differences on readers. It was hypothesized that protagonists would embody cooperative motives and behaviors that are valued by egalitarian hunter-gatherers groups, whereas antagonists would demonstrate status-seeking and dominance behaviors that are stigmatized in such groups. This hypothesis was tested with an online questionnaire listing characters from 201 canonical British novels of the longer nineteenth century. 519 respondents generated 1470 protocols on 435 characters. Respondents identified the characters as protagonists, antagonists, or minor characters, judged the characters’ motives according to human life history theory, rated the characters’ traits according to the five-factor model of personality, and specified their own emotional responses to the characters on categories adapted from Ekman’s seven basic emotions. As expected, antagonists are motivated almost exclusively by the desire for social dominance, their personality traits correspond to this motive, and they elicit strongly negative emotional responses from readers. Protagonists are oriented to cooperative and affiliative behavior and elicit positive emotional responses from readers. Novels therefore apparently enable readers to participate vicariously in an egalitarian social dynamic like that found in hunter-gatherer societies. We infer that agonistic structure in novels simulates social behaviors that fulfill an adaptive social function and perhaps stimulates impulses toward these behaviors in real life.

    [Keywords: egalitarian groups, literature, social dominance, stigmatization]

  43. 2011-gensowski.pdf: ⁠, Miriam Gensowski, James Heckman, Peter Savelyev (2011-01-24; iq):

    [Preprint version of ]

    This paper estimates the internal rate of return (IRR) to education for men and women of the ⁠, a 70-year long prospective cohort study of high-ability individuals. The Terman data is unique in that it not only provides full working-life earnings histories of the participants, but it also includes detailed profiles of each subject, including IQ and measures of latent personality traits. Having information on latent personality traits is important as it allows us to measure the importance of personality on educational attainment and lifetime earnings.

    Our analysis addresses two problems of the literature on returns to education: First, we establish causality of the treatment effect of education on earnings by implementing generalized matching on a full set of observable individual characteristics and unobserved personality traits. Second, since we observe lifetime earnings data, our estimates of the IRR are direct and do not depend on the assumptions that are usually made in order to justify the interpretation of regression coefficients as rates of return.

    For the males, the returns to education beyond high school are sizeable. For example, the IRR for obtaining a bachelor’s degree over a high school diploma is 11.1%, and for a doctoral degree over a bachelor’s degree it is 6.7%. These results are unique because they highlight the returns to high-ability and high-education individuals, who are not well-represented in regular data sets.

    Our results highlight the importance of personality and intelligence on our outcome variables. We find that personality traits similar to the personality traits are statistically-significant factors that help determine educational attainment and lifetime earnings. Even holding the level of education constant, measures of personality traits have statistically-significant effects on earnings. Similarly, IQ is rewarded in the labor market, independently of education. Most of the effect of personality and IQ on life-time earnings arise late in life, during the prime working years. Therefore, estimates from samples with shorter durations underestimate the treatment effects.

  44. http://www.johndcook.com/blog/2010/09/13/applied-topology-and-dante-an-interview-with-robert-ghrist/

  45. https://www.imdb.com/chart/top

  46. https://www.nytimes.com/ref/movies/1000best.html

  47. https://www.imdb.com/year/

  48. https://www.imdb.com/stats

  49. 2008-imdb-moviesbygenrebyyear.txt

  50. http://www.davidbordwell.net/blog/2012/02/13/pandoras-digital-box-pix-and-pixels/

  51. https://www.nickbostrom.com/ethics/statusquo.pdf

  52. http://io9.com/5877874/lost-films

  53. https://www.amazon.com/Graphs-Maps-Trees-Abstract-Literary/dp/1844671852/

  54. https://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/24/magazine/watching-tv-makes-you-smarter.html

  55. https://kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2011/03/your_attention.php

  56. https://www.amazon.com/The-Seven-League-Crutches-Randall-Jarrell/dp/B000OKLJNI/

  57. http://www.chicagotribune.com/entertainment/ct-ent-0621-focus-poetry-foundation-20110620,0,1984480,full.story

  58. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-11484494

  59. http://www.bowkerinfo.com/pubtrack/AnnualBookProduction2010/ISBN_Output_2002-2010.pdf

  60. http://web.archive.org/web/20110716073604/http://www.bowker.com/index.php/press-releases/633-print-isnt-dead-says-bowkers-annual-book-production-report

  61. http://booksearch.blogspot.com/2010/08/books-of-world-stand-up-and-be-counted.html

