/docs/conscientiousness/ Directory Listing



  • 2021-gensowski.pdf: ⁠, Miriam Gensowski, Mette Gørtz, Stefanie Schurer (2021-04-01):

    We document gender and socioeconomic inequalities in personality over the life cycle (age 18–75), using the Big Five 2 (BFI-2) inventory linked to administrative data on a large Danish population.

    We estimate life-cycle profiles non-parametrically and adjust for cohort and sample-selection effects. We find that:

    1. Women of all ages score more highly than men on all personality traits, including 3 that are positively associated with wages;

    2. High-education groups score more favorably on Openness to Experience, ⁠, ⁠, and than low-education groups, while there is no socioeconomic inequality by ⁠;

    3. Over the life cycle, gender and socioeconomic gaps remain constant, with 2 exceptions: the gender and SES gaps in Openness to Experience widen, while gender differences in Neuroticism, a trait associated with worse outcomes, diminish with age.

    We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of gender wage gaps, household production models, and ⁠.

    [Keywords: inequality, personality, Big Five-2 Inventory, life cycle dynamics, gender disadvantage, socioeconomic disadvantage]

  • 2020-andersen.pdf: ⁠, Simon Calmar Andersen, Miriam Gensowski, Steven G. Ludeke, Oliver P. John (2020-01-02):

    Objective: Many studies have demonstrated that personality traits predict academic performance for students in high school and college. Much less evidence exists on whether the relationship between personality traits and academic performance changes from childhood to adolescence, and existing studies show very mixed findings. This study tests one hypothesis—that the importance of Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness for academic performance changes fundamentally during school—against an alternative hypothesis suggesting that the changing relationships found in previous research are largely measurement artifacts.

    Method: We used a nationwide sample of 135,389 primary and lower secondary students from Grade 4 to Grade 8. We replicated all results in a separate sample of another 127,375 students.

    Results: We found that academic performance was equally strongly related to our measure of Conscientiousness at all these grade levels, and the statistical-significance of Agreeableness and Emotional Stability predominantly reflected their connections with Conscientiousness. However, age also appeared to shape the relationship between Emotional Stability and performance.

    Conclusion: Amidst the replication crisis in psychology these findings demonstrate a very stable and predictable relationship between personality traits and academic performance, which may have important implications for the education of children already in primary school.

  • 2019-wilmot.pdf: ⁠, Michael P. Wilmot, Deniz S. Ones (2019-11-12; backlinks):

    Significance: Conscientiousness (C) is the most potent noncognitive predictor of occupational performance. However, questions remain about how C relates to a plethora of occupational variables, what its defining characteristics and functions are in occupational settings, and whether its performance relation differs across occupations. To answer these questions, we quantitatively review 92 meta-analyses reporting relations to 175 occupational variables. Across variables, results reveal a substantial mean effect of ρM = 20.

    We then use results to synthesize 10 themes that characterize C in occupational settings. Finally, we discover that performance effects of C are weaker in high-complexity versus low-complexity to moderate-complexity occupations. Thus, for optimal occupational performance, we encourage decision makers to match C’s goal-directed motivation and behavioral restraint to more predictable environments.

    Evidence from more than 100 y of research indicates that conscientiousness (C) is the most potent noncognitive construct for occupational performance. However, questions remain about the magnitudes of its effect sizes across occupational variables, its defining characteristics and functions in occupational settings, and potential moderators of its performance relation. Drawing on 92 unique meta-analyses reporting effects for 175 distinct variables, which represent n > 1.1 million participants across k > 2,500 studies, we present the most comprehensive, quantitative review and synthesis of the occupational effects of C available in the literature. Results show C has effects in a desirable direction for 98% of variables and a grand mean of ρM = 0.20 (SD = 0.13), indicative of a potent, pervasive influence across occupational variables. Using the top 33% of effect sizes (ρ≥0.24), we synthesize 10 characteristic themes of C’s occupational functioning: (1) motivation for goal-directed performance, (2) preference for more predictable environments, (3) interpersonal responsibility for shared goals, (4) commitment, (5) perseverance, (6) self-regulatory restraint to avoid counterproductivity, and (7) proficient performance—especially for (8) conventional goals, (9) requiring persistence. Finally, we examine C’s relation to performance across 8 occupations. Results indicate that occupational complexity moderates this relation. That is, (10) high occupational complexity versus low-to-moderate occupational complexity attenuates the performance effect of C. Altogether, results suggest that goal-directed performance is fundamental to C and that motivational engagement, behavioral restraint, and environmental predictability influence its optimal occupational expression. We conclude by discussing applied and policy implications of our findings.

    [Keywords: conscientiousness, personality, meta-analysis, second-order meta-analysis, occupations]

  • 2015-lin.pdf: “Online Foreign Language Education: What Are the Proficiency Outcomes?”⁠, Chin-Hsi Lin, Mark Warschauer

  • 2014-murray.pdf: “How are conscientiousness and cognitive ability related to one another? A re-examination of the intelligence compensation hypothesis”⁠, Aja L. Murray, Wendy Johnson, Matt McGue, William G. Iacono (backlinks)

  • 2013-keller.pdf: “The importance of personality in students’ perceptions of the online learning experience”⁠, Heath Keller, Steven J. Karau (backlinks)

  • 2013-fariba.pdf: “Academic Performance of Virtual Students based on their Personality Traits, Learning Styles and Psychological Well Being: A Prediction”⁠, Tabe Bordbar Fariba (backlinks)

