Hafu Gender Ratios in Anime

Race as reflected in gender ratios within fictional bi-racial marriages in anime/manga show equal sex ratios and Western European overrepresentation with striking absence of Korean characters.
anime, criticism, sociology, politics, statistics, R, bibliography
2011-04-062019-06-14 in progress certainty: likely importance: 1


While watch­ing , it struck me that Hagu is clearly implied to be (blue eyes & blond hair, and thought bub­bles of other char­ac­ters putting her in idyl­lic Euro­pean set­tings), and that her for­eign par­ent is the mother since the father is spec­i­fied to be a Japan­ese police chief. Hagu is not the only exam­ple I could think of - there are plenty of other exam­ples where the mother is for­eign.

And in gen­er­al, the father always seems to be Japan­ese and the mother for­eign. But isn’t this kind of odd? If we could find sta­tis­tics about this, one would expect the real­ity to be heav­ily slanted the other way - Japan­ese women mar­ry­ing GIs, mar­ry­ing for pass­ports, pre­fer­ring for­eign­ers’ more fem­i­nist atti­tudes about women work­ing out­side the home & shar­ing house­work1, or much more dubi­ous sug­ges­tions like pre­fer­ring the skin color2 or greater height and penis size of Cau­casians3. Even in Amer­i­ca, inter­ra­cial dat­ing is heav­ily in favor of Cau­casian males and Asian females rather than the other way around4, which may reflect intrin­sic pref­er­ences5 much to the agony of dis­fa­vored groups like black women6; white-Asian cou­ples in Amer­ica are the rich­est inter­ra­cial cou­ples on aver­age, which per­haps reflects the gen­eral demand for white men and Asian women7. Nor is it just Japan; Korean adver­tis­ing is strik­ingly tilted towards depict­ing Korean men with for­eign wom­en, rather than the noto­ri­ous real­ity (stem­ming from the Korean War and con­tin­ued US mil­i­tary pres­ence) of Korean women with for­eign men8, and of wars in gen­eral like WWII9. When fic­tion mir­rors real­i­ty, that needs lit­tle expla­na­tion; but when fic­tion is exactly oppo­site real­i­ty, then one begins to won­der.

And the real­ity is extremely skewed. In 2005, Japan had more female than male “for­eign res­i­dents” and most for­eign­er-Japan­ese mar­riages involve a for­eign wom­an, but the pic­ture changes when we break the fig­ures out by nation­al­i­ty. The 2006 sta­tis­tics report that 1,474 Amer­i­can men mar­ried Japan­ese wom­en, and 215 Amer­i­can women mar­ried Japan­ese men; sim­i­lar­ly, 386 Eng­lish grooms out­weigh 79 Eng­lish brides (de­spite there being many more Japan­ese men in Japan than Eng­lish men for the Eng­lish women to choose from). It’s strik­ing that there are so many more expat men than wom­en, but even pro­por­tion­ate­ly, the Amer­i­can & Eng­lish men seem to marry Japan­ese more often than the woman do10. Where do all the for­eign women come from, then? Chi­na, Korea, and the Philip­pines - all coun­tries some­what or extremely poor per capita com­pared to Japan. (Sim­i­lar pat­terns seem to occur with immi­grants in South Korea11 and Den­mark12, rais­ing the ques­tion whether this is a gen­eral First World phe­nom­e­non.) West­ern expats in East Asia and the world over com­monly exchange anec­dotes on how male West­ern expats fre­quently find a “local” girl­friend or wife, while female West­ern expats don’t seem to13.

Sex­ual and famil­ial metaphors are com­mon in con­ceiv­ing of nation­al­i­ties & races (‘the Rape of Nanking’, Japan as the ‘big brother’ in the Asian Co-pros­per­ity sphere), and it hardly needs point­ing out that it is con­sid­ered low­er-s­ta­tus to be the woman in a rela­tion­ship (the pen­e­trat­ed; con­sider the ancient Greeks’ dis­dain of whichever male was being pen­e­trated in a homo­sex­ual rela­tion­ship, or the mod­ern yaoi cul­ture’s gen­eral depic­tion of the ‘’, the ‘’).

Fears of the for­eigner steal­ing one’s women is almost uni­ver­sal, from the most advanced indus­trial women to the Yanomano who go to war pri­mar­ily to steal women from the oth­ers. See how often this fear occurs in sci­ence fic­tion & fan­ta­sy; and in the real world, we see this xeno­pho­bi­a-as-fear-of-los­ing-com­pe­ti­tion-for-women almost every­where - Asian-Amer­i­cans males com­plain - per­haps jus­ti­fi­ably given Asian-Amer­i­can female pref­er­ences for Cau­casians14 - about white men steal­ing Asian-Amer­i­can females from them, South­ern men’s fear of blacks touch­ing their women is too well-known to need ref­er­enc­ing, and for­eign male vis­i­tors to Bangkok’s red light dis­tricts find note­wor­thy the lack of hos­til­ity on the part of the native males. Domes­tic women who seek out for­eign men for sex are par­tic­u­larly con­demned; in a Japan­ese con­text, see the stereo­type15. (This may not be the real causal­i­ty; Inter­net dat­ing stud­ies sug­gest that women have stronger racial pref­er­ences than men16, which mud­dies mat­ters - if the women are pick­ier, why are more Japan­ese women mar­ry­ing out than men? But we’re inter­ested in pop­u­lar beliefs and their reflec­tion in fic­tion.)

And the dis­dain for Japan­ese women after WWII, pros­ti­tutes or oth­er­wise, and their chil­dren has been well-doc­u­mented as well as more recent minor inter­est in hāfu as per­form­ers or (in­clud­ing an appar­ent niche in Japan­ese pornog­ra­phy17):

Japan­ese women who formed rela­tion­ships with gai­jin were often shunned by friends and fam­i­ly, suffer­ing social iso­la­tion or worse. In fact, most of the Japan­ese women who became involved with US ser­vice­men never immi­grated as the hap­pily mar­ried wives of these ser­vice­men. Caught between con­flict­ing reg­u­la­tion­s-the Armed Forces only approved mar­riages that were reg­is­tered at the Amer­i­can con­sulate (the only reg­is­tra­tion rec­og­nized by both Amer­i­can and Japan­ese gov­ern­ments) along with the stip­u­la­tion that the GI bring his wife home to the US, which was near impos­si­ble given the that barred Japan­ese from US cit­i­zen­ship or per­ma­nent res­i­dence-US ser­vice­men often sim­ply returned home to start new lives.

Many of these aban­doned Japan­ese women were left with ille­git­i­mate chil­dren. These chil­dren did not fare any bet­ter than their moth­ers, as the 1959 film, Kiku and Isamu (), explored in a tale of two hāfu (half, or more accu­rate­ly, half-breed) chil­dren who expe­ri­ence bul­ly­ing from other chil­dren and ill treat­ment from adults. Indeed, while spec­u­la­tive, it is entirely fea­si­ble that this sort of stigma­ti­za­tion may have trig­gered the Tabbs’ move back to Pitts­burgh. Indeed, Jero’s mother has admit­ted to being bul­lied and mis­treated by other school­child­ren for being hāfu while grow­ing up in Japan (Hamamo­to). There is a long his­tory of bul­ly­ing in Japan­ese schools, par­tic­u­larly of hāfu chil­dren-per­haps unsur­pris­ing in a social world in which homo­gene­ity and con­for­mity are closely inter­twined with a sense of nation­al­ist cul­tural iden­ti­ty. As Koichi Iwabuchi notes, more­over, this per­va­sive sense of Japan­ese cul­tural and eth­nic homo­gene­ity is jux­ta­posed with an equally wide­spread idea that West­ern soci­ety is diverse and mul­ti­cul­tur­al, under­gird­ing a con­tin­ued sense of Japan­ese unique­ness that masks social inequal­ity even as it sup­ports the notion of cul­tural supe­ri­or­ity (104).

In 1952, ran a story titled “Madame But­ter­fly’s Chil­dren: The Plight of ‘GI Babies’ in Japan”, detail­ing the hard­ships of these hāfu chil­dren, who were often aban­doned to grand­par­ents or to orphan­ages when their fathers returned home to the US as their moth­ers were unable to face the social stigma of rais­ing often ille­git­i­mate chil­dren. Accord­ing to the arti­cle, their num­bers were esti­mated to be as high as 200,000, with 90% of them fathered by US ser­vice­men. The Col­lier’s arti­cle appeared a mere seven years after World War II had end­ed, in time to reflect on debates in Japan about the grow­ing needs of a gen­er­a­tion of orphan hāfu chil­dren about to enter school, tax­ing post-World War II edu­ca­tional facil­i­ties and other mate­r­ial resources.

Sev­en­teen years lat­er, a 1969 issue of fea­tured a cover story titled “Japan’s GI Babies: A Hard Com­ing-of-Age”, which detailed the cur­rent lives of a hand­ful of hāfu young adults. The arti­cle paints a bleak pic­ture, not­ing, “An under­cur­rent of prej­u­dice, con­stant though sel­dom overt, has dri­ven many of them to the fringes of soci­ety. There, some have become true out­cast­s-pros­ti­tutes and drug addicts” (Moser 40). Images of a 20-year-old known only as Dan­ny, sniffing glue, sprawled out in a sub­way sta­tion, speak to the harsh penal­ties that the rhetoric link­ing belong­ing and biol­ogy in the dis­course of exacted on peo­ple deemed exter­nal to “pure Japan­ese-ness.”

At the same time, there was a fas­ci­na­tion with hāfu despite their social ostra­ciza­tion. One of the fea­tured hāfu in the Life arti­cle, Michi Aoya­ma, would go on to be a suc­cess­ful jazz singer in Tokyo, hav­ing already enjoyed some suc­cess as a teen singing star by the time of the arti­cle. Still, she suffered from depres­sion, and her sit­u­a­tion as a legit­i­mate enter­tain­er, rather than as a “com­pan­ion” at so-called host­ess bars, was sin­gu­lar. There was a pop­u­lar all-girl group in the 1970s called , whose mem­bers were all hāfu (Japan­ese moth­ers, white fathers) and whose appeal rested in large part on their “exotic Japan­ese-but-not-quite-Japan­ese” look. , a Japan­ese-Ja­maican hāfu musi­cian, who, despite a child­hood spent in an orphan­age, died in 2011 a well-known and respected rock musi­cian and Japan­ese film actor. His stature out­side Japan is evi­denced by his time spent as a replace­ment for in after Mar­ley’s death. Yamanaka had been a mem­ber of in the 1970s, a Japan­ese band that proved that it could hold its own with con­tem­po­rary West­ern rock bands, as evi­denced by an oppor­tu­nity to open for ’ 1973 tour of Japan. Unfor­tu­nate­ly, drug con­vic­tion derailed the Stones’ tour plans and Flower Trav­el­lin’ Band soon broke up. What is impor­tant to remem­ber, how­ev­er, is that the Japan­ese pub­lic’s fas­ci­na­tion with hāfu artists did not trans­late into social poli­cies that would mit­i­gate the hard­ships faced by a major­ity of hāfu. Indeed, hāfu artists embod­ied the very emo­tion­al, intu­itive, and even artis­tic essence of the prim­i­tive Other that allowed “pure” Japan­ese to main­tain a con­tin­ued sense of genetic and cul­tural supe­ri­or­i­ty.18

So, it seems pretty straight­for­ward to sug­gest that a Japan­ese man mar­ry­ing and impreg­nat­ing a for­eign woman would be seen as less sta­tus-low­er­ing than a for­eign man mar­ry­ing and impreg­nat­ing a Japan­ese woman. West­ern­ers have, since Com­modore Per­ry, been of high sta­tus in Japan for their tech­nol­ogy & sci­ence & pow­er. (Ex­pats even today in Japan or Korea some­times talk about “play­ing the gaijin/waygook card” - break­ing rules or shirk­ing respon­si­bil­i­ties through a com­bi­na­tion of assumed igno­rance on their part and their pecu­liar and higher sta­tus as a for­eign­er.) So, a Japan­ese woman mar­ry­ing a West­ern man would lower her sta­tus (and by exten­sion, that of Japan). Sim­i­larly we might expect that a Japan­ese man mar­ry­ing an attrac­tive West­ern woman (as the women uni­ver­sally seem to be in anime & man­ga) could actu­ally gain sta­tus for him­self - and by exten­sion, Japan - from ‘mar­ry­ing above his posi­tion’. (At the very least, many men are attracted to the exotic oth­er, and not so much the women.19) This turns out to be an expla­na­tion offered by at least one Japan­ese writer for the pre­vi­ously cited inter­na­tional mar­riage sta­tis­tics:

Men want “down­ward” part­ners while women want “upward” part­ners There are two promi­nent fea­tures about Japan­ese inter­na­tional mar­riages. One is that the major­ity of part­ners are from neigh­bor­ing coun­tries includ­ing Korea, China and Philip­pines. This is due to geo­graph­i­cal and his­tor­i­cal rela­tions. The rea­son Brazil is out­stand­ing in num­bers is due to the fact that many Japan­ese-Brazil­ians are work­ing in Japan. Another fea­ture is that for­eign wife and Japan­ese hus­band part­ner­ships make up the major­ity of mixed mar­riages at 80%. In the case of for­eign hus­bands, exclud­ing neigh­bor­ing coun­tries, Amer­i­can hus­bands are most com­mon. This may be due to the good Japan-US rela­tions after the war and the fact that there are many Amer­i­can mil­i­tary bases in Japan. The ten­dency of inter­na­tional mar­riages is that, not only in Japan but also inter­na­tion­al­ly, men want down­ward part­ners while women want upward part­ners. This means men want women whose edu­ca­tional back­ground, income and height are less than theirs. Women are just the oppo­site. In Japan in the late 80’s the jar­gon “San-ko” (three heights) became pop­u­lar. This jar­gon refers to the edu­ca­tional back­ground, income and height of men. It was a mar­riage con­di­tion for many Japan­ese women. Sta­tis­tics prove that men with low incomes and women with high incomes are highly likely to be unmar­ried. How­ev­er, Japan­ese me with low incomes are still rich for those who live in devel­op­ing coun­tries and the sit­u­a­tion will meet their con­di­tions. Among for­eign­ers Japan­ese women gen­er­ally want to marry West­ern men.20

Status predictions

From this sta­tus expla­na­tion, we could make a few pre­dic­tions.

  1. The Japan­ese man mar­ry­ing out would be of a high SES, rather than low
  2. the woman mar­ry­ing out would be of a low SES

(If these 2 pre­dic­tions sound too easy, that shows how intu­itive this sort of think­ing is. There are actu­ally 4 pos­si­ble pairs of pre­dic­tion about the aver­age sta­tus of M/F mar­ry­ing out: low/low, low/high, high/low, high/high.)

We might also expect some his­tor­i­cal trend-lines in fic­tional pair­ings, with shifts in which as Japan­ese self­-es­teem increas­es, so do the num­ber of Japan­ese males mar­ry­ing out and a decrease in the num­ber of women mar­ry­ing out. From what I know of Japan­ese his­to­ry, Japan­ese self­-es­teem fell to a nadir post-Per­ry, with seri­ous pro­pos­als to switch Japan to speak­ing Eng­lish (!), then slowly recov­er­ing, soar­ing with the growth of the empire before crash­ing yet again in the wake of the ruinous WWII, and then slowly ris­ing to a peak in the 1980s with the bub­ble and then col­laps­ing a fair bit with the bub­ble’s col­lapse. So if we charted the per­cent­age of bira­cial char­ac­ters with a Japan­ese male par­ent, we might expect to see a sim­i­lar graph: low after WWII and increas­ing ever since, with pos­si­bly a fall post 1990 or so.

But per­haps all this is sim­ply my own par­tic­u­lar bias; believ­ing that more Japan­ese women out­-marry than Japan­ese men could be seen as a claim that for­eign men (and West­ern men in par­tic­u­lar) are bet­ter than Japan­ese men, more ‘manly’ and attrac­tive. At least one aca­d­e­mic has accused West­ern com­pa­nies of reflect­ing this belief in its Japan­ese adver­tis­ing, while native adver­tis­ing presents a more straight­for­ward com­pe­ti­tion between Japan­ese and West­ern men.21

In advance, I sus­pect there may not be enough bi-ra­cial char­ac­ters to draw a neat graph, and selec­tion bias & diffi­culty in find­ing such bira­cial char­ac­ters with infor­ma­tion in Eng­lish would dis­tort the true graph.

TODO

Mr. Craig seems to be sup­port­ing the Korean peo­ple, and crit­i­ciz­ing the arro­gance of for­eign­ers who would dare com­plain about peo­ple who call their female com­pan­ions whores to their faces, but he chose a rather inapt anal­o­gy. It was­n’t that “only pros­ti­tutes” were accus­tomed to walk­ing along­side men - some­thing that sug­gests that all women seen walk­ing with men in Korea were assumed to be pros­ti­tutes. The point was that it was assumed that only pros­ti­tutes would be seen walk­ing with for­eign men. http://populargusts.blogspot.com/2011/03/more-responses-to-koreas-ups-and-downs.html

There are many movies and doc­u­men­taries about female pros­ti­tutes. While some focus on women forced into pros­ti­tu­tion against their will, most of the rest vaguely imply that the female pros­ti­tutes are exploited by their male cus­tomers. The mes­sage seems to be “They don’t see that the money they gain is just not worth their loss of inti­ma­cy, self­-re­spect, etc.” http://www.overcomingbias.com/2011/03/recipe-men-exploit-fems.html

cf.

The film was orig­i­nally sug­gested by a British gov­ern­ment depart­ment to improve rela­tions between the Amer­i­cans in the UK and the British pub­lic [13] fol­low­ing Pow­ell and Press­burg­er’s con­tri­bu­tions to this sphere in A Can­ter­bury Tale two years ear­lier, though nei­ther film received any gov­ern­ment fund­ing nor input on plot or pro­duc­tion. There was a degree of hos­til­ity against the Amer­i­can ser­vice­men sta­tioned in the UK for the inva­sion of Europe. They were viewed in some quar­ters as late­com­ers to the war and as “over­paid, over­sexed and over here” by a pub­lic that had suffered three years of bomb­ing and rationing, with many of their own men fight­ing abroad. The premise of the film is a sim­ple inver­sion: The Eng­lish pilot gets the pretty Amer­i­can woman rather than the other way round, and the only national big­otry is voiced by the first Amer­i­can casu­alty of the Rev­o­lu­tion­ary War against the British. Ray­mond Massey, por­tray­ing an Amer­i­can, was a Cana­dian national at the time the film was made, but became a nat­u­ral­ized Amer­i­can cit­i­zen after­ward http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Matter_of_Life_and_Death_%28film%29#Anglo-American_relations

Inter­ra­cial marriages/dating in the US: white men like Asian wom­en, white women like black men, Asian men & black women are left in the cold:

But when it was all over and I was wait­ing in Manila for my flight home, I looked around and noticed some­thing:

You know, there sure are a lot of Japan­ese men with Fil­ip­ina wives. But that makes sense.

Mil­lions of Fil­ipinos cur­rently work over­seas, an enor­mous pop­u­la­tion of expat labor­ers. (In fact, I did­n’t know this ini­tial­ly, but over­seas remit­tances account for bil­lions- lit­er­ally bil­lion­s!- of dol­lars in the Philip­pine econ­o­my.) In Japan, espe­cial­ly, Fil­ip­inas find lots of work. The “Fil­ip­inas host­ess club” is a notable fea­ture of Japan­ese nightlife, fre­quented by many a salary­man look­ing to relax and have a drink with some island beau­ties. And log­i­cal­ly, with time and prox­im­ity in that kind of job, why would­n’t some work­ers fall in love and set­tle down with the locals?

That’s what I fig­ured, and to me there’s noth­ing wrong with it… But from what I’ve gath­ered from some late-night bar con­ver­sa­tions with Japan­ese men, mar­ry­ing a Fil­ip­ina host­ess is the equiv­a­lent of a Russ­ian mail-order bride: A sketchy, eth­i­cally sus­pect last resort for lonely odd­balls. So the pop­u­lar per­cep­tion goes.

http://2dteleidoscope.wordpress.com/2011/04/06/a-personal-note-20-on-a-flight-from-manila-thinking-about-anime/

This is not to say that blacks have not been and are not treated badly in Japan. I learned about this side of Japan from my mother and from other friends who have expe­ri­enced direct and oppres­sive forms of racism. While in Japan or in sit­u­a­tions when around Japan­ese peo­ple, my Oki­nawan mother still tries to pull me in to being more uchi [‘inside’]. I was never allowed to play out­side until the sun went down or else she warned me, “I would become more like my father’s color”, and there­fore less Japan­ese. per­haps many of her fears came from the uneasy times she spent with my older sis­ter liv­ing in Korea, Thai­land, and Japan in the 1960s and 1970s. She was con­stantly the object of harass­ment for hav­ing a “Sambo baby” and was called the nas­ti­est names for betray­ing the nation with her sex. She was imme­di­ately asso­ci­ated with mil­i­tary dom­i­na­tion, with pros­ti­tu­tion, with mis­placed alle­giances. My mother had told me many sto­ries about why she refused to enroll my sis­ter in a Japan­ese school and they all seemed to stem from the belief that it would be detri­men­tal to her daugh­ter’s self­-es­teem. She would rather leave Japan than have my sis­ter suffer from the kind of name-call­ing she received out­side of school hours. My cousins who are half Oki­nawan and half white Amer­i­can had sim­i­lar sto­ries of buses pass­ing them by and sto­ries of bul­ly­ing in school and how even lat­er, signs on cer­tain dance clubs in Koza City would not only say, “no Amer­i­cans” or “no GIs” but also “no hāfu” allowed. The under­cover Japan­ese have the poten­tial to be the most threat­en­ing because our alle­giances are hard to place. My friend Tatsu Yam­ato (whose father is Japan­ese and mother black) lived in Japan for years and was repeat­edly frus­trated that his name, which can be writ­ten in full kanji, was always changed to katakana so that he did not “trick” any­one into think­ing he was “really” Japan­ese before meet­ing in per­son.