  62. https://www.animenewsnetwork.com/answerman/2011-02-25

  63. https://github.com/kragen/knuth-interview-2006

  64. http://youtube-global.blogspot.com/2010/11/great-scott-over-35-hours-of-video.html

  65. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_27/b3991115.htm

  66. https://www.gutenberg.org/files/11945/11945-h/11945-h.htm#link2H_4_0004

  67. http://www.rjgeib.com/thoughts/gunner/bad-poets.html

  68. https://www.amazon.com/Poetry-Age-Randall-Jarrell/dp/0813021081/

  69. https://web.archive.org/web/20121204074732/http://www.wired.com/entertainment/hollywood/news/2008/01/sleep_dealer

  70. 1963-asimov

  71. http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/fall2011/innovation-starvation

  72. http://www.wired.com/beyond_the_beyond/2011/08/design-fiction-nasa-inspired-works-of-fiction/

  73. http://www.wired.com/beyond_the_beyond/2011/08/nasa-inspired-works-of-fiction-the-masses-speak/

  74. http://www.tor.com/blogs/2013/06/neil-gaiman-why-fiction-is-dangerous

  75. https://www.theparisreview.org/interviews/6089/the-art-of-fiction-no-211-william-gibson

  76. #propaganda

  77. http://www.roangelo.net/logwitt/logwitt5.html

  78. https://www.overcomingbias.com/2006/12/biases_of_scien.html

  79. https://www.overcomingbias.com/2007/11/what-insight-li.html

  80. https://www.overcomingbias.com/2009/01/disagreement-is-nearfar-bias.html

  81. https://www.overcomingbias.com/2009/01/beware-detached-detail.html

  82. https://www.overcomingbias.com/2009/03/bsg-is-detached-detail.html

  83. https://www.overcomingbias.com/2009/02/against-propaganda-.html

  84. http://www.antipope.org/charlie/blog-static/2011/09/science-fiction-as-foresight.html

  85. https://www.amazon.com/Crisis-Zefra-Karl-Schroeder/dp/0662406435/

  86. 1996-slater.pdf

  87. 2010-lee.pdf

  88. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/TiDGXt3WrQwtCdDj3/do-we-believe-everything-we-re-told

  89. https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/RealityIsUnrealistic

  90. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/XuLG6M7sHuenYWbfC/the-sword-of-good

  91. http://www.salon.com/2002/12/17/tolkien_brin/

  92. http://www.davidbrin.com/starwarsontrial.html

  93. http://img2.tapuz.co.il/forums/1_116636321.pdf

  94. http://www.wjh.harvard.edu/%7Edtg/Gilbert%20et%20al%20%28EVERYTHING%20YOU%20READ%29.pdf

  95. 2005-hasson.pdf

  96. 2009-richter.pdf: ⁠, Tobias Richter, Sascha Schroeder, Britta Wöhrmann (2009; psychology):

    In social cognition, knowledge-based validation of information is usually regarded as relying on strategic and resource-demanding processes. Research on language comprehension, in contrast, suggests that validation processes are involved in the construction of a referential representation of the communicated information. This view implies that individuals can use their knowledge to validate incoming information in a routine and efficient manner.

    Consistent with this idea, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that individuals are able to reject false assertions efficiently when they have validity-relevant beliefs. Validation processes were carried out routinely even when individuals were put under additional cognitive load during comprehension. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the rejection of false information occurs automatically and interferes with affirmative responses in a nonsemantic task (epistemic ). Experiment 4 also revealed complementary interference effects of true information with negative responses in a nonsemantic task.

    These results suggest the existence of fast and efficient validation processes that protect mental representations from being contaminated by false and inaccurate information.

    [Keywords: beliefs, comprehension, situation model, truth value, validation]

  97. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.144.6715&rep=rep1&type=pdf

  98. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.219.1595&rep=rep1&type=pdf

  99. http://faculty.fuqua.duke.edu/~gavan/bio/GJF_articles/hypothetical_questions_jcr_01.pdf

  100. 2013-laham.pdf

  101. https://www.pnas.org/content/111/24/8788.full

  102. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/BaCWFCxBQYjJXSsah/priming-and-contamination

  103. http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/psp962249.pdf

  104. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9046/17e3cedfcd0c41707ef1499e4f2878a20fb8.pdf

  105. 2008-appel.pdf

  106. 2008-winterbottom.pdf

  107. 1998-shrum.pdf: ⁠, L. J. Shrum, Robert S. Wyer, Jr., Thomas C. O'Guinn (1998-03-01; psychology):

    Two studies investigated the extent to which heavy television viewing affects consumers’ perceptions of social reality and the cognitive processes that underlie these effects. Both studies found evidence that heavy viewers’ beliefs about social reality are more consistent with the content of television programming than are those of light viewers. The use of a methodology provided support for the notion that television is a causal factor in the formation of these beliefs and that a failure to discount television-based exemplars in forming these beliefs accounts for its influence. Implications of these results for a heuristic processing model of television effects are discussed.