  • 2011-uysala.pdf: “Unemployment duration and personality”⁠, Selver Derya Uysal, Winfried Pohlmeier (backlinks)

  • 2011-mellish.pdf: “Microsoft Word - MellishLinda Final Dissertation 4-13-2012.docx” (backlinks)


  • 2010-abzug.pdf: “PAPER Template”⁠, IATED (backlinks)

  • 2009-nemanich.pdf: “Enhancing Knowledge Transfer in Classroom Versus Online Settings: The Interplay Among Instructor, Student, Content, and Context”⁠, Ambika p PrasadTECHBOOKS (backlinks)

  • 2009-duckworth.pdf: ⁠, Angela Lee Duckworth, Patrick D. Quinn, Martin E. P. Seligman (2009; backlinks):

    Some teachers are dramatically more effective than others, but traditional indicators of competence (eg., certification) explain minimal variance in performance. The rigors of teaching suggest that positive traits that buffer against adversity might contribute to teacher effectiveness.

    In this prospective longitudinal study, novice teachers (n = 390) placed in under-resourced public schools completed measures of optimistic explanatory style, grit, and life satisfaction prior to the school year. At the conclusion of the school year, teacher effectiveness was measured in terms of the academic gains of students. All 3 positive traits individually predicted teacher performance. When entered simultaneously, however, only grit and life satisfaction remained statistically-significant predictors.

    These findings suggest that positive traits should be considered in the selection and training of teachers.

    [Keywords: learned helplessness, explanatory style, grit, life satisfaction, teacher performance]

  • 2008-edmonds.pdf: “spco_037.fm” (backlinks)

  • 2007-bishopclark.pdf: “ET35-4G.vp” (backlinks)

  • 2007-noftle.pdf: ⁠, Erik E. Noftle, Richard W. Robins (2007; backlinks):

    The authors examined relations between the and academic outcomes, specifically SAT scores and grade-point average (GPA).

    Openness was the strongest predictor of SAT verbal scores, and Conscientiousness was the strongest predictor of both high school and college GPA. These relations replicated across 4 independent samples and across 4 different personality inventories. Further analyses showed that Conscientiousness predicted college GPA, even after controlling for high school GPA and SAT scores, and that the relation between Conscientiousness and college GPA was mediated, both concurrently and longitudinally, by increased academic effort and higher levels of perceived academic ability. The relation between Openness and SAT verbal scores was independent of academic achievement and was mediated, both concurrently and longitudinally, by perceived verbal intelligence.

    Together, these findings show that personality traits have independent and incremental effects on academic outcomes, even after controlling for traditional predictors of those outcomes.

    Table 1: Previous Findings on Personality and Academic Outcomes in College
    Table 3 Scores
    Table 5: Big Five Correlates of
  • 2006-bassili.pdf: ⁠, John N. Bassili (2006-11-06; backlinks):

    When presented with the option to use a new instructional technology, students often face an approach-avoidance conflict. This study explored promotion and prevention orientations, concepts linked to approach and avoidance in Higgins’s regulatory focus theory, in the choice to attend lectures or watch them online. Openness, a core disposition in the Big Five Model of personality, and positive attitudes towards the utility of the Internet, reflect promotion orientations that are potentially related to the choice to watch lectures online. By contrast, neuroticism, another core disposition in the Big Five Model, and anxiety about the Internet as a computer technology, reflect a prevention orientation that is potentially related to the choice of attending lectures in class. The results illustrate that both promotion and prevention are at work in the choice to attend lectures or to watch them online. Neuroticism and anxiety about the Internet as a computer technology were related to the choice to attend lectures in class, whereas the perceived utility of the Internet was related to the choice to watch lectures online. Instructional mode choice was not related to examination performance, suggesting that the choice to attend lectures or watch them online has more to do with individual differences in promotion and prevention orientations than with pedagogical characteristics that impact learning.

  • 2005-schniederjans.pdf: “Relationship of Student Undergraduate Achievement and Personality Characteristics in a Total Web-Based Environment: An Empirical Study” (backlinks)

  • 2005-zhao.pdf: ⁠, Yong Zhao, Jing Lei, Bo Yan, Chun Lai, Sophia Tan (2005; backlinks):

    This article reports findings of a meta-analytical study of research on distance education. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the effectiveness of distance education. The results show that although the aggregated data of available studies show no statistically-significant difference in outcomes between distance education and face-to-face education as previous research reviews suggest, there is remarkable difference across the studies. Further examination of the difference reveals that distance education programs, just like traditional education programs, vary a great deal in their outcomes, and the outcome of distance education is associated with a number of pedagogical and technological factors. This study led to some important data-driven suggestions for and about distance education.

  • 2004-kim.pdf: “Schniederjans_lo”⁠, mcdonaldm (backlinks)

  • 2012-varela.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2012-ama-winterproceedings.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2011-hill.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2009-poropat.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2008-winters.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2008-nadarajah.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2008-kern.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2008-chamorro-premuzic.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2006-doherty.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2004-roberts.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2004-irani.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2004-bogg.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2003-lounsbury.pdf (backlinks)

  • 2003-elvers.pdf (backlinks)

  • 1999-judge.pdf (backlinks)

  • 1998-mount.pdf (backlinks)

  • 1997-allik.pdf (backlinks)

  • 1996-costa.pdf (backlinks)

  • 1994-krueger.pdf (backlinks)

  • 1993-friedman.pdf (backlinks)

  • 1991-barrick.pdf (backlinks)