Hafu Gender Ratios in Anime

Race as reflected in gender ratios within fictional bi-racial marriages in anime/manga show equal sex ratios and Western European overrepresentation with striking absence of Korean characters.
anime, criticism, sociology, politics, statistics, R, bibliography
2011-04-062019-06-14 in progress certainty: likely importance: 1


While watch­ing , it struck me that Hagu is clearly im­plied to be (blue eyes & blond hair, and thought bub­bles of other char­ac­ters putting her in idyl­lic Eu­ro­pean set­tings), and that her for­eign par­ent is the mother since the fa­ther is spec­i­fied to be a Japan­ese po­lice chief. Hagu is not the only ex­am­ple I could think of - there are plenty of other ex­am­ples where the mother is for­eign.

And in gen­er­al, the fa­ther al­ways seems to be Japan­ese and the mother for­eign. But is­n’t this kind of odd? If we could find sta­tis­tics about this, one would ex­pect the re­al­ity to be heav­ily slanted the other way - Japan­ese women mar­ry­ing GIs, mar­ry­ing for pass­ports, pre­fer­ring for­eign­ers’ more fem­i­nist at­ti­tudes about women work­ing out­side the home & shar­ing house­work1, or much more du­bi­ous sug­ges­tions like pre­fer­ring the skin color2 or greater height and pe­nis size of Cau­casians3. Even in Amer­i­ca, in­ter­ra­cial dat­ing is heav­ily in fa­vor of Cau­casian males and Asian fe­males rather than the other way around4, which may re­flect in­trin­sic pref­er­ences5 much to the agony of dis­fa­vored groups like black women6; white-Asian cou­ples in Amer­ica are the rich­est in­ter­ra­cial cou­ples on av­er­age, which per­haps re­flects the gen­eral de­mand for white men and Asian women7. Nor is it just Japan; Ko­rean ad­ver­tis­ing is strik­ingly tilted to­wards de­pict­ing Ko­rean men with for­eign wom­en, rather than the no­to­ri­ous re­al­ity (stem­ming from the Ko­rean War and con­tin­ued US mil­i­tary pres­ence) of Ko­rean women with for­eign men8, and of wars in gen­eral like WWII9. When fic­tion mir­rors re­al­i­ty, that needs lit­tle ex­pla­na­tion; but when fic­tion is ex­actly op­po­site re­al­i­ty, then one be­gins to won­der.

And the re­al­ity is ex­tremely skewed. In 2005, Japan had more fe­male than male “for­eign res­i­dents” and most for­eign­er-Japan­ese mar­riages in­volve a for­eign wom­an, but the pic­ture changes when we break the fig­ures out by na­tion­al­i­ty. The 2006 sta­tis­tics re­port that 1,474 Amer­i­can men mar­ried Japan­ese wom­en, and 215 Amer­i­can women mar­ried Japan­ese men; sim­i­lar­ly, 386 Eng­lish grooms out­weigh 79 Eng­lish brides (de­spite there be­ing many more Japan­ese men in Japan than Eng­lish men for the Eng­lish women to choose from). It’s strik­ing that there are so many more ex­pat men than wom­en, but even pro­por­tion­ate­ly, the Amer­i­can & Eng­lish men seem to marry Japan­ese more often than the woman do10. Where do all the for­eign women come from, then? Chi­na, Ko­rea, and the Philip­pines - all coun­tries some­what or ex­tremely poor per capita com­pared to Japan. (Sim­i­lar pat­terns seem to oc­cur with im­mi­grants in South Ko­rea11 and Den­mark12, rais­ing the ques­tion whether this is a gen­eral First World phe­nom­e­non.) West­ern ex­pats in East Asia and the world over com­monly ex­change anec­dotes on how male West­ern ex­pats fre­quently find a “lo­cal” girl­friend or wife, while fe­male West­ern ex­pats don’t seem to13.

Sex­ual and fa­mil­ial metaphors are com­mon in con­ceiv­ing of na­tion­al­i­ties & races (‘the Rape of Nanking’, Japan as the ‘big brother’ in the Asian Co-pros­per­ity sphere), and it hardly needs point­ing out that it is con­sid­ered low­er-s­ta­tus to be the woman in a re­la­tion­ship (the pen­e­trat­ed; con­sider the an­cient Greeks’ dis­dain of whichever male was be­ing pen­e­trated in a ho­mo­sex­ual re­la­tion­ship, or the mod­ern yaoi cul­ture’s gen­eral de­pic­tion of the ‘’, the ‘’).

Fears of the for­eigner steal­ing one’s women is al­most uni­ver­sal, from the most ad­vanced in­dus­trial women to the Yanomano who go to war pri­mar­ily to steal women from the oth­ers. See how often this fear oc­curs in sci­ence fic­tion & fan­ta­sy; and in the real world, we see this xeno­pho­bi­a-as-fear-of-los­ing-com­pe­ti­tion-for-women al­most every­where - Asian-Amer­i­cans males com­plain - per­haps jus­ti­fi­ably given Asian-Amer­i­can fe­male pref­er­ences for Cau­casians14 - about white men steal­ing Asian-Amer­i­can fe­males from them, South­ern men’s fear of blacks touch­ing their women is too well-known to need ref­er­enc­ing, and for­eign male vis­i­tors to Bangkok’s red light dis­tricts find note­wor­thy the lack of hos­til­ity on the part of the na­tive males. Do­mes­tic women who seek out for­eign men for sex are par­tic­u­larly con­demned; in a Japan­ese con­text, see the “Yel­low Cab” stereo­type15. (This may not be the real causal­i­ty; In­ter­net dat­ing stud­ies sug­gest that women have stronger racial pref­er­ences than men16, which mud­dies mat­ters - if the women are pick­ier, why are more Japan­ese women mar­ry­ing out than men? But we’re in­ter­ested in pop­u­lar be­liefs and their re­flec­tion in fic­tion.)

And the dis­dain for Japan­ese women after WWII, pros­ti­tutes or oth­er­wise, and their chil­dren has been well-doc­u­mented as well as more re­cent mi­nor in­ter­est in hāfu as per­form­ers or (in­clud­ing an ap­par­ent niche in Japan­ese pornog­ra­phy17):

Japan­ese women who formed re­la­tion­ships with gai­jin were often shunned by friends and fam­i­ly, suffer­ing so­cial iso­la­tion or worse. In fact, most of the Japan­ese women who be­came in­volved with US ser­vice­men never im­mi­grated as the hap­pily mar­ried wives of these ser­vice­men. Caught be­tween con­flict­ing reg­u­la­tion­s-the Armed Forces only ap­proved mar­riages that were reg­is­tered at the Amer­i­can con­sulate (the only reg­is­tra­tion rec­og­nized by both Amer­i­can and Japan­ese gov­ern­ments) along with the stip­u­la­tion that the GI bring his wife home to the US, which was near im­pos­si­ble given the that barred Japan­ese from US cit­i­zen­ship or per­ma­nent res­i­dence-US ser­vice­men often sim­ply re­turned home to start new lives.

Many of these aban­doned Japan­ese women were left with il­le­git­i­mate chil­dren. These chil­dren did not fare any bet­ter than their moth­ers, as the 1959 film, Kiku and Isamu (), ex­plored in a tale of two hāfu (half, or more ac­cu­rate­ly, half-breed) chil­dren who ex­pe­ri­ence bul­ly­ing from other chil­dren and ill treat­ment from adults. In­deed, while spec­u­la­tive, it is en­tirely fea­si­ble that this sort of stigma­ti­za­tion may have trig­gered the Tabbs’ move back to Pitts­burgh. In­deed, Jero’s mother has ad­mit­ted to be­ing bul­lied and mis­treated by other school­child­ren for be­ing hāfu while grow­ing up in Japan (Hamamo­to). There is a long his­tory of bul­ly­ing in Japan­ese schools, par­tic­u­larly of hāfu chil­dren-per­haps un­sur­pris­ing in a so­cial world in which ho­mo­gene­ity and con­for­mity are closely in­ter­twined with a sense of na­tion­al­ist cul­tural iden­ti­ty. As Koichi Iwabuchi notes, more­over, this per­va­sive sense of Japan­ese cul­tural and eth­nic ho­mo­gene­ity is jux­ta­posed with an equally wide­spread idea that West­ern so­ci­ety is di­verse and mul­ti­cul­tur­al, un­der­gird­ing a con­tin­ued sense of Japan­ese unique­ness that masks so­cial in­equal­ity even as it sup­ports the no­tion of cul­tural su­pe­ri­or­ity (104).

In 1952, ran a story ti­tled “Madame But­ter­fly’s Chil­dren: The Plight of ‘GI Ba­bies’ in Japan”, de­tail­ing the hard­ships of these hāfu chil­dren, who were often aban­doned to grand­par­ents or to or­phan­ages when their fa­thers re­turned home to the US as their moth­ers were un­able to face the so­cial stigma of rais­ing often il­le­git­i­mate chil­dren. Ac­cord­ing to the ar­ti­cle, their num­bers were es­ti­mated to be as high as 200,000, with 90% of them fa­thered by US ser­vice­men. The Col­lier’s ar­ti­cle ap­peared a mere seven years after World War II had end­ed, in time to re­flect on de­bates in Japan about the grow­ing needs of a gen­er­a­tion of or­phan hāfu chil­dren about to en­ter school, tax­ing post-World War II ed­u­ca­tional fa­cil­i­ties and other ma­te­r­ial re­sources.

Sev­en­teen years lat­er, a 1969 is­sue of fea­tured a cover story ti­tled “Japan’s GI Ba­bies: A Hard Com­ing-of-Age”, which de­tailed the cur­rent lives of a hand­ful of hāfu young adults. The ar­ti­cle paints a bleak pic­ture, not­ing, “An un­der­cur­rent of prej­u­dice, con­stant though sel­dom overt, has dri­ven many of them to the fringes of so­ci­ety. There, some have be­come true out­cast­s-pros­ti­tutes and drug ad­dicts” (Moser 40). Im­ages of a 20-year-old known only as Dan­ny, sniffing glue, sprawled out in a sub­way sta­tion, speak to the harsh penal­ties that the rhetoric link­ing be­long­ing and bi­ol­ogy in the dis­course of ex­acted on peo­ple deemed ex­ter­nal to “pure Japan­ese-ness.”

At the same time, there was a fas­ci­na­tion with hāfu de­spite their so­cial os­tra­ciza­tion. One of the fea­tured hāfu in the Life ar­ti­cle, Michi Aoya­ma, would go on to be a suc­cess­ful jazz singer in Tokyo, hav­ing al­ready en­joyed some suc­cess as a teen singing star by the time of the ar­ti­cle. Still, she suffered from de­pres­sion, and her sit­u­a­tion as a le­git­i­mate en­ter­tain­er, rather than as a “com­pan­ion” at so-called host­ess bars, was sin­gu­lar. There was a pop­u­lar al­l-girl group in the 1970s called The Golden Half, whose mem­bers were all hāfu (Japan­ese moth­ers, white fa­thers) and whose ap­peal rested in large part on their “ex­otic Japan­ese-but-not-quite-Japan­ese” look. , a Japan­ese-Ja­maican hāfu mu­si­cian, who, de­spite a child­hood spent in an or­phan­age, died in 2011 a well-known and re­spected rock mu­si­cian and Japan­ese film ac­tor. His stature out­side Japan is ev­i­denced by his time spent as a re­place­ment for in after Mar­ley’s death. Ya­manaka had been a mem­ber of in the 1970s, a Japan­ese band that proved that it could hold its own with con­tem­po­rary West­ern rock bands, as ev­i­denced by an op­por­tu­nity to open for ’ 1973 tour of Japan. Un­for­tu­nate­ly, drug con­vic­tion de­railed the Stones’ tour plans and Flower Trav­el­lin’ Band soon broke up. What is im­por­tant to re­mem­ber, how­ev­er, is that the Japan­ese pub­lic’s fas­ci­na­tion with hāfu artists did not trans­late into so­cial poli­cies that would mit­i­gate the hard­ships faced by a ma­jor­ity of hā­fu. In­deed, hāfu artists em­bod­ied the very emo­tion­al, in­tu­itive, and even artis­tic essence of the prim­i­tive Other that al­lowed “pure” Japan­ese to main­tain a con­tin­ued sense of ge­netic and cul­tural su­pe­ri­or­i­ty.18

So, it seems pretty straight­for­ward to sug­gest that a Japan­ese man mar­ry­ing and im­preg­nat­ing a for­eign woman would be seen as less sta­tus-low­er­ing than a for­eign man mar­ry­ing and im­preg­nat­ing a Japan­ese woman. West­ern­ers have, since Com­modore Per­ry, been of high sta­tus in Japan for their tech­nol­ogy & sci­ence & pow­er. (Ex­pats even to­day in Japan or Ko­rea some­times talk about “play­ing the gai­jin/way­gook card” - break­ing rules or shirk­ing re­spon­si­bil­i­ties through a com­bi­na­tion of as­sumed ig­no­rance on their part and their pe­cu­liar and higher sta­tus as a for­eign­er.) So, a Japan­ese woman mar­ry­ing a West­ern man would lower her sta­tus (and by ex­ten­sion, that of Japan). Sim­i­larly we might ex­pect that a Japan­ese man mar­ry­ing an at­trac­tive West­ern woman (as the women uni­ver­sally seem to be in anime & man­ga) could ac­tu­ally gain sta­tus for him­self - and by ex­ten­sion, Japan - from ‘mar­ry­ing above his po­si­tion’. (At the very least, many men are at­tracted to the ex­otic oth­er, and not so much the women.19) This turns out to be an ex­pla­na­tion offered by at least one Japan­ese writer for the pre­vi­ously cited in­ter­na­tional mar­riage sta­tis­tics:

Men want “down­ward” part­ners while women want “up­ward” part­ners There are two promi­nent fea­tures about Japan­ese in­ter­na­tional mar­riages. One is that the ma­jor­ity of part­ners are from neigh­bor­ing coun­tries in­clud­ing Ko­rea, China and Philip­pines. This is due to ge­o­graph­i­cal and his­tor­i­cal re­la­tions. The rea­son Brazil is out­stand­ing in num­bers is due to the fact that many Japan­ese-Brazil­ians are work­ing in Japan. An­other fea­ture is that for­eign wife and Japan­ese hus­band part­ner­ships make up the ma­jor­ity of mixed mar­riages at 80%. In the case of for­eign hus­bands, ex­clud­ing neigh­bor­ing coun­tries, Amer­i­can hus­bands are most com­mon. This may be due to the good Japan-US re­la­tions after the war and the fact that there are many Amer­i­can mil­i­tary bases in Japan. The ten­dency of in­ter­na­tional mar­riages is that, not only in Japan but also in­ter­na­tion­al­ly, men want down­ward part­ners while women want up­ward part­ners. This means men want women whose ed­u­ca­tional back­ground, in­come and height are less than theirs. Women are just the op­po­site. In Japan in the late 80’s the jar­gon “San-ko” (three heights) be­came pop­u­lar. This jar­gon refers to the ed­u­ca­tional back­ground, in­come and height of men. It was a mar­riage con­di­tion for many Japan­ese women. Sta­tis­tics prove that men with low in­comes and women with high in­comes are highly likely to be un­mar­ried. How­ev­er, Japan­ese me with low in­comes are still rich for those who live in de­vel­op­ing coun­tries and the sit­u­a­tion will meet their con­di­tions. Among for­eign­ers Japan­ese women gen­er­ally want to marry West­ern men.20

Status predictions

From this sta­tus ex­pla­na­tion, we could make a few pre­dic­tions.

  1. The Japan­ese man mar­ry­ing out would be of a high SES, rather than low
  2. the woman mar­ry­ing out would be of a low SES

(If these 2 pre­dic­tions sound too easy, that shows how in­tu­itive this sort of think­ing is. There are ac­tu­ally 4 pos­si­ble pairs of pre­dic­tion about the av­er­age sta­tus of M/F mar­ry­ing out: low/low, low/high, high­/low, high­/high.)

We might also ex­pect some his­tor­i­cal trend-lines in fic­tional pair­ings, with shifts in which as Japan­ese self­-es­teem in­creas­es, so do the num­ber of Japan­ese males mar­ry­ing out and a de­crease in the num­ber of women mar­ry­ing out. From what I know of Japan­ese his­to­ry, Japan­ese self­-es­teem fell to a nadir post-Per­ry, with se­ri­ous pro­pos­als to switch Japan to speak­ing Eng­lish (!), then slowly re­cov­er­ing, soar­ing with the growth of the em­pire be­fore crash­ing yet again in the wake of the ru­inous WWII, and then slowly ris­ing to a peak in the 1980s with the bub­ble and then col­laps­ing a fair bit with the bub­ble’s col­lapse. So if we charted the per­cent­age of bira­cial char­ac­ters with a Japan­ese male par­ent, we might ex­pect to see a sim­i­lar graph: low after WWII and in­creas­ing ever since, with pos­si­bly a fall post 1990 or so.

But per­haps all this is sim­ply my own par­tic­u­lar bi­as; be­liev­ing that more Japan­ese women out­-marry than Japan­ese men could be seen as a claim that for­eign men (and West­ern men in par­tic­u­lar) are bet­ter than Japan­ese men, more ‘manly’ and at­trac­tive. At least one aca­d­e­mic has ac­cused West­ern com­pa­nies of re­flect­ing this be­lief in its Japan­ese ad­ver­tis­ing, while na­tive ad­ver­tis­ing presents a more straight­for­ward com­pe­ti­tion be­tween Japan­ese and West­ern men.21

In ad­vance, I sus­pect there may not be enough bi-ra­cial char­ac­ters to draw a neat graph, and se­lec­tion bias & diffi­culty in find­ing such bira­cial char­ac­ters with in­for­ma­tion in Eng­lish would dis­tort the true graph.

Database

Generating entries

Ex­tract­ing can­di­date ar­ti­cles from Wikipedia:

Ad­di­tional sources:

List

The fol­low­ing list in­cludes man­ga, light nov­el, ani­me, and video game char­ac­ters (there be­ing lit­tle point in keep­ing the medi­ums sep­a­rate). It also in­cludes char­ac­ters who are not hāfu them­selves but a quar­ter-for­eign inas­much as they im­ply a hāfu at some point. Char­ac­ters are treated sep­a­rately even if they are in the same work (eg. sib­lings). Clas­si­fi­ca­tion is based on in­-u­ni­verse or out­-of-u­ni­verse in­for­ma­tion, since ap­pear­ance can be highly mis­lead­ing in anime (blue eyes may in­di­cate heroic sta­tus, rather than be­ing Cau­casian22; hair color may be cho­sen for con­trast against other char­ac­ters or sig­nal stereo­types like red hair in­di­cat­ing a fiery per­son­al­i­ty), and differ­ent groups will iden­tify the same anime char­ac­ter as be­long­ing to their own race (Lu 2009), per­haps due to min­i­mal­is­tic draw­ings in­tended to save money or en­able view­ers to project them­selves onto a char­ac­ter.