  108. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.824.4365&rep=rep1&type=pdf

  109. 2006-slater.pdf

  110. 2004-cohen.pdf: ⁠, Jonathan Cohen (2004-04-01; culture):

    This study examined the responses of television viewers to the potential loss of their favorite television characters. A sample of 381 Israeli adults completed questionnaires, including questions about their relationships with their favorite characters, how they would react if those characters were taken off the air, and their attachment styles. Results showed that viewers expecting to lose their favorite characters anticipate negative reactions similar to those experienced after the dissolution of social relationships. These reactions were related both to the intensity of the parasocial relationship with the favorite character and to the viewers’ attachment style. Anxious–ambivalently attached respondents anticipated the most negative responses. The results are discussed in light of their contribution to attachment research and as evidence of the similarity between parasocial relationships and close social relationships.

  111. http://psycho.student.kuleuven.be/psychopedia/samenvattingen/1stebach/Sociale%201/soc%20activering.pdf

  112. http://home.fsw.vu.nl/ea.konijn/files/Konijn_Bushman_MEP_07.pdf

  113. 2012-young-2.pdf

  114. 2012-young.pdf: ⁠, Ariana F. Young, Shira Gabriel, Gretchen B. Sechrist (2012-02-02; culture):

    Much research demonstrates that exposure to thin media ideals has a negative effect on women’s body image.

    The present research suggests a notable and important exception to this rule. The authors propose the parasocial relationship-moderation hypothesis—that parasocial, or one-sided, relationships (PSRs) moderate the effects of thin media figures on body image. Specifically, the authors propose that having a PSR with a media figure increases the likelihood of assimilating, rather than contrasting, the PSR’s body to the self.

    1. Study 1 found that women who perceived similarity with a thin model felt better about their bodies than those who did not perceive similarity.
    2. Study 2 found that women were more satisfied with their bodies after exposure to a favorite celebrity they perceived as thin than a control celebrity they perceived as thin.
    3. Finally, Study 3 suggests that assimilation was the underlying mechanism of increased body satisfaction after exposure to a thin favorite celebrity.

    [Keywords: social comparison, assimilation, body image, parasocial relationships]

  115. 2009-derrick.pdf: “Social surrogacy: How favored television programs provide the experience of belonging”⁠, Jaye L. Derrick, Shira Gabriel, Kurt Hugenberg

  116. http://boa.unimib.it/bitstream/10281/23046/1/Watching_alone_relational_goods.pdf

  117. https://edoc.unibas.ch/12113/2/20180226134529_5a9401696917e.pdf

  118. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/6383353.pdf

  119. http://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/51429/1/585630313.pdf

  120. 2014-kearney.pdf

  121. http://www.tiltfactor.org/wp-content/uploads2/Kaufman_Libby2012_JPSPadvanceonlinepublication.pdf

  122. http://uberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Norbert_Wiener_Cybernetics.pdf

  123. https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/rHBdcHGLJ7KvLJQPk/the-logical-fallacy-of-generalization-from-fictional

  124. http://www.worldinvisible.com/library/athanasius/incarnation/incarnation.p.htm

  125. 1935-eliot.pdf

  126. http://mangans.blogspot.com/2009/07/scientific-impact-of-nations.html

  127. http://people.cs.umass.edu/~wallach/workshops/nips2010css/papers/ramage.pdf

  128. http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/

  129. ⁠, John P. A. Ioannidis ():

    Summary:

    There is increasing concern that most current published research findings are false. The probability that a research claim is true may depend on study power and bias, the number of other studies on the same question, and, importantly, the ratio of true to no relationships among the relationships probed in each scientific field. In this framework, a research finding is less likely to be true when the studies conducted in a field are smaller; when effect sizes are smaller; when there is a greater number and lesser preselection of tested relationships; where there is greater flexibility in designs, definitions, outcomes, and analytical modes; when there is greater financial and other interest and prejudice; and when more teams are involved in a scientific field in chase of statistical-significance. Simulations show that for most study designs and settings, it is more likely for a research claim to be false than true. Moreover, for many current scientific fields, claimed research findings may often be simply accurate measures of the prevailing bias. In this essay, I discuss the implications of these problems for the conduct and interpretation of research.

