2005-zhao.pdf: “What Makes the Difference? A Practical Analysis of Research on the Effectiveness of Distance Education”, Yong Zhao, Jing Lei, Bo Yan, Chun Lai, Sophia Tan (2005):
This article reports findings of a meta-analytical study of research on distance education. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the effectiveness of distance education. The results show that although the aggregated data of available studies show no statistically-significant difference in outcomes between distance education and face-to-face education as previous research reviews suggest, there is remarkable difference across the studies. Further examination of the difference reveals that distance education programs, just like traditional education programs, vary a great deal in their outcomes, and the outcome of distance education is associated with a number of pedagogical and technological factors. This study led to some important data-driven suggestions for and about distance education.
2006-bassili.pdf: “Promotion and prevention orientations in the choice to attend lectures or watch them online”, John N. Bassili (2006-11-06):
When presented with the option to use a new instructional technology, students often face an approach-avoidance conflict. This study explored promotion and prevention orientations, concepts linked to approach and avoidance in Higgins’s regulatory focus theory, in the choice to attend lectures or watch them online. Openness, a core disposition in the Big Five Model of personality, and positive attitudes towards the utility of the Internet, reflect promotion orientations that are potentially related to the choice to watch lectures online. By contrast, neuroticism, another core disposition in the Big Five Model, and anxiety about the Internet as a computer technology, reflect a prevention orientation that is potentially related to the choice of attending lectures in class. The results illustrate that both promotion and prevention are at work in the choice to attend lectures or to watch them online. Neuroticism and anxiety about the Internet as a computer technology were related to the choice to attend lectures in class, whereas the perceived utility of the Internet was related to the choice to watch lectures online. Instructional mode choice was not related to examination performance, suggesting that the choice to attend lectures or watch them online has more to do with individual differences in promotion and prevention orientations than with pedagogical characteristics that impact learning.
2019-wilmot.pdf: “A century of research on conscientiousness at work”, Michael P. Wilmot, Deniz S. Ones (2019-11-12):
Significance: Conscientiousness (C) is the most potent noncognitive predictor of occupational performance. However, questions remain about how C relates to a plethora of occupational variables, what its defining characteristics and functions are in occupational settings, and whether its performance relation differs across occupations. To answer these questions, we quantitatively review 92 meta-analyses reporting relations to 175 occupational variables. Across variables, results reveal a substantial mean effect of ρM = 20.
We then use results to synthesize 10 themes that characterize C in occupational settings. Finally, we discover that performance effects of C are weaker in high-complexity versus low-complexity to moderate-complexity occupations. Thus, for optimal occupational performance, we encourage decision makers to match C’s goal-directed motivation and behavioral restraint to more predictable environments.
Abstract: Evidence from more than 100 y of research indicates that conscientiousness (C) is the most potent noncognitive construct for occupational performance. However, questions remain about the magnitudes of its effect sizes across occupational variables, its defining characteristics and functions in occupational settings, and potential moderators of its performance relation. Drawing on 92 unique meta-analyses reporting effects for 175 distinct variables, which represent n > 1.1 million participants across k > 2,500 studies, we present the most comprehensive, quantitative review and synthesis of the occupational effects of C available in the literature. Results show C has effects in a desirable direction for 98% of variables and a grand mean of ρM = 0.20 (SD = 0.13), indicative of a potent, pervasive influence across occupational variables. Using the top 33% of effect sizes (ρ≥0.24), we synthesize 10 characteristic themes of C’s occupational functioning: (1) motivation for goal-directed performance, (2) preference for more predictable environments, (3) interpersonal responsibility for shared goals, (4) commitment, (5) perseverance, (6) self-regulatory restraint to avoid counterproductivity, and (7) proficient performance—especially for (8) conventional goals, (9) requiring persistence. Finally, we examine C’s relation to performance across 8 occupations. Results indicate that occupational complexity moderates this relation. That is, (10) high occupational complexity versus low-to-moderate occupational complexity attenuates the performance effect of C. Altogether, results suggest that goal-directed performance is fundamental to C and that motivational engagement, behavioral restraint, and environmental predictability influence its optimal occupational expression. We conclude by discussing applied and policy implications of our findings. [Keywords: conscientiousness, personality, meta-analysis, second-order meta-analysis, occupations]