Com­pi­la­tion of hafu char­ac­ters in Japan­ese ani­me, man­ga, video games, & light or vi­sual nov­els, 1963–2019 (n≅390)
Year Se­ries Char­ac­ter Gen­der Fa­ther Mother Eyes Hair Notes
1963 Yuki no Taiyou Sanae F Japan­ese Amer­i­can
1964 Cy­borg 009 Joe Shi­ma­mura M Amer­i­can Japan­ese brown brown TVTropes says “half-Japan­ese (moth­er), half-Amer­i­can (fa­ther), and in the manga he was bul­lied be­cause of that”; I did not find any other on­line sources spec­i­fy­ing the par­ents, and do not have the manga handy.
1967 Lupin III Lupin III M French? Japan­ese? black black dis­cusses the am­bi­gu­i­ty.
1967 Nekome Ko­zou Cat-Eyed Boy M Japan­ese Fan­tasy brown
1972 Gatchaman Jun ‘the Swan’ F green green In­for­ma­tion about Jun is very scarce; asked
1974 Great Mazinger Jun Hono F Amer­i­can Japan­ese black black
1975 Ichigo Mono­gatari Ichigo F Scan­di­na­vian? Japan­ese? brown brown Baka-Up­dates de­scribes the plot: “Ichigo is a four­teen year old half Japan­ese girl that grew up in La­p­land. After the death of her fa­ther, she moves to Japan where she is hosted by Ikuta Rin­taro and his fam­i­ly.”, trans­lat­ing from an Ital­ian web­site. Mak­ing mat­ters worse, the is claimed in parts by Nor­way, Swe­den, Fin­land and Rus­sia.
1976 Kochira Kat­sushika-ku… Reiko Kather­ine Aki­moto F Japan­ese? French? blue blond Asked
1977 Haikara-san ga Tooru Shi­nobu Iijyuin M Japan­ese Ger­man blue blond
1977 “Sen­ti­men­tal City” M Eng­lish Japan­ese black As de­scribed in Ogi 2019
1979 Mo­bile Suit Gun­dam Amuro Ray M Japan­ese Cana­dian blue brown TvTropes says Ray’s mother is Cana­di­an, and was changed to Mex­i­can in a much later Gun­dam ani­me; the Gun­dam Wikia says she is ei­ther Amer­i­can or Cana­dian but it is not spec­i­fied.
1981 GoShogun Remy Shi­mada F Japan­ese French blue blond Alan Taka­hashi’s “Anime Pocket Guide” com­piled for rec.arts.anime com­ments of a later GoShogun movie that “Re­my’s mother was a French pros­ti­tute, so Remy has a tainted and con­fused past.”
1981 Blos­som Shower on Nan­jing Road M Japan­ese Chi­nese black As de­scribed in Ogi 2019
1982 Macross Lynn Min­may F Chi­ne­se? Japan­ese? blue blue The fa­ther-mother mix is un­clear; it may be Japan­ese-Chi­nese.
1982 Yūkan Club Bido Gran­marie M Swedish Japan­ese blond
1983 Adolf Adolf Kauf­mann M Ger­man Japan­ese
1983 Rean no Tsub­asa Asap Suzuki M Amer­i­can Japan­ese blond Google Trans­late of offi­cial pro­file: “Has a Japan­ese mother and an Amer­i­can fa­ther.”
1984 Kimagure Or­ange Road Madoka Ayukawa F Japan­ese green black at con­ven­tion.
1986 Mad Bull 34 Daiz­aburo “Ed­die” Ban M Japan­ese? Amer­i­can? brown black
1986 Pineap­ple Army Jed Goshi M Japan­ese? Amer­i­can? black black
1986 Saint Seiya Cygnus Hyoga M Japan­ese Russ­ian blue blond
1987 Hanasakeru Seishounen Ka­jika Burnsworth F Amer­i­can Japan­ese grey brown
1987 La­dy!! Lynn Rus­sell F Eng­lish Japan­ese red blond
1987 Magic Kaito Saguru Hakuba M Japan­ese Eng­lish brown brown
1987 Metal Gear Solid Snake M Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue brown
1988 Mas­ter Keaton Taichi Hi­ra­ga-Keaton M Japan­ese Eng­lish black black
1988 Mo­bile Po­lice Pat­la­bor Kanuka Clancy F Amer­i­can Japan­ese? black black Asked.
1988 Vam­pire Princess Miyu (OVA) Miyu F Japan­ese Fan­tasy brown brown
1989 Iji­gen kara no Tay­ori Mami Takamizawa F Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue blond Sec­ond story in the an­thol­o­gy.
1989 Jo­Jo’s Bizarre Ad­ven­ture Jo­taro Kujo M Japan­ese Eng­lish green blue
1989 Street Fighter Ken Mas­ters M Amer­i­can Japan­ese brown blond
1990 Itazura na Kiss Japan­ese Eng­lish blue blond
1990 Itazura na Kiss Japan­ese Eng­lish blue blond
1990 Itazura na Kiss Japan­ese Eng­lish blue blond TvTropes: “Eng­lish­woman Chris­tine ‘Chris’ Rob­bins has a thing for Japan­ese men and go to Japan specifi­cally to find one to date and mar­ry. At first she’s in­ter­ested in male lead Naoki, but ends up mar­ry­ing Ko­toko’s for­mer Dogged Nice Guy Kin­no­suke. They have three kids, with their dad’s fea­tures and their mom’s eye­/hair color scheme.”
1990 Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake Kazuhira Miller M Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond
1990 Slam Dunk Michael Okita M Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue blond
1991 2nd Su­per Ro­bot Wars Shu Shi­rakawa M Fan­tasy Japan­ese red TvTropes as­serts he is half-Japan­ese as the name in­di­cates; de­scrip­tions of his back­story are hard to come by, and I am re­ly­ing on a GameFAQs fo­rum sum­mary: “Shu­u’s mom is ‘kid­napped’ by a mem­ber of the Royal Fam­ily of Lan Gran (one of the 3 king­doms of La Gi­as) and is made his con­sort/­con­cu­bine, and Shuu is born some time after­wards - thus, Shuu is half Earth­i­an, half La Gi­an, and a le­git­i­mate heir of the throne of Lan Gran. He grows up to value his in­de­pen­dence much more than any­thing (most likely stem­ming from his moth­er’s free­dom be­ing stripped from her since she was kid­napped), and thus has no in­ter­est of the throne. Shuu trav­els back­-and-forth from the sur­face world, and be­comes the ge­nius he is as he ab­sorbs knowl­edge from the sur­face AND La Gi­as, us­ing this knowl­edge to build the Granzon.”
1991 801 T.T.S. Air­bats Mi­taka Arisa F Japan­ese black black Hi­toshi Doi on the au­dio­drama adap­ta­tion: “Mi­taka Arisa got trans­ferred to the 801 TTS. Kengamine looked at Arisa’s pa­pers and found out that she was half Japan­ese (her fa­ther was Japan­ese).”
1991 Shin Seiki GPX Cy­ber For­mula Kaga Joutarou M Japan­ese? Span­ish? green
1991 Silent Mo­bius Kat­sumi Liqueur F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blue
1991 Boys Be… Chi­haru Re­icha F Japan­ese? Finnish? black blond
1992 Hana Yori Dango Thomas M Japan­ese Ger­man blond Mar­garet O’­Con­nell quotes Thomas as say­ing: “Be­cause I’m half Japan­ese. My dad’s from here. My mom’s Ger­man.”
1992 Jo­Jo’s Bizarre Ad­ven­ture Jo­suke Hi­gashikata M Eng­lish Japan­ese blue blue
1992 Rain­bow Trot­sky Hun­bord M Japan­ese Mon­go­lian The fa­ther is named “Fukami Keisuke” and the mother iden­ti­fied as “a mem­ber of the Buryat subeth­nic group”; dates, names, and parent­age are sourced from “He­roes and Vil­lains: Manchuko in Ya­suhiko Yoshikazu’s Rain­bow Trot­sky” (O’D­wyer 2012; an­thol­o­gized in Manga and the Rep­re­sen­ta­tion of Japan­ese His­tory).
1992 Tenchi Muyo! Kat­suhito Masaki M Fan­tasy Japan­ese pur­ple black Orig­i­nal hair color as young man.
1992 X1999 Karen Ka­sumi F Japan­ese brown red Not cer­tain Karen is the half-Japan­ese char­ac­ter TvTropes’s main page al­ludes to; asked: http://tvtropes.org/pmwik­i/re­mark­s.ph­p?trope=­Main.But­Not­TooFor­eign#lat­est
1992 An­gel Densetsu Leo Hal­ford M Amer­i­can Japan­ese brown brown
1992 An­gel Densetsu Sana Hal­ford F Amer­i­can Japan­ese brown black
1993 Boku­tachi Otoko no Ko Takashi Fu­jii M Japan­ese Amer­i­can? blue blond In chap­ter 02, Takashi’s blond Cau­casian mother named ‘Sarah’ is in­tro­duced and Takashi says “she was ac­tu­ally born in Tokyo. Though she moved to South Africa right after she was born, and then Ky­oto, and Pak­istan, then Tokyo again, and now she’s here [rural Japan]”. Un­for­tu­nate­ly, the rest of the manga only rarely men­tions her and her side of the fam­ily never ap­pears, so while she is surely an Amer­i­can, it can­not be proven from the man­ga.
1993 Hy­per Po­lice Sasa­hara Nat­suki F Japan­ese Fan­tasy green green
1993 Samu­rai Gun Ichi­matsu M Japan­ese Dutch blue white
1994 De­tec­tive Co­nan Ai Haibara F Japan­ese Eng­lish blue brown
1994 Fake Randy Ryo Maclean M Amer­i­can Japan­ese black brown
1995 An­gel Sanc­tu­ary Sara Mudo F Japan­ese? Eng­lish? brown blond O’­Con­nell quotes vol­ume 1 of the man­ga: “Since our grand­fa­ther was from Eng­land, we both have blond hair and light-brown eyes… so every­one’s gonna know that we’re brother and sis­ter.” Asked for more de­tails: http://an­gel­sanc­tu­ary.wiki­a.­com/wik­i/Talk:Set­suna_­Mu­do#­Parent­age; com­menter ‘ger­man­in­japan’ on this page says it was the mother plan­ning to leave, so through the ma­ter­nal line?
1995 An­gel Sanc­tu­ary Set­suna Mudo M Japan­ese? Eng­lish? brown blond
1995 Chūka Ichiban! Shi­rou M Chi­nese Japan­ese brown blue
1995 Kashou no Tsuki Tsuchiki­mado Ari­masa M Japan­ese Fan­tasy black
1995 Kodomo no Omocha Naozumi Ka­mura M Amer­i­can Japan­ese green blue Sourced from sub­ti­tles of episode 73 & 74, and in­ter­pre­ta­tion checked against a fan­site
1995 Mo­bile Suit Gun­dam Wing Heero Yuy M Russ­ian Japan­ese blue brown TvTropes: “Heero, on the other hand, is re­vealed to be half-Russ­ian in the novel Frozen Teardrop.” His canon fa­ther does have a Russ­ian name.
1995 Neon Gen­e­sis Evan­ge­lion Asuka So­ryu Lan­g­ley F Japan­ese Ger­man blue red
1996 Card Cap­tors Sakura Eriol Hi­ira­g­izawa M blue blue Eng­lish-Japan­ese, re­port­ed­ly. I omit­ted re­lated char­ac­ters like Watanuki as they are too com­pli­cated to fairly in­clude.
1996 Hana-kimi Mizuk­i’s brother M Japan­ese Amer­i­can?
1996 In­uYasha In­uYasha M Fan­tasy Japan­ese brown white
1996 Jo­Jo’s Bizarre Ad­ven­ture Giorno Gio­vanna M Eng­lish Japan­ese blue blond
1996 Sakura Taisen Maria Tachibana F Japan­ese Russ­ian blue blond “Maria Tachibana was born in Rus­sia to a Japan­ese fa­ther and a Russ­ian moth­er.” –“Sakura Taisen”, Ex.org
1996 Sakura Taisen Ori­hime So­letta F Japan­ese Ital­ian green black
1997 Devil Lady Asuka Lan F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond
1997 Great Teacher Onizuka Kan­zaki Urumi F Japan­ese blond Het­e­rochro­mat­ic: brown/blue. Canon­i­cally un­known fa­ther.
1997 Sen­sual Phrase Sakuya Ookochi M Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue black
1997 Street Fighter 3 Sean Mat­suda M Japan­ese Brazil­ian brown brown “Sean Mat­suda was born in Brazil, though his pa­ter­nal grand­fa­ther was Japan­ese.” –SF Wikia
1997 To Heart Lemmy Miyauchi F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond Cloud668 says the par­ents’ na­tion­al­i­ties are listed in ‘the guide­book’.
1997 Vam­pire Princess Miyu (TV) Miyu F Fan­tasy Japan­ese brown brown
1998 Full Metal Pan­ic! Kurz We­ber M Ger­man? Japan­ese? blue blond Un­clear whether ha­fu; FMP! wikia lists na­tion­al­ity as “Ger­man/­Japan­ese” and “Born in Tokyo to West Ger­man par­ents on April 1, 1982. He was raised in Edo­gawa, Tokyo, Japan, at­tend­ing a nor­mal pub­lic school”. for Japan but , im­ply­ing a Japan­ese cit­i­zen­ship par­ent, un­less the man­gaka is ig­nor­ing that. The orig­i­nal light nov­els may clear this up.
1998 Kin­niku­man Ni­sei Terry the Kid M Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond
1998 Mari­a-sama Ga Miteru Sei Satō F Japan­ese? Amer­i­can? grey brown Seems to be zero in­for­ma­tion be­sides a com­ment she is at­trac­tive de­spite the for­eign blood; the sur­name is Japan­ese and she grad­u­ates to study Eng­lish & Amer­i­can Lit­er­a­ture, so prob­a­bly she has a mother who is one of those na­tion­al­i­ties. Asked.
1998 Par­a­site Eve Aya Brea F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond Aya Brea is not in the orig­i­nal Par­a­site Eve nov­el, but the first video game adap­ta­tion.
1998 Se­cret Area Jake M Japan­ese Amer­i­can blond Story 5 in the an­thol­o­gy.
1998 Shan­imuni Go Takita Louis M Japan­ese French brown brown
1998 UFO Baby Chris­tine Hanako­machi F Japan­ese French pur­ple pink
1999 Digi­mon Ad­ven­ture Yam­ato Ishida M Japan­ese French blue blond
1999 Fruits Bas­kets Momiji Sohma M Japan­ese? Ger­man? brown blond
1999 Get­Back­ers Ban Mido M Ger­man Japan­ese blue brown His fa­ther, Der Kaiser, seems to be half-Ger­man/half-Japan­ese, mak­ing Ban a quar­ter-Ger­man.
1999 Peace­maker Kuro­gane Ake­sato F blue brown The man­gaka Sakamoto has ap­par­ently only com­mented she is a hāfu (pre­sum­ably Cau­casian), noth­ing more. Asked.
1999 Prince of Ten­nis Jackal Kuwa­hara M Brazil­ian? Japan­ese? black Guesses based on sur­name, un­re­li­able as that is. Asked.
1999 Sis­ter Princess Aria F Japan­ese French grey blue
1999 Sis­ter Princess Haruka F Japan­ese Ger­man blue pur­ple
1999 Sis­ter Princess Yot­suba F Japan­ese Eng­lish brown brown
1999 Venus in Love Yuki Ikeuchi M Japan­ese? Greek? green brown Guess­ing based on sur­name; asked.
1999 The Last Wiz­ard of the Cen­tury Nat­sumi Kousaka F Japan­ese Russ­ian green brown Ac­cord­ing to the fan wiki, her grand­fa­ther mar­ried a Russ­ian woman while work­ing there.
2000 Bey­blade Max Tate M Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue blond
2000 Boys Be… Shoko Uzuki F blond
2000 Digi­mon Ad­ven­ture 02 Takeru Takaishi M Japan­ese French blue blond
2000 Jo­Jo’s Bizarre Ad­ven­ture Jolyne Kujo F Japan­ese Ital­ian blue This is a ma­jor sim­pli­fi­ca­tion. Wikipedia notes that “It’s men­tioned that she is an Ital­ian-Amer­i­can, mak­ing Jolyne 1⁄4 Japan­ese, 1⁄4 Amer­i­can, 3⁄8 Ital­ian, and 1⁄8 British.”
2000 Maya Madoromi­jima no Ne­muri­hime Mik­agura Hi­jiri F blue blond
2000 Nana Layla Ser­izawa F Amer­i­can Japan­ese brown pink
2000 Nana Ren Ichi­nose M Japan­ese brown grey ch74; Nana re­mains in­com­plete and so his ex­act parent­age re­mains de­bat­able.
2000 Ni­gai Ka­jitsu Jack Yuchi M Japan­ese Amer­i­can black Story 4, “Blue Pe­riod”
2000 Pani Poni Dash! (man­ga) Re­becca Miyamoto F Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue blond Miyamoto ap­pears twice be­cause the anime re­verses her parent­age.
2000 Read or Die Yomiko Read­man F Japan­ese Eng­lish blue black
2000 Ring Of Red Masami von Weiseg­ger M Ger­man? Japan­ese?
2000 Shiy­ouzumi Con­dom Sara Kararieva F Japan­ese Russ­ian blue blond
2000 Tsuk­i­hime Ciel F French Japan­ese? blue blue Ciel says only “I looked like my moth­er, who was Ori­en­tal”; asked: http://­type­moon.wiki­a.­com/wik­i/Talk:­Ciel#­Parent­age
2000 Yo-u Kaede F Fan­tasy Japan­ese brown brown
2001 Bleach Ya­su­tora Sado M Japan­ese? Mex­i­can? brown brown Asked.
2001 Dead or Alive 3 Hit­omi F Ger­man Japan­ese blue brown Sur­pris­ing­ly, there does­n’t seem to be a DOA anime or man­ga, ex­cept for a DOA Xtreme Beach Vol­ley­ball manga.
2001 Desert Storm Eimi F Japan­ese Russ­ian black black Tech­ni­cal­ly, Chech­nyan; as usu­al, as­sim­i­lated to the neigh­bor­ing ma­jor na­tion­al­i­ty.
2001 Di­a­mond Head Le­ica Hanugi M red red “His na­tion­al­ity is three­-fourths mixed… the most mys­te­ri­ous one of all.” pg21 c01. He is de­picted in color il­lus­tra­tions with red­dish hair, red eyes, and is Chris­tian; one as­so­ci­ated char­ac­ter re­turns from sev­eral years abroad liv­ing in Seat­tle. In the com­plete man­ga, there are no other hints as to his na­tion­al­i­ties or parent­age: the mother is de­picted once with neu­tral hair col­or.
2001 Digi­mon Tamers Lee Jaarin F Chi­nese Japan­ese
2001 Digi­mon Tamers Lee Jian­liang M Chi­nese Japan­ese grey blue
2001 Digi­mon Tamers Lee Rinchei M Chi­nese Japan­ese
2001 Digi­mon Tamers Lee Shi­u­chon F Chi­nese Japan­ese pur­ple brown
2001 Koiseyo Shounen Yam­ato Saku­rai M Cana­dian Japan­ese blue brown Story 1 of the an­thol­o­gy, “Let­ter from Canada”.
2001 Sakura Taisen 3 Han­abi Ki­taoji F Japan­ese French black black Her ma­ter­nal grand­mother is French, or so MyAnimeList claims. This is con­sis­tent with her no­bil­ity and her fa­ther be­ing named Masamichi Ki­tao­ji.
2001 Shadow Hearts Yuri Volte Hyuga M Japan­ese Ger­man red brown
2002 .hack­//Le­gend of the Twi­light Ho­taru M Irish Japan­ese blue blond
2002 Da Capo Al­ice Tsuk­ishiro F Japan­ese? Eng­lish? pur­ple white
2002 Da Capo Grand­ma? F Eng­lish? Japan­ese? I am not cer­tain about this char­ac­ter. She is ob­scure and there are over­lap­ping char­ac­ters pol­lut­ing the search re­sults. I am go­ing off a much copy­-pasted de­scrip­tion which claims “Ju­nichi and Saku­ra’s grand­moth­er. Half Japan­ese, half British. Said to have looked young un­til she was about a hun­dred years old. Al­ready dead by the events of Da Capo, but that does­n’t stop her from show­ing up every once in a while.”
2002 Eye­shield 21 Mamori Anezaki F Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue red Tech­ni­cal­ly, her mother is half-Amer­i­can and hence Mamori is a quar­ter-Japan­ese, like Asuka So­ryu Lan­g­ley’s mother is half-Japan­ese/half-Ger­man in NGE.
2002 Hun­gry Heart Kouji Sakai M Japan­ese Swedish grey white
2002 Ku­jibiki Un­bal­ance Rit­suko Ket­tenkrad F Ger­man Japan­ese blue blond Dat­ing Ku­jibiki Un­bal­ance is a lit­tle diffi­cult due to its sta­tus as a meta-fic­tional work: it first ap­peared as a comic-with­in-a-comic in the Gen­shiken manga (2002) then starred fur­ther in the Gen­shiken anime (2004) where­upon it was spun-off as a 3-episode 2004 OVA and 3-vol­ume light novel
2002 Love Mon­ster Hiyoko Os­ora F Fan­tasy Japan­ese red blond
2002 Ne­jire Wakakusa El­liis F brown blond
2002 Ne­jire Wakakusa Kei M brown blond
2002 Ougon Honey Hime Ko­mada F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond
2002 Rhyth­mic Rev Mi­buna Kaede F green red
2002 Riku­jou Bouei-tai Mao-chan Adal­bert Von Maruyama M Japan­ese? Ger­man? white
2002 School Rum­ble Eri Sawachika F Eng­lish Japan­ese brown blond Ap­par­ent­ly, her fa­ther is ap­par­ently half-Japan­ese.
2002 Shigeshōshi Shin­jyurou Mamiya M Amer­i­can Japan­ese black black
2002 Ship­puu Karen Jin­rai Ko­musume! Ko­gane Mikasa F Fan­tasy Japan­ese red blue
2002 Skip Beat Tsu­ruga Ren M Japan­ese Amer­i­can brown brown
2002 Tamayura Reimei Ka­sumi F pur­ple blond
2002 Yak­i­tate!! Japan Meis­ter Sil­van Kirisaki M Japan­ese French blue blond
2002 Yak­i­tate!! Japan So­phie Balzac Kirisaki F Japan­ese French blue blond
2003 Bac­cano Yal­gu­mo? M In­for­ma­tion from TvTropes; I have been un­able to find out any­thing about this char­ac­ter - he may not even be named ‘Yal­gumo’ but ‘Yagumo’.
2003 Chanto Shiyou Yo! Hi­iragi Serori Nee F Japan­ese blue blond The de­scrip­tion goes “The third is Serori Ne-Ne. She is half Japan­ese and half North Eu­ro­pean…When I was a child, I was adopted by the Hi­iragi fam­i­ly. But be­cause the fa­ther was afraid that the sis­ters would spoil me, I was sent to a rel­a­tive to train my­self.” im­ply­ing that the fa­ther is Japan­ese.
2003 Death Note L Lawliet M Japan­ese? Eng­lish? black black Writer in Death Note 13: How to Read: “I think of him as a quar­ter Japan­ese, a quar­ter Eng­lish, a quar­ter Rus­sian, a quar­ter French or Ital­ian, like that.”
2003 Death Note Ray Pen­ber M Amer­i­can Japan­ese grey black
2003 Gakuen Al­ice Ruka Nogi M Japan­ese French blue blond
2003 Kita e. ~Di­a­mond Dust~ Ki­tano Suomi F Japan­ese? Finnish? blue blond An amus­ing note: ‘Suomi means “Fin­land” in Finnish, and can also be a sur­name’.
2003 Ma­hou Sen­sei Negi­ma! Ayaka Yuk­i­hiro F Japan­ese? blue blond Asked
2003 Negima Negima Spring­field M Eng­lish Fan­tasy brown red
2003 Ochiba no Mau Koro Haruka Licht­en­bein F Ger­man? Japan­ese? pur­ple white
2003 Ohana to Choco­late Iwashita Makoto M Eng­lish Japan­ese red brown het­e­rochro­mat­ic: red/blue; first sto­ry, “Flower & choco­late”
2003 One­gai Twins Karen On­odera? F blue green
2003 One­gai Twins Maiku Kamishi­ro? M blue blue
2003 Ouran High School Host Tamaki Suoh M Japan­ese French blue blond
2003 Rain­bow: Nisha Rokubō… Jou “Joe” Yoko­suka M Amer­i­can? Japan­ese blue blond Jou is a blond-haired char­ac­ter de­scribed as “half-Eu­ro­pean” in many de­scrip­tions; a plot sum­mary says “Jou’s mother aban­doned him and his sis­ter at an or­phan­age.”, which is most con­sis­tent with the mother be­ing Japan­ese; the name Jou/Joe prob­a­bly in­di­cates ei­ther Amer­i­can or Eng­lish de­scent (‘Eu­ro­pean’ be­ing a com­mon eu­phemism for Cau­casian).
2003 Soul Eater Maka Al­barn F Japan­ese green blond Ap­par­ently an­other char­ac­ter states Maka is half-Japan­ese, and her fa­ther is de­picted as a Cau­casian of un­spec­i­fied na­tion­al­i­ty; asked.
2003 Star Ocean: Till the End of Time Fayt Lein­god M Japan­ese green blue
2003 Star Ocean: Till the End of Time Sophia Es­teed F Japan­ese green brown
2003 Tokyo Mew Mew a la Mode Berry Shi­rayuki F Japan­ese? French? red blond
2004 Ashinaga Ojisama Nishi­nomiya Ryu­u­tarou M Ara­bian Japan­ese grey black Ch1 pg15
2004 Bath Towel Izut­suya Anju M French Japan­ese blue blond Vol.1 Ch.3.1; Anju states his mother had a one-night stand with a French man.
2004 Du­rarara!! Walker Yu­masaki M brown Asked.
2004 Fate/S­tay Night Illyasviel Einzbern F Japan­ese Ger­man red white
2004 Green Green 2 Koi no Spe­cial Lucy Mika Mat­suura F blue blond
2004 Jubei-chan 2 Freesia Yagyu F Japan­ese Russ­ian blue blond
2004 Ka­men no Maid Guy Eliz­a­beth K. Straw­ber­ry­field F Eng­lish? Japan­ese? blue blond Asked
2004 Ka­men no Maid Guy Hein­drick Straw­ber­ry­field M Eng­lish? Japan­ese? red blond
2004 Katekyo Hit­man Re­born! Gokud­era Hay­ato M Ital­ian Japan­ese green white
2004 Kimi to Boku Chizuru Tachibana M blue blond Asked
2004 Ku­rau Phan­tom Mem­ory Ku­rau Amami F Japan­ese Swiss blue black
2004 Meimeimei! Meifis Turner F brown blond
2004 Mi­dori­ga­fuchi Yotogi no Mura Mis­ono Hen­ri­etta Rosen­berg F Ger­man? Japan­ese? green blond