    Published research findings are sometimes refuted by subsequent evidence, says Ioannidis, with ensuing confusion and disappointment.

  130. http://unqualified-reservations.blogspot.com/2007/08/whats-wrong-with-cs-research.html

  131. 1997-schwartz.pdf: ⁠, Charles A. Schwartz (1997-01-01; statistics  /​ ​​ ​bias):

    Large-scale uncitedness refers to the remarkable proportion of articles that do not receive a single citation within five years of publication. Equally remarkable is the brief and troubled history of this area of inquiry, which was prone to miscalculation, misinterpretation, and politicization. This article reassesses large-scale uncitedness as both a general phenomenon in the scholarly communication system and a case study of library and information science, where its rate is 72%.

  132. http://www.newsweek.com/1991/01/13/gridlock-in-the-labs.html

  133. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED536156.pdf

  134. http://chronicle.com/article/The-Research-Bust/129930/

  135. 2005-vandalen.pdf

  136. ⁠, S. Redner (1998-04-15):

    Numerical data for the distribution of citations are examined for: (i) papers published in 1981 in journals which are catalogued by the Institute for Scientific Information (783,339 papers) and (ii) 20 years of publications in Physical Review D, vols. 11–50 (24,296 papers). A Zipf plot of the number of citations to a given paper versus its citation rank appears to be consistent with a dependence for leading rank papers, with exponent close to -1/​​​​2. This, in turn, suggests that the number of papers with x citations, N(x), has a large-x power law decay N(x) x^-alpha, with alpha approximately equal to 3.

  137. http://repub.eur.nl/res/pub/6875/2001-0221.pdf

  138. ⁠, R. Mansilla, E. Köppen, G. Cocho, P. Miramontes (2006-12-24):

    An empirical law for the rank-order behavior of journal impact factors is found. Using an extensive data base on impact factors including journals on Education, Agrosciences, Geosciences, Biosciences and Environmental, Chemical, Computer, Engineering, Material, Mathematical, Medical and Physical Sciences we have found extremely good fits out—performing other rank-order models. Some extensions to other areas of knowledge are discussed.

  139. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/11/business/college-costs-are-rising-amid-a-prestige-chase.html

  140. http://www.int-res.com/articles/esep2008/8/e008p009.pdf

  141. http://chronicle.com/article/We-Must-Stop-the-Avalanche-of/65890/

  142. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1796008&show=abstract

  143. http://blogs.library.duke.edu/scholcomm/files/2012/09/Berstein-report-on-Elsevier.pdf

  144. http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/up.pdf

  145. http://www.academicmatters.ca/2009/04/reflections-on-university-press-publishing/

  146. http://alex-reid.net/

  147. http://www.alex-reid.net/2011/03/on-the-value-of-academic-blogging.html

  148. https://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2009/08/what-if-culture-froze.html

  149. http://greatpenformances.wordpress.com/2009/01/05/1959-bestselling-novels/

  150. https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/11/24/the-end-of-music/

  151. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/8347178.stm

  152. https://www.pnas.org/content/109/20/7682.full

  153. https://slate.com/culture/2011/03/bill-james-solid-fool-s-gold-why-can-we-develop-athletes-and-not-writers.html

  154. https://www.amazon.com/Solid-Fools-Gold-Detours-Conventional/dp/0879464593/

  155. https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Snape%20killed%20Dumbledore

  156. https://xkcd.com/299/

  157. http://psy2.ucsd.edu/~nchristenfeld/Publications_files/Spoilers.pdf

  158. http://www.benjaminkjohnson.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Spoiler_Alert_preprint.pdf

  159. #new-book-smell-1

  160. ⁠, M. V. Simkin, V. P. Roychowdhury (2012-02-11):

    We analyze access statistics of a hundred and fifty blog entries and news articles, for periods of up to three years. Access rate falls as an inverse power of time passed since publication. The power law holds for periods of up to thousand days. The exponents are different for different blogs and are distributed between 0.6 and 3.2. We argue that the decay of attention to a web article is caused by the link to it first dropping down the list of links on the website’s front page, and then disappearing from the front page and its subsequent movement further into background. The other proposed explanations that use a decaying with time novelty factor, or some intricate theory of human dynamics cannot explain all of the experimental observations.