I am aware that being “hāfu” in Japan is differ­ent from being just “gai­jin”. In his doc­u­men­tary Dou­bles (1998), Regge Life inter­viewed “hāfu” liv­ing in and out­side of Japan and from vary­ing gen­er­a­tions. Their expe­ri­ences var­ied from painfully unpleas­ant to very pos­i­tive. What struck me was the way in which those who were half black liv­ing in Japan had expe­ri­ences that were not too wholly differ­ent from those who were half white liv­ing there. If we look crit­i­cally at mar­gin­al, hybrid­i­ty, or bor­der­land the­o­ries, we may be able to flesh out how bira­cial Japan­ese move between the spaces of uchi (in­side) and soto (out­side), omote (front stage) and ura (back stage)…When work­ing in Sado Island, a fel­low col­league from the United States who had been in Japan for much longer than I was a bit shocked when I told her that I was being asked to cut the per­sim­mons and help serve tea in the morn­ings. She exclaimed, “I don’t think I know any other gai­jin teacher that’s been asked to help out like that, regard­less of how demean­ing that may be as a woman and a new­com­er. It means you’re being pulled into a more uchi role and that the other teach­ers trust you.”

“A Crit­i­cal Review of Aca­d­e­mic Per­spec­tives on Black­ness in Japan”, Carter & Hunter 2008, Mul­ti­cul­tur­al­ism in the New Japan: Cross­ing the Bound­aries Within 2008

Database

Generating entries

Extract­ing can­di­date arti­cles from Wikipedia:

Addi­tional sources:

List

The fol­low­ing list includes man­ga, light nov­el, ani­me, and video game char­ac­ters (there being lit­tle point in keep­ing the medi­ums sep­a­rate). It also includes char­ac­ters who are not hāfu them­selves but a quar­ter-for­eign inas­much as they imply a hāfu at some point. Char­ac­ters are treated sep­a­rately even if they are in the same work (eg. sib­lings). Clas­si­fi­ca­tion is based on in-u­ni­verse or out­-of-u­ni­verse infor­ma­tion, since appear­ance can be highly mis­lead­ing in anime (blue eyes may indi­cate heroic sta­tus, rather than being Cau­casian22; hair color may be cho­sen for con­trast against other char­ac­ters or sig­nal stereo­types like red hair indi­cat­ing a fiery per­son­al­i­ty), and differ­ent groups will iden­tify the same anime char­ac­ter as belong­ing to their own race (Lu 2009), per­haps due to min­i­mal­is­tic draw­ings intended to save money or enable view­ers to project them­selves onto a char­ac­ter.