2004 Nabari no Ou Tho­bari Ku­mo­hira Du­ran­dal M Japan­ese Irish grey black Stan­dard on­line sites say only that his grand­fa­ther (un­spec­i­fied side) is Irish; one fan­fic­tion wiki says “Tho­bari Du­ran­dal Ku­mo­hira (雲平・デュランダル・帷) was born in Japan to an Irish medi-witch and a Japan­ese ac­coun­tant. How­ev­er, the two died in an ac­ci­dent when Tho­bari was still very young, and as his only liv­ing rel­a­tive, his grand­fa­ther (his moth­er’s fa­ther) came to his aid. The old man was… ec­cen­tric, to say the least.” But then it goes on to de­scribe how Ku­mo­hira was ac­cepted into Hog­warts, so this may not be re­li­able in­for­ma­tion.
2004 Ousama no Les­son Sui M Japan­ese French green brown Ch1 pg10
2004 Rakuen ~Ai Kawarazu na Boku~ Karen Van Duyn F Dutch Japan­ese brown red
2004 Rasp­berry Wel­come to Cafe Moon… Kata­giri Sh­eryl F Aus­tralian Japan­ese blue blond Ver­i­fied by Google Trans­lates of offi­cial page.
2004 Re­mem­ber11 the age of in­fin­ity Ut­sumi Kali F In­di­an? Japan­ese? white
2004 Saitama Chain­saw Shoujo Fu­mio Kirisaki F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue black Tech­ni­cal­ly, Kirisak­i’s Texan grand­fa­ther mar­ried her Japan­ese grand­moth­er; so the fa­ther/­mother in­for­ma­tion is for them, not her im­me­di­ate par­ents; the ac­tual hāfu is Kirisak­i’s moth­er.
2004 Shuffle! Shig­ure Asa F Japan­ese Fan­tasy pur­ple green
2004 Tona-Gu­ra! Ni­ina Isokawa F Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue blond
2005 Ai Kora Saku­rako Ten­maku F Japan­ese Eng­lish blue blond
2005 Atori Shou Shiba Atori F Japan­ese Fan­tasy brown black Half-de­mon; parent­age es­tab­lished v01 ch01 pg05.
2005 Best Stu­dent Coun­cil Cyndi Man­abe F Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue red
2005 Can­vas 2 Elis Ho­sen F Japan­ese French blue blond
2005 Dance in the Vam­pire Bund Akira Kaburagi Re­gen­dorf M Ger­man Japan­ese blue black
2005 Dead or Alive 4 Kokoro F French Japan­ese grey black
2005 Golden Days Ka­suga Aiko F Japan­ese Ital­ian brown
2005 Kai­chou wa Maid­-sama! Usui Takumi M Japan­ese Eng­lish green blond
2005 Love­tore Ko­taro Ebi­na? M
2005 Pani Poni Dash! (anime) Re­becca Miyamoto F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond
2005 Par­fait ~Choco­lat Sec­ond Brew~ Ka­tori Rea F Japan­ese? French? blue blond
2005 Puchi Houndo Teiru F brown brown
2005 Sakura Taisen 5 Gem­ini Sun­rise F Japan­ese? Amer­i­can? blue red http://whatis.­sub­ur­bansen­shi.­com/in­dex.ph­p?ti­tle=Gem­i­ni_­Sun­rise iden­ti­fies Sun­rise’s mother as “Lynne Mc­Carthy” and her fa­ther as “Yang”, with no listed sources. I could­n’t con­firm the names or na­tion­al­i­ties else­where. Asked.
2005 Sakura no Neko­hime M En­try based on Baka Up­dates sum­ma­ry; no scan­la­tion or other sum­maries avail­able.
2005 Shuffle! Mayumi Thyme F Fan­ta­sy? Japan­ese? blue black Het­e­rochro­matic (blue & red); the red ap­par­ently is due to her de­mon her­itage, so I as­sume the other color is her real hu­man col­or.
2005 That Sum­mer M Amer­i­can Japan­ese
2005 The Idol­mas­ter Takane Shi­jōu F pur­ple white The rel­e­vant wiki says “She comes from a very wealthy fam­i­ly, like Iori, and is in fact half Eu­ro­pean, most likely Ger­man.”; it also claims “Takane’s [sil­ver] hair was blond in the pro­to­type ver­sion of the ar­cade game.” A TvTroper claims “In 2, Rit­suko [Ak­izuki] im­plies that it’s Takane’s nat­ural hair color at one point.”; see also White-Haired Pretty Girl. (Hair color seems to be half-lit­eral in THE IDOLMASTER; the al­l-Japan­ese char­ac­ter Miki Hoshii has blond hair… but it is stated that it is dyed, and the player can find a short brown haired ver­sion of Mi­k­i.)
2005 Trace Mem­ory Ash­ley Mizuki Rob­bins F Amer­i­can Japan­ese black white
2005 Tsuyokiss Erika Kiriya F Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue blond
2005 Blood+ George Miya­gusuku M Amer­i­can? Japan­ese? brown grey Ok­i­nawan-Amer­i­can US Army vet­eran
2006 Ano Machi no Koi no Uta Irina Enomoto F Japan­ese? Rus­sian? blue white
2006 Digi­mon Savers Tohma H. Norstein M Ger­man Japan­ese blue blond Fa­ther is Aus­tri­an.
2006 Han­juku Or­ange Kou M Japan­ese Amer­i­can blue blond
2006 Hi­mawari! Himeji F Eng­lish Japan­ese blue blond Offi­cial pro­file via Google Trans­late seems to im­ply this: “In the days of the British mixed race, the fa­ther of the em­ployee in­tel­li­gence MI6, mother gar­den OB 備学 志 func­tion”.
2006 Iin­chou wa Shounin Sezu! Kei Adam­smith F Eng­lish? Japan­ese? brown red
2006 Maria Holic Tōichirō Kanae M Japan­ese French blue red
2006 One­gai Goshu­jin­sama! Tear Rui Mos­fort F pur­ple brown
2006 On­imusha: Dawn of Dreams Roberto Frois M Span­ish Japan­ese green blond
2006 Venus Capric­cio Akira Sasaki M Japan­ese Ger­man blue blond Half-Aus­tri­an, which I am list­ing as Ger­man. TvTropes did not an­swer. A fo­rum post says the fa­ther is Japan­ese.
2007 Akuma to Love Song Kurosu Shin­tarou M Amer­i­can Japan­ese blond Based on scan­la­tion sum­mary.
2007 Code Ge­ass Kallen Stadt­feld F Eng­lish Japan­ese blue red
2007 Dear My Mis­ter Asakura Noah M Japan­ese Eng­lish blond
2007 G-sen­jou no Maou Tokita Yuki F Japan­ese blue black
2007 Gun­dam 00 Billy Kata­giri M Japan­ese? Amer­i­can? black brown Same rea­son­ing but even shakier - we have al­ready seen ex­am­ples where the Japan­ese-sound­ing sur­name was not the fa­ther but moth­er’s.
2007 Gun­dam 00 Kinue Cross­road F Amer­i­can? Japan­ese? brown brown
2007 Gun­dam 00 Saji Cross­road M Amer­i­can? Japan­ese? brown brown TVTropes claims these 3 char­ac­ters are all Japan­ese-Amer­i­cans; the Cross­roads’ fa­ther, “Mr. Cross­road”, is briefly men­tioned, whose sur­name sug­gests he is Amer­i­can and hence the mother would be Japan­ese.
2007 Gun­dam 00 Sumer­agi Lee Nor­iega F Japan­ese? Span­ish? brown brown On­line sources do not spec­ify parent­age be­yond ‘Eurasian’ Span­ish-Japan­ese, but do men­tion her ‘real name’ is “Leesa Kujō” (Japan­ese sur­name).
2007 Harem Lodge Tet­suya Kata­giri M French Japan­ese brown brown
2007 Hi­rahira Hy~n Ya­mamoto Leonard Ken M French Japan­ese green brown
2007 Ice For­est Ro­man Guil­bert M Cana­dian Japan­ese black black
2007 K-On! Tsumugi Ko­to­buki F Japan­ese? Finnish? blue blond “The spec­u­la­tion is that Mugi is half-Finnish, half-Japan­ese and raised as Japan­ese.”. Asked.
2007 Kamichama Karin Nishikiori Michiru M Japan­ese? Eng­lish? red brown Het­e­rochro­mat­ic, but the blue eye is a re­place­ment.
2007 Kids on the Slope Sen­tarō Kawabuchi M Amer­i­can Japan­ese brown brown
2007 Kiss/Hug Ryuu Wakui M Eng­lish Japan­ese blue black
2007 Lit­tle Busters! Kudryavka Noumi F Rus­sian? Japan­ese blue white Asked.
2007 Milk­man Coffee Milk­man M Japan­ese Brazil­ian blond
2007 Motto Itte Mari Mizuta F red blond
2007 Mu­v-Luv Al­ter­na­tive To­tal Eclipse Vin­cent Low­ell M Amer­i­can? Japan­ese? blue blond
2007 Nat­sumegu Ce­les Al­ford F blue blond
2007 No More He­roes Sylvia Chris­tel F Rus­sian? Japan­ese? blue blond Ukrain­ian.
2007 Otona Pink Chiho M Japan­ese French Mother is French-Amer­i­can.
2007 Oy­a­sumi Pun­pun Sachi F Japan­ese black Ch84, v08/pg15: “…Then again, since my mom was a for­eign­er, she might’ve bought all that manga so she could study Japan­ese.”
2007 Royal Straight Karen F Japan­ese Ger­man blue blond
2007 Sakura Gari Souma Saiki M Japan­ese Eng­lish black
2007 Tekken 6 Blood­line Re­bel­lion Lars Alexan­der­s­son M Japan­ese Swedish green blond
2007 Umineko no Naku Koro ni Beat­rice Ushi­romiya F Japan­ese Ital­ian blue blond
2007 Umineko no Naku Koro ni Lion Ushi­romiya F Japan­ese Ital­ian grey blond Quar­ter; mother is Ital­ian-Japan­ese.
2007 Yes! Pre­Cure 5 Urara Ka­sug­ano F French Japan­ese brown blond
2008 Ame Nochi Hare Kisaragi Touma M French Japan­ese blue blond He states he is half-French; on pg29 of ch12 of v03, a flash­back de­picts his fa­ther as hav­ing the same curly blond for­eign hair Touma has.
2008 Arisa Ku­dou Rei M Japan­ese Por­tuguese
2008 Ben-To Shaga Ayame F Japan­ese Ital­ian blue blond Google Trans­late of Japan­ese Wikipedia: “With an Ital­ian moth­er, cousin brother Hi­roshi. Mess up the long blond hair, usu­ally a girl with glass­es.”
2008 Café Latte Rhap­sody Keito Tsuda MacLeod M French Chi­nese brown brown MacLeod is a hard to clas­sify char­ac­ter. On pg23 of chap­ter 1, he says roughly “My papa is a French-Cana­dian and Japan­ese half… And, my mama is Chi­ne­se, Japan­ese, and French mix”.
2008 Class Zenin Ore no Yome Sag­ishima Fred­er­ica F Amer­i­can? Japan­ese? blue blond
2008 Code Ge­ass: Lost Col­ors Rai M Eng­lish Japan­ese blue white
2008 Daren­imo Ien­ai! Kein M Lat­in-Amer­i­can Japan­ese black black The fa­ther’s na­tion­al­ity can­not be more speci­fic: Kein is of the fic­tional Lat­in-Amer­i­can “Al­ban­ian Re­pub­lic” ac­cord­ing to pg12 & pg31 of this one-shot manga (the lat­ter spec­i­fies his mother is Japan­ese).
2008 High­-School DxD Akeno Hime­jima F Fan­tasy Japan­ese pur­ple black
2008 Kansen 3 ~Shuto Houkai~ Mar­garita Basques Ho­mura F blue blond
2008 Kara no Shoujo Maris Stella F blue white
2008 Kon­bini S Hana F Eng­lish Japan­ese brown Third sto­ry, “King­dom of Hap­pi­ness”.
2008 Kurage­hime Ku­ra­nosuke Koibuchi M Japan­ese blue brown Mother is a blond Cau­casian woman.
2008 Lucky x Crosse Otobe Anne F Eng­lish? Japan­ese? blue blond
2008 Mecha Love Elina F Japan­ese Amer­i­can blond
2008 Mitsu no Yoru Aiuchi F blond The plot of the fourth story is dri­ven by the pro­tag­o­nist hav­ing blond hair and darker skin; noth­ing else is men­tioned.
2008 Mr.In­vis­i­ble Leg­end of Sawashiro Sarah F green blond
2008 Naze Nani Hon­ey? Mioko F Amer­i­can? Japan­ese? blue blond This manga may be scan­lated at some point.
2008 Nu­rar­i­hyon no Mago Abe no Seimei M Japan­ese Fan­tasy black black Half-de­mon through his moth­er.
2008 Nu­rar­i­hyon no Mago Nura Rikuo M Fan­tasy Japan­ese brown brown Quar­ter-de­mon through his fa­ther.
2008 Or­eimo Iori Fate Set­suna F brown brown Episode 8 of the anime adap­ta­tion men­tions off-hand that she is a ‘quar­ter’ (quar­ter for­eign, pre­sum­ably, anal­o­gous to ‘hāfu’/‘half’). Her name is a pas­tiche of al­lu­sions, so she likely is a back­ground char­ac­ter for whom no par­tic­u­lar na­tion­al­ity was in­tend­ed.
2008 Seitoshi­doushitsu no Ou­jisama Kan­bara Rinko F Japan­ese Eng­lish blue blond
2008 The Man of Tango Hiro M Japan­ese Lat­in-Amer­i­can? blond
2008 Witch­craft Sara Saionji F Japan­ese? Eng­lish/Arab? blue white “Quar­ter Eng­lish and quar­ter Arab”
2008 ef - a tale of mem­o­ries Renji Asou M Ger­man Japan­ese blue brown
2008 CVN-73 USS George Wash­ing­ton Jack O’Hara M Japan­ese Amer­i­can black black Pg61-62
2009 But­ter­fly 69 Maria Stein­hardt F blond
2009 Cheerism Asada F Japan­ese Ger­man green blond
2009 Darker than Black 2 Sh­ion Pavlichenko M Russ­ian Japan­ese green red
2009 Darker than Black 2 Suoh Pavlichenko F Russ­ian Japan­ese green red
2009 Eden* They Were Only Two… Asai F. Lavinia F pur­ple black
2009 Ha­ganai Ko­bato Hasegawa F Japan­ese Eng­lish blue blond
2009 Ha­ganai Ko­daka Hasegawa M Japan­ese Eng­lish grey blond
2009 Hisho x Hisho Beat­ori­ise Tsub­ame Kaza­mino F brown red
2009 Ka­chou Fu­ugetsu ~Koi ni Takat­sukasa Sumire Alexan­dra F Ger­man? Japan­ese? blue blue
2009 Kiss to Maou to Dar­jeel­ing Sis­ter Mut­sumi Tyler F Japan­ese? green brown Google Trans­late of Japan­ese Wikipedia: “Japan and Eu­rope in half”.
2009 Kure­nai no Tsuki Sagi­nomiya Hiori F blue blond
2009 Ma­tryoshka Nina F Russ­ian Japan­ese blue black
2009 Meruhen-chan Date Maria F Japan­ese Eng­lish green red Scot­tish.
2009 Nat­suiro Sagit­tar­ius Kayaba Rena F blue white
2009 NightS Lou Tian Yi M Chi­nese Japan­ese blond
2009 Pri­vate Love Les­son Mikana Ya­m­a­gaki F Japan­ese blond
2009 Re­build Evan­ge­lion 2.0 Mari Mak­i­nami F Japan­ese? Eng­lish? blue brown
2009 Sha­chou Rei­jou wo Home­less Kimishima Reika F Japan­ese blue blond
2009 Starry Sky Yoh To­moe M French Japan­ese red red
2009 Ten­ta­cle and Witches Futaba Lily Ram­ses F Egyp­tian? Japan­ese? blue blond
2009 Tokimeki Memo­r­ial 4 Elisa Dolit­tle Naruse F Japan­ese? Eng­lish? blue blond
2009 Tsukiy­o-Zoushi Amanogawa Tsukiko F Fan­tasy Japan­ese green brown
2009 Aoi Hit­omi no Onna no Ko no… Eiko F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue black
2010 Akat­suki no Goei ~T­sum­ibuka Sh­ion F pur­ple brown
2010 Am­agami SS Haruka Lovely Mor­ishima F Japan­ese Eng­lish blue brown Episode 4; Haruka Mor­ishima is a quar­ter-Eng­lish; her mother is half-Eng­lish from an Eng­lish fa­ther. It’s amus­ing to note that in episode 11 of the se­quel Am­agami SS+, an Eng­lish rel­a­tive named “Jes­sica Sexy Mor­ishima” (yes, that’s her mid­dle name); she is drawn iden­ti­cally to Haruka but with blue eyes and blond hair, and hits on Haruka’s boyfriend (the pro­tag­o­nist).
2010 Coda Yuri Ar­ba­tov M Rus­sian? Japan­ese? white As of chap­ter 5 of Coda, there is no men­tion of his par­ents or rel­a­tives be­yond be­ing a half-Russ­ian cousin of an al­l-Japan­ese char­ac­ter.
2010 Futa Ane ~Bit­ter & Sweet~ Takachiho Wak­aba F Japan­ese? Eng­lish? brown blond
2010 Honoo no Hara­mase Op­pai Liselotta von Kirschbaum F Ger­man? Japan­ese? blue white
2010 It­suka Sora kara Yuki M Fan­tasy Japan­ese black brown
2010 Kiniro Mo­saic Karen Kujo F Japan­ese Eng­lish pur­ple blond Karen’s fa­ther is half-Japan­ese ac­cord­ing to the main char­ac­ter (pg 6, ch3.2, v01).
2010 Man­biki, Dame. Zettai!! Asa­bane Chi­haya F
2010 Rid­dle Gar­den Yuri Kazuki Roshi­nof M Japan­ese? Rus­sian? brown black
2010 Senobi no Housoku Raku M The scan­la­tion ap­pears to have been pulled from all sites, ren­der­ing it diffi­cult to ob­tain.
2010 Sono Han­abira Ni Kuchizuke Wo Eris Shi­togi F Japan­ese blue blond The Gi­ant Bomb en­try says “Eris’ mother is from North­ern Eu­rope and her fa­ther is a Japan­ese busi­ness­man. They met on one of his busi­ness trips. Eris is very friendly and ex­pres­sive. She also oc­ca­sion­ally uses Eng­lish words.”
2010 Ushi­nawareta Mi­rai wo Mo­tomete Os­a­fune Kenny Taidaro M Japan­ese? Amer­i­can? blue brown
2010 Uta no Prince-sama Ai­jima Ce­cil M Japan­ese green brown Ce­cil is from the “desert coun­try” of Agna Palace; given the de­scrip­tion and his ap­pear­ance, it seems to be a sort of Mid­dle East­ern king­dom like Saudi Ara­bia.
2010 Love Stage!! Seiya Sena M Amer­i­can Japan­ese brown brown http://lovestage.wiki­a.­com/wik­i/­Seiya_Sena
2011 AnoHana Meiko “Menma” Honma F Japan­ese Rus­sian? blue white Meiko’s blond/­grey blue-eyed mother is listed on the gate as be­ing named “Irene”, which is writ­ten in Cyril­lic.
2011 AnoHana Satoshi Honma M Japan­ese Rus­sian? blue white
2011 Bird Cage Washimiya Rin F Japan­ese Swedish blue blond
2011 Boku no Shokora Takaomi M Japan­ese Ger­man green black A screen­shot of the fan-trans­la­tion: “Hav­ing a Ger­man moth­er, Takaomi was in Ger­many since he was a child un­til he grad­u­ated from col­lege where he was study­ing man­age­ment and ad­min­is­tra­tion.”
2011 Chou no Doku Hana no Kusari Fu­jita Hi­toshi M Japan­ese pur­ple blond Coun­try seems un­avail­able al­though the fa­ther is clearly Cau­casian ac­cord­ing to the most thor­ough re­view I could find: “Any­way Fu­ji­ta’s dad was white who knocked up his mom and then de­cided to go back to his white coun­try, leav­ing his preg­nant mom be­hind. Every­one looked down on her and her half breed son Fu­jita so Fu­jita hates his her­itage and spent his life with big suck. His mom taught him pi­ano and das why he was ini­tially hired into the Nomiya fam­i­ly, to teach Yuriko pi­ano. He ex­plains that part of the rea­son why he’s so de­voted to the Nomiya fam­ily was be­cause Yuriko’s pops was the only one who did­n’t dis­crim­i­nate him be­cause of his GAIJIN BLOOD”.
2011 Dog Days Cinque Izumi M Japan­ese Eng­lish blue blond
2011 Gri­saia no Ka­jitsu Chiara Far­rell F blue white VNDB: “She is a mixed-blood with 2⁄3 of Japan­ese and 1⁄3 of African.”
2011 Hinekure Shisho no Mikaiket­su… Eiji Yone­hara M Eng­lish? Japan­ese? blue red Chap­ter 2 pg 7, says he has an Eng­lish grand­fa­ther; only de­tails as of ch6. Hair & eye color as de­picted on cover of vol­ume 1 (6.5 pg2 of scan­la­tion­s).
2011 Hoshi no Ou­ji-kun Yuri Golovnin M green blue
2011 K-On! Sumire Saitō F blue blond The manga ap­par­ently calls her ex­plic­itly “a for­eigner”; her flu­ency and lack of stereo­typ­i­cal man­ner­isms sug­gests she may be half-Japan­ese and/or raised in Japan, so she is in­cluded un­til fur­ther ev­i­dence. A K-On! wiki says “Sumire’s fam­ily is orig­i­nally from Aus­tria, and their fam­ily mi­grated to Japan to serve the Ko­to­buki fam­i­ly. At some point in time, they changed their sur­names to Saito”, which ren­ders her un­cer­tain and like Tsumu­gi.
2011 Nisekoi Chi­toge Kirisaki F Amer­i­can Japan­ese blue blond
2011 Sei Ya­ri­man Gakuen Enkou Nikki Eri F Japan­ese Brazil­ian blue blond
2011 Supi­para Amano An­ge­line Ho­taru F Japan­ese French blue blond Based on trans­la­tion of line from the vi­sual novel.
2011 Dic­ta­to­r­ial Gri­moire Otogi Grimm M Ger­man Japan­ese green blond
2011 A Silent Voice Maria Ishida F Brazil­ian Japan­ese ? black Maria is al­ways drawn with eyes closed, so no eye color is avail­able.
2012 D.C. III ~Da Capo III~ Yoshino Charles F Eng­lish Japan­ese red white Pre­view offi­cial in­for­ma­tion stated “Her name is like a boy named Charles, due to her stuck the name her Fa­ther gave her.” I as­sume that a Japan­ese fa­ther would not nick­name her “Charles”.
2012 Gokukoku no Bryn­hildr Kazumi Schlieren­za­uer F Ger­man? Japan­ese? blue pur­ple Sur­name is from “fa­mous Aus­trian ski jumper Gre­gor Schlieren­za­uer”; TvTropes: “Kazumi claims she’s half Ger­man and can speak some of it, at least enough to fool Ry­outa’s class­mates into think­ing she’s trans­fer­ring in from a school in Aus­tria.”
2012 Holy Knight Kishi­moto Lilith F Japan­ese? Ro­ma­ni­an? red red
2012 Mu­v-Luv Al­ter­na­tive Yu­uya Bridges M Japan­ese Amer­i­can brown brown
2012 Otome ga Tsumugu Koi no Can­vas Shishi­dou Chi­haru Flam­steed F Japan­ese Eng­lish brown blond
2012 Papa no Iukoto o Kik­i­na­sai! Takanashi Miu F Japan­ese Russ­ian brown blond
2012 Sono Han­abira ni Kuchizuke Azumi Risa F Japan­ese Eng­lish blue red
2012 The Fox Lover M blue blond De­scrip­tion from pg9; sur­pris­ing­ly, the epony­mous fox girl is not the rel­e­vant char­ac­ter (the cover calls her an or­phan but noth­ing im­plies hu­man an­ces­try).
2012 Tsuri­tama Yuki Sanada M Japan­ese? French? green red Yuki is a quar­ter-French, through a French grand­mother named “Kate”; asked
2012 Wolf Chil­dren Ame M Fan­tasy Japan­ese brown black
2012 Wolf Chil­dren Yuki F Fan­tasy Japan­ese brown black
2012 Sil­ver Nina Nina Shi­mazaki F Finnish Japan­ese blue blond ch1, pg16
2012 Saekano Eriri Spencer Sawa­mura F Eng­lish Japan­ese blue blond
2012 Food Wars/Shokugeki no Soma Takumi Al­dini M Ital­ian Japan­ese blue blond
2012 Food Wars/Shokugeki no Soma Isami Al­dini M Ital­ian Japan­ese black black
2012 Food Wars/Shokugeki no Soma Al­ice Nakiri F Japan­ese Dan­ish red sil­ver
2012 Sae­nai Hi­roin no So­datekata Eriri Spencer Sawa­mura F Eng­lish Japan­ese blue blond
2012 Vat­i­can Mir­a­cle Ex­am­iner Kou Joseph Hi­raga M black
2012 10 Dance Shinya Suzuki M Japan­ese Cuban yel­low? blond
2013 Rose Gun Days Philip But­ler M Amer­i­can Japan­ese black red
2013 Meganebu! William Satou M Japan­ese? Eng­lish? blue blond
2013 Galilei Donna Hozuki Fer­rari F Japan­ese Ital­ian red red
2013 Galilei Donna Kazuki Fer­rari F Japan­ese Ital­ian red black
2013 Galilei Donna Hazuki Fer­rari F Japan­ese Ital­ian red brown
2013 Himō­to! Umaru-chan Alex Tachibana M Japan­ese? Ger­man? blonde Ger­many men­tioned in Himō­to! Umaru-chan chap­ter 15.
2013 Kill la Kill Ira Gam­agōri M Amer­i­can Japan­ese grey blond
2014 Wiz­ard Bar­ris­ters: Ben­mashi Ce­cil Ce­cil Su­dou F Cana­dian Japan­ese blue pur­ple Fa­ther is “David” from Canada, mother is “Megumi Sudo”
2014 Dream C Club Gogo Seira F blue blond
2015 Crim­i­nale Christie Sarah Tsukiko F Ital­ian Japan­ese blue blonde See end of ch24; Crim­i­nale im­plies in its use of Ital­ian in some places & her clas­si­fi­ca­tion as a hit­man that the fa­ther “Leonardo” is Ital­ian (mother “Ayame”)
2015 Wa­ter Drag­on’s Bride Asahi F Japan­ese? blue red ANN: “When her son brings home the lit­tle red-haired girl (we’re told Asahi takes after her grand­moth­er, so pre­sum­ably she’s of par­tial Eu­ro­pean de­scent, mak­ing her look alarm­ing in the Ko­fun era)”. Asahi is il­lus­trated with blue-pur­ple eyes, but chap­ter 1 de­scribes her as grey-eyed while in ch6, she’s de­scribed as hav­ing blue “sap­phire eyes”, so I go with blue rather than grey eyes; her fa­ther is drawn as of Asian ap­pear­ance with spiky black hair, and the mother with light-col­ored short hair Note: not to be con­fused with the Ko­rean man­wha Bride of the Wa­ter God.
2015 Idol­ish7 Nagi Rokuya M Fan­tasy Japan­ese blue blond VN/rhythm game adapted into an ani­me; Wikia; North­mare ap­par­ently mod­eled after Den­mark.
2016 Uchi no Maid ga Uza­su­giru! Misha Takanashi F Japan­ese Russ­ian blue blond
2017 Dar­ling, Give me a break! Kokoro Saku­razaka M Japan­ese? Ital­ian? green? red
2018 Re­vue Starlight Clau­dine Saijo F Japan­ese French pur­ple blond ANN
2019 Psy­cho-Pass: Sin­ners of the Sys­tem Ten­jin Wangchuck F Japan­ese Ti­betan gray? brown ANN