  161. http://www.bakadesuyo.com/2012/06/when-do-we-stop-being-interested-in-new-thing/

  162. 2012-russell.pdf

  163. http://experimentalphilosophy.typepad.com/experimental_philosophy/2011/10/mere-exposure-to-bad-art-experiment-results.html

  164. http://radar.oreilly.com/2009/03/the-sizzling-sound-of-music.html

  165. http://seanolive.blogspot.com/2010/06/some-new-evidence-that-generation-y.html

  166. http://www.davidbordwell.net/blog/2012/02/28/pandoras-digital-box-from-films-to-files/

  167. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/edhtml/edgenre.html#vocal

  168. https://www.pnas.org/content/105/3/1050.full

  169. http://www.frontiersin.org/Human_Neuroscience/10.3389/fnhum.2011.00134/full

  170. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/12/how-does-the-brain-perceive-art/

  171. http://www.princeton.edu/~mjs3/salganik_dodds_watts06_full.pdf

  172. http://www.princeton.edu/~mjs3/salganik_watts09.pdf

  173. https://cultural-science.org/FeastPapers2008/AlexBentley1Bp.pdf

  174. ⁠, Salganik, Matthew J. Watts, Duncan J (2008):

    Individuals influence each others’ decisions about cultural products such as songs, books, and movies; but to what extent can the perception of success become a “self-fulfilling prophecy”? We have explored this question experimentally by artificially inverting the true popularity of songs in an online “music market,” in which 12,207 participants listened to and downloaded songs by unknown bands. We found that most songs experienced self-fulfilling prophecies, in which perceived-but initially false-popularity became real over time. We also found, however, that the inversion was not self-fulfilling for the market as a whole, in part because the very best songs recovered their popularity in the long run. Moreover, the distortion of market information reduced the correlation between appeal and popularity, and led to fewer overall downloads. These results, although partial and speculative, suggest a new approach to the study of cultural markets, and indicate the potential of web-based experiments to explore the social psychological origin of other macro-sociological phenomena.

  175. http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2009/06/16/ethics

  176. http://www-psych.stanford.edu/~knutson/bad/berns12.pdf

  177. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Discourse_on_the_Method/Part_2

  178. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/E+unibus+pluram%3A+television+and+U.S.+fiction.-a013952319

  179. http://rocknerd.co.uk/2013/09/13/culture-is-not-about-aesthetics-punk-rock-is-now-enforced-by-law/

  180. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/On_Authorship

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  183. https://what-if.xkcd.com/76/

  184. http://everynoise.com/engenremap.html

  185. https://www.theguardian.com/music/2014/sep/04/-sp-from-charred-death-to-deep-filthstep-the-1264-genres-that-make-modern-music

  186. https://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2014/nov/11/why-read-new-books/

  187. https://slatestarcodex.com/2014/12/07/a-story-with-zombies/

  188. https://www.theguardian.com/books/booksblog/2015/jan/19/three-thousand-books-choose-reading-carefully

  189. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/23/magazine/the-creative-apocalypse-that-wasnt.html

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  191. http://priceonomics.com/why-is-art-expensive/

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  194. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/009050e4-75ea-11e2-9891-00144feabdc0.html

  195. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/jun/22/secret-of-taste-why-we-like-what-we-like

  196. ⁠, Franco Moretti (2000-03-01):

    The history of the world is the slaughterhouse of the world, reads a famous Hegelian aphorism; and of literature. The majority of books disappear forever—and “majority” actually misses the point: if we set today’s canon of nineteenth-century British novels at two hundred titles (which is a very high figure), they would still be only about 0.5 percent of all published novels.

    [Literature paper by ⁠. Moretti considers the vast production of literature of which only the slightest fraction is still read and studied as part of a ‘canon’. Canons are formed by market forces, leading to preservation and reading in a feedback loop—far from academics selecting the best based on esthetic grounds. Moretti offers a case study of Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes by comparing to all the now-forgotten competing detective fiction, to study the evolution of the idea of a ‘clue’; his competitors reveal its difficult evolution and how everyone groped towards it. Surprisingly, clues were neither obvious nor popular nor showed any clear evolution towards success. This raises puzzling questions about how to create and interpret ‘literary history’.]

