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Algernon’s Law directory

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“The Contribution of de Novo Coding Mutations to Autism Spectrum Disorder”, Iossifov et al 2014

2014-iossifov.pdf: “The contribution of <em>de novo< / em> coding mutations to autism spectrum disorder”⁠, Ivan Iossifov, Brian J. O’Roak, Stephan J. Sanders, Michael Ronemus, Niklas Krumm, Dan Levy, Holly A. Stessman et al (2014-01-01; backlinks)

“The Social and Scientific Temporal Correlates of Genotypic Intelligence and the Flynn Effect”, Woodley 2012

2012-woodley.pdf: “The social and scientific temporal correlates of genotypic intelligence and the Flynn effect”⁠, Michael A. Woodley (2012-01-01; backlinks)

“Sleep Oscillations in the Thalamocortical System Induce Long-Term Neuronal Plasticity”, Chauvette et al 2012

2012-chauvette.pdf: “Sleep Oscillations in the Thalamocortical System Induce Long-Term Neuronal Plasticity”⁠, Sylvain Chauvette, Josée Seigneur, Igor Timofeev (2012-01-01; backlinks)

“Sleep to Upscale, Sleep to Downscale: Balancing Homeostasis and Plasticity”, Born & Feld 2012

2012-bom.pdf: “Sleep to Upscale, Sleep to Downscale: Balancing Homeostasis and Plasticity”⁠, Jan Born, Gordon B. Feld (2012-01-01; backlinks)

“Why Aren't We Smarter Already: Evolutionary Trade-Offs and Cognitive Enhancements”, Hills & Hertwig 2011

2011-hills.pdf: “Why Aren't We Smarter Already: Evolutionary Trade-Offs and Cognitive Enhancements”⁠, Thomas Hills, Ralph Hertwig (2011-12-05; ⁠, ; backlinks; similar):

Pharmacological enhancers of cognition promise a bright new future for humankind: more focus, more willpower, and better memory, with applications ranging from education to military combat. Underlying such promises is a linear, more-is-better vision of cognition that makes intuitive sense. This vision is at odds, however, with our understanding of cognition’s evolutionary origins. The mind has evolved under various constraints and consequently represents a delicate balance among these constraints.

Evidence of the trade-offs that have shaped cognition include (a) inverted U-shaped performance curves commonly found in response to pharmacological interventions and (b) unintended side effects of enhancement on other traits.

Taking an evolutionary perspective, we frame the above two sets of findings in terms of within-task (exemplified by optimal-control problems) and between-task (associated with a gain/​loss asymmetry) trade-offs, respectively.

With this framework, psychological science can provide much-needed guidance to enhancement development, a field that still lacks a theoretical foundation.

[Keywords: cognitive enhancements, trade-offs, constraints, evolution, side effects]

“Does Having Children Create Happiness?”, Copplestone et al 2009

2009-copplestone.pdf: “Does Having Children Create Happiness?”⁠, Samantha Copplestone, Patrick Dempsey, Alexa Hynes, Paul Hynes (2009-01-01; backlinks)

“The Evolutionary Origins of Obstructed Labor: Bipedalism, Encephalization, and the Human Obstetric Dilemma”

2007-wittman.pdf: “The Evolutionary Origins of Obstructed Labor: Bipedalism, Encephalization, and the Human Obstetric Dilemma” (2007-01-01; backlinks)

“Developmental Structure in Brain Evolution”, Finlay et al 2001

2001-finlay.pdf: “Developmental structure in brain evolution”⁠, Barbara L. Finlay, Richard B. Darlington, Nicholas Nicastro (2001-04-01; backlinks; similar):

How does evolution grow bigger brains? It has been widely assumed that growth of individual structures and functional systems in response to niche-specific cognitive challenges is the most plausible mechanism for brain expansion in mammals.

Comparison of multiple regressions on allometric data for 131 mammalian species, however, suggests that for 9 of 11 brain structures taxonomic and body size factors are less important than covariance of these major structures with each other. Which structure grows biggest is largely predicted by a conserved order of neurogenesis that can be derived from the basic axial structure of the developing brain. This conserved order of neurogenesis predicts the relative scaling not only of gross brain regions like the isocortex or mesencephalon, but also the level of detail of individual thalamic nuclei.

Special selection of particular areas for specific functions does occur, but it is a minor factor compared to the large-scale covariance of the whole brain. The idea that enlarged isocortex could be a “spandrel”, a by-product of structural constraints later adapted for various behaviors, contrasts with approaches to selection of particular brain regions for cognitively advanced uses, as is commonly assumed in the case of hominid brain evolution.