Omissions

Notes on pos­si­bly-con­tro­ver­sial ex­cluded char­ac­ters:

  • 1991: Gun­smith Cats: Rally Vin­cent is Eng­lish & East In­dian but not Japan­ese
  • 1991: Silent Mo­bius: Rosa Cheyenne & Rally Cheyenne are the daugh­ters of Luffa Cheyenne & a man from an­other di­men­sion; how­ev­er, no sources state that the mother is Japan­ese and all the names sug­gest oth­er­wise; AniDB merely claims that they are “mixed her­itage”
  • 1992: Tenchi Muyo!: Kat­suhito Masaki is in­clud­ed, but his “son”, Nobuyuki Masaki, is ex­cluded as he is younger than Kat­suhito by around 600 years and is de­scribed as a “dis­tant de­scen­dant” and so prob­a­bly is­n’t even a quar­ter Ju­ra­ian; this goes dou­bly for Kat­suhi­to’s “grand­son”, pro­tag­o­nist Tenchi Masa­ki.
  • 1996: Hanaza­kari no Kim­i­tachi e; is born in Amer­ica but both her par­ents are Japan­ese na­tion­als, and so she is nei­ther a hafu nor quar­ter but closer to a
  • 1996: Shin Su­per Ro­bot Wars; the Ger­man broth­ers Rai­diese Fu­ji­wara Branstein & Elzam von Branstein; claimed to be quar­ter-Japan­ese by TvTropes, but no source men­tions this and this may be a con­fu­sion stem­ming from Elzam von Branstein’s wife, “Cat­t­leya Fu­ji­wara”
  • 1997: Touhou (Story of East­ern Won­der­land): Marisa Kirisame’s name and pow­ers mix West­ern & East­ern mo­tifs, and her fa­ther has some sort of con­nec­tion with the Kourindou Shop which sells out­side-world ar­ti­facts, lead­ing to spec­u­la­tion about her ori­gins
  • 1998: Ai Yori Aoshi: Tina Fos­ter, while raised in Japan, is Amer­i­can
  • 1998: Metal Gear Solid: TvTropes spec­u­lates that the mi­nor re­cur­ring char­ac­ter “Johnny Sasaki” is half-Japan­ese; omit­ted for lack of ev­i­dence
  • 2000: Su­per Ro­bot Wars Al­pha: Yuuki Jag­gar may or may not be a Ger­man-Japan­ese; no re­sources on­line dis­cuss his back­ground (not even the deleted Wikipedia ar­ti­cle). Ex­cluded for lack of ev­i­dence
  • 2002: Black La­goon: Revy is Chi­ne­se-Amer­i­can, not Japan­ese-Amer­i­can
  • 2003: Touhou: Mari­bel Hearn is a pur­ple-eyed blond-haired girl with no rel­a­tives in Japan who has been stated by ZUN to be re­lated in some way to the Greek writer on Japan, , who moved there, mar­ried a na­tive, and changed his name; her back­ground and parent­age have not been offi­cially es­tab­lished yet. (Some Touhou dou­jin manga cast her as a for­eign­er.)
  • 2004: Ku­rau Phan­tom Mem­ory: Ayaka Steiger is listed as a “mixed her­itage” char­ac­ter, but no in­for­ma­tion seems to be avail­able on her par­ents’ eth­nic­ity or na­tion­al­i­ty, so I ex­clude her in the ab­sence of any spe­cific claims.
  • 2005: Trauma Cen­ter: An­gela “Angie” Thomp­son is part Ger­man, but oth­er­wise is ap­par­ently Amer­i­can
  • 2006: Do You Want to Try?; Hye Won Han’s mother is Ko­rean & her fa­ther French, but this is ex­cluded for be­ing a Ko­rean man­wha rather than Japan­ese manga
  • 2006?: Honey Blonde: both par­ents of pro­tag­o­nist are Eng­lish
  • 2007: The Three Times: Hina is Japan­ese-Ko­re­an; this we­b­comic is ex­cluded be­cause the au­thor of The Three Times, while raised in Japan, is a Ko­rean cit­i­zen born of Ko­rean par­ents who pub­lished The Three Times (writ­ten in Ko­re­an) on the Ko­rean web­site , and the se­ries is clas­si­fied as man­wha by many manga sites
  • 2007: Shig­u­rui: the Span­ish-rapier-us­ing war­rior Sek­iun is not a ha­fu, as the manga makes clear he was a nor­mal Japan­ese samu­rai boy un­for­tu­nately as­signed by his daimyo to learn bar­bar­ian mar­tial arts
  • 2008: Lost Num­ber: mi­nor char­ac­ter Ryu Ji-hye (F; Ko­re­an/­Japan­ese) is ex­cluded as the vi­sual novel is pro­duced by an am­a­teur “Ko­rean team” and was aban­doned after a free 2008 pre­view re­lease.
  • 2008: Michiko to Hatchin; TvTropes spec­u­lates that At­suko Jack­son & Michiko Ma­lan­dro are half-Japan­ese, but I could­n’t find any other ref­er­ences
  • 2008: Seol Hui: ex­cluded for be­ing a Ko­rean man­wha
  • 2009: Goku­dou Café: clas­si­fied by Baka Up­dates as mixed-blood, but scan­la­tions don’t seem eas­ily avail­able.
  • 2009: Stein­s;­gate: Kurisu Makise is some­times iden­ti­fied as a hafu be­cause she is a re­turnee from Amer­ica & has red hair, but both her par­ents seem to be Japan­ese na­tion­als
  • 2010: Seiki­matsu Oc­cult Gakuin: Maya Ku­mashiro, daugh­ter of the head­mas­ter of “Wald­stein Acad­emy”, Ju­nichi­rou Ku­mashiro seems to have for­eign con­nec­tions and the epony­mous oc­cultism is purely West­ern; but while her fa­ther seems to be Japan­ese, noth­ing about her mother is shown and so her blue eyes may just be an­other case of mukokuseki
  • 2011: Him­itsu no Bara Ju­u­ji­dan: clas­si­fied by Baka Up­dates as “mixed-blood” but the main char­ac­ter seems to be an al­l-Japan­ese rein­car­na­tion.
  • 2011: : char­ac­ter Nico­las Brown is half-Asian, but the qua­si­-fan­tasy set­ting bars spe­cific iden­ti­fi­ca­tion as a hafu
  • 2012: Katawa Shoujo: Lilly & Akira Satou are half-S­cot­tish, but it is a West­ern open-source project
  • 2012: Ro­bot­ic­s;Notes: “Frau Kōjiro”/Kona Fu­rugōri is blond and may be part-Ger­man given her user­name, but there is no ma­te­r­ial on­line spec­i­fy­ing eth­nic­i­ties.
  • 2012: tsuri­tama: TvTropes spec­u­lates that the qua­si­-In­dian char­ac­ter “Akira Agarkar Ya­mada” must be part-Japan­ese; omit­ted for lack of ev­i­dence
  • 2013: Mikasa Ack­er­man in Shingeki no Ky­o­jin is of the “Ori­en­tal race” on her moth­er’s side; ac­cord­ing to a slaver char­ac­ter in episode 6, her fa­ther was not.

Analysis

Descriptive

A look at the data­base in­di­cates that so far:

  1. many char­ac­ters have at least one par­ent un­cer­tain; data qual­ity is a per­sis­tent is­sue
  2. Eu­rope & Amer­ica are heav­ily over­rep­re­sent­ed; Asia un­der­rep­re­sented (see next sec­tion)
  3. Gen­der of Japan­ese par­ent ap­pears evenly bal­anced and hence for­eign moth­ers are heav­ily over­rep­re­sented
  4. There is a ma­jor tem­po­ral im­bal­ance: works from the 2000s make up much of the data­base. This is par­tially due to my data sources - scan­la­tion sites and fan-com­piled data­bases will have a heavy “re­cen­tism bias” to­wards de­tailed cat­a­logu­ing of new works, and so pre-In­ter­net works will be dras­ti­cally un­der­rep­re­sent­ed, if they are men­tioned at all. The 1975 Ichigo Mono­gatari manga is a case in point: brief plot sum­maries ex­ist only be­cause the au­thor is his­tor­i­cally im­por­tant to shojo man­ga, but more data is in­fea­si­ble to ob­tain, and any hafu char­ac­ters by her less fa­mous con­tem­po­raries will be en­tirely for­got­ten!