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  199. https://www.npr.org/sections/therecord/2018/01/16/578216674/too-much-music-a-failed-experiment-in-dedicated-listening

  200. https://lithub.com/here-are-the-biggest-fiction-bestsellers-of-the-last-100-years/?single=true

  201. 2010-dobelli.pdf: ⁠, Rolf Dobelli (2010; culture):

    This article is the antidote to news. It is long, and you probably won’t be able to skim it. Thanks to heavy news consumption, many people have lost the reading habit and struggle to absorb more than four pages straight. This article will show you how to get out of this trap—if you are not already too deeply in it.

  202. https://spectrum.ieee.org/the-lost-picture-show-hollywood-archivists-cant-outpace-obsolescence

  203. 2019-candia.pdf: ⁠, Cristian Candia, C. Jara-Figueroa, Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert, Albert-László Barabási, César A. Hidalgo (2019-12-10; culture):

    Collective memory and attention are sustained by two channels: oral communication (communicative memory) and the physical recording of information (cultural memory). Here, we use data on the citation of academic articles and patents, and on the online attention received by songs, movies and biographies, to describe the temporal decay of the attention received by cultural products. We show that, once we isolate the temporal dimension of the decay, the attention received by cultural products decays following a universal biexponential function. We explain this universality by proposing a mathematical model based on communicative and cultural memory, which fits the data better than previously proposed log-normal and exponential models. Our results reveal that biographies remain in our communicative memory the longest (20–30 years) and music the shortest (about 5.6 years). These findings show that the average attention received by cultural products decays following a universal biexponential function.

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  206. ⁠, Robin Hanson (2020-11-29):

    Just as authors focus on telling stories in familiar spaces with familiar minds, they also focus on telling stories in familiar moral universes. This effect is, if anything, even stronger than the space and mind effects, as moral colors are even more central to our need for stories. Compared to other areas of our lives, we especially want our stories to help us examine and affirm our moral stances…These are the familiar sorts of “moral ambiguity” in stories said to have that feature, such as The Sopranos or Game of Thrones. But you’ll note that these are almost all stories told in familiar moral universes. By which I mean that we are quite familiar with how to morally evaluate the sort of actions that happen there. The set of acts is familiar, as are their consequences, and the moral calculus used to judge them.

    But there is another sort of “moral ambiguity” that reader/​​​​viewers hate, and so authors studiously avoid. And that is worlds where we find it hard to judge the morality of actions, even when those actions have big consequences for characters. Where our usual quick and dirty moral language doesn’t apply very well. Where even though in principle our most basic and general moral languages might be able to work out rough descriptions and evaluations, in practice that would be tedious and unsatisfying.

    And, strikingly, the large complex social structures and organizations that dominate our world are mostly not familiar moral universes to most of us. For example, big firms, agencies, and markets. The worlds of Moral Mazes and of Pfeffer’s Power⁠. (In fiction: ⁠.) Our stories thus tend to avoid such contexts, unless they happen to allow an especially clear moral calculus. Such as a firm polluting to cause cancer, or a boss sexually harassing a subordinate.

    This is why our stories tend to take place in relatively old fashioned social worlds. Consider the popularity of the Western, or of pop science fiction stories like Star Wars that are essentially Westerns with more gadgets. Stories that take place in modern settings tend to focus on personal, romantic, and family relations, as these remain to us relatively familiar moral universes. Or on artist biopics. Or on big conflicts like war or corrupt police or politicians. For which we have comfortable moral framings. Stories we write today set in say the 1920s feel to us more comfortable than do stories set in the 2020s, or than stories written in the 1920s and set in that time. That is because stories written today can inherit a century of efforts to work out clearer moral stances on which 1920s actions would be more moral. For example, as to our eyes female suffrage is clearly good, we can see any characters from then who doubted it as clearly evil in the eyes of good characters. As clear as if they tortured kittens. To our eyes, their world has now clearer moral colors, and stories set there work better as stories for us.

    …This highlights an important feature of our modern world, and an important process that continues within it. Our social world has changed a lot faster than has our shared moral evaluations of typical actions possible in our new world. And our telling stories, and coming to agree on which stories we embrace, is a big part of creating such a fluid language of shared moral evaluations.

    This helps to explain why we invest so much time and energy into fiction, far more than did any of our ancestors. Why story tellers are given high and activist-like status, and why we fight so much to convince others to share our beliefs on which stories are best.

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