Com­pi­la­tion of hafu char­ac­ters in Japan­ese ani­me, man­ga, video games, & light or visual nov­els, 1963–2019 (n≅390)
Year Series Char­ac­ter Gen­der Father Mother Eyes Hair Notes
1963 Yuki no Taiyou Sanae F Japan­ese Amer­i­can
1964 Cyborg 009 Joe Shi­ma­mura M Amer­i­can Japan­ese brown brown TVTropes says “half-Japan­ese (moth­er), half-Amer­i­can (fa­ther), and in the manga he was bul­lied because of that”; I did not find any other online sources spec­i­fy­ing the par­ents, and do not have the manga handy.
1967 Lupin III Lupin III M French? Japan­ese? black black dis­cusses the ambi­gu­i­ty.
1967 Nekome Kozou Cat-Eyed Boy M Japan­ese Fan­tasy brown
1972 Gatchaman Jun ‘the Swan’ F green green Infor­ma­tion about Jun is very scarce; asked
1974 Great Mazinger Jun Hono F Amer­i­can Japan­ese black black
1975 Ichigo Mono­gatari Ichigo F Scan­di­na­vian? Japan­ese? brown brown Baka-Up­dates describes the plot: “Ichigo is a four­teen year old half Japan­ese girl that grew up in Lap­land. After the death of her father, she moves to Japan where she is hosted by Ikuta Rin­taro and his fam­i­ly.”, trans­lat­ing from an Ital­ian web­site. Mak­ing mat­ters worse, the is claimed in parts by Nor­way, Swe­den, Fin­land and Rus­sia.
1976 Kochira Kat­sushika-ku… Reiko Kather­ine Aki­moto F Japan­ese? French? blue blond Asked
1977 Haikara-san ga Tooru Shi­nobu Iijyuin M Japan­ese Ger­man blue blond
1977 “Sen­ti­men­tal City” M Eng­lish Japan­ese black As described in Ogi 2019
1979 Mobile Suit Gun­dam Amuro Ray M Japan­ese Cana­dian blue brown TvTropes says Ray’s mother is Cana­di­an, and was changed to Mex­i­can in a much later Gun­dam ani­me; the Gun­dam Wikia says she is either Amer­i­can or Cana­dian but it is not spec­i­fied.
1981 GoShogun Remy Shi­mada F Japan­ese French blue blond Alan Taka­hashi’s “Anime Pocket Guide” com­piled for rec.arts.anime com­ments of a later GoShogun movie that “Remy’s mother was a French pros­ti­tute, so Remy has a tainted and con­fused past.”
1981 Blos­som Shower on Nan­jing Road M Japan­ese Chi­nese black As described in Ogi 2019
1982 Macross Lynn Min­may F Chi­ne­se? Japan­ese? blue blue The father-mother mix is unclear; it may be Japan­ese-Chi­nese.
1982 Yūkan Club Bido Gran­marie M Swedish Japan­ese blond
1983 Adolf Adolf Kauf­mann M Ger­man Japan­ese
1983 Rean no Tsub­asa Asap Suzuki M Amer­i­can Japan­ese blond Google Trans­late of offi­cial pro­file: “Has a Japan­ese mother and an Amer­i­can father.”
1984 Kimagure Orange Road Madoka Ayukawa F Japan­ese green black at con­ven­tion.
1986 Mad Bull 34 Daiz­aburo “Eddie” Ban M Japan­ese? Amer­i­can? brown black
1986 Pineap­ple Army Jed Goshi M Japan­ese? Amer­i­can? black black
1986 Saint Seiya Cygnus Hyoga M Japan­ese Russ­ian blue blond
1987 Hanasakeru Seishounen Kajika Burnsworth F Amer­i­can Japan­ese grey brown
1987 Lady!! Lynn Rus­sell F Eng­lish Japan­ese red blond
1987 Magic Kaito Saguru Hakuba M Japan­ese Eng­lish brown brown
1987 Metal Gear Solid Snake M Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue brown
1988 Mas­ter Keaton Taichi Hira­ga-Keaton M Japan­ese Eng­lish black black
1988 Mobile Police Pat­la­bor Kanuka Clancy F Amer­i­can Japan­ese? black black Asked.
1988 Vam­pire Princess Miyu (OVA) Miyu F Japan­ese Fan­tasy brown brown
1989 Iji­gen kara no Tay­ori Mami Takamizawa F Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue blond Sec­ond story in the anthol­o­gy.
1989 JoJo’s Bizarre Adven­ture Jotaro Kujo M Japan­ese Eng­lish green blue
1989 Street Fighter Ken Mas­ters M Amer­i­can Japan­ese brown blond
1990 Itazura na Kiss Japan­ese Eng­lish blue blond
1990 Itazura na Kiss Japan­ese Eng­lish blue blond
1990 Itazura na Kiss Japan­ese Eng­lish blue blond TvTropes: “Eng­lish­woman Chris­tine ‘Chris’ Rob­bins has a thing for Japan­ese men and go to Japan specifi­cally to find one to date and mar­ry. At first she’s inter­ested in male lead Naoki, but ends up mar­ry­ing Kotoko’s for­mer Dogged Nice Guy Kin­no­suke. They have three kids, with their dad’s fea­tures and their mom’s eye/hair color scheme.”
1990 Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake Kazuhira Miller M Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond
1990 Slam Dunk Michael Okita M Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue blond
1991 2nd Super Robot Wars Shu Shi­rakawa M Fan­tasy Japan­ese red TvTropes asserts he is half-Japan­ese as the name indi­cates; descrip­tions of his back­story are hard to come by, and I am rely­ing on a GameFAQs forum sum­mary: “Shu­u’s mom is ‘kid­napped’ by a mem­ber of the Royal Fam­ily of Lan Gran (one of the 3 king­doms of La Gias) and is made his consort/concubine, and Shuu is born some time after­wards - thus, Shuu is half Earth­i­an, half La Gian, and a legit­i­mate heir of the throne of Lan Gran. He grows up to value his inde­pen­dence much more than any­thing (most likely stem­ming from his moth­er’s free­dom being stripped from her since she was kid­napped), and thus has no inter­est of the throne. Shuu trav­els back­-and-forth from the sur­face world, and becomes the genius he is as he absorbs knowl­edge from the sur­face AND La Gias, using this knowl­edge to build the Granzon.”
1991 801 T.T.S. Air­bats Mitaka Arisa F Japan­ese black black Hitoshi Doi on the audio­drama adap­ta­tion: “Mitaka Arisa got trans­ferred to the 801 TTS. Kengamine looked at Arisa’s papers and found out that she was half Japan­ese (her father was Japan­ese).”
1991 Shin Seiki GPX Cyber For­mula Kaga Joutarou M Japan­ese? Span­ish? green
1991 Silent Mobius Kat­sumi Liqueur F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blue
1991 Boys Be… Chi­haru Reicha F Japan­ese? Finnish? black blond
1992 Hana Yori Dango Thomas M Japan­ese Ger­man blond Mar­garet O’Con­nell quotes Thomas as say­ing: “Because I’m half Japan­ese. My dad’s from here. My mom’s Ger­man.”
1992 JoJo’s Bizarre Adven­ture Josuke Higashikata M Eng­lish Japan­ese blue blue
1992 Rain­bow Trot­sky Hun­bord M Japan­ese Mon­go­lian The father is named “Fukami Keisuke” and the mother iden­ti­fied as “a mem­ber of the Buryat subeth­nic group”; dates, names, and parent­age are sourced from “Heroes and Vil­lains: Manchuko in Yasuhiko Yoshikazu’s Rain­bow Trot­sky” (O’D­wyer 2012; anthol­o­gized in Manga and the Rep­re­sen­ta­tion of Japan­ese His­tory).
1992 Tenchi Muyo! Kat­suhito Masaki M Fan­tasy Japan­ese pur­ple black Orig­i­nal hair color as young man.
1992 X1999 Karen Kasumi F Japan­ese brown red Not cer­tain Karen is the half-Japan­ese char­ac­ter TvTropes’s main page alludes to; asked: http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/remarks.php?trope=Main.ButNotTooForeign#latest
1992 Angel Densetsu Leo Hal­ford M Amer­i­can Japan­ese brown brown
1992 Angel Densetsu Sana Hal­ford F Amer­i­can Japan­ese brown black
1993 Boku­tachi Otoko no Ko Takashi Fujii M Japan­ese Amer­i­can? blue blond In chap­ter 02, Takashi’s blond Cau­casian mother named ‘Sarah’ is intro­duced and Takashi says “she was actu­ally born in Tokyo. Though she moved to South Africa right after she was born, and then Kyoto, and Pak­istan, then Tokyo again, and now she’s here [rural Japan]”. Unfor­tu­nate­ly, the rest of the manga only rarely men­tions her and her side of the fam­ily never appears, so while she is surely an Amer­i­can, it can­not be proven from the man­ga.
1993 Hyper Police Sasa­hara Nat­suki F Japan­ese Fan­tasy green green
1993 Samu­rai Gun Ichi­matsu M Japan­ese Dutch blue white
1994 Detec­tive Conan Ai Haibara F Japan­ese Eng­lish blue brown
1994 Fake Randy Ryo Maclean M Amer­i­can Japan­ese black brown
1995 Angel Sanc­tu­ary Sara Mudo F Japan­ese? Eng­lish? brown blond O’Con­nell quotes vol­ume 1 of the man­ga: “Since our grand­fa­ther was from Eng­land, we both have blond hair and light-brown eyes… so every­one’s gonna know that we’re brother and sis­ter.” Asked for more details: http://angelsanctuary.wikia.com/wiki/Talk:Setsuna_Mudo#Parentage; com­menter ‘ger­man­in­japan’ on this page says it was the mother plan­ning to leave, so through the mater­nal line?
1995 Angel Sanc­tu­ary Set­suna Mudo M Japan­ese? Eng­lish? brown blond
1995 Chūka Ichiban! Shi­rou M Chi­nese Japan­ese brown blue
1995 Kashou no Tsuki Tsuchiki­mado Ari­masa M Japan­ese Fan­tasy black
1995 Kodomo no Omocha Naozumi Kamura M Amer­i­can Japan­ese green blue Sourced from sub­ti­tles of episode 73 & 74, and inter­pre­ta­tion checked against a fan­site
1995 Mobile Suit Gun­dam Wing Heero Yuy M Russ­ian Japan­ese blue brown TvTropes: “Heero, on the other hand, is revealed to be half-Russ­ian in the novel Frozen Teardrop.” His canon father does have a Russ­ian name.
1995 Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion Asuka Soryu Lan­g­ley F Japan­ese Ger­man blue red
1996 Card Cap­tors Sakura Eriol Hiira­g­izawa M blue blue Eng­lish-Japan­ese, report­ed­ly. I omit­ted related char­ac­ters like Watanuki as they are too com­pli­cated to fairly include.
1996 Hana-kimi Mizuk­i’s brother M Japan­ese Amer­i­can?
1996 InuYasha InuYasha M Fan­tasy Japan­ese brown white
1996 JoJo’s Bizarre Adven­ture Giorno Gio­vanna M Eng­lish Japan­ese blue blond
1996 Sakura Taisen Maria Tachibana F Japan­ese Russ­ian blue blond “Maria Tachibana was born in Rus­sia to a Japan­ese father and a Russ­ian moth­er.” –“Sakura Taisen”, Ex.org
1996 Sakura Taisen Ori­hime Soletta F Japan­ese Ital­ian green black
1997 Devil Lady Asuka Lan F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond
1997 Great Teacher Onizuka Kan­zaki Urumi F Japan­ese blond Het­e­rochro­mat­ic: brown/blue. Canon­i­cally unknown father.
1997 Sen­sual Phrase Sakuya Ookochi M Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue black
1997 Street Fighter 3 Sean Mat­suda M Japan­ese Brazil­ian brown brown “Sean Mat­suda was born in Brazil, though his pater­nal grand­fa­ther was Japan­ese.” –SF Wikia
1997 To Heart Lemmy Miyauchi F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond Cloud668 says the par­ents’ nation­al­i­ties are listed in ‘the guide­book’.
1997 Vam­pire Princess Miyu (TV) Miyu F Fan­tasy Japan­ese brown brown
1998 Full Metal Pan­ic! Kurz Weber M Ger­man? Japan­ese? blue blond Unclear whether hafu; FMP! wikia lists nation­al­ity as “German/Japanese” and “Born in Tokyo to West Ger­man par­ents on April 1, 1982. He was raised in Edo­gawa, Tokyo, Japan, attend­ing a nor­mal pub­lic school”. for Japan but , imply­ing a Japan­ese cit­i­zen­ship par­ent, unless the man­gaka is ignor­ing that. The orig­i­nal light nov­els may clear this up.
1998 Kin­niku­man Nisei Terry the Kid M Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond
1998 Mari­a-sama Ga Miteru Sei Satō F Japan­ese? Amer­i­can? grey brown Seems to be zero infor­ma­tion besides a com­ment she is attrac­tive despite the for­eign blood; the sur­name is Japan­ese and she grad­u­ates to study Eng­lish & Amer­i­can Lit­er­a­ture, so prob­a­bly she has a mother who is one of those nation­al­i­ties. Asked.
1998 Par­a­site Eve Aya Brea F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond Aya Brea is not in the orig­i­nal Par­a­site Eve nov­el, but the first video game adap­ta­tion.
1998 Secret Area Jake M Japan­ese Amer­i­can blond Story 5 in the anthol­o­gy.
1998 Shan­imuni Go Takita Louis M Japan­ese French brown brown
1998 UFO Baby Chris­tine Hanako­machi F Japan­ese French pur­ple pink
1999 Digi­mon Adven­ture Yam­ato Ishida M Japan­ese French blue blond
1999 Fruits Bas­kets Momiji Sohma M Japan­ese? Ger­man? brown blond
1999 Get­Back­ers Ban Mido M Ger­man Japan­ese blue brown His father, Der Kaiser, seems to be half-German/half-Japanese, mak­ing Ban a quar­ter-Ger­man.
1999 Peace­maker Kuro­gane Ake­sato F blue brown The man­gaka Sakamoto has appar­ently only com­mented she is a hāfu (pre­sum­ably Cau­casian), noth­ing more. Asked.
1999 Prince of Ten­nis Jackal Kuwa­hara M Brazil­ian? Japan­ese? black Guesses based on sur­name, unre­li­able as that is. Asked.
1999 Sis­ter Princess Aria F Japan­ese French grey blue
1999 Sis­ter Princess Haruka F Japan­ese Ger­man blue pur­ple
1999 Sis­ter Princess Yot­suba F Japan­ese Eng­lish brown brown
1999 Venus in Love Yuki Ikeuchi M Japan­ese? Greek? green brown Guess­ing based on sur­name; asked.
1999 The Last Wiz­ard of the Cen­tury Nat­sumi Kousaka F Japan­ese Russ­ian green brown Accord­ing to the fan wiki, her grand­fa­ther mar­ried a Russ­ian woman while work­ing there.
2000 Bey­blade Max Tate M Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue blond
2000 Boys Be… Shoko Uzuki F blond
2000 Digi­mon Adven­ture 02 Takeru Takaishi M Japan­ese French blue blond
2000 JoJo’s Bizarre Adven­ture Jolyne Kujo F Japan­ese Ital­ian blue This is a major sim­pli­fi­ca­tion. Wikipedia notes that “It’s men­tioned that she is an Ital­ian-Amer­i­can, mak­ing Jolyne 1⁄4 Japan­ese, 1⁄4 Amer­i­can, 3⁄8 Ital­ian, and 1⁄8 British.”
2000 Maya Madoromi­jima no Nemuri­hime Mik­agura Hijiri F blue blond
2000 Nana Layla Ser­izawa F Amer­i­can Japan­ese brown pink
2000 Nana Ren Ichi­nose M Japan­ese brown grey ch74; Nana remains incom­plete and so his exact parent­age remains debat­able.
2000 Nigai Kajitsu Jack Yuchi M Japan­ese Amer­i­can black Story 4, “Blue Period”
2000 Pani Poni Dash! (man­ga) Rebecca Miyamoto F Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue blond Miyamoto appears twice because the anime reverses her parent­age.
2000 Read or Die Yomiko Read­man F Japan­ese Eng­lish blue black
2000 Ring Of Red Masami von Weiseg­ger M Ger­man? Japan­ese?
2000 Shiy­ouzumi Con­dom Sara Kararieva F Japan­ese Russ­ian blue blond
2000 Tsuk­i­hime Ciel F French Japan­ese? blue blue Ciel says only “I looked like my moth­er, who was Ori­en­tal”; asked: http://typemoon.wikia.com/wiki/Talk:Ciel#Parentage
2000 Yo-u Kaede F Fan­tasy Japan­ese brown brown
2001 Bleach Yasu­tora Sado M Japan­ese? Mex­i­can? brown brown Asked.
2001 Dead or Alive 3 Hit­omi F Ger­man Japan­ese blue brown Sur­pris­ing­ly, there does­n’t seem to be a DOA anime or man­ga, except for a DOA Xtreme Beach Vol­ley­ball manga.
2001 Desert Storm Eimi F Japan­ese Russ­ian black black Tech­ni­cal­ly, Chech­nyan; as usu­al, assim­i­lated to the neigh­bor­ing major nation­al­i­ty.
2001 Dia­mond Head Leica Hanugi M red red “His nation­al­ity is three­-fourths mixed… the most mys­te­ri­ous one of all.” pg21 c01. He is depicted in color illus­tra­tions with red­dish hair, red eyes, and is Chris­tian; one asso­ci­ated char­ac­ter returns from sev­eral years abroad liv­ing in Seat­tle. In the com­plete man­ga, there are no other hints as to his nation­al­i­ties or parent­age: the mother is depicted once with neu­tral hair col­or.
2001 Digi­mon Tamers Lee Jaarin F Chi­nese Japan­ese
2001 Digi­mon Tamers Lee Jian­liang M Chi­nese Japan­ese grey blue
2001 Digi­mon Tamers Lee Rinchei M Chi­nese Japan­ese
2001 Digi­mon Tamers Lee Shi­u­chon F Chi­nese Japan­ese pur­ple brown
2001 Koiseyo Shounen Yam­ato Saku­rai M Cana­dian Japan­ese blue brown Story 1 of the anthol­o­gy, “Let­ter from Canada”.
2001 Sakura Taisen 3 Han­abi Kitaoji F Japan­ese French black black Her mater­nal grand­mother is French, or so MyAnimeList claims. This is con­sis­tent with her nobil­ity and her father being named Masamichi Kitao­ji.
2001 Shadow Hearts Yuri Volte Hyuga M Japan­ese Ger­man red brown
2002 .hack//Legend of the Twi­light Hotaru M Irish Japan­ese blue blond
2002 Da Capo Alice Tsuk­ishiro F Japan­ese? Eng­lish? pur­ple white
2002 Da Capo Grand­ma? F Eng­lish? Japan­ese? I am not cer­tain about this char­ac­ter. She is obscure and there are over­lap­ping char­ac­ters pol­lut­ing the search results. I am going off a much copy­-pasted descrip­tion which claims “Junichi and Saku­ra’s grand­moth­er. Half Japan­ese, half British. Said to have looked young until she was about a hun­dred years old. Already dead by the events of Da Capo, but that does­n’t stop her from show­ing up every once in a while.”
2002 Eye­shield 21 Mamori Anezaki F Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue red Tech­ni­cal­ly, her mother is half-Amer­i­can and hence Mamori is a quar­ter-Japan­ese, like Asuka Soryu Lan­g­ley’s mother is half-Japanese/half-German in NGE.
2002 Hun­gry Heart Kouji Sakai M Japan­ese Swedish grey white
2002 Kujibiki Unbal­ance Rit­suko Ket­tenkrad F Ger­man Japan­ese blue blond Dat­ing Kujibiki Unbal­ance is a lit­tle diffi­cult due to its sta­tus as a meta-fic­tional work: it first appeared as a comic-with­in-a-comic in the Gen­shiken manga (2002) then starred fur­ther in the Gen­shiken anime (2004) where­upon it was spun-off as a 3-episode 2004 OVA and 3-vol­ume light novel
2002 Love Mon­ster Hiyoko Osora F Fan­tasy Japan­ese red blond
2002 Nejire Wakakusa Elliis F brown blond
2002 Nejire Wakakusa Kei M brown blond
2002 Ougon Honey Hime Komada F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond
2002 Rhyth­mic Rev Mibuna Kaede F green red
2002 Riku­jou Bouei-tai Mao-chan Adal­bert Von Maruyama M Japan­ese? Ger­man? white
2002 School Rum­ble Eri Sawachika F Eng­lish Japan­ese brown blond Appar­ent­ly, her father is appar­ently half-Japan­ese.
2002 Shigeshōshi Shin­jyurou Mamiya M Amer­i­can Japan­ese black black
2002 Ship­puu Karen Jin­rai Komusume! Kogane Mikasa F Fan­tasy Japan­ese red blue
2002 Skip Beat Tsu­ruga Ren M Japan­ese Amer­i­can brown brown
2002 Tamayura Reimei Kasumi F pur­ple blond
2002 Yak­i­tate!! Japan Meis­ter Sil­van Kirisaki M Japan­ese French blue blond
2002 Yak­i­tate!! Japan Sophie Balzac Kirisaki F Japan­ese French blue blond
2003 Bac­cano Yal­gu­mo? M Infor­ma­tion from TvTropes; I have been unable to find out any­thing about this char­ac­ter - he may not even be named ‘Yal­gumo’ but ‘Yagumo’.
2003 Chanto Shiyou Yo! Hiiragi Serori Nee F Japan­ese blue blond The descrip­tion goes “The third is Serori Ne-Ne. She is half Japan­ese and half North Euro­pean…When I was a child, I was adopted by the Hiiragi fam­i­ly. But because the father was afraid that the sis­ters would spoil me, I was sent to a rel­a­tive to train myself.” imply­ing that the father is Japan­ese.
2003 Death Note L Lawliet M Japan­ese? Eng­lish? black black Writer in Death Note 13: How to Read: “I think of him as a quar­ter Japan­ese, a quar­ter Eng­lish, a quar­ter Rus­sian, a quar­ter French or Ital­ian, like that.”
2003 Death Note Ray Pen­ber M Amer­i­can Japan­ese grey black
2003 Gakuen Alice Ruka Nogi M Japan­ese French blue blond
2003 Kita e. ~Di­a­mond Dust~ Kitano Suomi F Japan­ese? Finnish? blue blond An amus­ing note: ‘Suomi means “Fin­land” in Finnish, and can also be a sur­name’.
2003 Mahou Sen­sei Negi­ma! Ayaka Yuk­i­hiro F Japan­ese? blue blond Asked
2003 Negima Negima Spring­field M Eng­lish Fan­tasy brown red
2003 Ochiba no Mau Koro Haruka Licht­en­bein F Ger­man? Japan­ese? pur­ple white
2003 Ohana to Choco­late Iwashita Makoto M Eng­lish Japan­ese red brown het­e­rochro­mat­ic: red/blue; first sto­ry, “Flower & choco­late”
2003 One­gai Twins Karen Onodera? F blue green
2003 One­gai Twins Maiku Kamishi­ro? M blue blue
2003 Ouran High School Host Tamaki Suoh M Japan­ese French blue blond
2003 Rain­bow: Nisha Rokubō… Jou “Joe” Yoko­suka M Amer­i­can? Japan­ese blue blond Jou is a blond-haired char­ac­ter described as “half-Eu­ro­pean” in many descrip­tions; a plot sum­mary says “Jou’s mother aban­doned him and his sis­ter at an orphan­age.”, which is most con­sis­tent with the mother being Japan­ese; the name Jou/Joe prob­a­bly indi­cates either Amer­i­can or Eng­lish descent (‘Euro­pean’ being a com­mon euphemism for Cau­casian).
2003 Soul Eater Maka Albarn F Japan­ese green blond Appar­ently another char­ac­ter states Maka is half-Japan­ese, and her father is depicted as a Cau­casian of unspec­i­fied nation­al­i­ty; asked.
2003 Star Ocean: Till the End of Time Fayt Lein­god M Japan­ese green blue
2003 Star Ocean: Till the End of Time Sophia Esteed F Japan­ese green brown
2003 Tokyo Mew Mew a la Mode Berry Shi­rayuki F Japan­ese? French? red blond
2004 Ashinaga Ojisama Nishi­nomiya Ryu­u­tarou M Ara­bian Japan­ese grey black Ch1 pg15
2004 Bath Towel Izut­suya Anju M French Japan­ese blue blond Vol.1 Ch.3.1; Anju states his mother had a one-night stand with a French man.
2004 Durarara!! Walker Yumasaki M brown Asked.
2004 Fate/Stay Night Illyasviel Einzbern F Japan­ese Ger­man red white
2004 Green Green 2 Koi no Spe­cial Lucy Mika Mat­suura F blue blond
2004 Jubei-chan 2 Freesia Yagyu F Japan­ese Russ­ian blue blond
2004 Kamen no Maid Guy Eliz­a­beth K. Straw­ber­ry­field F Eng­lish? Japan­ese? blue blond Asked
2004 Kamen no Maid Guy Hein­drick Straw­ber­ry­field M Eng­lish? Japan­ese? red blond
2004 Katekyo Hit­man Reborn! Gokud­era Hay­ato M Ital­ian Japan­ese green white
2004 Kimi to Boku Chizuru Tachibana M blue blond Asked
2004 Kurau Phan­tom Mem­ory Kurau Amami F Japan­ese Swiss blue black
2004 Meimeimei! Meifis Turner F brown blond
2004 Midori­ga­fuchi Yotogi no Mura Mis­ono Hen­ri­etta Rosen­berg F Ger­man? Japan­ese? green blond
2004 Nabari no Ou Tho­bari Kumo­hira Duran­dal M Japan­ese Irish grey black Stan­dard online sites say only that his grand­fa­ther (un­spec­i­fied side) is Irish; one fan­fic­tion wiki says “Tho­bari Duran­dal Kumo­hira (雲平・デュランダル・帷) was born in Japan to an Irish medi-witch and a Japan­ese accoun­tant. How­ev­er, the two died in an acci­dent when Tho­bari was still very young, and as his only liv­ing rel­a­tive, his grand­fa­ther (his moth­er’s father) came to his aid. The old man was… eccen­tric, to say the least.” But then it goes on to describe how Kumo­hira was accepted into Hog­warts, so this may not be reli­able infor­ma­tion.
2004 Ousama no Les­son Sui M Japan­ese French green brown Ch1 pg10
2004 Rakuen ~Ai Kawarazu na Boku~ Karen Van Duyn F Dutch Japan­ese brown red
2004 Rasp­berry Wel­come to Cafe Moon… Kata­giri Sheryl F Aus­tralian Japan­ese blue blond Ver­i­fied by Google Trans­lates of offi­cial page.
2004 Remem­ber11 the age of infin­ity Utsumi Kali F Indi­an? Japan­ese? white
2004 Saitama Chain­saw Shoujo Fumio Kirisaki F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue black Tech­ni­cal­ly, Kirisak­i’s Texan grand­fa­ther mar­ried her Japan­ese grand­moth­er; so the father/mother infor­ma­tion is for them, not her imme­di­ate par­ents; the actual hāfu is Kirisak­i’s moth­er.
2004 Shuffle! Shig­ure Asa F Japan­ese Fan­tasy pur­ple green
2004 Tona-Gu­ra! Niina Isokawa F Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue blond
2005 Ai Kora Saku­rako Ten­maku F Japan­ese Eng­lish blue blond
2005 Atori Shou Shiba Atori F Japan­ese Fan­tasy brown black Half-de­mon; parent­age estab­lished v01 ch01 pg05.
2005 Best Stu­dent Coun­cil Cyndi Man­abe F Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue red
2005 Can­vas 2 Elis Hosen F Japan­ese French blue blond
2005 Dance in the Vam­pire Bund Akira Kaburagi Regen­dorf M Ger­man Japan­ese blue black
2005 Dead or Alive 4 Kokoro F French Japan­ese grey black
2005 Golden Days Kasuga Aiko F Japan­ese Ital­ian brown
2005 Kai­chou wa Maid­-sama! Usui Takumi M Japan­ese Eng­lish green blond
2005 Love­tore Kotaro Ebi­na? M
2005 Pani Poni Dash! (anime) Rebecca Miyamoto F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond
2005 Par­fait ~Choco­lat Sec­ond Brew~ Katori Rea F Japan­ese? French? blue blond
2005 Puchi Houndo Teiru F brown brown
2005 Sakura Taisen 5 Gem­ini Sun­rise F Japan­ese? Amer­i­can? blue red http://whatis.suburbansenshi.com/index.php?title=Gemini_Sunrise iden­ti­fies Sun­rise’s mother as “Lynne McCarthy” and her father as “Yang”, with no listed sources. I could­n’t con­firm the names or nation­al­i­ties else­where. Asked.
2005 Sakura no Neko­hime M Entry based on Baka Updates sum­ma­ry; no scan­la­tion or other sum­maries avail­able.
2005 Shuffle! Mayumi Thyme F Fan­ta­sy? Japan­ese? blue black Het­e­rochro­matic (blue & red); the red appar­ently is due to her demon her­itage, so I assume the other color is her real human col­or.
2005 That Sum­mer M Amer­i­can Japan­ese
2005 The Idol­mas­ter Takane Shi­jōu F pur­ple white The rel­e­vant wiki says “She comes from a very wealthy fam­i­ly, like Iori, and is in fact half Euro­pean, most likely Ger­man.”; it also claims “Takane’s [sil­ver] hair was blond in the pro­to­type ver­sion of the arcade game.” A TvTroper claims “In 2, Rit­suko [Ak­izuki] implies that it’s Takane’s nat­ural hair color at one point.”; see also White-Haired Pretty Girl. (Hair color seems to be half-lit­eral in THE IDOLMASTER; the all-Japan­ese char­ac­ter Miki Hoshii has blond hair… but it is stated that it is dyed, and the player can find a short brown haired ver­sion of Mik­i.)
2005 Trace Mem­ory Ash­ley Mizuki Rob­bins F Amer­i­can Japan­ese black white
2005 Tsuyokiss Erika Kiriya F Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue blond
2005 Blood+ George Miya­gusuku M Amer­i­can? Japan­ese? brown grey Oki­nawan-Amer­i­can US Army vet­eran
2006 Ano Machi no Koi no Uta Irina Enomoto F Japan­ese? Rus­sian? blue white
2006 Digi­mon Savers Tohma H. Norstein M Ger­man Japan­ese blue blond Father is Aus­tri­an.
2006 Han­juku Orange Kou M Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue blond
2006 Himawari! Himeji F Eng­lish Japan­ese blue blond Offi­cial pro­file via Google Trans­late seems to imply this: “In the days of the British mixed race, the father of the employee intel­li­gence MI6, mother gar­den OB 備学 志 func­tion”.
2006 Iin­chou wa Shounin Sezu! Kei Adam­smith F Eng­lish? Japan­ese? brown red
2006 Maria Holic Tōichirō Kanae M Japan­ese French blue red
2006 One­gai Goshu­jin­sama! Tear Rui Mos­fort F pur­ple brown
2006 Onimusha: Dawn of Dreams Roberto Frois M Span­ish Japan­ese green blond
2006 Venus Capric­cio Akira Sasaki M Japan­ese Ger­man blue blond Half-Aus­tri­an, which I am list­ing as Ger­man. TvTropes did not answer. A forum post says the father is Japan­ese.
2007 Akuma to Love Song Kurosu Shin­tarou M Amer­i­can Japan­ese blond Based on scan­la­tion sum­mary.
2007 Code Geass Kallen Stadt­feld F Eng­lish Japan­ese blue red
2007 Dear My Mis­ter Asakura Noah M Japan­ese Eng­lish blond
2007 G-sen­jou no Maou Tokita Yuki F Japan­ese blue black
2007 Gun­dam 00 Billy Kata­giri M Japan­ese? Amer­i­can? black brown Same rea­son­ing but even shakier - we have already seen exam­ples where the Japan­ese-sound­ing sur­name was not the father but moth­er’s.
2007 Gun­dam 00 Kinue Cross­road F Amer­i­can? Japan­ese? brown brown
2007 Gun­dam 00 Saji Cross­road M Amer­i­can? Japan­ese? brown brown TVTropes claims these 3 char­ac­ters are all Japan­ese-Amer­i­cans; the Cross­roads’ father, “Mr. Cross­road”, is briefly men­tioned, whose sur­name sug­gests he is Amer­i­can and hence the mother would be Japan­ese.
2007 Gun­dam 00 Sumer­agi Lee Nor­iega F Japan­ese? Span­ish? brown brown Online sources do not spec­ify parent­age beyond ‘Eurasian’ Span­ish-Japan­ese, but do men­tion her ‘real name’ is “Leesa Kujō” (Japan­ese sur­name).
2007 Harem Lodge Tet­suya Kata­giri M French Japan­ese brown brown
2007 Hirahira Hy~n Yamamoto Leonard Ken M French Japan­ese green brown
2007 Ice For­est Roman Guil­bert M Cana­dian Japan­ese black black
2007 K-On! Tsumugi Koto­buki F Japan­ese? Finnish? blue blond “The spec­u­la­tion is that Mugi is half-Finnish, half-Japan­ese and raised as Japan­ese.”. Asked.
2007 Kamichama Karin Nishikiori Michiru M Japan­ese? Eng­lish? red brown Het­e­rochro­mat­ic, but the blue eye is a replace­ment.
2007 Kids on the Slope Sen­tarō Kawabuchi M Amer­i­can Japan­ese brown brown
2007 Kiss/Hug Ryuu Wakui M Eng­lish Japan­ese blue black
2007 Lit­tle Busters! Kudryavka Noumi F Rus­sian? Japan­ese blue white Asked.
2007 Milk­man Coffee Milk­man M Japan­ese Brazil­ian blond
2007 Motto Itte Mari Mizuta F red blond
2007 Muv-Luv Alter­na­tive Total Eclipse Vin­cent Low­ell M Amer­i­can? Japan­ese? blue blond
2007 Nat­sumegu Celes Alford F blue blond
2007 No More Heroes Sylvia Chris­tel F Rus­sian? Japan­ese? blue blond Ukrain­ian.
2007 Otona Pink Chiho M Japan­ese French Mother is French-Amer­i­can.
2007 Oya­sumi Pun­pun Sachi F Japan­ese black Ch84, v08/pg15: “…Then again, since my mom was a for­eign­er, she might’ve bought all that manga so she could study Japan­ese.”
2007 Royal Straight Karen F Japan­ese Ger­man blue blond
2007 Sakura Gari Souma Saiki M Japan­ese Eng­lish black
2007 Tekken 6 Blood­line Rebel­lion Lars Alexan­der­s­son M Japan­ese Swedish green blond
2007 Umineko no Naku Koro ni Beat­rice Ushi­romiya F Japan­ese Ital­ian blue blond
2007 Umineko no Naku Koro ni Lion Ushi­romiya F Japan­ese Ital­ian grey blond Quar­ter; mother is Ital­ian-Japan­ese.
2007 Yes! Pre­Cure 5 Urara Kasug­ano F French Japan­ese brown blond
2008 Ame Nochi Hare Kisaragi Touma M French Japan­ese blue blond He states he is half-French; on pg29 of ch12 of v03, a flash­back depicts his father as hav­ing the same curly blond for­eign hair Touma has.
2008 Arisa Kudou Rei M Japan­ese Por­tuguese
2008 Ben-To Shaga Ayame F Japan­ese Ital­ian blue blond Google Trans­late of Japan­ese Wikipedia: “With an Ital­ian moth­er, cousin brother Hiroshi. Mess up the long blond hair, usu­ally a girl with glass­es.”
2008 Café Latte Rhap­sody Keito Tsuda MacLeod M French Chi­nese brown brown MacLeod is a hard to clas­sify char­ac­ter. On pg23 of chap­ter 1, he says roughly “My papa is a French-Cana­dian and Japan­ese half… And, my mama is Chi­ne­se, Japan­ese, and French mix”.
2008 Class Zenin Ore no Yome Sag­ishima Fred­er­ica F Amer­i­can? Japan­ese? blue blond
2008 Code Geass: Lost Col­ors Rai M Eng­lish Japan­ese blue white
2008 Daren­imo Ien­ai! Kein M Lat­in-Amer­i­can Japan­ese black black The father’s nation­al­ity can­not be more speci­fic: Kein is of the fic­tional Lat­in-Amer­i­can “Alban­ian Repub­lic” accord­ing to pg12 & pg31 of this one-shot manga (the lat­ter spec­i­fies his mother is Japan­ese).
2008 High­-School DxD Akeno Hime­jima F Fan­tasy Japan­ese pur­ple black
2008 Kansen 3 ~Shuto Houkai~ Mar­garita Basques Homura F blue blond
2008 Kara no Shoujo Maris Stella F blue white
2008 Kon­bini S Hana F Eng­lish Japan­ese brown Third sto­ry, “King­dom of Hap­pi­ness”.
2008 Kurage­hime Kura­nosuke Koibuchi M Japan­ese blue brown Mother is a blond Cau­casian woman.
2008 Lucky x Crosse Otobe Anne F Eng­lish? Japan­ese? blue blond
2008 Mecha Love Elina F Japan­ese Amer­i­can blond
2008 Mitsu no Yoru Aiuchi F blond The plot of the fourth story is dri­ven by the pro­tag­o­nist hav­ing blond hair and darker skin; noth­ing else is men­tioned.
2008 Mr.In­vis­i­ble Leg­end of Sawashiro Sarah F green blond
2008 Naze Nani Hon­ey? Mioko F Amer­i­can? Japan­ese? blue blond This manga may be scan­lated at some point.
2008 Nurar­i­hyon no Mago Abe no Seimei M Japan­ese Fan­tasy black black Half-de­mon through his moth­er.
2008 Nurar­i­hyon no Mago Nura Rikuo M Fan­tasy Japan­ese brown brown Quar­ter-de­mon through his father.
2008 Oreimo Iori Fate Set­suna F brown brown Episode 8 of the anime adap­ta­tion men­tions off-hand that she is a ‘quar­ter’ (quar­ter for­eign, pre­sum­ably, anal­o­gous to ‘hāfu’/‘half’). Her name is a pas­tiche of allu­sions, so she likely is a back­ground char­ac­ter for whom no par­tic­u­lar nation­al­ity was intend­ed.
2008 Seitoshi­doushitsu no Oujisama Kan­bara Rinko F Japan­ese Eng­lish blue blond
2008 The Man of Tango Hiro M Japan­ese Lat­in-Amer­i­can? blond
2008 Witch­craft Sara Saionji F Japan­ese? English/Arab? blue white “Quar­ter Eng­lish and quar­ter Arab”
2008 ef - a tale of mem­o­ries Renji Asou M Ger­man Japan­ese blue brown
2008 CVN-73 USS George Wash­ing­ton Jack O’Hara M Japan­ese Amer­i­can black black Pg61-62
2009 But­ter­fly 69 Maria Stein­hardt F blond
2009 Cheerism Asada F Japan­ese Ger­man green blond
2009 Darker than Black 2 Shion Pavlichenko M Russ­ian Japan­ese green red
2009 Darker than Black 2 Suoh Pavlichenko F Russ­ian Japan­ese green red
2009 Eden* They Were Only Two… Asai F. Lavinia F pur­ple black
2009 Haganai Kobato Hasegawa F Japan­ese Eng­lish blue blond
2009 Haganai Kodaka Hasegawa M Japan­ese Eng­lish grey blond
2009 Hisho x Hisho Beat­ori­ise Tsub­ame Kaza­mino F brown red
2009 Kachou Fuugetsu ~Koi ni Takat­sukasa Sumire Alexan­dra F Ger­man? Japan­ese? blue blue
2009 Kiss to Maou to Dar­jeel­ing Sis­ter Mut­sumi Tyler F Japan­ese? green brown Google Trans­late of Japan­ese Wikipedia: “Japan and Europe in half”.
2009 Kure­nai no Tsuki Sagi­nomiya Hiori F blue blond
2009 Matryoshka Nina F Russ­ian Japan­ese blue black
2009 Meruhen-chan Date Maria F Japan­ese Eng­lish green red Scot­tish.
2009 Nat­suiro Sagit­tar­ius Kayaba Rena F blue white
2009 NightS Lou Tian Yi M Chi­nese Japan­ese blond
2009 Pri­vate Love Les­son Mikana Yam­a­gaki F Japan­ese blond
2009 Rebuild Evan­ge­lion 2.0 Mari Mak­i­nami F Japan­ese? Eng­lish? blue brown
2009 Sha­chou Rei­jou wo Home­less Kimishima Reika F Japan­ese blue blond
2009 Starry Sky Yoh Tomoe M French Japan­ese red red
2009 Ten­ta­cle and Witches Futaba Lily Ram­ses F Egyp­tian? Japan­ese? blue blond
2009 Tokimeki Memo­r­ial 4 Elisa Dolit­tle Naruse F Japan­ese? Eng­lish? blue blond
2009 Tsukiy­o-Zoushi Amanogawa Tsukiko F Fan­tasy Japan­ese green brown
2009 Aoi Hit­omi no Onna no Ko no… Eiko F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue black
2010 Akat­suki no Goei ~Tsum­ibuka Shion F pur­ple brown
2010 Amagami SS Haruka Lovely Mor­ishima F Japan­ese Eng­lish blue brown Episode 4; Haruka Mor­ishima is a quar­ter-Eng­lish; her mother is half-Eng­lish from an Eng­lish father. It’s amus­ing to note that in episode 11 of the sequel Amagami SS+, an Eng­lish rel­a­tive named “Jes­sica Sexy Mor­ishima” (yes, that’s her mid­dle name); she is drawn iden­ti­cally to Haruka but with blue eyes and blond hair, and hits on Haruka’s boyfriend (the pro­tag­o­nist).
2010 Coda Yuri Arba­tov M Rus­sian? Japan­ese? white As of chap­ter 5 of Coda, there is no men­tion of his par­ents or rel­a­tives beyond being a half-Russ­ian cousin of an all-Japan­ese char­ac­ter.
2010 Futa Ane ~Bit­ter & Sweet~ Takachiho Wak­aba F Japan­ese? Eng­lish? brown blond
2010 Honoo no Hara­mase Oppai Liselotta von Kirschbaum F Ger­man? Japan­ese? blue white
2010 Itsuka Sora kara Yuki M Fan­tasy Japan­ese black brown
2010 Kiniro Mosaic Karen Kujo F Japan­ese Eng­lish pur­ple blond Karen’s father is half-Japan­ese accord­ing to the main char­ac­ter (pg 6, ch3.2, v01).
2010 Man­biki, Dame. Zettai!! Asa­bane Chi­haya F
2010 Rid­dle Gar­den Yuri Kazuki Roshi­nof M Japan­ese? Rus­sian? brown black
2010 Senobi no Housoku Raku M The scan­la­tion appears to have been pulled from all sites, ren­der­ing it diffi­cult to obtain.
2010 Sono Han­abira Ni Kuchizuke Wo Eris Shi­togi F Japan­ese blue blond The Giant Bomb entry says “Eris’ mother is from North­ern Europe and her father is a Japan­ese busi­ness­man. They met on one of his busi­ness trips. Eris is very friendly and expres­sive. She also occa­sion­ally uses Eng­lish words.”
2010 Ushi­nawareta Mirai wo Motomete Osa­fune Kenny Taidaro M Japan­ese? Amer­i­can? blue brown
2010 Uta no Prince-sama Aijima Cecil M Japan­ese green brown Cecil is from the “desert coun­try” of Agna Palace; given the descrip­tion and his appear­ance, it seems to be a sort of Mid­dle East­ern king­dom like Saudi Ara­bia.
2010 Love Stage!! Seiya Sena M Amer­i­can Japan­ese brown brown http://lovestage.wikia.com/wiki/Seiya_Sena
2011 AnoHana Meiko “Menma” Honma F Japan­ese Rus­sian? blue white Meiko’s blond/grey blue-eyed mother is listed on the gate as being named “Irene”, which is writ­ten in Cyril­lic.
2011 AnoHana Satoshi Honma M Japan­ese Rus­sian? blue white
2011 Bird Cage Washimiya Rin F Japan­ese Swedish blue blond
2011 Boku no Shokora Takaomi M Japan­ese Ger­man green black A screen­shot of the fan-trans­la­tion: “Hav­ing a Ger­man moth­er, Takaomi was in Ger­many since he was a child until he grad­u­ated from col­lege where he was study­ing man­age­ment and admin­is­tra­tion.”
2011 Chou no Doku Hana no Kusari Fujita Hitoshi M Japan­ese pur­ple blond Coun­try seems unavail­able although the father is clearly Cau­casian accord­ing to the most thor­ough review I could find: “Any­way Fuji­ta’s dad was white who knocked up his mom and then decided to go back to his white coun­try, leav­ing his preg­nant mom behind. Every­one looked down on her and her half breed son Fujita so Fujita hates his her­itage and spent his life with big suck. His mom taught him piano and das why he was ini­tially hired into the Nomiya fam­i­ly, to teach Yuriko piano. He explains that part of the rea­son why he’s so devoted to the Nomiya fam­ily was because Yuriko’s pops was the only one who did­n’t dis­crim­i­nate him because of his GAIJIN BLOOD”.
2011 Dog Days Cinque Izumi M Japan­ese Eng­lish blue blond
2011 Gri­saia no Kajitsu Chiara Far­rell F blue white VNDB: “She is a mixed-blood with 2⁄3 of Japan­ese and 1⁄3 of African.”
2011 Hinekure Shisho no Mikaiket­su… Eiji Yone­hara M Eng­lish? Japan­ese? blue red Chap­ter 2 pg 7, says he has an Eng­lish grand­fa­ther; only details as of ch6. Hair & eye color as depicted on cover of vol­ume 1 (6.5 pg2 of scan­la­tion­s).
2011 Hoshi no Ouji-kun Yuri Golovnin M green blue
2011 K-On! Sumire Saitō F blue blond The manga appar­ently calls her explic­itly “a for­eigner”; her flu­ency and lack of stereo­typ­i­cal man­ner­isms sug­gests she may be half-Japan­ese and/or raised in Japan, so she is included until fur­ther evi­dence. A K-On! wiki says “Sumire’s fam­ily is orig­i­nally from Aus­tria, and their fam­ily migrated to Japan to serve the Koto­buki fam­i­ly. At some point in time, they changed their sur­names to Saito”, which ren­ders her uncer­tain and like Tsumu­gi.
2011 Nisekoi Chi­toge Kirisaki F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond
2011 Sei Yari­man Gakuen Enkou Nikki Eri F Japan­ese Brazil­ian blue blond
2011 Supi­para Amano Ange­line Hotaru F Japan­ese French blue blond Based on trans­la­tion of line from the visual novel.
2011 Dic­ta­to­r­ial Gri­moire Otogi Grimm M Ger­man Japan­ese green blond
2011 A Silent Voice Maria Ishida F Brazil­ian Japan­ese ? black Maria is always drawn with eyes closed, so no eye color is avail­able.
2012 D.C. III ~Da Capo III~ Yoshino Charles F Eng­lish Japan­ese red white Pre­view offi­cial infor­ma­tion stated “Her name is like a boy named Charles, due to her stuck the name her Father gave her.” I assume that a Japan­ese father would not nick­name her “Charles”.
2012 Gokukoku no Bryn­hildr Kazumi Schlieren­za­uer F Ger­man? Japan­ese? blue pur­ple Sur­name is from “famous Aus­trian ski jumper Gre­gor Schlieren­za­uer”; TvTropes: “Kazumi claims she’s half Ger­man and can speak some of it, at least enough to fool Ryouta’s class­mates into think­ing she’s trans­fer­ring in from a school in Aus­tria.”
2012 Holy Knight Kishi­moto Lilith F Japan­ese? Roma­ni­an? red red
2012 Muv-Luv Alter­na­tive Yuuya Bridges M Japan­ese Amer­i­can brown brown
2012 Otome ga Tsumugu Koi no Can­vas Shishi­dou Chi­haru Flam­steed F Japan­ese Eng­lish brown blond
2012 Papa no Iukoto o Kik­i­na­sai! Takanashi Miu F Japan­ese Russ­ian brown blond
2012 Sono Han­abira ni Kuchizuke Azumi Risa F Japan­ese Eng­lish blue red
2012 The Fox Lover M blue blond Descrip­tion from pg9; sur­pris­ing­ly, the epony­mous fox girl is not the rel­e­vant char­ac­ter (the cover calls her an orphan but noth­ing implies human ances­try).
2012 Tsuri­tama Yuki Sanada M Japan­ese? French? green red Yuki is a quar­ter-French, through a French grand­mother named “Kate”; asked
2012 Wolf Chil­dren Ame M Fan­tasy Japan­ese brown black
2012 Wolf Chil­dren Yuki F Fan­tasy Japan­ese brown black
2012 Sil­ver Nina Nina Shi­mazaki F Finnish Japan­ese blue blond ch1, pg16
2012 Saekano Eriri Spencer Sawa­mura F Eng­lish Japan­ese blue blond
2012 Food Wars/Shokugeki no Soma Takumi Aldini M Ital­ian Japan­ese blue blond
2012 Food Wars/Shokugeki no Soma Isami Aldini M Ital­ian Japan­ese black black
2012 Food Wars/Shokugeki no Soma Alice Nakiri F Japan­ese Dan­ish red sil­ver
2012 Sae­nai Hiroin no Sodatekata Eriri Spencer Sawa­mura F Eng­lish Japan­ese blue blond
2012 Vat­i­can Mir­a­cle Exam­iner Kou Joseph Hiraga M black
2012 10 Dance Shinya Suzuki M Japan­ese Cuban yel­low? blond
2013 Rose Gun Days Philip But­ler M Amer­i­can Japan­ese black red
2013 Meganebu! William Satou M Japan­ese? Eng­lish? blue blond
2013 Galilei Donna Hozuki Fer­rari F Japan­ese Ital­ian red red
2013 Galilei Donna Kazuki Fer­rari F Japan­ese Ital­ian red black
2013 Galilei Donna Hazuki Fer­rari F Japan­ese Ital­ian red brown
2013 Himō­to! Umaru-chan Alex Tachibana M Japan­ese? Ger­man? blonde Ger­many men­tioned in Himō­to! Umaru-chan chap­ter 15.
2013 Kill la Kill Ira Gam­agōri M Amer­i­can Japan­ese grey blond
2014 Wiz­ard Bar­ris­ters: Ben­mashi Cecil Cecil Sudou F Cana­dian Japan­ese blue pur­ple Father is “David” from Canada, mother is “Megumi Sudo”
2014 Dream C Club Gogo Seira F blue blond
2015 Crim­i­nale Christie Sarah Tsukiko F Ital­ian Japan­ese blue blonde See end of ch24; Crim­i­nale implies in its use of Ital­ian in some places & her clas­si­fi­ca­tion as a hit­man that the father “Leonardo” is Ital­ian (mother “Ayame”)
2015 Water Drag­on’s Bride Asahi F Japan­ese? blue red ANN: “When her son brings home the lit­tle red-haired girl (we’re told Asahi takes after her grand­moth­er, so pre­sum­ably she’s of par­tial Euro­pean descent, mak­ing her look alarm­ing in the Kofun era)”. Asahi is illus­trated with blue-pur­ple eyes, but chap­ter 1 describes her as grey-eyed while in ch6, she’s described as hav­ing blue “sap­phire eyes”, so I go with blue rather than grey eyes; her father is drawn as of Asian appear­ance with spiky black hair, and the mother with light-col­ored short hair Note: not to be con­fused with the Korean man­wha Bride of the Water God.
2015 Idol­ish7 Nagi Rokuya M Fan­tasy Japan­ese blue blond VN/rhythm game adapted into an ani­me; Wikia; North­mare appar­ently mod­eled after Den­mark.
2016 Uchi no Maid ga Uza­su­giru! Misha Takanashi F Japan­ese Russ­ian blue blond
2017 Dar­ling, Give me a break! Kokoro Saku­razaka M Japan­ese? Ital­ian? green? red
2018 Revue Starlight Clau­dine Saijo F Japan­ese French pur­ple blond ANN
2019 Psy­cho-Pass: Sin­ners of the Sys­tem Ten­jin Wangchuck F Japan­ese Tibetan gray? brown ANN