Korean anomaly

As of 2014-05-02, there is no half-Ko­rean char­ac­ter in the data­base out of >268 char­ac­ters. There are scores of Amer­i­cans and British and French char­ac­ters, >6 Chi­nese char­ac­ters, but 0 Ko­re­ans. Hafu char­ac­ters ap­pear to sat­isfy the “No Ko­re­ans In Japan” ani­me/­manga trope.

There are sev­eral Ko­re­an-Japan­ese char­ac­ters in the ex­clu­sion list, but in each case the fic­tion turns out to have been pro­duced by a Ko­rean ap­par­ently for a Ko­rean au­di­ence, and not el­i­gi­ble for the data­base; it is also in­ter­est­ing that de­spite not look­ing for Ko­rean works at all, I have found that many Ko­re­an-pro­duced ex­am­ples, yet in look­ing very hard for Japan­ese works, I have found no Japan­ese-pro­duced ex­am­ples.

Both these points are pe­cu­liar, be­cause Ko­rea is one of the ge­o­graph­i­cally clos­est coun­tries to Japan, was un­der di­rect Japan­ese rule for 30+ years which en­tailed scores of thou­sands of Ko­re­ans be­ing ed­u­cated or raised or work­ing in Japan (more than a few as slave labor), there is still a large pop­u­la­tion of (>0.9m or >0.7% of the Japan­ese pop­u­la­tion c. 2005), the “” has made large in­roads in Japan­ese pop cul­ture, and the Japan­ese have his­tor­i­cal con­nec­tions to Ko­rea since at least Ko­rean em­i­gra­tion to Japan circa 500s AD.

An in­ter­est­ing com­par­i­son would be to the Japan­ese com­mu­nity in Brazil, a con­ti­nent away: with ~1.4m mem­bers, it’s roughly com­pa­ra­ble to Ko­re­ans in Japan, but there are 4 char­ac­ters of Brazil­ian de­scent com­pared to 0 of Ko­rean de­scent.

So, the ab­sence of Ko­rean char­ac­ters is cu­ri­ous, and may rep­re­sent a dog that did not bark.

(An ex­pla­na­tion might be the many , but the legacy of col­o­niza­tion & ex­ploita­tion would pre­sum­ably burn more painfully for the Ko­re­ans - the suffer­ers - than the Japan­ese, and so one might ex­pect any si­lence and ig­nor­ing of the other coun­try to be on the Ko­rean side rather than the Japan­ese.)

Source code

Run as: R --slave --file=hafu.r:

set.seed(7777) # for reproducible numbers
# load & clean data
# install.packages("XML") # if not already installed
library(XML)
hafu <- readHTMLTable("https://www.gwern.net/Hafu#list")[[1]]
hafu[hafu==""] <- NA

decades <- c(seq(from=1960,to=2010,by=10), 2019)

# graph male-female ratio of hafu characters over time
png(file="~/wiki/images/hafu/hafu-genderratiobydecade.png", width = 3*480, height = 2*480)
hafu$Year <- as.integer(as.character(hafu$Year))
spineplot(hafu$Gender ~ hafu$Year, breaks=decades,
          ylab="Characters' Gender Ratio", xlab="By decade")
invisible(dev.off())

# graph parent nationalities by descending frequency
png(file="~/wiki/images/hafu/parent-nationalities.png", width = 3*480, height = 2*480)
barplot(sort(table(sub("\\?","",c(as.character(hafu$Mother), as.character(hafu$Father)))),
             decreasing=TRUE)[2:18], xlab="Foreign parents by nationality")
invisible(dev.off())

# graph Japanese vs foreigner parentage for fathers & mothers over time
parents <- hafu[!is.na(hafu$Mother) & !is.na(hafu$Father),] # only clean entries
parents$Mother <- as.character(parents$Mother); parents$Father <- as.character(parents$Father)
parents$Mother[parents$Mother != "Japanese"] <- "Foreign"
parents$Father[parents$Father != "Japanese"] <- "Foreign"

png(file="~/wiki/images/hafu/parent-nationalitiesbydecade.png", width = 3*480, height = 2*480)
par(mfrow=c(2,1))
spineplot(as.factor(parents$Father) ~ parents$Year, breaks=decades,
          ylab="Father", main="Characters (split by decade)", xlab="")
spineplot(as.factor(parents$Mother) ~ parents$Year, breaks=decades,
          ylab="Mother", xlab="Fractions do not sum to 1, due to characters of uncertain parentage")
invisible(dev.off())

cat("Test overall gender ratio of hafu characters:\n")
binom.test(c(sum(hafu$Gender=="M", na.rm=TRUE), sum(hafu$Gender=="F", na.rm=TRUE)))

cat("\nGive 95% CIs on gender ratio of hafu characters by decade ('60s, '70s, '80s, '90s, '00s, '10s):\n")
d1 <- hafu[hafu$Year>=1960 & hafu$Year<=1969,] # FIXME
d2 <- hafu[hafu$Year>=1970 & hafu$Year<=1979,]
d3 <- hafu[hafu$Year>=1980 & hafu$Year<=1989,]
d4 <- hafu[hafu$Year>=1990 & hafu$Year<=1999,]
d5 <- hafu[hafu$Year>=2000 & hafu$Year<=2009,]
d6 <- hafu[hafu$Year>=2010 & hafu$Year<=2013,]
bt <- function(x) { sex <- table(x$Gender);
                    round(binom.test(c(sex[["M"]], sex[["F"]]))$conf.int[1:2], 2) }
bt(d1); bt(d2); bt(d3); bt(d4); bt(d5); bt(d6) # FIXME

# begin testing parent data
cat("\nParent data: 'mother is Japanese' vs 'father is Japanese' (FALSE/FALSE means which is uncertain):\n")
print(table(hafu$Mother=="Japanese", hafu$Father=="Japanese"))

cat("\nTest whether the overall parent imbalance is large enough to exclude the 50:50 hypothesis:\n")
binom.test(c(sum(hafu$Mother=="Japanese",na.rm=TRUE), sum(hafu$Father=="Japanese",na.rm=TRUE)))

cat("\nSame test, but now with the 2006 Japanese census listing of Japanese-American marriages:\n")
binom.test(c(1474,215))

cat("\nSame test, but now examining characters with any American parentage:\n")
american <- hafu[hafu$Father=="American" || hafu$Mother=="American",]
binom.test(c(sum(american$Mother=="Japanese",na.rm=TRUE), sum(american$Father=="Japanese",na.rm=TRUE)))

cat("\nGive 95% CIs on mother vs father being Japanese by decade ('60s, '70s, '80s, '90s, '00s, '10s):\n")
pt <- function(d) round(binom.test(c(sum(d$Mother=="Japanese",na.rm=TRUE),
                                     sum(d$Father=="Japanese",na.rm=TRUE)))$conf.int[1:2],
                        2)
pt(d1); pt(d2); pt(d3); pt(d4); pt(d5); pt(d6) # reusing per-decade data frames defined previously; FIXME

# begin looking at phenotype data
cat("\nTabulate hair color against eye color:\n")
print(table(hafu$Hair, hafu$Eye), zero.print=".")

# with(hafu[hafu$Mother=="Japanese",], print(table(Hair, Eyes, Father), zero.print="."))

# optimize the generated graphs by cropping whitespace & losslessly compressing them
system(paste('cd ~/wiki/images/hafu/ &&',
             'for f in *.png; do convert "$f" -crop',
             '`nice convert "$f" -virtual-pixel edge -blur 0x5 -fuzz 10% -trim -format',
             '\'%wx%h%O\' info:` +repage "$f"; done'))
system("optipng -o9 -fix ~/wiki/images/hafu/*.png", ignore.stdout = TRUE)

Capture-recapture

The uni­verse of ani­me/­manga since 1963 is of un­known to­tal size but very large. I’ve won­dered: how I could es­ti­mate how com­plete my sam­ple is at any point?

My search pro­ce­dure can be sum­ma­rized as: I check many differ­ent places, look­ing for key­words and phrases that may in­di­cate a hafu char­ac­ter, and if I find one I add it to the data­base but if it’s al­ready in it, I do noth­ing. Places change, and new places ap­pear, so the check­ing is never done, but once a char­ac­ter has been added, I will al­ways rec­og­nize it even if I find it mul­ti­ple times. This turns out to strongly re­sem­ble a prob­lem from ecol­ogy: a ecol­o­gist or bi­ol­o­gist wishes to know how many an­i­mals are in a re­gion, but while an­i­mals can be tagged or marked or oth­er­wise recorded (if they have unique spots or fur), an­i­mals are hard to find, there’s a lot of them, and you never know when you’re done even if your traps are stuffed full of an­i­mals you’ve al­ready seen be­fore. But if all your traps are turn­ing up no new an­i­mals, surely that’s con­sis­tent with hav­ing trapped most or all the an­i­mals, right? If every time you trapped an an­i­mal you got a new an­i­mal, the to­tal pop­u­la­tion of an­i­mals must be truly enor­mous for you to not trap the same an­i­mal twice!

This in­tu­ition is right. For­mal­ized as sta­tis­tics, it is called “cap­ture-re­cap­ture” or “”, and it ap­plies to any area which sat­is­fies the ba­sic de­scrip­tion of very large pop­u­la­tion and re­peated cap­tures of the same mem­ber. Past ap­pli­ca­tions of it and sim­i­lar tech­niques in­clude test­ing soft­ware for bugs, es­ti­mat­ing the size of the World Wide Web or Shake­speare’s vo­cab­u­lary (overview of re­lated top­ics). Li­braries are al­ready avail­able; I choose to use the R li­brary Rcapture (man­ual; pa­per).

I can treat my ex­ist­ing data col­lec­tion as the cap­tures in cap­ture-re­cap­ture: so eg. each time I get a Google Alert for a new char­ac­ter but it’s al­ready on my list, this counts as a “re­cap­ture”, but if I run a search in Google Books and I find 15 char­ac­ters and 14 are al­ready on the list, that’s 14 “re­cap­tures” and 1 “cap­ture”.

There seem to be two main is­sues with cap­ture-re­cap­ture in this con­text:

  1. The mod­els gen­er­ally re­quire prop­er­ties like that each mem­ber of the pop­u­la­tion have an equal chance of be­ing cap­tured or in­de­pen­dence of cap­ture oc­ca­sions.

    The for­mer (hetero­ge­neous cap­ture prob­a­bil­i­ty) is ad­dressed by the more ad­vanced mod­els in Rcap­ture, and eye­balling the cap­ture log, it’s very rare for a char­ac­ter to ap­pear more than 2 or 3 times, sug­gest­ing gen­eral equal­ity of cap­tures. The lat­ter re­quire­ment is diffi­cult to ver­i­fy; the best I can say is that very few char­ac­ters show up in more than one source, and each of the ma­jor sources seems to have been com­piled in ig­no­rance of the oth­ers (there were no dis­cus­sions, com­ments, links, or ci­ta­tions)

  2. The re­sults are valid only for the pre­cise pop­u­la­tion one is mak­ing in­fer­ences about.

    Not all half-Japan­ese char­ac­ters from the past will have been noted as such in me­dia, char­ac­ters where half-Japan­ese is im­plied but not de­fin­i­tively stated as be­ing such may have that omit­ted from any dis­cus­sion, fewer char­ac­ters will ap­pear in Eng­lish dis­cus­sions any­where, and only a sub­set of those will ap­pear in ac­ces­si­ble dig­i­tized ma­te­ri­als. Us­ing cap­ture-re­cap­ture means we are only mak­ing in­fer­ences about the size of “the pop­u­la­tion of char­ac­ters with in­for­ma­tion avail­able on the Eng­lish Web”.

Corpus estimation result

The most ap­pro­pri­ate pop­u­la­tion model treats hafu char­ac­ters as a closed pop­u­la­tion, since char­ac­ters once cre­ated do not cease to ex­ist. I per­formed sam­pling in 18 phrases (cor­re­spond­ing to dis­crete data sources), and I clas­si­fied as 1 large col­lec­tion pe­riod all char­ac­ters col­lected be­fore the cap­ture-re­cap­ture log was start­ed.

The model that Rcapture fit to logs of 296 char­ac­ters (min­i­miz­ing the ) was the M0 Chao mod­el, cor­re­spond­ing to each sam­pling phase and each char­ac­ter hav­ing the same prob­a­bil­ity of cap­ture each time (some­what to my sur­prise). The M0 model yields an es­ti­mate of 657 to­tal ac­ces­si­ble hafu char­ac­ters, and a 95% con­fi­dence in­ter­val of 559-781 char­ac­ters, im­ply­ing that a data­base of n = 296 achieves cov­er­age of 28-52%.

Appendices

Capture-recapture code

Run as R --slave --file=rcapture.r:

library(Rcapture)

# O=Original compilation before capture-recapture log started
# GSA=Google Search Alerts
# ST=http://www.sequentialtart.com/archive/mar04/cv_0304_2.shtml
# GIJ=http://germaninjapan.tumblr.com/post/26503313045/thematizing-halfs-in-manga-and-anime-yamaken
# ANN=http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/review/haganai/i-dont-have-many-friends/gn-1
# MV=http://www.mangavolume.com/manga-archive/mangas/search-half-japanese
# TV2=TvTropes (December 2012 check)
# TV3=http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/remarks.php?trope=Main.ButNotTooForeign
# VN=http://vndb.org/i674?m=2 / http://vndb.org/i674?m=2;fil=tagspoil-2.trait_inc-674;p=2
# MAL=https://myanimelist.net/forum/?topicid=141256&show=60#msg10542373
# DC=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Da_Capo_series_characters
# PP=http://www.peterpayne.net/2011/12/anime-characters-with-blonde-hair.html
# AND=http://anidb.net/perl-bin/animedb.pl?show=lexicon&mode=character&vtype=ctag&relid=2296
# TVM=http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/Mukokuseki
# CF=http://www.comicforum.de/archive/index.php/t-122076-p-38.html
# BU1=http://www.mangaupdates.com/showtopic.php?tid=35093
# BU2=http://www.mangaupdates.com/series.html?page=1&perpage=100&category=Mixed+Blood&orderby=year
# ANN2=http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/review/wolf-children
# ANN3=Google ANN site search
hafu <- read.table(stdin(),header=TRUE)
Work                O GSA IRC ST GIJ ANN MV TV2 TV3 VN MAL DC PP AND TVM CF BU1 BU2 ANN2 ANN3
".hack Legend of"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"2nd Super Robot W" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"801 T.T.S. Airbat" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Adolf"             1 1   0   0  0   0   1  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    1
"Ai Kora"           1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Akatsuki no Goei"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Akuma to Love Son" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Amagami SS"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ame Nochi Hare"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Angel Sanctuary1"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Angel Sanctuary2"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ano Machi no Koi"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"AnoHana1"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"AnoHana2"          0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Arisa"             1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ashinaga Ojisama"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Atori Shou"        0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Baccano"           1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Bath Towel"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ben-To"            0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Best Student Coun" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Beyblade"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Bird Cage"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Bleach"            1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Boku no Shokora"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Bokutachi Otoko n" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Boys Be"           0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Butterfly 69"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Caf Latte Rhapso"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Canvas 2"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Card Captors Saku" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Chanto Shiyou Yo"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Cheerism"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Chka Ichiban"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Chou no Doku Han"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Class Zenin Ore"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Coda"              1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Code Geass"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   1   0  0   0   0    1
"Code Geass: Lost"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Cyborg 009"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"D.C. III Da Capo"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"DOA Hitomi"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"DOA Kokoro"        0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Da Capo I"         0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   1  1  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Da Capo I"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Dance in the Vamp" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Darenimo Ienai"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Darker than Blac"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Darker than Blac2" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Dear My Mister"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Death Note"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Death Note2"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Desert Storm"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Detective Conan"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Devil Lady"        0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Diamond Head"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Digimon A 02"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Digimon Adventure" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Digimon Savers"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Digimon Tamers1"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Digimon Tamers2"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Digimon Tamers3"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Digimon Tamers4"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Dog Days"          0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Durarara!!1"       1 0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Eden They Were O"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ef - a Tale of Me" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Evangelion 2.0"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Eyeshield 21"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Fake"              1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Fate/stay night"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Fruits Basket"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Full Metal Panic"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Futa Ane Bitter"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"G-senjou no Maou"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gakuen Alice"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gatchaman"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"GetBackers"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"GoShogun"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Golden Days"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Great Mazinger"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Great Teacher Oni" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  1   0   0    0
"Green Green 2 Ko"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Grisaia no Kajit"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gsenjou no Maou"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gundam 00.1"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gundam 00.2"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gundam 00.3"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gundam 00.4"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Gundam Wing"       0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Haganai"           1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   1   0    1
"Haganai"           1 0   0   0  0   1   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Haganai2"          0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Haikara-san ga To" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  1   0   0    0
"Hana Yori Dango"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Hana-kimi"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Hanasakeru Seisho" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  1   0   0    1
"Hanjuku Orange"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Harem Lodge"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"High-School DxD"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Himawari"          0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Hinekure Shisho n" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Hirahira Hy~n"     0 0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Hisho x Hisho"     0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Holy Knight"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Homura Kansen 3"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Honoo no Haramas"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Hoshi no Oujikun"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Hungry Heart"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Hyper Police"      0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Ice Forest"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ichigo Monogatari" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Iinchou wa Shoun"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ijigen kara no Ta" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Inuyasha"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Itazura na Kiss.1" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  1   0   0    0
"Itazura na Kiss.2" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  1   0   0    0
"Itazura na Kiss.3" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  1   0   0    0
"Itsuka Sora kara"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"JoJo's Bizarre.1"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"JoJo's Bizarre.2"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"JoJo's Bizarre.3"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"JoJo's Bizarre.4"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Jubei-chan 2"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"K-On"              1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"K-On"              1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kachou Fuugetsu"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kaichou wa Maid-s" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kamen no Maid Guy" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kamichama Karin"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kansen 3 ~Shuto H" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kara no Shoujo"    0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kashou no Tsuki"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Katekyo Hitman Re" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kids on the Slope" 0 0   1   0  1   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Kimi to Boku"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Kinnikuman Nisei"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kiss to Maou to"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kiss/Hug"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kita e. ~Diamond"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Kochira Katsushik" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kodomo no Omocha"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Koiseyo Shounen"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Konbini S"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kujibiki Unbalanc" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kuragehime"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Kurau Phantom Mem" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Kurenai no Tsuki"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Lady"              1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Little Busters"    0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   1  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Love Monster"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Lovetore"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Lucky x Crosse"    0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Lupin III"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"MGS Miller"        0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"MGS SS"            1 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Macross"           1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Mad Bull 34"       0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Magic Kaito"       0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Mahou Sensei Neg"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Manbiki"           0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Maria Holic"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Maria-sama Ga Mit" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Marmalade Boy"     1 0   0   1  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Master Keaton"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Matryoshka"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Maya Madoromijim"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Mecha Love"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Meimeimei"         0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Meruhen-chan"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Midorigafuchi Yo"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Milkman"           1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Mitsu no Yoru"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Mobile Police Pat" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Mobile Suit Gunda" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Motto Itte"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Mr.Invisible Leg"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Muv-Luv Alternati" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Nabari no Ou"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Nana"              1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Natsuiro Sagitta"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Natsumegu"         0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Naze Nani Honey"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Nee"               0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Negima"            1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Nejire"            0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Nekome Kozou"      0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Neon Genesis Evan" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0  0  1   1   0  0   0   0    0
"Nigai Kajitsu"     0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"NightS"            0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Nisekoi"           1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"No More Heroes"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Nurarihyon no Ma"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Nurarihyon no Ma"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ochiba no Mau Ko"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ohana to Chocolat" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Onegai Goshujins"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Onegai Twins"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  1  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Onimusha"          0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Oreimo"            1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Otome ga Tsumugu"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Otona Pink"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ougon Honey"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ouran Host"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Ousama no Lesson"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Oyasumi Punpun"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Pani Poni Dash"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Papa no Iukoto o"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Parasite Eve"      0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Parfait ~Chocolat" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Peacemaker Kuroga" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Pineapple Army"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Prince of Tennis"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Private Love Less" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Puchi Houndo"      0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Rainbow Trotsky"   0 1   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Rainbow: Nisha"    0 1   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Rakuen Ai Kawara"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Raspberry Welcom"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Read or Die"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Rean no Tsubasa"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Remember11 the a"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Rhythmic Rev"      0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Riddle Garden"     0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Rikujou Bouei-tai" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ring of Red"       0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Royal Straight"    0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   1  0   0   0    0
"SF Ken"            1 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"SF Sean"           1 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Saint Seiya"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Saitama Chainsaw"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sakura Gari"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sakura Taisen 3"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sakura Taisen 5"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sakura Taisen"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sakura Taisen"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sakura no Nekohim" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Samurai Gun"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"School Rumble"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Secret Area"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sei Yariman Gaku"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Seitoshidoushitsu" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Senobi no Housoku" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sensual Phrase"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Shachou Reijou w"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shadow Hearts"     0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shanimuni Go"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shigeshshi"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shin Seiki GPX Cy" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shippuu Karen Jin" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shiyouzumi Condo"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shuffle.1"         0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Shuffle.2"         0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sister Princess.1" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sister Princess.2" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sister Princess.3" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Skip Beat"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Slam Dunk"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sono Hanabira Ni"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Sono Hanabira Ni"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Soul Eater"        1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Star Ocean"        0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Starry Sky"        0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Super Robot Wars"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Supipara"          0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"TMM a la Mode"     0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   1   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tamayura"          0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tekken 6 Bloodlin" 1 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tenchi Muyo"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tenshi no Hashig"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tentacle and Witc" 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"That Summer"       1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"The Fox Lover"     0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"The Idolmaster"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"The Man of Tango"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"To Heart"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tokimeki Memoria"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tona-Gura"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Trace Memory"      0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tsukihime"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tsukiyo-Zoushi"    0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Tsuritama"         0 0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Tsuyokiss Cool x"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"UFO Baby"          1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ushinawareta Mir"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"UtanoPrincesama"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Vampire Princess"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Venus Capriccio"   1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  1   0   0    0
"Venus in Love"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Wolf Children"     1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   1    0
"X1999"             0 0   0   0  0   0   0  1   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Yakitate!! Japan"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Yakitate!! Japan"  1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Yes! PreCure 5"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  1   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Ykan Club"         1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Yo-u"              0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   1   0    0
"Yuki no Taiyou"    1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"ef a tale of"      1 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   1  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    0
"Dictatorial Grim"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Boys Be"           0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"The Last Wizard"   0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Nana"              0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Blood+"            0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"CVN-73 USS Georg " 0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Aoi Hitomi no On"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Love Stage!!"      0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Dictatorial Grim"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Silver Nina"       0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Meganebu!"         0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Galilei Donna"     0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1
"Dream C Club Gog"  0 0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0   0  0   0  0  0   0   0  0   0   0    1



