1969-kevany.pdf: “Prophylaxis and Treatment of Endemic Goiter with Iodized Oil in Rural Ecuador and Peru”, (1969-12-01; ):
Endemic goiter continues to be a substantial health problem in many areas of the world. In some areas the disease is so severe that cretinism and other associated defects are found. In many areas, geographic, economic, and other factors prevent the use of iodized salt as a preventive measure.
A pilot program using iodized poppy seed oil has been instituted in two rural communities in Ecuador and three in Peru. Results after approximately 2 years indicate the feasibility and effectiveness of the programs. There has been a sharp reduction in the incidence of goiter. Cretinism has not yet appeared among the progeny of the population injected with iodized oil, but several instances have appeared in control groups. The use of iodized oil as a public health procedure for the prevention of endemic goiter and its associated defects is an acceptable measure in regions where salt-iodization programs cannot be presently undertaken.
1994-pretell.pdf: “Impairment of mental development by iodine deficiency and its correction. A retrospective view of studies in Peru”, Eduardo A. Pretell, Artidoro Caceres ( )
1994-southon.pdf: “Dietary intake and micronutrient status of adolescents: effect of vitamin and trace element supplementation on indices of status and performance in tests of verbal and non-verbal intelligence”, Susan Southon, A. J. A. Wright, P. M. Finglas, Angela L. Bailey, Julie M. Loughridge, A. D. Walker ( )
1999-vanstuijvenberg.pdf: “9757 van Stuijvenberg”, David ( )
2002-case.pdf: “Economic Status and Health in Childhood: The Origins of the Gradient”, (2002-12-01; ):
The well-known positive association between health and income in adulthood has antecedents in childhood. Not only is children’s health positively related to household income, but the relationship between household income and children’s health becomes more pronounced as children age. Part of the relationship can be explained by the arrival and impact of chronic conditions. Children from lower-income households with chronic conditions have worse health than do those from higher-income households. The adverse health effects of lower income accumulate over children’s lives. Part of the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status may work through the impact of parents’ income on children’s health.
2002-wu.pdf: “Iodised salt for preventing iodine deficiency disorders”, Wu T, Liu GJ, Li P, Clar C ( )
2004-pearce.pdf: “Dietary Iodine in Pregnant Women from the Boston, Massachusetts Area”, Elizabeth N. Pearce, Hamid R. Bazrafshan, Xuemei He, Sam Pino, Lewis E. Braverman ( )
2005-caldwell.pdf: “Urinary Iodine Concentration: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2002”, Kathleen L. Caldwell, Robert Jones, Joseph G. Hollowell ( )
2006-li.pdf: “Surveillance on iodine deficiency disorders in China in 2005: an analysis of intelligence test”, Ying Li, Dong Wang, Xiao-hui Su, Shu-bin Zhang, Jun Yu
2009-berbel.pdf: “Delayed Neurobehavioral Development in Children Born to Pregnant Women with Mild Hypothyroxinemia During the First Month of Gestation: The Importance of Early Iodine Supplementation”, Pere Berbel, José Luis Mestre, Asunción Santamaría, Inmaculada Palazón, Ascensión Franco, Marisa Graells, Antonio González-Torga, Gabriella Morreale de Escobar ( )
2009-wang.pdf: “Iodine deficiency disorders after a decade of universal salt iodization in a severe iodine deficiency region in China”, Yanling Wang, Zhongliang Zhang, Pengfei Ge, Yibo Wang, Shigong Wang
2011-wu.pdf: “Analysis on iodine nutritional status and intelligent development of children aged 8-10 in coastal salt-producing areas and coastal non-salt-producing areas”, Xiao-qing Wu, Long Dai, Ya-ping Zhang, Jian-jun Niu, Min Chen, Tian-chang Kang, Zhi-min Qiu, Jin-lian Ke, Li-xing Zheng, Yan-feng Zhang, Qing-qi Hong
2011-yao.pdf: “Analysis of intelligence quotient of school children surveyed in Dalian city of Liaoning province during 2006 to 2009”, Wei Yao, Bing Zhang, Shi-liang Shao, Dan mei, Feng-yi Chen
2012-tong.pdf: “Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children testing among Chinese children with learning difficulties: a meta-analysis”, Fang Tong, Tong Fu, Jing Sun
2013-feyrer.pdf: “The Cognitive Effects of Micronutrient Deficiency: Evidence from Salt Iodization in the United States”, James Feyrer, Dimitra Politi, David N. Weil ( )
2013-huang.pdf: “Characteristics of IQ of 293 school-aged children”, Min-ning Huang, Gui-feng Yang
2013-trumpff.pdf: “Mild iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Europe and its consequences for cognitive and psychomotor development of children: A review”, Caroline Trumpff, Jean De Schepper, Jean Tafforeau, Herman Van Oyen, Johan Vanderfaeillie, Stefanie Vandevijvere ( )
2014-politi.pdf: “The Impact of Iodine Deficiency Eradication on Schooling: Evidence from the Introduction of Iodized Salt in Switzerland”, (2014-05-09; ):
I study the impact of salt iodization in Switzerland on graduation rates. The programme, which began in 1922 and continues to this day, was the first wide-reaching nutritional intervention ever to take place. Iodine deficiency in utero causes mental retardation, and correcting the deficiency is expected to increase the productivity of a population by increasing its cognitive ability. The exogenous increase in cognitive ability brought about by the iodization program is also useful in the context of disentangling the effects of innate ability and education on later-life outcomes. I identify the impact of iodization on graduation rates by exploiting pre-existing geographic variation in the prevalence of iodine deficiency, as well as spatial and temporal variation in the introduction of iodized salt across Swiss cantons. By looking at sharp, discontinuous increases in iodized salt circulation I show that the eradication of iodine deficiency in previously deficient areas statistically-significantly increased graduation rates from upper secondary and tertiary education. My results are robust to falsification tests and different measures of iodine deficiency. [Keywords: Cognitive ability, education, human capital, productivity]
2015-monahan.pdf: “Costs and benefits of iodine supplementation for pregnant women in a mildly to moderately iodine-deficient population: a modelling analysis”, (2015-08-10; ):
Background: Results from previous studies show that the cognitive ability of offspring might be irreversibly damaged as a result of their mother’s mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy. A reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) score has broad economic and societal cost implications because intelligence affects wellbeing, income, and education outcomes. Although pregnancy and lactation lead to increased iodine needs, no UK recommendations for iodine supplementation have been issued to pregnant women. We aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of iodine supplementation versus no supplementation for pregnant women in a mildly to moderately iodine-deficient population for which a population-based iodine supplementation programme—for example, universal salt iodisation—did not exist.
Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, EconLit, and NHS EED for economic studies that linked IQ and income published in all languages until Aug 21, 2014. We took clinical data relating to iodine deficiency in pregnant women and the effect on IQ in their children aged 8–9 years from primary research. A decision tree was developed to compare the treatment strategies of iodine supplementation in tablet form with no iodine supplementation for pregnant women in the UK. Analyses were done from a health service perspective (analysis 1; taking direct health service costs into account) and societal perspective (analysis 2; taking education costs and the value of an IQ point itself into account), and presented in terms of cost (in sterling, relevant to 2013) per IQ point gained in the offspring. We made data-supported assumptions to complete these analyses, but used a conservative approach that limited the benefits of iodine supplementation and overestimated its potential harms.
Findings: Our systematic search identified 1361 published articles, of which eight were assessed to calculate the monetary value of an IQ point. A discounted lifetime value of an additional IQ point based on earnings was estimated to be £3297 (study estimates range from £1319 to £11 967) for the offspring cohort. Iodine supplementation was cost saving from both a health service perspective (saving £199 per pregnant woman [sensitivity analysis range –£42 to £229]) and societal perspective (saving £4476 per pregnant woman [sensitivity analysis range £540 to £4495]), with a net gain of 1·22 IQ points in each analysis. Base case results were robust to sensitivity analyses.
Interpretation: Iodine supplementation for pregnant women in the UK is potentially cost saving. This finding also has implications for the 1·88 billion people in the 32 countries with iodine deficiency worldwide. Valuation of IQ points should consider non-earnings benefits—eg, health benefits associated with a higher IQ not germane to earnings.
2015-politi.pdf: “The effects of the generalized use of iodized salt on occupational patterns in Switzerland”, (2015-12-15; ):
I estimate the long-term impact of the first large-scale nutritional supplementation program, salt iodization, which took place in Switzerland in the 1920s and 1930s. Iodized salt improved the health environment in utero, and it eradicated mental retardation caused by insufficient iodine intake. By exploiting variation in the pre-existing prevalence of iodine deficiency, as well as differences in the timing of the intervention across Swiss cantons, I show that cohorts born in previously highly deficient areas after the introduction of iodized salt were more likely to enter top-tier occupations with higher cognitive demands. As a result, wages of these cohorts were higher, accounting for about 1.9% of annual median earnings, or 2% of Swiss GDP per capita in 1991. [Keywords: Iodine deficiency, cognitive ability, occupational choice, human capital, productivity]
2015-zimmerman.pdf: “Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders”, Michael B. Zimmermann, Kristien Boelaert
2017-gowachirapant.pdf: “Effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on child neurodevelopment: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial”, Sueppong Gowachirapant, Nidhi Jaiswal, Alida Melse-Boonstra, Valeria Galetti, Sara Stinca, Ian Mackenzie, Susan Thomas, Tinku Thomas, Pattanee Winichagoon, Krishnamachari Srinivasan, Michael B. Zimmermann
2017-pearce.pdf: “Iodine Supplementation for Premature Infants Does Not Improve IQ”, Pearce Elizabeth N. ( )
2020-addo.pdf: “An Integrated Infant and Young Child Feeding and Small-Quantity Lipid-based Nutrient Supplementation Program Is Associated with Improved Gross Motor and Communication Scores of Children 6-18 Months in the Democratic Republic of Congo”, O. Yaw Addo, Katie Tripp, Simeon Nanama, Bope Albert, Fanny Sandalinas, Ambroise Nanema, Maria Elena Jefferds, Heather B. Clayton, Ralph D. Whitehead Jr., Aashima Garg, Rol,Kupka ScD, Lindsey M. Locks ScD MPH