Omissions

Notes on pos­si­bly-con­tro­ver­sial excluded char­ac­ters:

  • 1991: Gun­smith Cats: Rally Vin­cent is Eng­lish & East Indian but not Japan­ese
  • 1991: Silent Mobius: Rosa Cheyenne & Rally Cheyenne are the daugh­ters of Luffa Cheyenne & a man from another dimen­sion; how­ev­er, no sources state that the mother is Japan­ese and all the names sug­gest oth­er­wise; AniDB merely claims that they are “mixed her­itage”
  • 1992: Tenchi Muyo!: Kat­suhito Masaki is includ­ed, but his “son”, Nobuyuki Masaki, is excluded as he is younger than Kat­suhito by around 600 years and is described as a “dis­tant descen­dant” and so prob­a­bly isn’t even a quar­ter Jura­ian; this goes dou­bly for Kat­suhi­to’s “grand­son”, pro­tag­o­nist Tenchi Masa­ki.
  • 1996: Hanaza­kari no Kim­i­tachi e; is born in Amer­ica but both her par­ents are Japan­ese nation­als, and so she is nei­ther a hafu nor quar­ter but closer to a
  • 1996: Shin Super Robot Wars; the Ger­man broth­ers Rai­diese Fuji­wara Branstein & Elzam von Branstein; claimed to be quar­ter-Japan­ese by TvTropes, but no source men­tions this and this may be a con­fu­sion stem­ming from Elzam von Branstein’s wife, “Cat­t­leya Fuji­wara”
  • 1997: Touhou (Story of East­ern Won­der­land): Marisa Kirisame’s name and pow­ers mix West­ern & East­ern motifs, and her father has some sort of con­nec­tion with the Kourindou Shop which sells out­side-world arti­facts, lead­ing to spec­u­la­tion about her ori­gins
  • 1998: Ai Yori Aoshi: Tina Fos­ter, while raised in Japan, is Amer­i­can
  • 1998: Metal Gear Solid: TvTropes spec­u­lates that the minor recur­ring char­ac­ter “Johnny Sasaki” is half-Japan­ese; omit­ted for lack of evi­dence
  • 2000: Super Robot Wars Alpha: Yuuki Jag­gar may or may not be a Ger­man-Japan­ese; no resources online dis­cuss his back­ground (not even the deleted Wikipedia arti­cle). Excluded for lack of evi­dence
  • 2002: Black Lagoon: Revy is Chi­ne­se-Amer­i­can, not Japan­ese-Amer­i­can
  • 2003: Touhou: Mari­bel Hearn is a pur­ple-eyed blond-haired girl with no rel­a­tives in Japan who has been stated by ZUN to be related in some way to the Greek writer on Japan, , who moved there, mar­ried a native, and changed his name; her back­ground and parent­age have not been offi­cially estab­lished yet. (Some Touhou dou­jin manga cast her as a for­eign­er.)
  • 2004: Kurau Phan­tom Mem­ory: Ayaka Steiger is listed as a “mixed her­itage” char­ac­ter, but no infor­ma­tion seems to be avail­able on her par­ents’ eth­nic­ity or nation­al­i­ty, so I exclude her in the absence of any spe­cific claims.
  • 2005: Trauma Cen­ter: Angela “Angie” Thomp­son is part Ger­man, but oth­er­wise is appar­ently Amer­i­can
  • 2006: Do You Want to Try?; Hye Won Han’s mother is Korean & her father French, but this is excluded for being a Korean man­wha rather than Japan­ese manga
  • 2006?: Honey Blonde: both par­ents of pro­tag­o­nist are Eng­lish
  • 2007: The Three Times: Hina is Japan­ese-Ko­re­an; this web­comic is excluded because the author of The Three Times, while raised in Japan, is a Korean cit­i­zen born of Korean par­ents who pub­lished The Three Times (writ­ten in Kore­an) on the Korean web­site , and the series is clas­si­fied as man­wha by many manga sites
  • 2007: Shig­u­rui: the Span­ish-rapier-us­ing war­rior Sek­iun is not a hafu, as the manga makes clear he was a nor­mal Japan­ese samu­rai boy unfor­tu­nately assigned by his daimyo to learn bar­bar­ian mar­tial arts
  • 2008: Lost Num­ber: minor char­ac­ter Ryu Ji-hye (F; Korean/Japanese) is excluded as the visual novel is pro­duced by an ama­teur “Korean team” and was aban­doned after a free 2008 pre­view release.
  • 2008: Michiko to Hatchin; TvTropes spec­u­lates that Atsuko Jack­son & Michiko Malan­dro are half-Japan­ese, but I could­n’t find any other ref­er­ences
  • 2008: Seol Hui: excluded for being a Korean man­wha
  • 2009: Goku­dou Café: clas­si­fied by Baka Updates as mixed-blood, but scan­la­tions don’t seem eas­ily avail­able.
  • 2009: Stein­s;­gate: Kurisu Makise is some­times iden­ti­fied as a hafu because she is a returnee from Amer­ica & has red hair, but both her par­ents seem to be Japan­ese nation­als
  • 2010: Seiki­matsu Occult Gakuin: Maya Kumashiro, daugh­ter of the head­mas­ter of “Wald­stein Acad­emy”, Junichi­rou Kumashiro seems to have for­eign con­nec­tions and the epony­mous occultism is purely West­ern; but while her father seems to be Japan­ese, noth­ing about her mother is shown and so her blue eyes may just be another case of mukokuseki
  • 2011: Him­itsu no Bara Juu­ji­dan: clas­si­fied by Baka Updates as “mixed-blood” but the main char­ac­ter seems to be an all-Japan­ese rein­car­na­tion.
  • 2011: : char­ac­ter Nico­las Brown is half-Asian, but the qua­si­-fan­tasy set­ting bars spe­cific iden­ti­fi­ca­tion as a hafu
  • 2012: Katawa Shoujo: Lilly & Akira Satou are half-S­cot­tish, but it is a West­ern open-source project
  • 2012: Robot­ic­s;Notes: “Frau Kōjiro”/Kona Furugōri is blond and may be part-Ger­man given her user­name, but there is no mate­r­ial online spec­i­fy­ing eth­nic­i­ties.
  • 2012: tsuri­tama: TvTropes spec­u­lates that the qua­si­-In­dian char­ac­ter “Akira Agarkar Yamada” must be part-Japan­ese; omit­ted for lack of evi­dence
  • 2013: Mikasa Ack­er­man in Shingeki no Kyo­jin is of the “Ori­en­tal race” on her moth­er’s side; accord­ing to a slaver char­ac­ter in episode 6, her father was not.

Analysis

Descriptive

A look at the data­base indi­cates that so far:

  1. many char­ac­ters have at least one par­ent uncer­tain; data qual­ity is a per­sis­tent issue
  2. Europe & Amer­ica are heav­ily over­rep­re­sent­ed; Asia under­rep­re­sented (see next sec­tion)
  3. Gen­der of Japan­ese par­ent appears evenly bal­anced and hence for­eign moth­ers are heav­ily over­rep­re­sented
  4. There is a major tem­po­ral imbal­ance: works from the 2000s make up much of the data­base. This is par­tially due to my data sources - scan­la­tion sites and fan-com­piled data­bases will have a heavy “recen­tism bias” towards detailed cat­a­logu­ing of new works, and so pre-In­ter­net works will be dras­ti­cally under­rep­re­sent­ed, if they are men­tioned at all. The 1975 Ichigo Mono­gatari manga is a case in point: brief plot sum­maries exist only because the author is his­tor­i­cally impor­tant to shojo man­ga, but more data is infea­si­ble to obtain, and any hafu char­ac­ters by her less famous con­tem­po­raries will be entirely for­got­ten!

Korean anomaly

As of 2014-05-02, there is no half-Ko­rean char­ac­ter in the data­base out of >268 char­ac­ters. There are scores of Amer­i­cans and British and French char­ac­ters, >6 Chi­nese char­ac­ters, but 0 Kore­ans. Hafu char­ac­ters appear to sat­isfy the “No Kore­ans In Japan” anime/manga trope.

There are sev­eral Kore­an-Japan­ese char­ac­ters in the exclu­sion list, but in each case the fic­tion turns out to have been pro­duced by a Korean appar­ently for a Korean audi­ence, and not eli­gi­ble for the data­base; it is also inter­est­ing that despite not look­ing for Korean works at all, I have found that many Kore­an-pro­duced exam­ples, yet in look­ing very hard for Japan­ese works, I have found no Japan­ese-pro­duced exam­ples.

Both these points are pecu­liar, because Korea is one of the geo­graph­i­cally clos­est coun­tries to Japan, was under direct Japan­ese rule for 30+ years which entailed scores of thou­sands of Kore­ans being edu­cated or raised or work­ing in Japan (more than a few as slave labor), there is still a large pop­u­la­tion of (>0.9m or >0.7% of the Japan­ese pop­u­la­tion c. 2005), the “” has made large inroads in Japan­ese pop cul­ture, and the Japan­ese have his­tor­i­cal con­nec­tions to Korea since at least Korean emi­gra­tion to Japan circa 500s AD.

An inter­est­ing com­par­i­son would be to the , a con­ti­nent away: with ~1.4m mem­bers, it’s roughly com­pa­ra­ble to Kore­ans in Japan, but there are 4 char­ac­ters of Brazil­ian descent com­pared to 0 of Korean descent.

So, the absence of Korean char­ac­ters is curi­ous, and may rep­re­sent a dog that did not bark.

(An expla­na­tion might be the many , but the legacy of col­o­niza­tion & exploita­tion would pre­sum­ably burn more painfully for the Kore­ans - the suffer­ers - than the Japan­ese, and so one might expect any silence and ignor­ing of the other coun­try to be on the Korean side rather than the Japan­ese.)

Source code

Run as: R --slave --file=hafu.r:

set.seed(7777) # for reproducible numbers
# load & clean data
# install.packages("XML") # if not already installed
library(XML)
hafu <- readHTMLTable("https://www.gwern.net/Hafu#list")[[1]]
hafu[hafu==""] <- NA

decades <- c(seq(from=1960,to=2010,by=10), 2019)

# graph male-female ratio of hafu characters over time
png(file="~/wiki/images/hafu/hafu-genderratiobydecade.png", width = 3*480, height = 2*480)
hafu$Year <- as.integer(as.character(hafu$Year))
spineplot(hafu$Gender ~ hafu$Year, breaks=decades,
          ylab="Characters' Gender Ratio", xlab="By decade")
invisible(dev.off())

# graph parent nationalities by descending frequency
png(file="~/wiki/images/hafu/parent-nationalities.png", width = 3*480, height = 2*480)
barplot(sort(table(sub("\\?","",c(as.character(hafu$Mother), as.character(hafu$Father)))),
             decreasing=TRUE)[2:18], xlab="Foreign parents by nationality")
invisible(dev.off())

# graph Japanese vs foreigner parentage for fathers & mothers over time
parents <- hafu[!is.na(hafu$Mother) & !is.na(hafu$Father),] # only clean entries
parents$Mother <- as.character(parents$Mother); parents$Father <- as.character(parents$Father)
parents$Mother[parents$Mother != "Japanese"] <- "Foreign"
parents$Father[parents$Father != "Japanese"] <- "Foreign"

png(file="~/wiki/images/hafu/parent-nationalitiesbydecade.png", width = 3*480, height = 2*480)
par(mfrow=c(2,1))
spineplot(as.factor(parents$Father) ~ parents$Year, breaks=decades,
          ylab="Father", main="Characters (split by decade)", xlab="")
spineplot(as.factor(parents$Mother) ~ parents$Year, breaks=decades,
          ylab="Mother", xlab="Fractions do not sum to 1, due to characters of uncertain parentage")
invisible(dev.off())

cat("Test overall gender ratio of hafu characters:\n")
binom.test(c(sum(hafu$Gender=="M", na.rm=TRUE), sum(hafu$Gender=="F", na.rm=TRUE)))

cat("\nGive 95% CIs on gender ratio of hafu characters by decade ('60s, '70s, '80s, '90s, '00s, '10s):\n")
d1 <- hafu[hafu$Year>=1960 & hafu$Year<=1969,] # FIXME
d2 <- hafu[hafu$Year>=1970 & hafu$Year<=1979,]
d3 <- hafu[hafu$Year>=1980 & hafu$Year<=1989,]
d4 <- hafu[hafu$Year>=1990 & hafu$Year<=1999,]
d5 <- hafu[hafu$Year>=2000 & hafu$Year<=2009,]
d6 <- hafu[hafu$Year>=2010 & hafu$Year<=2013,]
bt <- function(x) { sex <- table(x$Gender);
                    round(binom.test(c(sex[["M"]], sex[["F"]]))$conf.int[1:2], 2) }
bt(d1); bt(d2); bt(d3); bt(d4); bt(d5); bt(d6) # FIXME

# begin testing parent data
cat("\nParent data: 'mother is Japanese' vs 'father is Japanese' (FALSE/FALSE means which is uncertain):\n")
print(table(hafu$Mother=="Japanese", hafu$Father=="Japanese"))

cat("\nTest whether the overall parent imbalance is large enough to exclude the 50:50 hypothesis:\n")
binom.test(c(sum(hafu$Mother=="Japanese",na.rm=TRUE), sum(hafu$Father=="Japanese",na.rm=TRUE)))

cat("\nSame test, but now with the 2006 Japanese census listing of Japanese-American marriages:\n")
binom.test(c(1474,215))

cat("\nSame test, but now examining characters with any American parentage:\n")
american <- hafu[hafu$Father=="American" || hafu$Mother=="American",]
binom.test(c(sum(american$Mother=="Japanese",na.rm=TRUE), sum(american$Father=="Japanese",na.rm=TRUE)))

cat("\nGive 95% CIs on mother vs father being Japanese by decade ('60s, '70s, '80s, '90s, '00s, '10s):\n")
pt <- function(d) round(binom.test(c(sum(d$Mother=="Japanese",na.rm=TRUE),
                                     sum(d$Father=="Japanese",na.rm=TRUE)))$conf.int[1:2],
                        2)
pt(d1); pt(d2); pt(d3); pt(d4); pt(d5); pt(d6) # reusing per-decade data frames defined previously; FIXME

# begin looking at phenotype data
cat("\nTabulate hair color against eye color:\n")
print(table(hafu$Hair, hafu$Eye), zero.print=".")