# closedp.t fits more models, but computationally intractable due to extreme memory use (>7GB)
closedp.0(hafu[,-1])
closedpCI.0(hafu[,-1])

Out­put:

# Number of captured units: 298
#
# Abundance estimations and model fits:
#               abundance  stderr  deviance  df    AIC
# M0                660.9    55.8     1.387  17  25.34
# Mh Chao (LB)      663.4    58.8     1.368   8  43.32
# Mh Poisson2       635.9    81.0     1.223  16  27.18
# Mh Darroch        602.3   120.0     1.141  16  27.10
# Mh Gamma3.5       572.0   152.0     1.099  16  27.05

closedpCI.0(hafu[,-1])
#
# Number of captured units: 298
#
# Poisson estimation and model fit:
#     abundance  stderr  deviance  df    AIC
# M0      660.9    55.8     1.387  17  25.34
#
# Multinomial estimation, 95% profile likelihood confidence interval:
#     abundance  InfCL  SupCL
# M0        659  563.7  785.2

Appendix

Genetics of skin, hair, and eye color

As the phe­no­type data in­di­cates, it is al­most stereo­typ­i­cal for hafu char­ac­ters to have blond or red hair and blue eyes and the choices fol­low na­tional stereo­types (S­can­di­na­vian char­ac­ters are blue-eyed and blond, Irish or Scot­tish are red-haired, etc). Aside from the char­ac­ter de­sign choic­es’ role in pro­vid­ing vi­sual va­ri­ety or (lit­er­al­ly) col­or-cod­ing na­tion­al­i­ty, is that em­pir­i­cally or ge­net­i­cally plau­si­ble?

Real hafus

First, we could sim­ply look at promi­nent ha­fus, like Wikipedi­a’s list of 50 ha­fus with WP en­tries as of 2015-11-14 (). Some quick guesses about the first 20 or so:

  • Kusumoto Ine: eye color un­clear, hair black
  • Ar­i­ana Miyamo­to: brown, black
  • Rox­ana Saberi: black, black
  • Ryō Ku­rusu: black, black
  • Ren­hō: black, black
  • May J.: black, brown?
  • Sayaka Aki­mo­to: black, black
  • Murashige_An­na: brown, brown?
  • Pat­ty: ?
  • Aya Sug­i­mo­to: black, black?
  • Saori Hara: brown, black?
  • Luna Taka­mu­ra: ?
  • Ro­la: brown, brown?
  • Mag­gy: ?
  • Erika Sawa­jiri: black, black
  • Eiji Wentz: green, brown
  • Mar­ius Yo: black, black
  • Ryan Pot­ter: black, black
  • Ureo Egawa: ?, black
  • Gō­toku Sakai: ?, black
  • Noriyoshi Sakai: ?, brown
  • Yu Darvish: black, black

While it’s hard to tell eye color from small or old pho­tos, and hair color is eas­ily changed, look­ing closely at these 20 and skim­ming the re­main­ing 30 shows con­sid­er­able con­sis­ten­cy: hair color is uni­ver­sally brown to black, and eyes are usu­ally light or dark brown (with an oc­ca­sional ex­cep­tion for one of the less rare eye col­ors are like hazel). Some hafu look re­mark­ably Cau­casian (Ryō Ku­rusu looks in­cred­i­bly Rus­sian), but from my Amer­i­can per­spec­tive, I would say that skin col­or-wise, they look the same but most look much more Japan­ese in hair & ap­pear­ance than their other half. What I do not see any­where in those 50 is some­one who is blond (as an adult) or red-haired, nor are there any blue eyes.

Skin color

Most hafu char­ac­ters are drawn light col­ored or with white skin just like the reg­u­lar Japan­ese char­ac­ters, but the ones with Brazil­ian or African parent­age are de­picted as much dark­er-toned. Is this racist or re­al­is­tic?

seems to be no more than a few dozen genes com­bin­ing mostly ad­di­tively (for more de­tails, see ) in or­der to yield the hu­man spec­trum of skin color from chalk-white to deep­-black, im­ply­ing that any cross will be roughly the av­er­age of the two par­ents’ skin col­ors but due to the any in­di­vid­ual child might be as or more ex­treme as ei­ther par­ent. (South Asian ge­net­ics blog­ger Razib Khan often notes that sib­lings can have very differ­ent skin col­ors/­dark­ness for this very rea­son.) Japan­ese and Cau­casians are far out on the ex­treme of pale­ness, which pre­dicts that Cau­casian/­Japan­ese ha­fus will have sim­i­lar skin col­ors (s­ince the two pop­u­la­tions are so sim­i­lar in the first place that av­er­ag­ing them does­n’t pro­duce a no­tice­able differ­ence) and also that Cau­casian/­Japan­ese crosses with Africans or other dark­-skinned pop­u­la­tions will ‘look’ more like the darker par­ent than the lighter - be­cause split­ting the ab­solute color differ­ence still re­sults in push­ing the hafu way out­side the Japan­ese skin color norm. It’s not that the black­ness is ‘stronger’ or the ‘one drop rule’ is true (the child is equally in­-be­tween), it’s that the ref­er­ence pop­u­la­tion is so ex­treme & ho­mo­ge­neous that small ab­solute differ­ences stand out, es­pe­cially when di­chotomized. Both these trends are re­flected in the char­ac­ter data­base:

So when it comes to skin col­or, it ap­pears the hafu char­ac­ters are re­al­is­tic.

Hair color

Red hair

is pri­mar­ily caused by a sin­gle sim­ple re­ces­sive mu­ta­tion in the gene for MC1R which arose in north­ern Eu­rope, and so is Mendelian - you must have two copies of the re­ces­sive to have red hair, oth­er­wise your hair will be what­ever other col­or. So in the case of red hair, we can be cer­tain that real ha­fus are ex­tremely un­likely to have red hair: even if the other par­ent is red-haired and hence guar­an­teed to have two copies, the Japan­ese par­ent will be car­ry­ing no copies of the MC1R mu­ta­tion and so all chil­dren will be re­ces­sive by Mendel/Pun­net-squares.

If the chil­dren again out­-mar­ried, then the grand­chil­dren could hy­po­thet­i­cally have red hair but it still would not be par­tic­u­larly likely (all the chil­dren will be car­ry­ing 1 copy of MC1R; if one then mar­ried a red­head ie some­one with two copies, then only half of the grand­chil­dren will have dou­ble-re­ces­sives and be red-haired, while the other half will still have the dom­i­nant brown/black; if one then mar­ried a red car­ri­er, then only a quar­ter of the grand­chil­dren would be red and the re­main­der dom­i­nant again).

And we can rule out the hy­poth­e­sis that per­haps MC1R some­how got in­tro­duced into the Japan­ese pop­u­la­tion through, say, the fa­mous , and so the Japan­ese par­ent might be a car­rier any­way - if there were a back­ground rate of, say, 1% MC1R car­ri­ers, then there’d be na­tive Japan­ese who have red hair for no ap­par­ent rea­son, some­what like the Afro-Caribbean red­heads, where the re­ces­sive lurks in the pop­u­la­tion (pos­si­bly from an ear­lier Scot­tish ad­mix­ture?) and oc­ca­sion­ally throws up a hit.

For red hair, the hafu char­ac­ters are ex­tremely un­re­al­is­tic.

Blond hair

The sit­u­a­tion is sim­i­lar with blond hair: vari­ants in MC1R are im­pli­cat­ed, but a few other genes may be in­volved. So the end re­sult is less ex­treme, but the re­ces­sives and lack of any rea­son for them to be in the Japan­ese pop­u­la­tion means that blond hair should still be quite rare in ha­fus.

For blond hair, the hafu char­ac­ters are un­re­al­is­tic.

Eye color

which are not solely ad­di­tive, and so the full spec­trum of eye col­ors can be pos­si­ble; for ex­am­ple, in an , eye col­ors ran the full range from blue to black:

“Fig­ure 2. Quan­ti­ta­tive as­sess­ment of eye col­or. Plot­ted are the nor­mal­ized me­dian val­ues of green (x-ax­is) and blue (y-ax­is) lev­els of each in­di­vid­u­al’s iris­es. We fit­ted a prin­ci­pal curve that ex­plains most of the vari­a­tion in the data (red dashed curve). The T-in­dex is de­fined by the ar­c-length from the pro­jec­tion of each point on the curve to the end of the curve that cor­re­sponds to the light­est eye col­or. In the fig­ure are ex­am­ples of eye pho­tos at their re­spec­tive po­si­tion in the T-in­dex curve. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003372.g002

But here we need to note the is­sue of re­ces­sives: for ex­am­ple, are re­ces­sive and so have the same prob­lem as red & blond hair for ever ap­pear­ing on a first-gen­er­a­tion ha­fu. In that Eu­ro­pean-African mixed pop­u­la­tion, there is a chance for two blue-eye re­ces­sives on OCA2 to find each other and so throw up blue eyes even in some­one who oth­er­wise looks very African, and like­wise for red hair (thus the ex­is­tence of Afro Caribbean red­heads) but would any Japan­ese par­ents be car­ry­ing those OCA2 vari­ants? Prob­a­bly not.

So it seems that it would be much more likely for a hafu to in­stead have green, brown, or black eyes, but a va­ri­ety of those col­ors is in­deed pos­si­ble.

Gattaca

One per­son asks, could pure-Japan­ese par­ents or ha­fus have the stereo­typ­i­cal blue-eyed blond/red chil­dren “-style”? Al­most cer­tainly no, for the same rea­sons above - the rel­e­vant al­le­les do not ex­ist or are too rare.

Gat­taca pro­poses only and not gen­uine edit­ing (eg CRISPR/TALENS): em­bryo se­lec­tion is strictly equiv­a­lent to hav­ing n chil­dren (where as of 2016, n~=5) and try­ing to pick just 1; so if par­ents could­n’t achieve some­thing by hav­ing lots of kids, em­bryo se­lec­tion can­not achieve it ei­ther. If the differ­ences are not there in the first place, there is noth­ing to choose be­tween.

So since Japan­ese par­ents would­n’t have any red-heads by hav­ing 5 kids, em­bryo se­lec­tion can­not ac­com­plish that ei­ther. The prob­lem is that the re­ces­sive al­lele just is not present in both par­ents, with no pop­u­la­tion vari­ance, so there are never any em­bryos which are ho­mozy­gous on the al­lele to se­lect. Sim­i­larly for blonde­ness and blue eyes: even if the rel­e­vant al­le­les are present at some fre­quency and are ad­di­tive rather than re­ces­sive, it would re­quire ex­treme lev­els of se­lec­tion to make a no­tice­able differ­ence for two pure-Japan­ese par­ents

How­ev­er, with a hafu par­ent, there may be enough to work with that em­bryo se­lec­tion can do some­thing, de­pend­ing on the specifics. (Con­tin­u­ing the fam­ily heuris­tic, one can imag­ine a hafu fam­ily where one son “takes after his mom”, sug­gest­ing it’s pos­si­ble.)

So for the ex­treme cas­es, some sort of ge­netic edit­ing (or hair dye) would be re­quired.

Overall

From the ge­net­ics, we would pre­dict that blue eyes, blond hair, and red hair will rarely or ever ap­pear in a real ha­fu, and they are much more likely to have skin in­ter­me­di­ate their par­ents’ col­or­ing, brown or black hair, and green to black eyes. (This is con­sis­tent with the few real ha­fus whose pho­tos I looked over.)

So we can say that over­all, the hafu char­ac­ters are un­re­al­is­tic.

Savage Continent

Sav­age Con­ti­nent: Eu­rope in the After­math of World War II, Lowe 2013; chap­ter 14, “Re­venge on Women and Chil­dren”:

In the au­tumn of 1944 a young girl from Sain­t-Clé­ment in the Yonne dé­parte­ment of France was ar­rested for hav­ing ‘in­ti­mate re­la­tions’ with a Ger­man offi­cer. When ques­tioned by the po­lice she openly ad­mit­ted to her affair. ‘I be­came his mis­tress,’ she said. ‘He some­times came to the house to help my fa­ther when he was ill. When he left, he left me his Feld­post num­ber. I wrote to him and had my let­ters taken to him by other Ger­mans be­cause I could not use the postal ser­vices in France. I wrote to him for two or three months but I do not have his ad­dress any­more.’2

Many women across Eu­rope em­barked on such re­la­tion­ships with Ger­mans dur­ing the war. They jus­ti­fied their ac­tions by say­ing that ‘re­la­tion­ships based on love’ were ‘not a crime’, that ‘mat­ters of the heart have noth­ing to do with pol­i­tics’, or that ‘love is blind’.3 But in the eyes of their com­mu­ni­ties, this was no ex­cuse. Sex, if it was with a Ger­man, was po­lit­i­cal. It came to rep­re­sent the sub­ju­ga­tion of the con­ti­nent as a whole: a fe­male France, Den­mark or Hol­land be­ing rav­ished by a male Ger­many…it also came to rep­re­sent the emas­cu­la­tion of Eu­ro­pean men. These men, who had al­ready shown them­selves im­po­tent against the mil­i­tary might of Ger­many, now found them­selves com­mu­nally cuck­olded by their own wom­en­folk.

The num­ber of sex­ual re­la­tion­ships that took place be­tween Eu­ro­pean women and Ger­mans dur­ing the war is quite stag­ger­ing. In Nor­way as many as 10% of women aged be­tween fifteen and thirty had Ger­man boyfriends dur­ing the war.4 If the sta­tis­tics on the num­ber of chil­dren born to Ger­man sol­diers are any­thing to go by, this was by no means un­usu­al: the num­bers of women who slept with Ger­man men across west­ern Eu­rope can eas­ily be num­bered in the hun­dreds of thou­sands.5

…re­cent sur­veys show that women who slept with Ger­man sol­diers came from all classes and all walks of life. On the whole Eu­ro­pean women slept with Ger­mans not be­cause they were forced to, or be­cause their own men were ab­sent, or be­cause they needed money or food - but sim­ply be­cause they found the strong, ‘knightly’ im­age of the Ger­man sol­diers in­tensely at­trac­tive, es­pe­cially com­pared to the weak­ened im­pres­sion they had of their own men­folk. In Den­mark, for ex­am­ple, wartime poll­sters were shocked to dis­cover that 51% of Dan­ish women openly ad­mit­ted to find­ing Ger­man men more at­trac­tive than their own com­pa­tri­ots.6

…Un­for­tu­nate­ly, this new-found dis­play of viril­ity also had its darker side. The sud­den in­flux of young men into the ranks of the Re­sis­tance pushed out many much more ex­pe­ri­enced fe­male ré­sis­tantes. Jeanne Bo­hec, for ex­am­ple, who was a well-re­spected fe­male ex­plo­sives ex­pert in Sain­t-Marcel, sud­denly found her­self side­lined. ‘I was told po­litely to for­get about it. A woman is­n’t sup­posed to fight when so many men are avail­able. Yet I surely knew how to use a sub­ma­chine gun bet­ter than lots of the FFI vol­un­teers who had just got hold of these arms.’16 Dur­ing the last win­ter of the oc­cu­pa­tion women were phased out of ac­tive par­tic­i­pa­tion in the Re­sis­tance, and the Com­mu­nist Franc­s-Tireurs et Par­ti­sans (FTP) is­sued or­ders to phase out women al­to­geth­er. This is in di­rect con­trast to coun­tries like Italy and Greece, where sig­nifi­cant num­bers of women con­tin­ued to fight for the par­ti­sans on the front line right to the end of the war.17

…A British ar­tillery offi­cer de­scribed a typ­i­cal cer­e­mony when he wrote about his ex­pe­ri­ences in north­ern France after the war:

“At St An­dré d’Echauffeur, where peo­ple show­ered us with flow­ers as we passed, oth­ers proffer­ing bot­tles, a grim scene was be­ing en­acted in its mar­ket place - the pun­ish­ment of a col­lab­o­ra­tor said to be une mau­vaise femme. Seated in a chair while a bar­ber shaved her head to the crown, she at­tracted a crowd of on­look­ers, among them, as I learned lat­er, some Maquis and a Free French offi­cer. The wom­an’s mother was also present and as the bar­ber cropped her daugh­ter, she stamped, raved and ges­tic­u­lated fran­ti­cally out­side the cir­cle of watch­ers. The woman was of some spir­it. For, with her head fully cropped, she jumped to her feet and cried ‘Vive les Alle­mands,’ where­upon some­one picked up a brick and felled her.”18

Lieu­tenant Richard Hol­borow of the Royal En­gi­neers wit­nessed a sim­i­lar scene at the hands of a mob in a small town near Dieppe, ‘many of whom had ob­vi­ously been cel­e­brat­ing their lib­er­a­tion all day, mostly from the neck of a bot­tle’. About eigh­teen women and girls were pa­raded to a makeshift stage, where each of them was made to sit be­fore the lo­cal bar­ber:

“Draw­ing a cut-throat ra­zor from his pock­et, he opened it, pulled up the wom­an’s hair and, with a few deft strokes, cut it off and threw the sev­ered ends into the crowd. She gave out a scream as the bar­ber pro­ceeded to dry-scrape her scalp un­til it was com­pletely bald, and then she was lifted up and dis­played to the now howl­ing and jeer­ing mob.”

This was not the end of the wom­en’s or­deal. A cou­ple of days lat­er, as his unit moved out of the same town, Hol­borow wit­nessed the sec­ond part of their pun­ish­ment when he was de­layed in the main street by yet an­other chant­ing crowd.