[Keywords: allometry⁠, brain size, cortex, development, heterochrony, hominid evolution, limbic system, neurogenesis]

“The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis: The Brain and the Digestive System in Human and Primate Evolution”, Aiello & Wheeler 1995

1995-aiello.pdf: “The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis: The Brain and the Digestive System in Human and Primate Evolution”⁠, Leslie C. Aiello, Peter Wheeler (1995; backlinks; similar):

Brain tissue is metabolically expensive, but there is no statistically-significant correlation between relative basal metabolic rate and relative brain size in humans and other encephalized mammals.

The expensive-tissue hypothesis suggests that the metabolic requirements of relatively large brains are offset by a corresponding reduction of the gut. The splanchnic organs (liver and gastro-intestinal tract) are as metabolically expensive as brains, and the gut is the only one of the metabolically expensive organs in the human body that is markedly small in relation to body size. Gut size is highly correlated with diet, and relatively small guts are compatible only with high-quality, easy-to-digest food.

The often-cited relationship between diet and relative brain size is more properly viewed as a relationship between relative brain size and relative gut size, the latter being determined by dietary quality. No matter what is selecting for relatively large brains in humans and other primates, they cannot be achieved without a shift to a high-quality diet unless there is a rise in the metabolic rate.

Therefore the incorporation of increasingly greater amounts of animal products into the diet was essential in the evolution of the large human brain.

“Natural Selection, Dietary Restriction, and Extended Longevity”

1989-phelan.pdf: “Natural selection, dietary restriction, and extended longevity” (1989-01-01; backlinks)

“Whole-genome Sequencing of Quartet Families With Autism Spectrum Disorder”

2015-yuen.pdf: “Whole-genome sequencing of quartet families with autism spectrum disorder” (backlinks)

“Learning How to 'Make a Deal': Human (Homo Sapiens) and Monkey (Macaca Mulatta) Performance When Repeatedly Faced With the Monty Hall Dilemma”

2012-klein.pdf: “Learning How to 'Make a Deal': Human (Homo sapiens) and Monkey (Macaca mulatta) Performance When Repeatedly Faced With the Monty Hall Dilemma” (backlinks)

“Pigeons on Par With Primates in Numerical Competence”

2011-scarf.pdf: “Pigeons on Par with Primates in Numerical Competence” (backlinks)

“Do Young Chimpanzees Have Extraordinary Working Memory?”

2010-cook.pdf: “Do young chimpanzees have extraordinary working memory?” (backlinks)

“Memory for the Order of Briefly Presented Numerals in Humans As a Function of Practice”

2009-silberberg.pdf: “Memory for the order of briefly presented numerals in humans as a function of practice” (backlinks)

“Modafinil Improves Attention, Inhibitory Control, and Reaction Time in Healthy, Middle-aged Rats”

2007-morgan.pdf: “Modafinil improves attention, inhibitory control, and reaction time in healthy, middle-aged rats” (backlinks)

“Childlessness among Older Women in the United States: Trends and Profiles”

2006-abma.pdf: “Childlessness among older women in the United States: trends and profiles” (backlinks)

“Assessment of Modafinil on Attentional Processes in a Five-choice Serial Reaction Time Test in the Rat”

2005-waters.pdf: “Assessment of modafinil on attentional processes in a five-choice serial reaction time test in the rat” (backlinks)

“Modafinil Facilitates Performance on a Delayed Nonmatching to Position Swim Task in Rats”

2004-ward.pdf: “Modafinil facilitates performance on a delayed nonmatching to position swim task in rats” (backlinks)

“Enhancement of Learning Processes following an Acute Modafinil Injection in Mice”

2003-beracochea.pdf: “Enhancement of learning processes following an acute modafinil injection in mice” (backlinks)

“Henneberg 1998”

1998-henneberg.pdf: “Henneberg 1998” (backlinks)

“Are Physiological Effects of Sleep Deprivation in the Rat Mediated by Bacterial Invasion?”

1996-bergmann.pdf: “Are physiological effects of sleep deprivation in the rat mediated by bacterial invasion?” (backlinks)

“Sleep Deprivation in the Rat by the Disk-over-water Method”

1995-rechtschaffen.pdf: “Sleep deprivation in the rat by the disk-over-water method” (backlinks)

“Sustained Sleep Deprivation Impairs Host Defense”

1993-everson.pdf: “Sustained sleep deprivation impairs host defense” (backlinks)

“Life History and Bioeconomy of the House Mouse”

1992-berry.pdf: “Life history and bioeconomy of the house mouse” (backlinks)