# with(hafu[hafu$Mother=="Japanese",], print(table(Hair, Eyes, Father), zero.print="."))

# optimize the generated graphs by cropping whitespace & losslessly compressing them
system(paste('cd ~/wiki/images/hafu/ &&',
             'for f in *.png; do convert "$f" -crop',
             '`nice convert "$f" -virtual-pixel edge -blur 0x5 -fuzz 10% -trim -format',
             '\'%wx%h%O\' info:` +repage "$f"; done'))
system("optipng -o9 -fix ~/wiki/images/hafu/*.png", ignore.stdout = TRUE)

Capture-recapture

The uni­verse of anime/manga since 1963 is of unknown total size but very large. I’ve won­dered: how I could esti­mate how com­plete my sam­ple is at any point?

My search pro­ce­dure can be sum­ma­rized as: I check many differ­ent places, look­ing for key­words and phrases that may indi­cate a hafu char­ac­ter, and if I find one I add it to the data­base but if it’s already in it, I do noth­ing. Places change, and new places appear, so the check­ing is never done, but once a char­ac­ter has been added, I will always rec­og­nize it even if I find it mul­ti­ple times. This turns out to strongly resem­ble a prob­lem from ecol­ogy: a ecol­o­gist or biol­o­gist wishes to know how many ani­mals are in a region, but while ani­mals can be tagged or marked or oth­er­wise recorded (if they have unique spots or fur), ani­mals are hard to find, there’s a lot of them, and you never know when you’re done even if your traps are stuffed full of ani­mals you’ve already seen before. But if all your traps are turn­ing up no new ani­mals, surely that’s con­sis­tent with hav­ing trapped most or all the ani­mals, right? If every time you trapped an ani­mal you got a new ani­mal, the total pop­u­la­tion of ani­mals must be truly enor­mous for you to not trap the same ani­mal twice!

This intu­ition is right. For­mal­ized as sta­tis­tics, it is called “cap­ture-re­cap­ture” or “”, and it applies to any area which sat­is­fies the basic descrip­tion of very large pop­u­la­tion and repeated cap­tures of the same mem­ber. Past appli­ca­tions of it and sim­i­lar tech­niques include test­ing soft­ware for bugs, esti­mat­ing the size of the World Wide Web or Shake­speare’s vocab­u­lary (overview of related top­ics). Libraries are already avail­able; I choose to use the R library Rcapture (man­ual; paper).

I can treat my exist­ing data col­lec­tion as the cap­tures in cap­ture-re­cap­ture: so eg. each time I get a Google Alert for a new char­ac­ter but it’s already on my list, this counts as a “recap­ture”, but if I run a search in Google Books and I find 15 char­ac­ters and 14 are already on the list, that’s 14 “recap­tures” and 1 “cap­ture”.

There seem to be two main issues with cap­ture-re­cap­ture in this con­text:

  1. The mod­els gen­er­ally require prop­er­ties like that each mem­ber of the pop­u­la­tion have an equal chance of being cap­tured or inde­pen­dence of cap­ture occa­sions.

    The for­mer (hetero­ge­neous cap­ture prob­a­bil­i­ty) is addressed by the more advanced mod­els in Rcap­ture, and eye­balling the cap­ture log, it’s very rare for a char­ac­ter to appear more than 2 or 3 times, sug­gest­ing gen­eral equal­ity of cap­tures. The lat­ter require­ment is diffi­cult to ver­i­fy; the best I can say is that very few char­ac­ters show up in more than one source, and each of the major sources seems to have been com­piled in igno­rance of the oth­ers (there were no dis­cus­sions, com­ments, links, or cita­tions)

  2. The results are valid only for the pre­cise pop­u­la­tion one is mak­ing infer­ences about.

    Not all half-Japan­ese char­ac­ters from the past will have been noted as such in media, char­ac­ters where half-Japan­ese is implied but not defin­i­tively stated as being such may have that omit­ted from any dis­cus­sion, fewer char­ac­ters will appear in Eng­lish dis­cus­sions any­where, and only a sub­set of those will appear in acces­si­ble dig­i­tized mate­ri­als. Using cap­ture-re­cap­ture means we are only mak­ing infer­ences about the size of “the pop­u­la­tion of char­ac­ters with infor­ma­tion avail­able on the Eng­lish Web”.

Corpus estimation result

The most appro­pri­ate pop­u­la­tion model treats hafu char­ac­ters as a closed pop­u­la­tion, since char­ac­ters once cre­ated do not cease to exist. I per­formed sam­pling in 18 phrases (cor­re­spond­ing to dis­crete data sources), and I clas­si­fied as 1 large col­lec­tion period all char­ac­ters col­lected before the cap­ture-re­cap­ture log was start­ed.

The model that Rcapture fit to logs of 296 char­ac­ters (min­i­miz­ing the ) was the M0 Chao mod­el, cor­re­spond­ing to each sam­pling phase and each char­ac­ter hav­ing the same prob­a­bil­ity of cap­ture each time (some­what to my sur­prise). The M0 model yields an esti­mate of 657 total acces­si­ble hafu char­ac­ters, and a 95% con­fi­dence inter­val of 559-781 char­ac­ters, imply­ing that a data­base of n = 296 achieves cov­er­age of 28-52%.

Appendices

Capture-recapture code

Run as R --slave --file=rcapture.r:

library(Rcapture)

# O=Original compilation before capture-recapture log started
# GSA=Google Search Alerts
# ST=http://www.sequentialtart.com/archive/mar04/cv_0304_2.shtml
# GIJ=http://germaninjapan.tumblr.com/post/26503313045/thematizing-halfs-in-manga-and-anime-yamaken
# ANN=http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/review/haganai/i-dont-have-many-friends/gn-1
# MV=http://www.mangavolume.com/manga-archive/mangas/search-half-japanese
# TV2=TvTropes (December 2012 check)
# TV3=http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/remarks.php?trope=Main.ButNotTooForeign
# VN=http://vndb.org/i674?m=2 / http://vndb.org/i674?m=2;fil=tagspoil-2.trait_inc-674;p=2
# MAL=https://myanimelist.net/forum/?topicid=141256&show=60#msg10542373
# DC=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Da_Capo_series_characters
# PP=http://www.peterpayne.net/2011/12/anime-characters-with-blonde-hair.html
# AND=http://anidb.net/perl-bin/animedb.pl?show=lexicon&mode=character&vtype=ctag&relid=2296
# TVM=http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/Mukokuseki
# CF=http://www.comicforum.de/archive/index.php/t-122076-p-38.html
# BU1=http://www.mangaupdates.com/showtopic.php?tid=35093
# BU2=http://www.mangaupdates.com/series.html?page=1&perpage=100&category=Mixed+Blood&orderby=year
# ANN2=http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/review/wolf-children
# ANN3=Google ANN site search
hafu <- read.table(stdin(),header=TRUE)
Work                O GSA IRC ST GIJ ANN MV TV2 TV3 VN MAL DC PP AND TVM CF BU1 BU2 ANN2 ANN3
".hack Legend of"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"2nd Super Robot W" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"801 T.T.S. Airbat" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Adolf"             1 1   0   0  0   0   1  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    1
"Ai Kora"           1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Akatsuki no Goei"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Akuma to Love Son" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Amagami SS"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ame Nochi Hare"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Angel Sanctuary1"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Angel Sanctuary2"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ano Machi no Koi"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"AnoHana1"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"AnoHana2"          0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Arisa"             1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ashinaga Ojisama"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Atori Shou"        0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Baccano"           1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Bath Towel"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ben-To"            0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Best Student Coun" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Beyblade"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Bird Cage"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Bleach"            1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Boku no Shokora"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Bokutachi Otoko n" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Boys Be"           0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Butterfly 69"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Caf Latte Rhapso"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Canvas 2"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Card Captors Saku" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Chanto Shiyou Yo"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Cheerism"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Chka Ichiban"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Chou no Doku Han"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Class Zenin Ore"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Coda"              1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Code Geass"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   1   0  0   0   0    1
"Code Geass: Lost"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Cyborg 009"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"D.C. III Da Capo"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"DOA Hitomi"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"DOA Kokoro"        0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Da Capo I"         0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   1  1  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Da Capo I"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Dance in the Vamp" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Darenimo Ienai"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Darker than Blac"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Darker than Blac2" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Dear My Mister"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Death Note"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Death Note2"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Desert Storm"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Detective Conan"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Devil Lady"        0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Diamond Head"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Digimon A 02"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Digimon Adventure" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Digimon Savers"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Digimon Tamers1"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Digimon Tamers2"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Digimon Tamers3"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Digimon Tamers4"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Dog Days"          0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Durarara!!1"       1 0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Eden They Were O"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ef - a Tale of Me" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Evangelion 2.0"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Eyeshield 21"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Fake"              1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Fate/stay night"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Fruits Basket"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Full Metal Panic"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Futa Ane Bitter"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"G-senjou no Maou"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gakuen Alice"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gatchaman"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"GetBackers"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"GoShogun"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Golden Days"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Great Mazinger"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Great Teacher Oni" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  1   0   0    0
"Green Green 2 Ko"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Grisaia no Kajit"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gsenjou no Maou"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gundam 00.1"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gundam 00.2"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gundam 00.3"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gundam 00.4"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gundam Wing"       0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Haganai"           1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   1   0    1
"Haganai"           1 0   0   0  0   1   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Haganai2"          0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Haikara-san ga To" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  1   0   0    0
"Hana Yori Dango"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Hana-kimi"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Hanasakeru Seisho" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  1   0   0    1
"Hanjuku Orange"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Harem Lodge"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"High-School DxD"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Himawari"          0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Hinekure Shisho n" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Hirahira Hy~n"     0 0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Hisho x Hisho"     0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Holy Knight"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Homura Kansen 3"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Honoo no Haramas"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Hoshi no Oujikun"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Hungry Heart"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Hyper Police"      0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Ice Forest"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ichigo Monogatari" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Iinchou wa Shoun"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ijigen kara no Ta" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Inuyasha"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Itazura na Kiss.1" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  1   0   0    0
"Itazura na Kiss.2" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  1   0   0    0
"Itazura na Kiss.3" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  1   0   0    0
"Itsuka Sora kara"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"JoJo's Bizarre.1"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"JoJo's Bizarre.2"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"JoJo's Bizarre.3"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"JoJo's Bizarre.4"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Jubei-chan 2"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"K-On"              1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"K-On"              1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kachou Fuugetsu"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kaichou wa Maid-s" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kamen no Maid Guy" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kamichama Karin"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kansen 3 ~Shuto H" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kara no Shoujo"    0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kashou no Tsuki"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Katekyo Hitman Re" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kids on the Slope" 0 0   1   0  1   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Kimi to Boku"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Kinnikuman Nisei"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kiss to Maou to"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kiss/Hug"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kita e. ~Diamond"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Kochira Katsushik" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kodomo no Omocha"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Koiseyo Shounen"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Konbini S"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kujibiki Unbalanc" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kuragehime"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Kurau Phantom Mem" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kurenai no Tsuki"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Lady"              1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Little Busters"    0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   1  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Love Monster"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Lovetore"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Lucky x Crosse"    0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Lupin III"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"MGS Miller"        0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"MGS SS"            1 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Macross"           1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Mad Bull 34"       0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Magic Kaito"       0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Mahou Sensei Neg"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Manbiki"           0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Maria Holic"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Maria-sama Ga Mit" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Marmalade Boy"     1 0   0   1  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Master Keaton"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Matryoshka"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Maya Madoromijim"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Mecha Love"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Meimeimei"         0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Meruhen-chan"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Midorigafuchi Yo"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Milkman"           1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Mitsu no Yoru"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Mobile Police Pat" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Mobile Suit Gunda" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Motto Itte"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Mr.Invisible Leg"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Muv-Luv Alternati" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Nabari no Ou"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Nana"              1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Natsuiro Sagitta"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Natsumegu"         0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Naze Nani Honey"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Nee"               0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Negima"            1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Nejire"            0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Nekome Kozou"      0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Neon Genesis Evan" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0  0  1   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Nigai Kajitsu"     0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"NightS"            0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Nisekoi"           1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"No More Heroes"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Nurarihyon no Ma"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Nurarihyon no Ma"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ochiba no Mau Ko"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ohana to Chocolat" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Onegai Goshujins"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Onegai Twins"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  1  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Onimusha"          0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Oreimo"            1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Otome ga Tsumugu"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Otona Pink"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ougon Honey"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ouran Host"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Ousama no Lesson"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Oyasumi Punpun"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Pani Poni Dash"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Papa no Iukoto o"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Parasite Eve"      0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Parfait ~Chocolat" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Peacemaker Kuroga" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Pineapple Army"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Prince of Tennis"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Private Love Less" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Puchi Houndo"      0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Rainbow Trotsky"   0 1   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Rainbow: Nisha"    0 1   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Rakuen Ai Kawara"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Raspberry Welcom"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Read or Die"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Rean no Tsubasa"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Remember11 the a"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Rhythmic Rev"      0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Riddle Garden"     0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Rikujou Bouei-tai" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ring of Red"       0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Royal Straight"    0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   1  0   0   0    0
"SF Ken"            1 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"SF Sean"           1 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Saint Seiya"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Saitama Chainsaw"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sakura Gari"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sakura Taisen 3"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sakura Taisen 5"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sakura Taisen"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sakura Taisen"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sakura no Nekohim" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Samurai Gun"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"School Rumble"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Secret Area"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sei Yariman Gaku"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Seitoshidoushitsu" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Senobi no Housoku" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sensual Phrase"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Shachou Reijou w"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shadow Hearts"     0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shanimuni Go"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shigeshshi"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shin Seiki GPX Cy" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shippuu Karen Jin" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shiyouzumi Condo"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shuffle.1"         0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shuffle.2"         0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sister Princess.1" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sister Princess.2" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sister Princess.3" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Skip Beat"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Slam Dunk"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sono Hanabira Ni"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sono Hanabira Ni"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Soul Eater"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Star Ocean"        0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Starry Sky"        0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Super Robot Wars"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Supipara"          0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"TMM a la Mode"     0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   1   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tamayura"          0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tekken 6 Bloodlin" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tenchi Muyo"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tenshi no Hashig"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tentacle and Witc" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"That Summer"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"The Fox Lover"     0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"The Idolmaster"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"The Man of Tango"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"To Heart"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tokimeki Memoria"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tona-Gura"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Trace Memory"      0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tsukihime"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tsukiyo-Zoushi"    0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Tsuritama"         0 0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tsuyokiss Cool x"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"UFO Baby"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ushinawareta Mir"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"UtanoPrincesama"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Vampire Princess"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Venus Capriccio"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  1   0   0    0
"Venus in Love"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Wolf Children"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   1    0
"X1999"             0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Yakitate!! Japan"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Yakitate!! Japan"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Yes! PreCure 5"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ykan Club"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Yo-u"              0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Yuki no Taiyou"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"ef a tale of"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Dictatorial Grim"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Boys Be"           0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"The Last Wizard"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Nana"              0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Blood+"            0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"CVN-73 USS Georg " 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Aoi Hitomi no On"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Love Stage!!"      0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Dictatorial Grim"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Silver Nina"       0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Meganebu!"         0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Galilei Donna"     0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Dream C Club Gog"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1



# closedp.t fits more models, but computationally intractable due to extreme memory use (>7GB)
closedp.0(hafu[,-1])
closedpCI.0(hafu[,-1])

Out­put:

# Number of captured units: 298
#
# Abundance estimations and model fits:
#               abundance  stderr  deviance  df    AIC
# M0                660.9    55.8     1.387  17  25.34
# Mh Chao (LB)      663.4    58.8     1.368   8  43.32
# Mh Poisson2       635.9    81.0     1.223  16  27.18
# Mh Darroch        602.3   120.0     1.141  16  27.10
# Mh Gamma3.5       572.0   152.0     1.099  16  27.05

closedpCI.0(hafu[,-1])
#
# Number of captured units: 298
#
# Poisson estimation and model fit:
#     abundance  stderr  deviance  df    AIC
# M0      660.9    55.8     1.387  17  25.34
#
# Multinomial estimation, 95% profile likelihood confidence interval:
#     abundance  InfCL  SupCL
# M0        659  563.7  785.2

Appendix

Genetics of skin, hair, and eye color

As the phe­no­type data indi­cates, it is almost stereo­typ­i­cal for hafu char­ac­ters to have blond or red hair and blue eyes and the choices fol­low national stereo­types (Scan­di­na­vian char­ac­ters are blue-eyed and blond, Irish or Scot­tish are red-haired, etc). Aside from the char­ac­ter design choic­es’ role in pro­vid­ing visual vari­ety or (lit­er­al­ly) col­or-cod­ing nation­al­i­ty, is that empir­i­cally or genet­i­cally plau­si­ble?

Real hafus

First, we could sim­ply look at promi­nent hafus, like Wikipedi­a’s list of 50 hafus with WP entries as of 2015-11-14 (). Some quick guesses about the first 20 or so:

  • Kusumoto Ine: eye color unclear, hair black
  • Ari­ana Miyamo­to: brown, black
  • Rox­ana Saberi: black, black
  • Ryō Kurusu: black, black
  • Ren­hō: black, black
  • May J.: black, brown?
  • Sayaka Aki­mo­to: black, black
  • Murashige_An­na: brown, brown?
  • Pat­ty: ?
  • Aya Sug­i­mo­to: black, black?
  • Saori Hara: brown, black?
  • Luna Taka­mu­ra: ?
  • Rola: brown, brown?
  • Mag­gy: ?
  • Erika Sawa­jiri: black, black
  • Eiji Wentz: green, brown
  • Mar­ius Yo: black, black
  • Ryan Pot­ter: black, black
  • Ureo Egawa: ?, black
  • Gōtoku Sakai: ?, black
  • Noriyoshi Sakai: ?, brown
  • Yu Darvish: black, black

While it’s hard to tell eye color from small or old pho­tos, and hair color is eas­ily changed, look­ing closely at these 20 and skim­ming the remain­ing 30 shows con­sid­er­able con­sis­ten­cy: hair color is uni­ver­sally brown to black, and eyes are usu­ally light or dark brown (with an occa­sional excep­tion for one of the less rare eye col­ors are like hazel). Some hafu look remark­ably Cau­casian (Ryō Kurusu looks incred­i­bly Rus­sian), but from my Amer­i­can per­spec­tive, I would say that skin col­or-wise, they look the same but most look much more Japan­ese in hair & appear­ance than their other half. What I do not see any­where in those 50 is some­one who is blond (as an adult) or red-haired, nor are there any blue eyes.

Skin color

Most hafu char­ac­ters are drawn light col­ored or with white skin just like the reg­u­lar Japan­ese char­ac­ters, but the ones with Brazil­ian or African parent­age are depicted as much dark­er-toned. Is this racist or real­is­tic?

seems to be no more than a few dozen genes com­bin­ing mostly addi­tively (for more details, see ) in order to yield the human spec­trum of skin color from chalk-white to deep­-black, imply­ing that any cross will be roughly the aver­age of the two par­ents’ skin col­ors but due to the any indi­vid­ual child might be as or more extreme as either par­ent. (South Asian genet­ics blog­ger Razib Khan often notes that sib­lings can have very differ­ent skin colors/darkness for this very rea­son.) Japan­ese and Cau­casians are far out on the extreme of pale­ness, which pre­dicts that Caucasian/Japanese hafus will have sim­i­lar skin col­ors (since the two pop­u­la­tions are so sim­i­lar in the first place that aver­ag­ing them does­n’t pro­duce a notice­able differ­ence) and also that Caucasian/Japanese crosses with Africans or other dark­-skinned pop­u­la­tions will ‘look’ more like the darker par­ent than the lighter - because split­ting the absolute color differ­ence still results in push­ing the hafu way out­side the Japan­ese skin color norm. It’s not that the black­ness is ‘stronger’ or the ‘one drop rule’ is true (the child is equally in-be­tween), it’s that the ref­er­ence pop­u­la­tion is so extreme & homo­ge­neous that small absolute differ­ences stand out, espe­cially when dichotomized. Both these trends are reflected in the char­ac­ter data­base:

So when it comes to skin col­or, it appears the hafu char­ac­ters are real­is­tic.

Hair color

Red hair

is pri­mar­ily caused by a sin­gle sim­ple reces­sive muta­tion in the gene for MC1R which arose in north­ern Europe, and so is Mendelian - you must have two copies of the reces­sive to have red hair, oth­er­wise your hair will be what­ever other col­or. So in the case of red hair, we can be cer­tain that real hafus are extremely unlikely to have red hair: even if the other par­ent is red-haired and hence guar­an­teed to have two copies, the Japan­ese par­ent will be car­ry­ing no copies of the MC1R muta­tion and so all chil­dren will be reces­sive by Mendel/Punnet-squares.

If the chil­dren again out­-mar­ried, then the grand­chil­dren could hypo­thet­i­cally have red hair but it still would not be par­tic­u­larly likely (all the chil­dren will be car­ry­ing 1 copy of MC1R; if one then mar­ried a red­head ie some­one with two copies, then only half of the grand­chil­dren will have dou­ble-re­ces­sives and be red-haired, while the other half will still have the dom­i­nant brown/black; if one then mar­ried a red car­ri­er, then only a quar­ter of the grand­chil­dren would be red and the remain­der dom­i­nant again).