“They were watch­ing with con­sid­er­able glee a group of shaven wom­en, all with plac­ards tied round their necks, who were busily en­gaged in fill­ing buck­ets of horse shit with their bare hands. As a bucket was filled so it was kicked over and the process or­dered to be started again. It was ev­i­dent that the women of the town were still get­ting their own back on the girls who had mis­be­haved with the Ger­man sol­diers.”19

In dozens of towns women were forced to un­dergo their or­deal ei­ther par­tially or com­pletely naked. Ac­cord­ing to an ar­ti­cle in La Mar­seil­laise in Sep­tem­ber 1944, a group of young men in En­doume forced a woman to ‘run through the streets com­pletely naked in front of in­no­cent chil­dren play­ing out­side their houses’. 20 Like­wise in Troyes, the FFI rounded up wom­en, stripped them and dis­played them be­fore the crowd while they were hav­ing their heads shorn. Ac­cord­ing to a leaflet of the lo­cal Comité Dé­parte­men­tal de la Libéra­tion:

“With hardly any clothes on, branded with the sign of the swastika and smeared with a par­tic­u­larly sticky tar, after hav­ing re­ceived cut­ting jibes, they would go and have their heads shaved in the reg­u­lar way and would then look like so many strange con­victs. Be­gun on the evening be­fore, this mer­ci­less hunt would go on through­out the day, much to the great plea­sure of the lo­cal peo­ple who would form ranks in the streets to watch these women walk past wear­ing Wehrma­cht caps.”21

Ac­cord­ing to Fab­rice Vir­gili, prob­a­bly the fore­most ex­pert in this field, women were stripped in at least fifty ma­jor towns and cities across France.22 Such scenes were by no means unique to France. Sim­i­lar events took place all over Eu­rope. In Den­mark and Hol­land a com­bi­na­tion of wounded na­tional pride and sex­ual jeal­ousy at the be­hav­iour of lo­cal women re­sulted in thou­sands of women hav­ing their heads shaved.23 In the Chan­nel Is­lands, the only small cor­ner of the British Isles that Ger­many had man­aged to in­vade, there were sev­eral cases of women hav­ing their heads shaved be­cause they had slept with Ger­man sol­diers.24 In north­ern Italy they even sang songs about shav­ing the heads of women who slept with fas­cists, such as this one sung by par­ti­sans in the Vene­to:

E voi fan­ci­ulle belle “And all you beau­ti­ful misses”

Che coi fascisti an­date “Who with fas­cists mis­be­haved”

Le vostre chiome belle “All your beau­ti­ful tresses”

Presto saran tagli­ate “Will presently be shaved”25

The im­mense pop­u­lar­ity of such pun­ish­ments, as well as the rit­ual that sur­rounded them, seems to point to a deep need amongst the lib­er­ated peo­ple to ex­press their dis­gust for col­lab­o­ra­tion…The prac­tice may now be seen as a shame­ful episode in Eu­ro­pean his­to­ry, but at the time it was cel­e­brated with pride. Re­sis­tance news­pa­pers in 1944 de­scribe a car­ni­val air at shear­ing cer­e­monies, where spon­ta­neous ren­di­tions of pa­tri­otic songs were sung by the crowds. In at least one area of France, the lo­cal peo­ple pre­sented those who car­ried out the cer­e­mony with knives and ra­zors as a ‘sou­venir’ of their day’s work.29…The sex­ual na­ture of the rit­u­als them­selves is also sig­nifi­cant. In Den­mark the women were fre­quently stripped naked dur­ing their head­-shav­ing cer­e­monies, and their breasts and back­sides painted with Nazi sym­bols.30 In many ar­eas of France women also had their bare bot­toms spanked, and their breasts daubed with swastikas.31 The fact that these rit­u­als took place in mar­ket squares or on the steps of town halls sent a very clear mes­sage to the whole com­mu­ni­ty: the FFI were re­claim­ing these wom­en’s bod­ies as pub­lic prop­er­ty. They were also re­claim­ing them as male prop­erty - the hun­dreds of pho­tographs taken dur­ing these pun­ish­ments show that they were con­ducted al­most ex­clu­sively by men.

Some French women were all too aware that they were be­ing used in this sym­bolic way. They were also in­dig­nant that they should be con­demned for a pri­vate act that they be­lieved had noth­ing to do with the war. When the French ac­tress Ar­letty was im­pris­oned in 1945 for her wartime li­ai­son with a Ger­man offi­cer, she re­put­edly jus­ti­fied her­self at her trial by say­ing, ‘My heart be­longs to France, but my vagina is mine.’32 Un­sur­pris­ingly such protes­ta­tions fell on deaf ears. Ac­cord­ing to re­cent re­search, about 20,000 French women had their heads shaved as a pun­ish­ment for col­lab­o­ra­tion, the largest pro­por­tion of them for sleep­ing with Ger­man sol­diers.33

…If proof were ever needed of the wide­spread ‘hor­i­zon­tal col­lab­o­ra­tion’ that took place across Eu­rope, then it ex­ists in the form of the chil­dren who were born as a re­sult of it. In Den­mark 5,579 ba­bies were born with a reg­is­tered Ger­man fa­ther - and un­doubt­edly many more whose Ger­man pa­ter­nity was con­cealed.36 In Hol­land the num­ber of chil­dren born to Ger­man fa­thers is thought to have been any­thing be­tween 16,000 and 50,000.37 In Nor­way, which had only a third of the pop­u­la­tion of Hol­land, be­tween 8,000 and 12,000 such chil­dren were born.38 And in France the num­ber is thought to be around 85,000 or even high­er.39 The to­tal num­ber of chil­dren fa­thered by Ger­man sol­diers in oc­cu­pied Eu­rope is un­known, but es­ti­mates vary be­tween one and two mil­lion.40…In some cases the lo­cal chil­dren of Wehrma­cht sol­diers were con­sid­ered such an em­bar­rass­ment that it was thought best to try to dis­pose of them straight away. In Hol­land, for in­stance, some eye­wit­nesses claim to know of many in­stances where chil­dren were killed shortly after birth, usu­ally by the par­ents of the par­tic­u­lar girls who strayed. Such ac­tions were tak­en, pre­sum­ably, to re­store the ‘ho­n­our’ of the fam­ily - but oc­ca­sion­ally they were more overtly po­lit­i­cal acts, made by peo­ple out­side the fam­i­ly, in or­der to re­store the ho­n­our of the wider com­mu­ni­ty. Ac­cord­ing to an ac­count by Pe­tra Ruigrok, for ex­am­ple, a baby in north­ern Hol­land was snatched from its cra­dle by a mem­ber of the Re­sis­tance and dashed to the floor.41

…Such strong feel­ings are summed up in an ed­i­to­r­ial in Lu­fot­posten, a Nor­we­gian daily news­pa­per, on 1945-05-19:

“All these Ger­man chil­dren are bound to grow up and de­velop into an ex­ten­sive bas­tard mi­nor­ity in the Nor­we­gian peo­ple. By their de­scent they are doomed in ad­vance to take a com­bat­ive stance. They have no na­tion, they have no fa­ther, they just have hate, and this is their only her­itage. They are un­able to be­come Nor­we­gians. Their fa­thers were Ger­mans, their moth­ers were Ger­mans in thought and ac­tion. To al­low them to stay in this coun­try is tan­ta­mount to le­gal­iz­ing the rais­ing of a fifth col­umn. They will for­ever con­sti­tute an el­e­ment of ir­ri­ta­tion and un­rest among the pure Nor­we­gian pop­u­la­tion. It is best, for Nor­way as well as for the chil­dren them­selves, that they con­tinue their lives un­der the heav­ens where they nat­u­rally be­long.”42

…The study of Nor­we­gian at­ti­tudes to­wards what they termed the ‘war chil­dren’ of Ger­man sol­diers is a par­tic­u­larly rich area be­cause, un­like in other coun­tries, these at­ti­tudes are so well doc­u­ment­ed. In the after­math of the war the Nor­we­gian au­thor­i­ties set up a War Child Com­mit­tee to con­sider what to do with such chil­dren.43 For a short time, there­fore, the prob­lem was openly dis­cussed here in a way that it was not any­where else in Eu­rope. The sub­ject has also come un­der in­tense scrutiny more re­cent­ly. In 2001, un­der po­lit­i­cal pres­sure from war child groups, the Nor­we­gian gov­ern­ment funded a re­search pro­gramme to dis­cover ex­actly how these peo­ple had been treated in the after­math of the war, what the effect had been on their lives, and what might be done to re­dress any po­ten­tial in­jus­tice. The find­ings of this re­search pro­gramme con­sti­tute the most com­plete study of war chil­dren in any coun­try to date.44

In the im­me­di­ate after­math of the war, Nor­we­gians were ex­tremely bit­ter about the be­hav­iour of some of their women and girls. In the early sum­mer of 1945, thou­sands of women ac­cused of sleep­ing with Ger­mans were rounded up and put into jails and prison camps - some 1,000 of them in Oslo alone.45 As we have al­ready seen, many had their heads shaved dur­ing the lib­er­a­tion, and some were pub­licly hu­mil­i­ated by mobs. Per­haps more wor­ry­ing, how­ev­er, were the calls from peo­ple in au­thor­ity to have them stripped of their Nor­we­gian cit­i­zen­ship and de­ported to Ger­many. Such an ac­tion would have been ex­tremely diffi­cult to jus­ti­fy, since sleep­ing with Ger­man sol­diers was not against the law. In any case, the na­tional body for try­ing war crim­i­nals and trai­tors had al­ready be­gun to es­tab­lish that strip­ping peo­ple of their cit­i­zen­ship should not be used as a pun­ish­ment.46 As a con­se­quence, calls to de­port women who had slept with Ger­mans were grad­u­ally dropped. Women who had gone so far as to marry Ger­mans, how­ev­er, would not es­cape so eas­i­ly. In Au­gust 1945 the Nor­we­gian gov­ern­ment res­ur­rected a law from twenty years ear­lier stat­ing that women who mar­ried for­eign­ers au­to­mat­i­cally took on the na­tion­al­ity of their hus­bands. In or­der to limit this law, an amend­ment was made stat­ing that it should ap­ply only to those who mar­ried a cit­i­zen of an en­emy state - in effect, Ger­mans. Against all the prin­ci­ples of Nor­we­gian jus­tice, the law was to be ap­plied ret­ro­spec­tive­ly. Al­most overnight, there­fore, hun­dreds - per­haps even thou­sands - of women who had be­lieved them­selves to be act­ing within the law lost their cit­i­zen­ship. They were now des­ig­nated ‘Ger­man’, and as such they faced the pos­si­bil­ity of de­por­ta­tion to Ger­many, and along with them their chil­dren.47

…The Com­mit­tee also rec­om­mended that nei­ther the chil­dren nor their moth­ers should be forcibly de­port­ed; and yet its chair­per­son, Inge Debes, re­port­edly offered all 9,000 war chil­dren to an Aus­tralian im­mi­gra­tion del­e­ga­tion, ap­par­ently with­out re­gard to what the chil­dren’s moth­ers would think of such a move. (The offer was even­tu­ally turned down on lo­gis­ti­cal grounds, but also be­cause the Aus­tralians de­cided in the end that they did not want ‘Ger­man’ chil­dren ei­ther.)48..­Con­se­quent­ly, many war chil­dren were la­beled re­tarded on no ev­i­dence what­so­ev­er, and some of them, par­tic­u­larly those in the old Ger­man-run or­phan­ages, were damned to spend­ing the rest of their lives in in­sti­tu­tions. Ac­cord­ing to a doc­tor who looked after one such group dur­ing the 1980s, had they been treated the same as oth­er, ‘non-Ger­man’, or­phans they would prob­a­bly have gone on to lead per­fectly nor­mal lives.49 The War Child Com­mit­tee did, in fact, rec­om­mend that all war chil­dren should be psy­cho­log­i­cally as­sessed in or­der to de­ter­mine the state of their men­tal health, but this never hap­pened be­cause it was deemed far too ex­pen­sive…The dev­as­tat­ing effects that such uni­ver­sal re­jec­tion had on these chil­dren have only re­cently come to light. Ac­cord­ing to the study spon­sored by the Nor­we­gian gov­ern­ment in 2001, war chil­dren suffer higher death rates, higher di­vorce rates and worse health than the rest of Nor­way’s pop­u­la­tion. They are typ­i­cally less well ed­u­cat­ed, and earn lower in­comes than other Nor­we­gians. They are also sig­nifi­cantly more likely to com­mit sui­cide than their peers. The worst mor­tal­ity rates oc­curred in those born in 1941 and 1942 - a ten­dency that the au­thors of the study partly as­cribe to the fact that these chil­dren were old enough at the end of the war to un­der­stand what was hap­pen­ing to them. The im­me­di­ate post­war years were the time when bit­ter­ness to­wards these chil­dren was at its strongest.54

Chap­ter 5, “Moral De­struc­tion”:

…Lewis and his fel­low sol­diers fol­lowed them in­side and made their way to the front of the crowd. He recorded in his di­ary what he found:

“Here a row of ladies sat at in­ter­vals of about a yard with their backs to the wall. These women were dressed in their street clothes, and had the or­di­nary well-washed re­spectable shop­ping and gos­sip­ing faces of work­ing-class house­wives. By the side of each woman stood a small pile of tins, and it soon be­came clear that it was pos­si­ble to make love to any one of them in this very pub­lic place by adding an­other tin to the pile. The women kept ab­solutely still, they said noth­ing, and their faces were as empty of ex­pres­sion as graven im­ages. They might have been sell­ing fish, ex­cept that this place lacked the ex­cite­ment of a fish mar­ket. There was no so­lic­it­ing, no sug­ges­tion, no en­tice­ment, not even the dis­creetest and most ac­ci­den­tal dis­play of flesh. The bold­est of the sol­diers had pushed them­selves, tins in hand, to the front, but now, faced with these mat­ter-of-fact fam­i­ly-providers dri­ven here by empty larders, they seemed to flag. Once again re­al­ity had be­trayed the dream, and the air fell limp. There was some sheep­ish laugh­ter, jokes that fell flat, and a vis­i­ble ten­dency to slip qui­etly away. One sol­dier, a lit­tle tip­sy, and egged on con­stantly by his friends, fi­nally put down his tin of ra­tions at a wom­an’s side, un­but­toned and low­ered him­self on her. A per­func­tory jog­ging of the haunches be­gan and came quickly to an end. A mo­ment later he was on his feet and but­ton­ing up again. It had been some­thing to get over as soon as pos­si­ble. He might have been sub­mit­ting to field pun­ish­ment rather than the act of love.”

Un­sur­pris­ing­ly, Lewis was not tempted to in­dulge him­self, and five min­utes later he was on his way again. ‘The tins col­lected by my fel­low trav­ellers were thrown to passer­s-by who scram­bled wildly after them. None of the sol­diers trav­el­ling on my truck had felt in­clined to join ac­tively in the fun.’1

…Ac­cord­ing to Nor­man Lewis, such be­hav­iour be­came in­creas­ingly com­mon in the after­math of south­ern Italy’s lib­er­a­tion. He records be­ing vis­ited by an Ital­ian prince who wanted to know if his sis­ter might be al­lowed to work in an army broth­el. When Lewis ex­plained that the British army did not have any offi­cial broth­els the prince and his sis­ter left dis­ap­point­ed. On an­other oc­ca­sion, when in­ves­ti­gat­ing the se­ri­ous sex­ual as­sault of a young Ital­ian girl, her fa­ther tried to press the trau­ma­tized girl’s favours upon him. All he ex­pected in re­turn was a good square meal for his daugh­ter.2

Des­per­a­tion like this was by no means con­fined to Naples, nor to Italy. A whole gen­er­a­tion of young women in Ger­many learned to think it quite nor­mal to sleep with an Al­lied sol­dier in re­turn for a bar of choco­late. In the Dutch town of Heer­len, US ri­fle­man Roscoe Blunt was ap­proached by a young girl who ‘mat­ter-of-factly asked me if I wanted to “ficken” or just “kuszen”. It took me a few mo­ments for my brain to click into gear and re­al­ize what she was ask­ing.’ When he asked her age she told him she was twelve.3 In Hun­gary there were scores of girls as young as 13 ad­mit­ted to hos­pi­tal for vene­real dis­ease. In Greece VD was recorded in girls as young as ten.4

Such degra­da­tion affected the Daily Ex­press’s war cor­re­spon­dent Alan Moore­head far more than the phys­i­cal dev­as­ta­tion he had seen. When he ar­rived in Naples in the im­me­di­ate wake of its lib­er­a­tion he wrote de­spair­ingly about how he had seen men, women and chil­dren beat­ing each other as they scram­bled for hand­fuls of sweets thrown to them by the ar­riv­ing sol­diers; he had seen pimps and black mar­ke­teers offer­ing fake brandy and child pros­ti­tutes as young as ten; and boys of six sell­ing ob­scene post­cards, their sis­ters’ favours, even them­selves…What in Britain was re­garded as an every­day right had be­come in the rest of Eu­rope an ex­pres­sion of pow­er, so that a British sol­dier was able to say of the Ger­man woman who slept with him, shopped for him and mended his clothes, ‘She was just like my slave.’6

…Some wit­nesses at the time even sug­gested that rape was in­evitable, given the fe­roc­ity of the bat­tles these sol­diers found them­selves in: ‘What can you do?’ claimed one Russ­ian offi­cer. ‘It’s war; peo­ple be­come bru­tal­ized.’44 The worst in­stances oc­curred in east­ern Eu­rope, in those ar­eas of Sile­sia and East Prus­sia where So­viet sol­diers first set foot on Ger­man soil. But rape was not con­fined to the ar­eas around where the fight­ing took place. Far from it - in fact rape in­creased every­where dur­ing the war, even in ar­eas where there was no fight­ing. In Britain and North­ern Ire­land, for ex­am­ple, sex­ual crimes, in­clud­ing rape, in­creased by al­most 50% be­tween 1939 and 1945 - a fact which caused huge con­cern at the time.45

There are no easy ex­pla­na­tions for the huge in­creases in rape that oc­curred in Eu­rope dur­ing the fi­nal stages of the war and its after­math, but there are some defi­nite trends that are com­mon to the whole con­ti­nent. As al­ways, the prob­lem was far, far worse on the east­ern front than it was in the west. While civil­ian men were oc­ca­sion­ally re­spon­si­ble for com­mit­ting the crime, it was over­whelm­ingly a mil­i­tary prob­lem: as the Al­lied armies con­verged on Ger­many from every di­rec­tion, a wave of sex­ual vi­o­lence, along with other crimes, ac­com­pa­nied them. Rape tended to be worst where chaotic con­di­tions ex­ist­ed, for ex­am­ple in the after­math of heavy fight­ing, or amongst troops with poor dis­ci­pline. And, im­por­tant­ly, it was in­com­pa­ra­bly worse in coun­tries that were con­quered rather than lib­er­at­ed. This sug­gests that re­venge and a de­sire to dom­i­nate were im­por­tant fac­tors - in­deed, prob­a­bly the main fac­tors - be­hind the mass rapes that oc­curred in 1945. Stud­ies sug­gest that wartime rape is par­tic­u­larly bru­tal, and par­tic­u­larly wide­spread, where there is a greater cul­tural di­vide be­tween the oc­cu­py­ing troops and the civil­ian pop­u­la­tion, and this the­ory is cer­tainly borne out by the events of the Sec­ond World War.46 French colo­nial troops in Bavaria were par­tic­u­larly no­to­ri­ous. Ac­cord­ing to Christa­bel Bie­len­berg, an Eng­lish woman who lived in a vil­lage near the Black Forest, Mo­roc­can troops ‘raped up and down our val­ley’ as soon as they ar­rived. Later they were re­placed with other troops from the Sa­hara who ‘came at night and sur­rounded every house in the vil­lage and raped every fe­male be­tween 12 and 80’.47 In Tübin­gen girls as young as 12 and women as old as 70 were raped by Mo­roc­can troops.48 The ter­ror of the women con­cerned was in­creased by the for­eign ap­pear­ance of these men, es­pe­cially after years of racial pro­pa­ganda by the Nazis.49

This cul­tural di­vide was also a fac­tor on the east­ern front. The con­tempt that many Ger­man sol­diers felt for east­ern Un­ter­men­schen when they in­vaded the So­viet Union cer­tainly con­tributed to the vi­cious treat­ment Ukrain­ian and Russ­ian women re­ceived at their hands. Vasily Gross­man in­ter­viewed one teacher who had been raped by a Ger­man offi­cer who threat­ened to shoot her 6-mon­th-old ba­by.50 An­other Russ­ian school­teacher called Ge­nia Demi­anova de­scribed her gang rape by more than a dozen Ger­man sol­diers after one of them had lashed her with a horse whip: ‘[T]hey have torn me to pieces,’ she wrote,’ … I am just a corpse.’51

…Many women in the area around Csákvár, just west of Bu­dapest, were raped so vi­o­lently that their backs broke un­der the force of the men’s at­tacks. Alaine Pol­cz, a twen­ty-year-old Hun­gar­ian from Tran­syl­va­nia, re­ceived painful but thank­fully im­per­ma­nent spinal in­juries in this way. She was raped re­peat­edly over a pe­riod of sev­eral weeks, and fre­quently lost count of the num­ber of men who at­tacked her dur­ing the course of a night. ‘This had noth­ing to do with em­braces or sex,’ she wrote lat­er. ‘It had noth­ing to do with any­thing. It was sim­ply - I just now re­al­ize, as I am writ­ing, that the word is ac­cu­rate: ag­gres­sion. That is what it was.’ She was also con­sumed with the knowl­edge ‘that this was go­ing on through­out the en­tire coun­try’.53

But it was in Ger­many that the most wide­spread cases of rape oc­curred. In East Prus­sia, Sile­sia and Pomera­nia tens of thou­sands of women were raped and then killed in an orgy of truly me­dieval vi­o­lence. Marie Nau­mann, a young mother from Baer­walde in Pomera­nia, was raped and then hanged by a mob of sol­diers in a hayloft along with her hus­band, while her chil­dren were stran­gled to death with ropes on the floor be­neath her. She was cut down, still alive, by some Pol­ish civil­ians, who asked her who had done this to her but when she told them it was the Rus­sians they called her a liar and beat her. Un­able to bear what had hap­pened she tried to drown her­self in a nearby creek, but was un­able to com­plete the job. Soak­ing wet, she went to an ac­quain­tance’s apart­ment where she came across an­other Russ­ian offi­cer who raped her again. Shortly after he left her, four more So­viet sol­diers ap­peared and raped her ‘in an un­nat­ural way’. When they had fin­ished with her they kicked her into un­con­scious­ness. She came to when an­other pair of sol­diers en­tered the room, ‘but they left me alone as I was more dead than alive’.54 Thou­sands of sim­i­lar sto­ries have been gath­ered by Ger­man oral his­tory pro­jects, church archives and also the Ger­man gov­ern­ment. So­viet sources also back up these claims. Mem­oirs by Russ­ian offi­cers such as Lev Kopelev and Alexan­der Solzhen­it­syn de­scribe scenes of wide­spread rape, as do sev­eral re­ports of So­viet ex­cesses made by their se­cret po­lice force, the NKVD, in 1945.55

The rap­ing con­tin­ued as the Red Army ad­vanced through Sile­sia and Pomera­nia to­wards Berlin. In a huge num­ber of cases the women were gang raped, often again and again on suc­ces­sive nights. Vasily Gross­man in­ter­viewed a woman in Schw­erin who told him she had ‘al­ready been raped by 10 men to­day’.56 In Berlin, Han­nelore Thiele was raped by ‘Seven in a row. Like an­i­mals.’57 An­other woman in Berlin was caught hid­ing be­hind a pile of coal in the cel­lar of her build­ing: ‘23 sol­diers one after the oth­er,’ she said after­wards. ‘I had to be stitched up in hos­pi­tal. I never want to have any­thing to do with any man again.’58 Karl Au­gust Knorr, a Ger­man offi­cer in East Prus­sia, claims to have saved a few dozen women from a villa where ‘on av­er­age they had been raped 60 to 70 times a day’.59 And the list goes on.