And we can rule out the hypoth­e­sis that per­haps MC1R some­how got intro­duced into the Japan­ese pop­u­la­tion through, say, the famous , and so the Japan­ese par­ent might be a car­rier any­way - if there were a back­ground rate of, say, 1% MC1R car­ri­ers, then there’d be native Japan­ese who have red hair for no appar­ent rea­son, some­what like the Afro-Caribbean red­heads, where the reces­sive lurks in the pop­u­la­tion (pos­si­bly from an ear­lier Scot­tish admix­ture?) and occa­sion­ally throws up a hit.

For red hair, the hafu char­ac­ters are extremely unre­al­is­tic.

Blond hair

The sit­u­a­tion is sim­i­lar with blond hair: vari­ants in MC1R are impli­cat­ed, but a few other genes may be involved. So the end result is less extreme, but the reces­sives and lack of any rea­son for them to be in the Japan­ese pop­u­la­tion means that blond hair should still be quite rare in hafus.

For blond hair, the hafu char­ac­ters are unre­al­is­tic.

Eye color

which are not solely addi­tive, and so the full spec­trum of eye col­ors can be pos­si­ble; for exam­ple, in an , eye col­ors ran the full range from blue to black:

“Fig­ure 2. Quan­ti­ta­tive assess­ment of eye col­or. Plot­ted are the nor­mal­ized median val­ues of green (x-ax­is) and blue (y-ax­is) lev­els of each indi­vid­u­al’s iris­es. We fit­ted a prin­ci­pal curve that explains most of the vari­a­tion in the data (red dashed curve). The T-in­dex is defined by the arc-length from the pro­jec­tion of each point on the curve to the end of the curve that cor­re­sponds to the light­est eye col­or. In the fig­ure are exam­ples of eye pho­tos at their respec­tive posi­tion in the T-in­dex curve. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003372.g002

But here we need to note the issue of reces­sives: for exam­ple, are reces­sive and so have the same prob­lem as red & blond hair for ever appear­ing on a first-gen­er­a­tion hafu. In that Euro­pean-African mixed pop­u­la­tion, there is a chance for two blue-eye reces­sives on OCA2 to find each other and so throw up blue eyes even in some­one who oth­er­wise looks very African, and like­wise for red hair (thus the exis­tence of Afro Caribbean red­heads) but would any Japan­ese par­ents be car­ry­ing those OCA2 vari­ants? Prob­a­bly not.

So it seems that it would be much more likely for a hafu to instead have green, brown, or black eyes, but a vari­ety of those col­ors is indeed pos­si­ble.

Gattaca

One per­son asks, could pure-Japan­ese par­ents or hafus have the stereo­typ­i­cal blue-eyed blond/red chil­dren “-style”? Almost cer­tainly no, for the same rea­sons above - the rel­e­vant alle­les do not exist or are too rare.

Gat­taca pro­poses only and not gen­uine edit­ing (eg CRISPR/TALENS): embryo selec­tion is strictly equiv­a­lent to hav­ing n chil­dren (where as of 2016, n~=5) and try­ing to pick just 1; so if par­ents could­n’t achieve some­thing by hav­ing lots of kids, embryo selec­tion can­not achieve it either. If the differ­ences are not there in the first place, there is noth­ing to choose between.

So since Japan­ese par­ents would­n’t have any red-heads by hav­ing 5 kids, embryo selec­tion can­not accom­plish that either. The prob­lem is that the reces­sive allele just is not present in both par­ents, with no pop­u­la­tion vari­ance, so there are never any embryos which are homozy­gous on the allele to select. Sim­i­larly for blonde­ness and blue eyes: even if the rel­e­vant alle­les are present at some fre­quency and are addi­tive rather than reces­sive, it would require extreme lev­els of selec­tion to make a notice­able differ­ence for two pure-Japan­ese par­ents

How­ev­er, with a hafu par­ent, there may be enough to work with that embryo selec­tion can do some­thing, depend­ing on the specifics. (Con­tin­u­ing the fam­ily heuris­tic, one can imag­ine a hafu fam­ily where one son “takes after his mom”, sug­gest­ing it’s pos­si­ble.)

So for the extreme cas­es, some sort of genetic edit­ing (or hair dye) would be required.

Overall

From the genet­ics, we would pre­dict that blue eyes, blond hair, and red hair will rarely or ever appear in a real hafu, and they are much more likely to have skin inter­me­di­ate their par­ents’ col­or­ing, brown or black hair, and green to black eyes. (This is con­sis­tent with the few real hafus whose pho­tos I looked over.)

So we can say that over­all, the hafu char­ac­ters are unre­al­is­tic.

Savage Continent

Sav­age Con­ti­nent: Europe in the After­math of World War II, Lowe 2013; chap­ter 14, “Revenge on Women and Chil­dren”:

In the autumn of 1944 a young girl from Sain­t-Clé­ment in the Yonne départe­ment of France was arrested for hav­ing ‘inti­mate rela­tions’ with a Ger­man offi­cer. When ques­tioned by the police she openly admit­ted to her affair. ‘I became his mis­tress,’ she said. ‘He some­times came to the house to help my father when he was ill. When he left, he left me his Feld­post num­ber. I wrote to him and had my let­ters taken to him by other Ger­mans because I could not use the postal ser­vices in France. I wrote to him for two or three months but I do not have his address any­more.’2

Many women across Europe embarked on such rela­tion­ships with Ger­mans dur­ing the war. They jus­ti­fied their actions by say­ing that ‘rela­tion­ships based on love’ were ‘not a crime’, that ‘mat­ters of the heart have noth­ing to do with pol­i­tics’, or that ‘love is blind’.3 But in the eyes of their com­mu­ni­ties, this was no excuse. Sex, if it was with a Ger­man, was polit­i­cal. It came to rep­re­sent the sub­ju­ga­tion of the con­ti­nent as a whole: a female France, Den­mark or Hol­land being rav­ished by a male Ger­many…it also came to rep­re­sent the emas­cu­la­tion of Euro­pean men. These men, who had already shown them­selves impo­tent against the mil­i­tary might of Ger­many, now found them­selves com­mu­nally cuck­olded by their own wom­en­folk.

The num­ber of sex­ual rela­tion­ships that took place between Euro­pean women and Ger­mans dur­ing the war is quite stag­ger­ing. In Nor­way as many as 10% of women aged between fifteen and thirty had Ger­man boyfriends dur­ing the war.4 If the sta­tis­tics on the num­ber of chil­dren born to Ger­man sol­diers are any­thing to go by, this was by no means unusu­al: the num­bers of women who slept with Ger­man men across west­ern Europe can eas­ily be num­bered in the hun­dreds of thou­sands.5

…re­cent sur­veys show that women who slept with Ger­man sol­diers came from all classes and all walks of life. On the whole Euro­pean women slept with Ger­mans not because they were forced to, or because their own men were absent, or because they needed money or food - but sim­ply because they found the strong, ‘knightly’ image of the Ger­man sol­diers intensely attrac­tive, espe­cially com­pared to the weak­ened impres­sion they had of their own men­folk. In Den­mark, for exam­ple, wartime poll­sters were shocked to dis­cover that 51% of Dan­ish women openly admit­ted to find­ing Ger­man men more attrac­tive than their own com­pa­tri­ots.6

…Un­for­tu­nate­ly, this new-found dis­play of viril­ity also had its darker side. The sud­den influx of young men into the ranks of the Resis­tance pushed out many much more expe­ri­enced female résis­tantes. Jeanne Bohec, for exam­ple, who was a well-re­spected female explo­sives expert in Sain­t-Marcel, sud­denly found her­self side­lined. ‘I was told politely to for­get about it. A woman isn’t sup­posed to fight when so many men are avail­able. Yet I surely knew how to use a sub­ma­chine gun bet­ter than lots of the FFI vol­un­teers who had just got hold of these arms.’16 Dur­ing the last win­ter of the occu­pa­tion women were phased out of active par­tic­i­pa­tion in the Resis­tance, and the Com­mu­nist Franc­s-Tireurs et Par­ti­sans (FTP) issued orders to phase out women alto­geth­er. This is in direct con­trast to coun­tries like Italy and Greece, where sig­nifi­cant num­bers of women con­tin­ued to fight for the par­ti­sans on the front line right to the end of the war.17

…A British artillery offi­cer described a typ­i­cal cer­e­mony when he wrote about his expe­ri­ences in north­ern France after the war:

“At St André d’Echauffeur, where peo­ple show­ered us with flow­ers as we passed, oth­ers proffer­ing bot­tles, a grim scene was being enacted in its mar­ket place - the pun­ish­ment of a col­lab­o­ra­tor said to be une mau­vaise femme. Seated in a chair while a bar­ber shaved her head to the crown, she attracted a crowd of onlook­ers, among them, as I learned lat­er, some Maquis and a Free French offi­cer. The wom­an’s mother was also present and as the bar­ber cropped her daugh­ter, she stamped, raved and ges­tic­u­lated fran­ti­cally out­side the cir­cle of watch­ers. The woman was of some spir­it. For, with her head fully cropped, she jumped to her feet and cried ‘Vive les Alle­mands,’ where­upon some­one picked up a brick and felled her.”18

Lieu­tenant Richard Hol­borow of the Royal Engi­neers wit­nessed a sim­i­lar scene at the hands of a mob in a small town near Dieppe, ‘many of whom had obvi­ously been cel­e­brat­ing their lib­er­a­tion all day, mostly from the neck of a bot­tle’. About eigh­teen women and girls were paraded to a makeshift stage, where each of them was made to sit before the local bar­ber:

“Draw­ing a cut-throat razor from his pock­et, he opened it, pulled up the wom­an’s hair and, with a few deft strokes, cut it off and threw the sev­ered ends into the crowd. She gave out a scream as the bar­ber pro­ceeded to dry-scrape her scalp until it was com­pletely bald, and then she was lifted up and dis­played to the now howl­ing and jeer­ing mob.”

This was not the end of the wom­en’s ordeal. A cou­ple of days lat­er, as his unit moved out of the same town, Hol­borow wit­nessed the sec­ond part of their pun­ish­ment when he was delayed in the main street by yet another chant­ing crowd.

“They were watch­ing with con­sid­er­able glee a group of shaven wom­en, all with plac­ards tied round their necks, who were busily engaged in fill­ing buck­ets of horse shit with their bare hands. As a bucket was filled so it was kicked over and the process ordered to be started again. It was evi­dent that the women of the town were still get­ting their own back on the girls who had mis­be­haved with the Ger­man sol­diers.”19

In dozens of towns women were forced to undergo their ordeal either par­tially or com­pletely naked. Accord­ing to an arti­cle in La Mar­seil­laise in Sep­tem­ber 1944, a group of young men in Endoume forced a woman to ‘run through the streets com­pletely naked in front of inno­cent chil­dren play­ing out­side their houses’. 20 Like­wise in Troyes, the FFI rounded up wom­en, stripped them and dis­played them before the crowd while they were hav­ing their heads shorn. Accord­ing to a leaflet of the local Comité Départe­men­tal de la Libéra­tion:

“With hardly any clothes on, branded with the sign of the swastika and smeared with a par­tic­u­larly sticky tar, after hav­ing received cut­ting jibes, they would go and have their heads shaved in the reg­u­lar way and would then look like so many strange con­victs. Begun on the evening before, this mer­ci­less hunt would go on through­out the day, much to the great plea­sure of the local peo­ple who would form ranks in the streets to watch these women walk past wear­ing Wehrma­cht caps.”21

Accord­ing to Fab­rice Vir­gili, prob­a­bly the fore­most expert in this field, women were stripped in at least fifty major towns and cities across France.22 Such scenes were by no means unique to France. Sim­i­lar events took place all over Europe. In Den­mark and Hol­land a com­bi­na­tion of wounded national pride and sex­ual jeal­ousy at the behav­iour of local women resulted in thou­sands of women hav­ing their heads shaved.23 In the Chan­nel Islands, the only small cor­ner of the British Isles that Ger­many had man­aged to invade, there were sev­eral cases of women hav­ing their heads shaved because they had slept with Ger­man sol­diers.24 In north­ern Italy they even sang songs about shav­ing the heads of women who slept with fas­cists, such as this one sung by par­ti­sans in the Vene­to:

E voi fan­ci­ulle belle “And all you beau­ti­ful misses”

Che coi fascisti andate “Who with fas­cists mis­be­haved”

Le vostre chiome belle “All your beau­ti­ful tresses”

Presto saran tagli­ate “Will presently be shaved”25

The immense pop­u­lar­ity of such pun­ish­ments, as well as the rit­ual that sur­rounded them, seems to point to a deep need amongst the lib­er­ated peo­ple to express their dis­gust for col­lab­o­ra­tion…The prac­tice may now be seen as a shame­ful episode in Euro­pean his­to­ry, but at the time it was cel­e­brated with pride. Resis­tance news­pa­pers in 1944 describe a car­ni­val air at shear­ing cer­e­monies, where spon­ta­neous ren­di­tions of patri­otic songs were sung by the crowds. In at least one area of France, the local peo­ple pre­sented those who car­ried out the cer­e­mony with knives and razors as a ‘sou­venir’ of their day’s work.29…The sex­ual nature of the rit­u­als them­selves is also sig­nifi­cant. In Den­mark the women were fre­quently stripped naked dur­ing their head­-shav­ing cer­e­monies, and their breasts and back­sides painted with Nazi sym­bols.30 In many areas of France women also had their bare bot­toms spanked, and their breasts daubed with swastikas.31 The fact that these rit­u­als took place in mar­ket squares or on the steps of town halls sent a very clear mes­sage to the whole com­mu­ni­ty: the FFI were reclaim­ing these wom­en’s bod­ies as pub­lic prop­er­ty. They were also reclaim­ing them as male prop­erty - the hun­dreds of pho­tographs taken dur­ing these pun­ish­ments show that they were con­ducted almost exclu­sively by men.

Some French women were all too aware that they were being used in this sym­bolic way. They were also indig­nant that they should be con­demned for a pri­vate act that they believed had noth­ing to do with the war. When the French actress Arletty was impris­oned in 1945 for her wartime liai­son with a Ger­man offi­cer, she reput­edly jus­ti­fied her­self at her trial by say­ing, ‘My heart belongs to France, but my vagina is mine.’32 Unsur­pris­ingly such protes­ta­tions fell on deaf ears. Accord­ing to recent research, about 20,000 French women had their heads shaved as a pun­ish­ment for col­lab­o­ra­tion, the largest pro­por­tion of them for sleep­ing with Ger­man sol­diers.33

…If proof were ever needed of the wide­spread ‘hor­i­zon­tal col­lab­o­ra­tion’ that took place across Europe, then it exists in the form of the chil­dren who were born as a result of it. In Den­mark 5,579 babies were born with a reg­is­tered Ger­man father - and undoubt­edly many more whose Ger­man pater­nity was con­cealed.36 In Hol­land the num­ber of chil­dren born to Ger­man fathers is thought to have been any­thing between 16,000 and 50,000.37 In Nor­way, which had only a third of the pop­u­la­tion of Hol­land, between 8,000 and 12,000 such chil­dren were born.38 And in France the num­ber is thought to be around 85,000 or even high­er.39 The total num­ber of chil­dren fathered by Ger­man sol­diers in occu­pied Europe is unknown, but esti­mates vary between one and two mil­lion.40…In some cases the local chil­dren of Wehrma­cht sol­diers were con­sid­ered such an embar­rass­ment that it was thought best to try to dis­pose of them straight away. In Hol­land, for instance, some eye­wit­nesses claim to know of many instances where chil­dren were killed shortly after birth, usu­ally by the par­ents of the par­tic­u­lar girls who strayed. Such actions were tak­en, pre­sum­ably, to restore the ‘hon­our’ of the fam­ily - but occa­sion­ally they were more overtly polit­i­cal acts, made by peo­ple out­side the fam­i­ly, in order to restore the hon­our of the wider com­mu­ni­ty. Accord­ing to an account by Petra Ruigrok, for exam­ple, a baby in north­ern Hol­land was snatched from its cra­dle by a mem­ber of the Resis­tance and dashed to the floor.41

…Such strong feel­ings are summed up in an edi­to­r­ial in Lufot­posten, a Nor­we­gian daily news­pa­per, on 1945-05-19:

“All these Ger­man chil­dren are bound to grow up and develop into an exten­sive bas­tard minor­ity in the Nor­we­gian peo­ple. By their descent they are doomed in advance to take a com­bat­ive stance. They have no nation, they have no father, they just have hate, and this is their only her­itage. They are unable to become Nor­we­gians. Their fathers were Ger­mans, their moth­ers were Ger­mans in thought and action. To allow them to stay in this coun­try is tan­ta­mount to legal­iz­ing the rais­ing of a fifth col­umn. They will for­ever con­sti­tute an ele­ment of irri­ta­tion and unrest among the pure Nor­we­gian pop­u­la­tion. It is best, for Nor­way as well as for the chil­dren them­selves, that they con­tinue their lives under the heav­ens where they nat­u­rally belong.”42

…The study of Nor­we­gian atti­tudes towards what they termed the ‘war chil­dren’ of Ger­man sol­diers is a par­tic­u­larly rich area because, unlike in other coun­tries, these atti­tudes are so well doc­u­ment­ed. In the after­math of the war the Nor­we­gian author­i­ties set up a War Child Com­mit­tee to con­sider what to do with such chil­dren.43 For a short time, there­fore, the prob­lem was openly dis­cussed here in a way that it was not any­where else in Europe. The sub­ject has also come under intense scrutiny more recent­ly. In 2001, under polit­i­cal pres­sure from war child groups, the Nor­we­gian gov­ern­ment funded a research pro­gramme to dis­cover exactly how these peo­ple had been treated in the after­math of the war, what the effect had been on their lives, and what might be done to redress any poten­tial injus­tice. The find­ings of this research pro­gramme con­sti­tute the most com­plete study of war chil­dren in any coun­try to date.44

In the imme­di­ate after­math of the war, Nor­we­gians were extremely bit­ter about the behav­iour of some of their women and girls. In the early sum­mer of 1945, thou­sands of women accused of sleep­ing with Ger­mans were rounded up and put into jails and prison camps - some 1,000 of them in Oslo alone.45 As we have already seen, many had their heads shaved dur­ing the lib­er­a­tion, and some were pub­licly humil­i­ated by mobs. Per­haps more wor­ry­ing, how­ev­er, were the calls from peo­ple in author­ity to have them stripped of their Nor­we­gian cit­i­zen­ship and deported to Ger­many. Such an action would have been extremely diffi­cult to jus­ti­fy, since sleep­ing with Ger­man sol­diers was not against the law. In any case, the national body for try­ing war crim­i­nals and trai­tors had already begun to estab­lish that strip­ping peo­ple of their cit­i­zen­ship should not be used as a pun­ish­ment.46 As a con­se­quence, calls to deport women who had slept with Ger­mans were grad­u­ally dropped. Women who had gone so far as to marry Ger­mans, how­ev­er, would not escape so eas­i­ly. In August 1945 the Nor­we­gian gov­ern­ment res­ur­rected a law from twenty years ear­lier stat­ing that women who mar­ried for­eign­ers auto­mat­i­cally took on the nation­al­ity of their hus­bands. In order to limit this law, an amend­ment was made stat­ing that it should apply only to those who mar­ried a cit­i­zen of an enemy state - in effect, Ger­mans. Against all the prin­ci­ples of Nor­we­gian jus­tice, the law was to be applied ret­ro­spec­tive­ly. Almost overnight, there­fore, hun­dreds - per­haps even thou­sands - of women who had believed them­selves to be act­ing within the law lost their cit­i­zen­ship. They were now des­ig­nated ‘Ger­man’, and as such they faced the pos­si­bil­ity of depor­ta­tion to Ger­many, and along with them their chil­dren.47

…The Com­mit­tee also rec­om­mended that nei­ther the chil­dren nor their moth­ers should be forcibly deport­ed; and yet its chair­per­son, Inge Debes, report­edly offered all 9,000 war chil­dren to an Aus­tralian immi­gra­tion del­e­ga­tion, appar­ently with­out regard to what the chil­dren’s moth­ers would think of such a move. (The offer was even­tu­ally turned down on logis­ti­cal grounds, but also because the Aus­tralians decided in the end that they did not want ‘Ger­man’ chil­dren either.)48..Con­se­quent­ly, many war chil­dren were labeled retarded on no evi­dence what­so­ev­er, and some of them, par­tic­u­larly those in the old Ger­man-run orphan­ages, were damned to spend­ing the rest of their lives in insti­tu­tions. Accord­ing to a doc­tor who looked after one such group dur­ing the 1980s, had they been treated the same as oth­er, ‘non-Ger­man’, orphans they would prob­a­bly have gone on to lead per­fectly nor­mal lives.49 The War Child Com­mit­tee did, in fact, rec­om­mend that all war chil­dren should be psy­cho­log­i­cally assessed in order to deter­mine the state of their men­tal health, but this never hap­pened because it was deemed far too expen­sive…The dev­as­tat­ing effects that such uni­ver­sal rejec­tion had on these chil­dren have only recently come to light. Accord­ing to the study spon­sored by the Nor­we­gian gov­ern­ment in 2001, war chil­dren suffer higher death rates, higher divorce rates and worse health than the rest of Nor­way’s pop­u­la­tion. They are typ­i­cally less well edu­cat­ed, and earn lower incomes than other Nor­we­gians. They are also sig­nifi­cantly more likely to com­mit sui­cide than their peers. The worst mor­tal­ity rates occurred in those born in 1941 and 1942 - a ten­dency that the authors of the study partly ascribe to the fact that these chil­dren were old enough at the end of the war to under­stand what was hap­pen­ing to them. The imme­di­ate post­war years were the time when bit­ter­ness towards these chil­dren was at its strongest.54

Chap­ter 5, “Moral Destruc­tion”:

…Lewis and his fel­low sol­diers fol­lowed them inside and made their way to the front of the crowd. He recorded in his diary what he found:

“Here a row of ladies sat at inter­vals of about a yard with their backs to the wall. These women were dressed in their street clothes, and had the ordi­nary well-washed respectable shop­ping and gos­sip­ing faces of work­ing-class house­wives. By the side of each woman stood a small pile of tins, and it soon became clear that it was pos­si­ble to make love to any one of them in this very pub­lic place by adding another tin to the pile. The women kept absolutely still, they said noth­ing, and their faces were as empty of expres­sion as graven images. They might have been sell­ing fish, except that this place lacked the excite­ment of a fish mar­ket. There was no solic­it­ing, no sug­ges­tion, no entice­ment, not even the dis­creetest and most acci­den­tal dis­play of flesh. The bold­est of the sol­diers had pushed them­selves, tins in hand, to the front, but now, faced with these mat­ter-of-fact fam­i­ly-providers dri­ven here by empty larders, they seemed to flag. Once again real­ity had betrayed the dream, and the air fell limp. There was some sheep­ish laugh­ter, jokes that fell flat, and a vis­i­ble ten­dency to slip qui­etly away. One sol­dier, a lit­tle tip­sy, and egged on con­stantly by his friends, finally put down his tin of rations at a wom­an’s side, unbut­toned and low­ered him­self on her. A per­func­tory jog­ging of the haunches began and came quickly to an end. A moment later he was on his feet and but­ton­ing up again. It had been some­thing to get over as soon as pos­si­ble. He might have been sub­mit­ting to field pun­ish­ment rather than the act of love.”

Unsur­pris­ing­ly, Lewis was not tempted to indulge him­self, and five min­utes later he was on his way again. ‘The tins col­lected by my fel­low trav­ellers were thrown to passer­s-by who scram­bled wildly after them. None of the sol­diers trav­el­ling on my truck had felt inclined to join actively in the fun.’1

…Ac­cord­ing to Nor­man Lewis, such behav­iour became increas­ingly com­mon in the after­math of south­ern Italy’s lib­er­a­tion. He records being vis­ited by an Ital­ian prince who wanted to know if his sis­ter might be allowed to work in an army broth­el. When Lewis explained that the British army did not have any offi­cial broth­els the prince and his sis­ter left dis­ap­point­ed. On another occa­sion, when inves­ti­gat­ing the seri­ous sex­ual assault of a young Ital­ian girl, her father tried to press the trau­ma­tized girl’s favours upon him. All he expected in return was a good square meal for his daugh­ter.2

Des­per­a­tion like this was by no means con­fined to Naples, nor to Italy. A whole gen­er­a­tion of young women in Ger­many learned to think it quite nor­mal to sleep with an Allied sol­dier in return for a bar of choco­late. In the Dutch town of Heer­len, US rifle­man Roscoe Blunt was approached by a young girl who ‘mat­ter-of-factly asked me if I wanted to “ficken” or just “kuszen”. It took me a few moments for my brain to click into gear and real­ize what she was ask­ing.’ When he asked her age she told him she was twelve.3 In Hun­gary there were scores of girls as young as 13 admit­ted to hos­pi­tal for vene­real dis­ease. In Greece VD was recorded in girls as young as ten.4

Such degra­da­tion affected the Daily Express’s war cor­re­spon­dent Alan Moore­head far more than the phys­i­cal dev­as­ta­tion he had seen. When he arrived in Naples in the imme­di­ate wake of its lib­er­a­tion he wrote despair­ingly about how he had seen men, women and chil­dren beat­ing each other as they scram­bled for hand­fuls of sweets thrown to them by the arriv­ing sol­diers; he had seen pimps and black mar­ke­teers offer­ing fake brandy and child pros­ti­tutes as young as ten; and boys of six sell­ing obscene post­cards, their sis­ters’ favours, even them­selves…What in Britain was regarded as an every­day right had become in the rest of Europe an expres­sion of pow­er, so that a British sol­dier was able to say of the Ger­man woman who slept with him, shopped for him and mended his clothes, ‘She was just like my slave.’6

…Some wit­nesses at the time even sug­gested that rape was inevitable, given the feroc­ity of the bat­tles these sol­diers found them­selves in: ‘What can you do?’ claimed one Russ­ian offi­cer. ‘It’s war; peo­ple become bru­tal­ized.’44 The worst instances occurred in east­ern Europe, in those areas of Sile­sia and East Prus­sia where Soviet sol­diers first set foot on Ger­man soil. But rape was not con­fined to the areas around where the fight­ing took place. Far from it - in fact rape increased every­where dur­ing the war, even in areas where there was no fight­ing. In Britain and North­ern Ire­land, for exam­ple, sex­ual crimes, includ­ing rape, increased by almost 50% between 1939 and 1945 - a fact which caused huge con­cern at the time.45

There are no easy expla­na­tions for the huge increases in rape that occurred in Europe dur­ing the final stages of the war and its after­math, but there are some defi­nite trends that are com­mon to the whole con­ti­nent. As always, the prob­lem was far, far worse on the east­ern front than it was in the west. While civil­ian men were occa­sion­ally respon­si­ble for com­mit­ting the crime, it was over­whelm­ingly a mil­i­tary prob­lem: as the Allied armies con­verged on Ger­many from every direc­tion, a wave of sex­ual vio­lence, along with other crimes, accom­pa­nied them. Rape tended to be worst where chaotic con­di­tions exist­ed, for exam­ple in the after­math of heavy fight­ing, or amongst troops with poor dis­ci­pline. And, impor­tant­ly, it was incom­pa­ra­bly worse in coun­tries that were con­quered rather than lib­er­at­ed. This sug­gests that revenge and a desire to dom­i­nate were impor­tant fac­tors - indeed, prob­a­bly the main fac­tors - behind the mass rapes that occurred in 1945. Stud­ies sug­gest that wartime rape is par­tic­u­larly bru­tal, and par­tic­u­larly wide­spread, where there is a greater cul­tural divide between the occu­py­ing troops and the civil­ian pop­u­la­tion, and this the­ory is cer­tainly borne out by the events of the Sec­ond World War.46 French colo­nial troops in Bavaria were par­tic­u­larly noto­ri­ous. Accord­ing to Christa­bel Bie­len­berg, an Eng­lish woman who lived in a vil­lage near the Black Forest, Moroc­can troops ‘raped up and down our val­ley’ as soon as they arrived. Later they were replaced with other troops from the Sahara who ‘came at night and sur­rounded every house in the vil­lage and raped every female between 12 and 80’.47 In Tübin­gen girls as young as 12 and women as old as 70 were raped by Moroc­can troops.48 The ter­ror of the women con­cerned was increased by the for­eign appear­ance of these men, espe­cially after years of racial pro­pa­ganda by the Nazis.49

This cul­tural divide was also a fac­tor on the east­ern front. The con­tempt that many Ger­man sol­diers felt for east­ern Unter­men­schen when they invaded the Soviet Union cer­tainly con­tributed to the vicious treat­ment Ukrain­ian and Russ­ian women received at their hands. Vasily Gross­man inter­viewed one teacher who had been raped by a Ger­man offi­cer who threat­ened to shoot her 6-mon­th-old baby.50 Another Russ­ian school­teacher called Genia Demi­anova described her gang rape by more than a dozen Ger­man sol­diers after one of them had lashed her with a horse whip: ‘[T]hey have torn me to pieces,’ she wrote,’ … I am just a corpse.’51

…Many women in the area around Csákvár, just west of Budapest, were raped so vio­lently that their backs broke under the force of the men’s attacks. Alaine Pol­cz, a twen­ty-year-old Hun­gar­ian from Tran­syl­va­nia, received painful but thank­fully imper­ma­nent spinal injuries in this way. She was raped repeat­edly over a period of sev­eral weeks, and fre­quently lost count of the num­ber of men who attacked her dur­ing the course of a night. ‘This had noth­ing to do with embraces or sex,’ she wrote lat­er. ‘It had noth­ing to do with any­thing. It was sim­ply - I just now real­ize, as I am writ­ing, that the word is accu­rate: aggres­sion. That is what it was.’ She was also con­sumed with the knowl­edge ‘that this was going on through­out the entire coun­try’.53

But it was in Ger­many that the most wide­spread cases of rape occurred. In East Prus­sia, Sile­sia and Pomera­nia tens of thou­sands of women were raped and then killed in an orgy of truly medieval vio­lence. Marie Nau­mann, a young mother from Baer­walde in Pomera­nia, was raped and then hanged by a mob of sol­diers in a hayloft along with her hus­band, while her chil­dren were stran­gled to death with ropes on the floor beneath her. She was cut down, still alive, by some Pol­ish civil­ians, who asked her who had done this to her but when she told them it was the Rus­sians they called her a liar and beat her. Unable to bear what had hap­pened she tried to drown her­self in a nearby creek, but was unable to com­plete the job. Soak­ing wet, she went to an acquain­tance’s apart­ment where she came across another Russ­ian offi­cer who raped her again. Shortly after he left her, four more Soviet sol­diers appeared and raped her ‘in an unnat­ural way’. When they had fin­ished with her they kicked her into uncon­scious­ness. She came to when another pair of sol­diers entered the room, ‘but they left me alone as I was more dead than alive’.54 Thou­sands of sim­i­lar sto­ries have been gath­ered by Ger­man oral his­tory pro­jects, church archives and also the Ger­man gov­ern­ment. Soviet sources also back up these claims. Mem­oirs by Russ­ian offi­cers such as Lev Kopelev and Alexan­der Solzhen­it­syn describe scenes of wide­spread rape, as do sev­eral reports of Soviet excesses made by their secret police force, the NKVD, in 1945.55

The rap­ing con­tin­ued as the Red Army advanced through Sile­sia and Pomera­nia towards Berlin. In a huge num­ber of cases the women were gang raped, often again and again on suc­ces­sive nights. Vasily Gross­man inter­viewed a woman in Schw­erin who told him she had ‘already been raped by 10 men today’.56 In Berlin, Han­nelore Thiele was raped by ‘Seven in a row. Like ani­mals.’57 Another woman in Berlin was caught hid­ing behind a pile of coal in the cel­lar of her build­ing: ‘23 sol­diers one after the oth­er,’ she said after­wards. ‘I had to be stitched up in hos­pi­tal. I never want to have any­thing to do with any man again.’58 Karl August Knorr, a Ger­man offi­cer in East Prus­sia, claims to have saved a few dozen women from a villa where ‘on aver­age they had been raped 60 to 70 times a day’.59 And the list goes on.

Accounts of rape in 1945 become truly sick­en­ing, as with accounts of other atroc­i­ties dur­ing the war, because they are so numer­ous. The sto­ries doc­u­mented in the East­ern Archives in Koblenz read with the same monot­ony as the descrip­tions of Jew­ish mas­sacres dur­ing the Nurem­berg tri­als - it is the end­less rep­e­ti­tion of hor­ror that becomes most diffi­cult to bear. In parts of cen­tral Europe rape was not a col­lec­tion of iso­lated inci­dents, but a mass expe­ri­ence endured by the entire female pop­u­la­tion. In Vienna 87,000 women were reported by clin­ics and doc­tors to have been raped.60 In Berlin it was even worse, and about 110,000 women are thought to have been vic­tims.61 In the east of the coun­try, par­tic­u­larly in those areas near to Soviet bar­racks, the con­stant threat of attack con­tin­ued until the end of 1948.62 In Ger­many as a whole almost 2 mil­lion Ger­man women are thought to have been raped in the after­math of the war.63

Fig­ures for Hun­gary are harder to find. While the rape of Ger­man and Aus­trian women was metic­u­lously doc­u­mented after the war, in Hun­gary the phe­nom­e­non was never admit­ted by the post­war Com­mu­nist admin­is­tra­tion. It was not until after 1989 that proper stud­ies could be made, by which time much of the infor­ma­tion was diffi­cult to come by. Rough esti­mates based on hos­pi­tal records sug­gest that between 50,000 and 200,000 Hun­gar­ian women were raped by Soviet sol­diers.64 The fig­ures in west­ern Europe, though much low­er, are still sig­nifi­cant. The United States Army, for exam­ple, stands accused of rap­ing as many as 17,000 civil­ian women in North Africa and west­ern Europe between 1942 and 1945.65

…The con­se­quences of sex­ual vio­lence and exploita­tion after the war were huge. Despite the 2 mil­lion ille­gal abor­tions that were car­ried out each year in Ger­many, between 150,000 and 200,000 ‘for­eign babies’ were born to Ger­man wom­en, some of whom were the result of rape. Many of these chil­dren were obliged to suffer the resent­ment of their moth­ers for the rest of their lives.66 A high per­cent­age of women became infected with vene­real dis­ease - in some areas as many as 60%. This was gen­er­ally incur­able, since the price of a sin­gle injec­tion of antibi­otics in Ger­many in August 1945 was two pounds of real coffee.67 Along with such phys­i­cal prob­lems came the emo­tional and psy­cho­log­i­cal con­se­quences - not only for those who had suffered direct­ly, but for women as a whole…As a con­se­quence of the var­i­ous stresses on mar­i­tal rela­tion­ships, divorce rates dou­bled in post­war Ger­many com­pared with before the war - as indeed they did across Europe.70

…State­ments by sol­diers at the time betray a belief that they had a right to sex, and would get it by force if nec­es­sary: ‘We lib­er­ated you, and you refuse us a mere tri­fle?’ ‘I need a wom­an! I spilled my blood for this!’ ‘[T]he G. I. and the Tommy have cig­a­rettes and choco­late to give the Frauleins, so they need not rape. The Russ­ian has nei­ther.’72 In an envi­ron­ment where sol­diers had unlim­ited power over wom­en, where there was lit­tle threat of pun­ish­ment, and where all one’s fel­low sol­diers were indulging in sex­ual vio­lence, rape became the norm. Thus, for exam­ple, when one of Vasily Gross­man’s fel­low war cor­re­spon­dents raped a Russ­ian girl who had come to their rooms to escape the mobs of drunken sol­diers out­side it was not because he was a mon­ster, but merely because he was unable to ‘resist the temp­ta­tion’.73

In Britain the amount of juve­nile delin­quency went up by almost 40% dur­ing the war, espe­cially crimes of break­ing and enter­ing, mali­cious dam­age and theft (which more than dou­bled).77 In Ger­many too, accord­ing to fig­ures cir­cu­lated by Mar­tin Bor­mann, youth crime had more than dou­bled between 1937 and 1942, and was still ris­ing in 1943. In some cities, such as Ham­burg, juve­nile delin­quency tripled dur­ing the war.78 By the mid­dle of 1945 groups of ‘child gang­sters’ were reported in the Soviet zone mug­ging and some­times killing peo­ple for food and mon­ey: the lack of parental super­vi­sion, and in some cases the lack of par­ents alto­geth­er, had made them into ‘lit­tle sav­ages’.79 It was the Ger­man chil­dren who caused the most con­cern. Some peo­ple believed that they were innately threat­en­ing, sim­ply by virtue of their Ger­man blood. In Nor­way there were mas­sive demands to deport any chil­dren who had been fathered by Ger­man sol­diers, on the grounds that they might grow up to become a Nazi fifth col­umn in years to come. The same eugenic prin­ci­ple that made the Nazis believe they were the mas­ter race was now applied to Ger­man chil­dren to iden­tify them as a future threat.80


  1. An atti­tude per­haps exis­tent to a lesser degree in the US as well: “Gen­der iden­tity and rel­a­tive income within house­holds”.↩︎

  2. Opin­ions towards white skin appar­ently can be both pos­i­tive (com­par­isons to nobil­ity and their wom­en’s pale white skin from never work­ing in fields or spend­ing time out­side sans para­sol) and neg­a­tive (com­par­isons to mag­gots & the dead­-white skin of corpses, as white is the tra­di­tional color of death or tran­si­tions in Japan); but in gen­er­al, darker skin is bad and lighter skin is good and more Japan­ese (Aru­dou 2013). Fash­ions which buck this trend are quite excep­tional (eg. & ) and tend to be lim­ited phe­nom­e­non. Annalee Newitz, “Mag­i­cal Girls and Atomic Bomb Sperm: Japan­ese Ani­ma­tion in Amer­ica”:

    In Hiroshi Wagat­suma, “The Social Per­cep­tion of Skin Color in Japan”, in Mod­ern Japan, ed. Irwin Scheiner (New York: Col­lier Macmil­lan, 1974), the author writes that the Japan­ese still tend to view whites - and espe­cially blacks - as infe­rior races based on their skin qual­ity or col­or. While the Japan­ese greatly admire white skin, Cau­casian skin is some­times derided as “trans­par­ent” rather than “white,” or some­how more blem­ished and wrin­kled than Japan­ese skin. Dark skin is largely unde­sir­able, and indi­cates ani­mal­ity - hence the Japan­ese dis­taste for black or dark­-skinned peo­ple. The chil­dren of mixed mar­riages are viewed crit­i­cal­ly, and cer­tain com­bi­na­tions of fea­tures in mixed-race chil­dren are con­sid­ered quite abhor­rent.

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  3. In , the con­tro­versy is usu­ally over African or African-Amer­i­can penis sizes com­pared to Cau­casian penis sizes; but even sources crit­i­ciz­ing review “Race Differ­ences in Behav­iour: A Review and Evo­lu­tion­ary Analy­sis” cit­ing many stud­ies (eg. ) and reviews find­ing that black > white > east Asian admit that white penis sizes are larger than east Asian (ap­par­ently col­lec­tively mea­sured an inch aver­age size differ­ence in favor of whites). A mis­cel­lany of stud­ies & sources com­piled at the anony­mous “World Penis Aver­age Size Stud­ies Data­base” rank East Asian coun­tries low on aver­age length (the anony­mous dataset has been crit­i­cized for omit­ting some stud­ies and other errors); if noth­ing else, it makes for some sar­don­icly hilar­i­ous eco­nom­ics papers like “Male Organ and Eco­nomic Growth: Does Size Mat­ter?”. Well, it does­n’t espe­cially mat­ter.↩︎

  4. Asian women tend to marry out much more than Asian men, accord­ing to US cen­sus records; UPI: “Asian women had white hus­bands 3.08 times more often than Asian men had white wives. That means just over 75% of white-Asian cou­ples fea­tured a white hus­band and Asian wife. That 3.08 ratio is up from 2.54 times in 1990.” See also Sail­er’s more in-depth arti­cle “Is Love Col­or­blind?” (up­date: “Love: Still Not Col­or­blind”) and for the angry Asian-Amer­i­can per­spec­tive, Arthur Hu’s essay “Part I: A Race of Rod­ney Dan­ger­fields?” will serve nice­ly. There are major dis­par­i­ties in other races; te sta­tis­tics for black women are remark­able.↩︎

  5. (Lewis 2012) found that females ranked male black faces over white over Asian, while males did the reverse (fe­male Asian over white over black), giv­ing as back­ground:

    A strik­ing aspect of the data on inter­ra­cial mar­riages is the size of the gen­der asym­me­tries [1]-[3]. These asym­me­tries appear robust across time and cul­ture. Details of these asym­me­tries are shown in Table 1 based on cen­sus data from the UK and USA for White, Black and Asian racial groups. If we focus upon mar­riages between White and Black peo­ple then we observe that there are over twice as many mar­riages between Black men and White women than between White men and Black women in the US. An observed con­se­quence of this pat­tern is a decline in mar­riage rates for Black wom­en, which has been described in the US as the ‘mar­riage squeeze’ [4]. The asym­me­try is smaller in the UK but still pre­sent. The gen­der asym­me­tries are even larger for mar­riages that include Asian and White peo­ple. In this sit­u­a­tion, how­ev­er, it is the num­ber of White men mar­ry­ing Asian women that is over twice the num­ber of White women mar­ry­ing Asian men. The largest asym­me­try shows that mar­riages between Black men and Asian women in the US out­num­ber those between Asian men and Black women by about five to one.

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  6. 2011 (excerpt), by ; chap­ter 3, “The Man Short­age”, pg 34-37:

    For decades, the gap in the inter­ra­cial mar­riage rates of black men and black women has been a source of ten­sion. Some black women take it per­son­al­ly. “Black men dat­ing White women”, accord­ing to a 1993 arti­cle in , can “cause most sin­gle Black women to see red.”91 A 1998 read­ers poll revealed that almost two-thirds of black women felt upset when black men mar­ried or dated white women.92 They felt unap­pre­ci­at­ed, inad­e­quate, unwant­ed. As one twen­ty-nine-year-old black woman in Los Ange­les says in another Ebony arti­cle, “[E]very time I turn around and I see a fine Brother dat­ing out­side his race, I just feel dis­gust­ed. I feel like, what’s wrong with us? Why do you choose her over me?”93 Another Ebony reader respond­ed: “Black men I encounter are either dat­ing or mar­ried to white wom­en; they aren’t inter­ested in the sis­ters.”94

    The imbal­ance hits pro­fes­sional black women espe­cially hard, because the black men they might regard as the most desir­able - col­lege grad­u­ates with good jobs - are also the most likely to marry inter­ra­cial­ly.95 Con­se­quent­ly, the African Amer­i­can gen­der gap in inter­ra­cial mar­riage is widest among the black mid­dle class. More­over, some black women think that suc­cess­ful black men often wed white women who don’t have much going for them. Soci­ol­o­gists explain such rela­tion­ships as a ‘sta­tus exchange’ in which the man ben­e­fits from the wom­an’s white­ness, and the woman gains from the man’s edu­ca­tional and pro­fes­sional accom­plish­ments.96 The sus­pi­cion is that well-e­d­u­cat­ed, high­-earn­ing black men are so enam­ored of the idea of hav­ing a white spouse that they often marry white women who are less edu­cated and of lower sta­tus in every way except for race. Empir­i­cal sup­port for the ‘sta­tus exchange’ remains mixed,97 but the idea that suc­cess­ful black men will accept low-s­ta­tus white women remains an arti­cle of faith for many black women.

    …This same sen­ti­ment has been reflected in the movie ver­sion of best-selling , in which a black woman seizes on the race of her hus­band’s girl­friend. “I give you 11 fuck­in’ years of my life, and you’re leav­ing me for a white wom­an?” He responds defi­ant­ly, “Would it be bet­ter if she were black?” With­out miss­ing a beat, she says, “No, it’d be bet­ter if you were.”

    Sim­i­lar­ly, in , when char­ac­ter, Flip­per, falls for the white office assis­tant, his wife seems as upset about his para­mour’s race as about her hus­band’s infi­deli­ty. “White‽” she exclaims. “Are you on crack or some­thing?” The movie sug­gests he might as well be…Jun­gle Fever may have cap­tured the tenor of the times in the late 1980s and early 1990s, but oppo­si­tion to inter­ra­cial mar­riage among black women seems to have become more muted over the years. The anger of the early 1990s has soft­ened into the dis­ap­point­ment of the sec­ond decade of the twen­ty-first cen­tu­ry.

    In 2010, the black singer and actress - known both for her ten­der love songs and her wild nat­ural hair - expressed her dis­may in Essence mag­a­zine upon dis­cov­er­ing that her “hand­some, African-Amer­i­can, intel­li­gent and seem­ingly wealthy” new friend was “hap­pily mar­ried to a White woman.” The real­iza­tion made her “spirit wince” as her body felt an “inner pinch, like a mos­quito under a sum­mer dress.”

    Sim­i­lar­ly, some of the women inter­viewed for his book were trou­bled by black men who part­nered with non­black women. As one woman explains: “If I see a black man with a white wom­an, there’s a part of me that feels sad­ness and a part of me that feels anger. I may not want that black man, but I prob­a­bly know some black woman who does.” Another woman had for years adamantly opposed inter­ra­cial mar­riage but more recently has tried to become more accept­ing, espe­cially as friends enter inter­ra­cial rela­tion­ships. “I don’t roll my eyes when I see an inter­ra­cial cou­ple now,” she says, sound­ing proud of her­self. “‘Maybe they do love each other’, I think. I try not to judge.”

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  7. See Pew Research Cen­ter’s “The Rise of Inter­mar­riage: Rates, Char­ac­ter­is­tics Vary by Race and Gen­der”: “white/Asian cou­ples have the high­est com­bined annual earn­ings (nearly $71,000), much higher than the earn­ings of white/Hispanic cou­ples (about $58,000) as well as white/black cou­ples (about $53,000).” That that par­tic­u­lar pair­ing is likely more white men/Asian women than Asian men/white women is sim­ply because “more than one-in-three (36%) Asian female new­ly­weds in 2010 mar­ried some­one who is non-Asian, com­pared with only about one-in-six Asian male new­ly­weds (17%).” As far as our sta­tus argu­ment goes, the pat­terns of divorce are inter­est­ing - mar­riages with the high­er-s­ta­tus male seem more sta­ble: “It found that after 10 years of mar­riage, inter­ra­cial mar­riages that are most vul­ner­a­ble to divorce involve white females and non-White males (with the excep­tion of white females/ His­panic white males) rel­a­tive to white/white cou­ples. Con­verse­ly, there is lit­tle or no differ­ence in divorce rates among white men/non-white women cou­ples, and white men/black women cou­ples are actu­ally sub­stan­tially less likely than white/white cou­ples to divorce by the 10th year of mar­riage.8↩︎

  8. Expat James Turn­bull has twice exam­ined this skew in domes­tic Korean adver­tise­ments.↩︎

  9. See for exam­ple France’s (French Wikipedia); one blog­ger notes that “Age and social class var­ied among the accused, but almost all were women. Many were accused of roman­tic entan­gle­ment or”hor­i­zon­tal col­lab­o­ra­tion." These affairs some­times resulted in half-Ger­man chil­dren and often allowed these women to eat dur­ing Occu­pa­tion while many starved."↩︎

  10. The gov­ern­ment dataset list­ing mar­riages does­n’t seem to be too help­ful in answer­ing the ques­tions of what per­cent­age of Amer­i­can or Eng­lish expats, by gen­der, mar­ried a Japan­ese nation­al; a 2005 pub­li­ca­tion offers total and sex ratio num­bers:

    Regard­ing the pop­u­la­tion of for­eign res­i­dents by sex, the male pop­u­la­tion is 730 thou­sand while the female pop­u­la­tion is 830 thou­sand, show­ing that female for­eign­ers out­num­ber male for­eign­ers by 100 thou­sand with a sex ratio of 87.7. This ratio is 7.6 points lower that of the Japan­ese pop­u­la­tion of 95.2, and varies greatly by nation­al­i­ty. (Ta­bles 11.1 and 11.3)

    That is, , so the sex ratio is being cal­cu­lated as . Extract­ing data from pg4, Table 11.3, “Total”, we learn that the UK has a total of 9,605 with a sex ratio of 247.1, and the USA 37,417 with 178.2. Thus:

    1. UK: male+fe­male=9605; ; then male=6837, female=2767
    2. USA: male+fe­male=37417; ; then male=23967, female=13449

    Bor­row­ing the num­ber of mar­riages by gen­der from the 2006 dataset (which hope­fully is not too wrong), we con­clude:

    1. UK: (, ); (5.64%, 2.85%)
    2. USA: (, ); (6.15%, 1.59%)

    The rel­a­tive rates differ by fac­tors of 2-3, sug­gest­ing that even with these short­cuts and approx­i­ma­tions, there’s prob­a­bly both a differ­ence in how many Amer­i­can & Eng­lish women or men are in Japan and also how likely each woman or man is to marry while there.↩︎

  11. Expat Matt, “Sta­tis­tics on for­eign­ers in Korea, and the ROK before the CERD, sum­ma­riz­ing “Com­bined fifteenth and six­teenth peri­odic reports of States par­ties due in 2010”:

    The num­ber of mar­ried immi­grants (for­eign­ers who mar­ried a Korean cit­i­zen) is con­sis­tently increas­ing every year. As of Decem­ber 2010, 141,654 mar­ried immi­grants are resid­ing in the coun­try: 18,561 (13.1%) are males and 123,093 (86.9%) are females. By nation­al­i­ty, there are 66,687 Chi­nese (in­clud­ing 31,664 eth­nic Kore­ans, 47.1%), 35,355 Viet­namese (25%), 10,451 Japan­ese (7.4%), 7,476 Fil­ipinos (5.3%), 4,195 Cam­bo­di­ans (3.0%), 2,533 Thais (1.8%), and 2,421 Mon­go­lians (1.7%).

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  12. From an infor­mal trans­la­tion of “Immi­grants in Den­mark, 2011”:

    When it comes to male immi­grants from West­ern coun­tries who are clas­si­fied as being in a rela­tion­ship, in 59% of the cases the part­ner is of Dan­ish ori­gin and in 37% of the cases the part­ner is an immi­grant from a West­ern coun­try. When it comes to the female immi­grants from a West­ern coun­try, 63% of the part­ners are of Dan­ish ori­gin and in one-third of the cases it’s a West­ern immi­grant. The pat­tern is differ­ent when it comes to immi­grants from non-West­ern coun­tries. For male immi­grants from non-West­ern coun­tries, 13% have part­ners of Dan­ish ori­gin and 80% have part­ners from a non-West­ern coun­try. For female immi­grants from non-West­ern coun­tries, 28% have part­ners of Dan­ish ori­gin and 68% have part­ners of non-West­ern ori­gin. Inter­est­ing­ly, when it comes to descen­dants West­ern immi­grants are more likely to have a part­ner of Dan­ish ori­gin than are first gen­er­a­tion immi­grants (83% and 85% for males and females respec­tive­ly), whereas this pat­tern is actu­ally reversed for females from non-West­ern coun­tries, where descen­dants are less likely to have a Dan­ish part­ner than are first gen­er­a­tion immi­grants (19% of females who are descen­dants of immi­grants from non-West­ern coun­tries with a part­ner have a part­ner of Dan­ish orig­in, whereas the cor­re­spond­ing num­ber for the first gen­er­a­tion non-West­ern female immi­grants is 28%.) 3 out of 5 non-West­ern descen­dants who are in a rela­tion­ship are in a rela­tion­ship with a non-West­ern immi­grant and 18% of them have a part­ner who’s also a descen­dant of immi­grants from a non-West­ern coun­try. (all num­bers above from Tabel 1.9, p.32)

    The pat­terns seems to be that immi­grants from wealthier/prestigious - and West­ern - coun­tries can com­pete suc­cess­fully for native Danes, while immi­grants from poorer coun­tries like Turkey must often seek mates from back home; the women from poorer coun­tries also part­ner ‘up’, gain­ing more Danes than their male coun­ter­parts, just as we see with Japan.↩︎

  13. This fits with my read­ing in the South Korean expat blo­gos­phere, where I know of one female blog­ger with a Korean boyfriend but many male blog­gers with Korean loved ones. We can find quotes for Japan, Hong Kong, and China as well:

    I turned to the Inter­net for advice and was sur­prised to learn that the Date­less West­ern Woman was a famil­iar char­ac­ter in the expat world, at least judg­ing from the score of post­ings on expat forums by lone­ly, sin­gle females…Not true for their Y-chro­mo­some-car­ry­ing expat bud­dies though. While the female expats spent Sat­ur­day nights alone, cry­ing into their Ramen bowls, their male coun­ter­parts drank freely from the dat­ing pool like they owned it. Which in a way, they did. If you’ve ever vis­ited Asia, you’ve likely seen the pale, rail-thin, greasy-haired white boy walk­ing hand-in hand with a per­fectly made-up, mini-skirt wear­ing Asian chick. This would never hap­pen any­where else in the world. Because every­where else, Bar­bie ends up with Ken, not his under­em­ployed, social­ly-awk­ward, samu­rai-s­word-col­lect­ing neigh­bor, Kevin. But in Asia, dat­ing rules defy all logic or evo­lu­tion­ary law. In Asia, the nerd is king…But as I often reminded myself, I had­n’t come to Asia for a boyfriend. I’d come because I wanted to mas­ter Japan­ese and explore a cul­ture dras­ti­cally differ­ent from my own. But I just had­n’t expected that mov­ing my life to Japan would mean leav­ing my love life at home. As much as I’d enjoyed my life in Tokyo, it just did­n’t seem like a fair trade. Not that the female dat­ing sit­u­a­tion in Japan was­n’t with­out the occa­sional suc­cess sto­ry. I knew of a few women who’d come to Japan and left with hus­bands or fiancées in tow. But they were the minor­i­ty. Most west­ern women came to Japan sin­gle and stayed that way.

    “No Sex in the City: What It’s Like to Be Female and For­eign in Japan”, Rean­non Muth

    When I’m in Chi­na, I tend to turn a lot of heads, espe­cially in the coun­try­side - and that’s not just because I’m a for­eign­er. It’s because I’m often seen hold­ing hands with my Chi­nese hus­band. It’s true - the sight of a for­eign woman and Chi­nese boyfriend or Chi­nese hus­band is much rarer than its coun­ter­part, the for­eign man and Chi­nese woman.

    “On the Rar­ity of For­eign Women and Chi­nese Boyfriends/Chinese Hus­bands”, Joce­lyn Eiken­burg

    Between the tables of men sits a gweilo (Cau­casian) wom­an, She is alone, read­ing the local expat Eng­lish-medium mag­a­zine. She is wear­ing glasses and a shapely grey dress. She’s the kind of girl I would have set up with my brother when he was sin­gle. None of the men around her have glanced her way or made eye con­tac­t…I was sin­gle for my first five years in Hong Kong. The first few years I was curi­ous about the invis­i­bil­ity fac­tor. The third year I was despon­dent.

    “Sin­gle Women in Hong Kong: Stream of Con­scious­ness”, janet

    Expat women face an unfor­tu­nate predica­ment in China and, from what I hear, through­out Asia. Their prob­lem is that the expa­tri­ate men who come to China come for the local Chi­nese girls - and the local Chi­nese guys are too intim­i­dated to go for expat wom­en, or are too focused on find­ing a local wife, and in any event really aren’t all that attrac­tive in their own right. What that means, of course, is that there are a lot of lonely expat girls in Chi­na.[…] It’s some­thing you can tell right away. When I first moved to Bei­jing, I saw three Russ­ian women on the sub­way, one of them strik­ingly beau­ti­ful, and the other two not half bad. The instant I started talk­ing to them, you could see their faces melt, and they just about started star­ing at me like a fat kid looks at a ham­burg­er. I’m start­ing to think of this as the “expat girl stare” and I get it every­where I go that there are expat girls. Even the most drop dead beau­ti­ful women here blow open to the lamest open­ers you can imag­ine, because they’re so thrilled to meet a man who’s actu­ally inter­ested and is the kind of guy they could get together with. Women of a cal­iber of looks I used to have to some­times take a lit­tle while to crack open in Cal­i­for­nia, or who might at times be down­right cold to me on my approach, open eas­ily here.

    “Dat­ing in China”, Chase

    The dat­ing prob­lem of Chi­na’s for­lorn for­eign females has become a hot topic on online forums for expa­tri­ate such as www.thats­b­j.­com and http://asiaxpat.com. Threads with titles such as “Why for­eign women will NEVER have a dat­ing scene” and “How can a woman find a man?” are becom­ing increas­ingly pop­u­lar…“The major­ity of men come here because they have issues back home … or they just can’t get a woman back home for a num­ber of rea­sons,” she said. “They come here because they become a big fish in a lit­tle pond; they become very impor­tant and sought after.”[..] For these rea­sons, these women see the pool of sin­gle, date­able for­eign men more as a small pud­dle. And they don’t con­sider dat­ing locals a viable option.

    “For­eign women label Bei­jing a dat­ing waste­land”, Erik Nils­son (China Daily 2006)↩︎

  14. online dat­ing ser­vice found large dis­par­i­ties in inter­est by race; from “How Your Race Affects The Mes­sages You Get”:

    White women pre­fer white men to the exclu­sion of every­one else-and Asian and His­panic women pre­fer them even more exclu­sive­ly. These three types of women only respond well to white men. More sig­nifi­cant­ly, these groups’ reply rates to non-whites is ter­ri­ble. Asian women write back non-white males at 21.9%, His­panic women at 22.9%, and white women at 23.0%. It’s here where things get inter­est­ing, for white women in par­tic­u­lar. If you look at the match-by-race table before this one, the “should-look-like” one, you see that white women have an above-av­er­age com­pat­i­bil­ity with almost every group. Yet they only reply well to guys who look like them. There’s more data on this towards the end of the post.

    Their update “Race and Attrac­tion, 2009 - 2014” has sim­i­lar results. The Face­book dat­ing app, Are You Inter­est­ed, has appar­ently found sim­i­lar results for 2.4 mil­lion inter­ac­tions on its ser­vice. claims:

    In April 2011, I attended a sem­i­nar on the topic of the sex­ual and “hookup” behav­ior of Amer­i­can col­lege stu­dents. The sem­i­nar speaker had data, col­lected from online sur­veys con­ducted over a decade, from nearly 20,000 respon­dents from 20 differ­ent uni­ver­si­ties, on all aspects of their dat­ing and sex­ual behav­ior. One of the find­ings that she pre­sented - but could not explain - was the con­sis­tent pat­tern that, on all uni­ver­sity cam­puses in the United States, black female and Asian male stu­dents had the fewest dates and sex­ual part­ners. I was very intrigued by the find­ing and wanted to explain it. (It’s in my nature as the Sci­en­tific Fun­da­men­tal­ist that I can­not leave any inter­est­ing empir­i­cal find­ing unex­plained. I have to explain every­thing.) My ini­tial sus­pi­cion was that this might be because black females and Asian males were less phys­i­cally attrac­tive than their com­peti­tors. Thus began my sci­en­tific inter­est in race differ­ences in phys­i­cal attrac­tive­ness. As Paul Har­vey used to say, “And now you know the rest of the sto­ry.” Very curi­ously and quite coin­ci­den­tal­ly, in the past 12 months, there have been at least three arti­cles, pub­lished in highly pres­ti­gious, peer-re­viewed sci­en­tific jour­nals, which con­firm all of my con­clu­sions and spec­u­la­tions in my orig­i­nal blog post last year. Many com­men­ta­tors have pointed out in vain that, using exactly the same data and exactly the same sta­tis­ti­cal meth­ods, I have also shown that women are [sta­tis­ti­cal­ly-]sig­nifi­cantly more phys­i­cally attrac­tive than men and black men are [sta­tis­ti­cal­ly-]sig­nifi­cantly more phys­i­cally attrac­tive than non­black men. Few com­plained about these find­ings, because they are not polit­i­cally incor­rect.

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  15. See also Karen Kel­sky’s 1996 paper, “Flirt­ing With the For­eign: Inter­ra­cial Sex in Japan’s ‘Inter­na­tional’ Age”.↩︎

  16. Banks 2011; chap­ter 8 “Beyond Race?”, pg 128:

    While researchers’ find­ings differ, most Inter­net dat­ing stud­ies have found that men are much more open than women to inter­ra­cial dat­ing.252 Women are more likely to exclude men on the basis of race than men are to exclude women on the basis of race.253 In one recent study of Inter­net dat­ing, for exam­ple, 64% of white women stated a pref­er­ence for a white man, while only 29% of white men stated a pref­er­ence for a white woman.254 In another study, only 22% of white men reg­is­tered a pref­er­ence for dat­ing while women.255 While the par­tic­u­lars of these stud­ies vary, they all con­verge on the same con­clu­sion: Dat­ing pools are lim­ited more by the racial pref­er­ences of women than by those of men. One impli­ca­tion of this fact is that black wom­en, accord­ing to Inter­net dat­ing stud­ies, have greater oppor­tu­ni­ties to date across racial lines than do black men.256

    • 252: One study using a major online dat­ing site found that women were more than twice as likely as men to express a pref­er­ence for a part­ner of their own race. 38% of women had such a pref­er­ence, but only 18% of men did. Guenter J. Hitsch, Ali Hor­tas­cu, and Dan Ariely. 2006. “What Makes You Click? Mate Pref­er­ences and Match­ing Out­comes in Online Dat­ing”. MIT Sloan Research Paper N. 4603-06, Feb­ru­ary. Avail­able on SSRN.
    • 253: This gen­der differ­ence is likely due to the fact that men are less con­cerned than women with the accep­tance of fam­ily and friends, as men invest less in such rela­tion­ships than do women.
    • 254: Cyn­thia Feli­ciano, Belinda Rob­nett, and Gol­naz Komaie. 2009. “Gen­dered Racial Exclu­sion among White Inter­net Daters”. Social Sci­ence Research 38:23.
    • 255: Hitsch et al 2006
    • 256: Ray­mond Fis­man, Sheena Iyen­gar, Emir Kameni­ca, and Ita­mar Simon­son. 2007. “Racial Pref­er­ences in Dat­ing”. Review of eco­nomic Stud­ies 75(1): 117-132, at 124. Cyn­thia Feli­ciano…­More than 90% of the 72% of white women who name a racial pref­er­ence stated that they would not date a black man. Among men, 58% stated a racial pref­er­ence, and 93% would exclude black wom­en; Guenter J. Hitsch…This study found that 38% of all women say that they pre­fer to meet some­one of the same eth­nic back­ground as them­selves, while only 18% of men do so; Robert Kurzban and Jason Wee­den 2007. “Do Adver­tised Pref­er­ences Pre­dict the Behav­ior of Speed Daters?” Per­sonal Rela­tion­ships 14: 623-632. This study exam­ined data from speed-dat­ing par­tic­i­pants and found that women were more likely to state racial pref­er­ences than men.
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  17. An anony­mous reader lists a Japan­ese porno­graphic web­site JAVModels’s “Mixed-Race” cat­e­gory (NSFW), with some nation­al­ity notes:

    • Ameri Ichi­nose
    • Anna Anjo
    • Anna Hizaki
    • Anna Mit­sui
    • Anna Nat­suki
    • Anna Ooura
    • Anri Okita
    • Cecil Fujisaki, French
    • Daiya Nagare
    • Dina Katou
    • Fujii Shelly
    • Jes­sica Kizaki
    • JULIA
    • Karela Ariki
    • Kirari
    • Koko Aiba
    • Lala Hoshino
    • Lemon Tachibana
    • Liley
    • Maria Dizon
    • Maria Eriy­ori
    • Maria Oza­wa, French-Cana­dian
    • Meisa Hanai, Bul­gar­ian
    • Nina, Brazil­ian
    • Rei Mizuna
    • Rio/Tina Yuzuki, Por­tuguese
    • Rola Tak­iza­wa, Russ­ian
    • Saori Hara, Ger­man (1/4)
    • Sarah, Brazil­ian
    • Sara Ser­iza­wa, Fil­ipino-Sin­ga­porean
    • Sophia Kura­suno
    • Sophia Nikaidou
    • Yuka Osawa, Turk­ish
    • Yuria Ashina

    Iron­i­cal­ly, although the sam­ple size is small, it seems that in his list, Japan­ese pornog­ra­phy is more diverse than anime/manga! Fur­ther, look­ing through the thumb­nails, it seems that claims of blondness being reces­sive & it (al­most) impos­si­ble for hafus to be blond are vin­di­cat­ed: black hair is uni­ver­sal among these porn actress­es.↩︎

  18. Excerpted sec­tion ‘Hāfu (Half-Breeds) and Bira­cial­ity in Japan’ from Fellezs 2012.↩︎

  19. In the doc­u­ment­ing , dis­cusses why the char­ac­ter (half-Ger­man, for­eign moth­er) is so attrac­tive and his diffi­culty inte­grat­ing another hāfu char­ac­ter (, half-Eng­lish, prob­a­ble for­eign moth­er):

    Con­cern­ing the mat­ter of strength­en­ing Mar­i’s char­ac­ter, Anno-san had already been ask­ing me if I had any ideas, so I started to inves­ti­gate the prob­lem. How­ev­er, as I worked through it, the two­some ‘ and Asuka’ was such a pow­er­ful com­bi­na­tion that they seemed to stand in the way. When I tried to inves­ti­gate what made this pair so strong, I real­ized that this com­bi­na­tion fol­lowed the arche­type of the so called ‘’, and that all the desires, lusts, and dreams of young men were bound up in them.

    One ‘type’ is the girl who was a child­hood friend, who has always been with you since you were born, and with whom there are no new or strange feel­ings. Rei is estab­lished to resem­ble a ‘mother’ in some respects, and so she pro­duces in young men a feel­ing of dis­tance [from things?] as though they were still half in the womb. Now, Asuka’s par­tic­u­lar type is that of the girl who comes from a for­eign coun­try. This also pro­duces a very good feel­ing. Prob­a­bly it is the male instinct to think, in some respects, that girls from another world are bet­ter than girls who are famil­iar and close to hand [laugh­s].

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  20. “Now, One Out of 20 Mar­riages are Mixed!”, ↩︎

  21. Eri Iza­wa, “Notes from the Japan­ese Pop­u­lar Cul­ture Con­fer­ence at the Cen­tre for Asi­a-Pa­cific Ini­tia­tives, Uni­ver­sity of Vic­to­ria in Vic­to­ria, Canada”:

    Karen Kel­sky (Uni­ver­sity of Ore­gon) not­ed, among other things, how women in com­mer­cials are depicted as vehi­cles or con­duits of male pow­er. She also noted (and I found this par­tic­u­larly amus­ing) that com­mer­cials by West­ern com­pa­nies tended to show white men as objects of Japan­ese wom­en’s desire, while Japan­ese com­pa­nies tended to show Japan­ese men usurp­ing white men. [Check­ing Kel­sky’s CV, she does not seem to have pub­lished on this topic yet.]

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  22. Meagher & Neal 2005 ran their eye color analy­sis on 14 Dis­ney ani­mated movies, but I sus­pect it would repli­cate in ani­me, even allow­ing for sin­is­ter for­eign­ers.↩︎