Ac­counts of rape in 1945 be­come truly sick­en­ing, as with ac­counts of other atroc­i­ties dur­ing the war, be­cause they are so nu­mer­ous. The sto­ries doc­u­mented in the East­ern Archives in Koblenz read with the same mo­not­ony as the de­scrip­tions of Jew­ish mas­sacres dur­ing the Nurem­berg tri­als - it is the end­less rep­e­ti­tion of hor­ror that be­comes most diffi­cult to bear. In parts of cen­tral Eu­rope rape was not a col­lec­tion of iso­lated in­ci­dents, but a mass ex­pe­ri­ence en­dured by the en­tire fe­male pop­u­la­tion. In Vi­enna 87,000 women were re­ported by clin­ics and doc­tors to have been raped.60 In Berlin it was even worse, and about 110,000 women are thought to have been vic­tims.61 In the east of the coun­try, par­tic­u­larly in those ar­eas near to So­viet bar­racks, the con­stant threat of at­tack con­tin­ued un­til the end of 1948.62 In Ger­many as a whole al­most 2 mil­lion Ger­man women are thought to have been raped in the after­math of the war.63

Fig­ures for Hun­gary are harder to find. While the rape of Ger­man and Aus­trian women was metic­u­lously doc­u­mented after the war, in Hun­gary the phe­nom­e­non was never ad­mit­ted by the post­war Com­mu­nist ad­min­is­tra­tion. It was not un­til after 1989 that proper stud­ies could be made, by which time much of the in­for­ma­tion was diffi­cult to come by. Rough es­ti­mates based on hos­pi­tal records sug­gest that be­tween 50,000 and 200,000 Hun­gar­ian women were raped by So­viet sol­diers.64 The fig­ures in west­ern Eu­rope, though much low­er, are still sig­nifi­cant. The United States Army, for ex­am­ple, stands ac­cused of rap­ing as many as 17,000 civil­ian women in North Africa and west­ern Eu­rope be­tween 1942 and 1945.65

…The con­se­quences of sex­ual vi­o­lence and ex­ploita­tion after the war were huge. De­spite the 2 mil­lion il­le­gal abor­tions that were car­ried out each year in Ger­many, be­tween 150,000 and 200,000 ‘for­eign ba­bies’ were born to Ger­man wom­en, some of whom were the re­sult of rape. Many of these chil­dren were obliged to suffer the re­sent­ment of their moth­ers for the rest of their lives.66 A high per­cent­age of women be­came in­fected with vene­real dis­ease - in some ar­eas as many as 60%. This was gen­er­ally in­cur­able, since the price of a sin­gle in­jec­tion of an­tibi­otics in Ger­many in Au­gust 1945 was two pounds of real coffee.67 Along with such phys­i­cal prob­lems came the emo­tional and psy­cho­log­i­cal con­se­quences - not only for those who had suffered di­rect­ly, but for women as a whole…As a con­se­quence of the var­i­ous stresses on mar­i­tal re­la­tion­ships, di­vorce rates dou­bled in post­war Ger­many com­pared with be­fore the war - as in­deed they did across Eu­rope.70

…S­tate­ments by sol­diers at the time be­tray a be­lief that they had a right to sex, and would get it by force if nec­es­sary: ‘We lib­er­ated you, and you refuse us a mere tri­fle?’ ‘I need a wom­an! I spilled my blood for this!’ ‘[T]he G. I. and the Tommy have cig­a­rettes and choco­late to give the Frauleins, so they need not rape. The Russ­ian has nei­ther.’72 In an en­vi­ron­ment where sol­diers had un­lim­ited power over wom­en, where there was lit­tle threat of pun­ish­ment, and where all one’s fel­low sol­diers were in­dulging in sex­ual vi­o­lence, rape be­came the norm. Thus, for ex­am­ple, when one of Vasily Gross­man’s fel­low war cor­re­spon­dents raped a Russ­ian girl who had come to their rooms to es­cape the mobs of drunken sol­diers out­side it was not be­cause he was a mon­ster, but merely be­cause he was un­able to ‘re­sist the temp­ta­tion’.73

In Britain the amount of ju­ve­nile delin­quency went up by al­most 40% dur­ing the war, es­pe­cially crimes of break­ing and en­ter­ing, ma­li­cious dam­age and theft (which more than dou­bled).77 In Ger­many too, ac­cord­ing to fig­ures cir­cu­lated by Mar­tin Bor­mann, youth crime had more than dou­bled be­tween 1937 and 1942, and was still ris­ing in 1943. In some cities, such as Ham­burg, ju­ve­nile delin­quency tripled dur­ing the war.78 By the mid­dle of 1945 groups of ‘child gang­sters’ were re­ported in the So­viet zone mug­ging and some­times killing peo­ple for food and mon­ey: the lack of parental su­per­vi­sion, and in some cases the lack of par­ents al­to­geth­er, had made them into ‘lit­tle sav­ages’.79 It was the Ger­man chil­dren who caused the most con­cern. Some peo­ple be­lieved that they were in­nately threat­en­ing, sim­ply by virtue of their Ger­man blood. In Nor­way there were mas­sive de­mands to de­port any chil­dren who had been fa­thered by Ger­man sol­diers, on the grounds that they might grow up to be­come a Nazi fifth col­umn in years to come. The same eu­genic prin­ci­ple that made the Nazis be­lieve they were the mas­ter race was now ap­plied to Ger­man chil­dren to iden­tify them as a fu­ture threat.80


  1. An at­ti­tude per­haps ex­is­tent to a lesser de­gree in the US as well: “Gen­der iden­tity and rel­a­tive in­come within house­holds”.↩︎

  2. Opin­ions to­wards white skin ap­par­ently can be both pos­i­tive (com­par­isons to no­bil­ity and their wom­en’s pale white skin from never work­ing in fields or spend­ing time out­side sans para­sol) and neg­a­tive (com­par­isons to mag­gots & the dead­-white skin of corpses, as white is the tra­di­tional color of death or tran­si­tions in Japan); but in gen­er­al, darker skin is bad and lighter skin is good and more Japan­ese (Aru­dou 2013). Fash­ions which buck this trend are quite ex­cep­tional (eg. & ) and tend to be lim­ited phe­nom­e­non. An­nalee Newitz, “Mag­i­cal Girls and Atomic Bomb Sperm: Japan­ese An­i­ma­tion in Amer­ica”:

    In Hi­roshi Wa­gat­suma, “The So­cial Per­cep­tion of Skin Color in Japan”, in Mod­ern Japan, ed. Ir­win Scheiner (New York: Col­lier Macmil­lan, 1974), the au­thor writes that the Japan­ese still tend to view whites - and es­pe­cially blacks - as in­fe­rior races based on their skin qual­ity or col­or. While the Japan­ese greatly ad­mire white skin, Cau­casian skin is some­times de­rided as “trans­par­ent” rather than “white,” or some­how more blem­ished and wrin­kled than Japan­ese skin. Dark skin is largely un­de­sir­able, and in­di­cates an­i­mal­ity - hence the Japan­ese dis­taste for black or dark­-skinned peo­ple. The chil­dren of mixed mar­riages are viewed crit­i­cal­ly, and cer­tain com­bi­na­tions of fea­tures in mixed-race chil­dren are con­sid­ered quite ab­hor­rent.

    ↩︎
  3. In , the con­tro­versy is usu­ally over African or African-Amer­i­can pe­nis sizes com­pared to Cau­casian pe­nis sizes; but even sources crit­i­ciz­ing re­view “Race Differ­ences in Be­hav­iour: A Re­view and Evo­lu­tion­ary Analy­sis” cit­ing many stud­ies (eg. ) and re­views find­ing that black > white > east Asian ad­mit that white pe­nis sizes are larger than east Asian (ap­par­ently col­lec­tively mea­sured an inch av­er­age size differ­ence in fa­vor of whites). A mis­cel­lany of stud­ies & sources com­piled at the anony­mous “World Pe­nis Av­er­age Size Stud­ies Data­base” rank East Asian coun­tries low on av­er­age length (the anony­mous dataset has been crit­i­cized for omit­ting some stud­ies and other er­rors); if noth­ing else, it makes for some sar­don­icly hi­lar­i­ous eco­nom­ics pa­pers like “Male Or­gan and Eco­nomic Growth: Does Size Mat­ter?”. Well, it does­n’t es­pe­cially mat­ter.↩︎

  4. Asian women tend to marry out much more than Asian men, ac­cord­ing to US cen­sus records; UPI: “Asian women had white hus­bands 3.08 times more often than Asian men had white wives. That means just over 75% of white-Asian cou­ples fea­tured a white hus­band and Asian wife. That 3.08 ra­tio is up from 2.54 times in 1990.” See also Sail­er’s more in­-depth ar­ti­cle “Is Love Col­or­blind?” (up­date: “Love: Still Not Col­or­blind”) and for the an­gry Asian-Amer­i­can per­spec­tive, Arthur Hu’s es­say “Part I: A Race of Rod­ney Dan­ger­fields?” will serve nice­ly. There are ma­jor dis­par­i­ties in other races; te sta­tis­tics for black women are re­mark­able.↩︎

  5. (Lewis 2012) found that fe­males ranked male black faces over white over Asian, while males did the re­verse (fe­male Asian over white over black), giv­ing as back­ground:

    A strik­ing as­pect of the data on in­ter­ra­cial mar­riages is the size of the gen­der asym­me­tries [1]-[3]. These asym­me­tries ap­pear ro­bust across time and cul­ture. De­tails of these asym­me­tries are shown in Ta­ble 1 based on cen­sus data from the UK and USA for White, Black and Asian racial groups. If we fo­cus upon mar­riages be­tween White and Black peo­ple then we ob­serve that there are over twice as many mar­riages be­tween Black men and White women than be­tween White men and Black women in the US. An ob­served con­se­quence of this pat­tern is a de­cline in mar­riage rates for Black wom­en, which has been de­scribed in the US as the ‘mar­riage squeeze’ [4]. The asym­me­try is smaller in the UK but still pre­sent. The gen­der asym­me­tries are even larger for mar­riages that in­clude Asian and White peo­ple. In this sit­u­a­tion, how­ev­er, it is the num­ber of White men mar­ry­ing Asian women that is over twice the num­ber of White women mar­ry­ing Asian men. The largest asym­me­try shows that mar­riages be­tween Black men and Asian women in the US out­num­ber those be­tween Asian men and Black women by about five to one.

    ↩︎
  6. 2011 (ex­cerpt), by ; chap­ter 3, “The Man Short­age”, pg 34-37:

    For decades, the gap in the in­ter­ra­cial mar­riage rates of black men and black women has been a source of ten­sion. Some black women take it per­son­al­ly. “Black men dat­ing White women”, ac­cord­ing to a 1993 ar­ti­cle in , can “cause most sin­gle Black women to see red.”91 A 1998 read­ers poll re­vealed that al­most two-thirds of black women felt up­set when black men mar­ried or dated white women.92 They felt un­ap­pre­ci­at­ed, in­ad­e­quate, un­want­ed. As one twen­ty-nine-year-old black woman in Los An­ge­les says in an­other Ebony ar­ti­cle, “[E]very time I turn around and I see a fine Brother dat­ing out­side his race, I just feel dis­gust­ed. I feel like, what’s wrong with us? Why do you choose her over me?”93 An­other Ebony reader re­spond­ed: “Black men I en­counter are ei­ther dat­ing or mar­ried to white wom­en; they aren’t in­ter­ested in the sis­ters.”94

    The im­bal­ance hits pro­fes­sional black women es­pe­cially hard, be­cause the black men they might re­gard as the most de­sir­able - col­lege grad­u­ates with good jobs - are also the most likely to marry in­ter­ra­cial­ly.95 Con­se­quent­ly, the African Amer­i­can gen­der gap in in­ter­ra­cial mar­riage is widest among the black mid­dle class. More­over, some black women think that suc­cess­ful black men often wed white women who don’t have much go­ing for them. So­ci­ol­o­gists ex­plain such re­la­tion­ships as a ‘sta­tus ex­change’ in which the man ben­e­fits from the wom­an’s white­ness, and the woman gains from the man’s ed­u­ca­tional and pro­fes­sional ac­com­plish­ments.96 The sus­pi­cion is that well-e­d­u­cat­ed, high­-earn­ing black men are so en­am­ored of the idea of hav­ing a white spouse that they often marry white women who are less ed­u­cated and of lower sta­tus in every way ex­cept for race. Em­pir­i­cal sup­port for the ‘sta­tus ex­change’ re­mains mixed,97 but the idea that suc­cess­ful black men will ac­cept low-s­ta­tus white women re­mains an ar­ti­cle of faith for many black women.

    …This same sen­ti­ment has been re­flected in the movie ver­sion of best-selling , in which a black woman seizes on the race of her hus­band’s girl­friend. “I give you 11 fuck­in’ years of my life, and you’re leav­ing me for a white wom­an?” He re­sponds de­fi­ant­ly, “Would it be bet­ter if she were black?” With­out miss­ing a beat, she says, “No, it’d be bet­ter if you were.”

    Sim­i­lar­ly, in , when char­ac­ter, Flip­per, falls for the white office as­sis­tant, his wife seems as up­set about his para­mour’s race as about her hus­band’s in­fi­deli­ty. “White‽” she ex­claims. “Are you on crack or some­thing?” The movie sug­gests he might as well be…Jun­gle Fever may have cap­tured the tenor of the times in the late 1980s and early 1990s, but op­po­si­tion to in­ter­ra­cial mar­riage among black women seems to have be­come more muted over the years. The anger of the early 1990s has soft­ened into the dis­ap­point­ment of the sec­ond decade of the twen­ty-first cen­tu­ry.

    In 2010, the black singer and ac­tress - known both for her ten­der love songs and her wild nat­ural hair - ex­pressed her dis­may in Essence mag­a­zine upon dis­cov­er­ing that her “hand­some, African-Amer­i­can, in­tel­li­gent and seem­ingly wealthy” new friend was “hap­pily mar­ried to a White woman.” The re­al­iza­tion made her “spirit wince” as her body felt an “in­ner pinch, like a mos­quito un­der a sum­mer dress.”

    Sim­i­lar­ly, some of the women in­ter­viewed for his book were trou­bled by black men who part­nered with non­black women. As one woman ex­plains: “If I see a black man with a white wom­an, there’s a part of me that feels sad­ness and a part of me that feels anger. I may not want that black man, but I prob­a­bly know some black woman who does.” An­other woman had for years adamantly op­posed in­ter­ra­cial mar­riage but more re­cently has tried to be­come more ac­cept­ing, es­pe­cially as friends en­ter in­ter­ra­cial re­la­tion­ships. “I don’t roll my eyes when I see an in­ter­ra­cial cou­ple now,” she says, sound­ing proud of her­self. “‘Maybe they do love each other’, I think. I try not to judge.”

    ↩︎
  7. See Pew Re­search Cen­ter’s “The Rise of In­ter­mar­riage: Rates, Char­ac­ter­is­tics Vary by Race and Gen­der”: “white/Asian cou­ples have the high­est com­bined an­nual earn­ings (n­early $71,000), much higher than the earn­ings of white/His­panic cou­ples (about $58,000) as well as white/black cou­ples (about $53,000).” That that par­tic­u­lar pair­ing is likely more white men/Asian women than Asian men/white women is sim­ply be­cause “more than one-in-three (36%) Asian fe­male new­ly­weds in 2010 mar­ried some­one who is non-Asian, com­pared with only about one-in-six Asian male new­ly­weds (17%).” As far as our sta­tus ar­gu­ment goes, the pat­terns of di­vorce are in­ter­est­ing - mar­riages with the high­er-s­ta­tus male seem more sta­ble: “It found that after 10 years of mar­riage, in­ter­ra­cial mar­riages that are most vul­ner­a­ble to di­vorce in­volve white fe­males and non-White males (with the ex­cep­tion of white fe­males/ His­panic white males) rel­a­tive to white/white cou­ples. Con­verse­ly, there is lit­tle or no differ­ence in di­vorce rates among white men/non-white women cou­ples, and white men/black women cou­ples are ac­tu­ally sub­stan­tially less likely than white/white cou­ples to di­vorce by the 10th year of mar­riage.8↩︎

  8. Ex­pat James Turn­bull has twice ex­am­ined this skew in do­mes­tic Ko­rean ad­ver­tise­ments.↩︎

  9. See for ex­am­ple France’s (French Wikipedia); one blog­ger notes that “Age and so­cial class var­ied among the ac­cused, but al­most all were women. Many were ac­cused of ro­man­tic en­tan­gle­ment or”hor­i­zon­tal col­lab­o­ra­tion." These affairs some­times re­sulted in half-Ger­man chil­dren and often al­lowed these women to eat dur­ing Oc­cu­pa­tion while many starved."↩︎

  10. The gov­ern­ment dataset list­ing mar­riages does­n’t seem to be too help­ful in an­swer­ing the ques­tions of what per­cent­age of Amer­i­can or Eng­lish ex­pats, by gen­der, mar­ried a Japan­ese na­tion­al; a 2005 pub­li­ca­tion offers to­tal and sex ra­tio num­bers:

    Re­gard­ing the pop­u­la­tion of for­eign res­i­dents by sex, the male pop­u­la­tion is 730 thou­sand while the fe­male pop­u­la­tion is 830 thou­sand, show­ing that fe­male for­eign­ers out­num­ber male for­eign­ers by 100 thou­sand with a sex ra­tio of 87.7. This ra­tio is 7.6 points lower that of the Japan­ese pop­u­la­tion of 95.2, and varies greatly by na­tion­al­i­ty. (Ta­bles 11.1 and 11.3)

    That is, , so the sex ra­tio is be­ing cal­cu­lated as . Ex­tract­ing data from pg4, Ta­ble 11.3, “To­tal”, we learn that the UK has a to­tal of 9,605 with a sex ra­tio of 247.1, and the USA 37,417 with 178.2. Thus:

    1. UK: male+fe­male=9605; ; then male=6837, fe­male=2767
    2. USA: male+fe­male=37417; ; then male=23967, fe­male=13449

    Bor­row­ing the num­ber of mar­riages by gen­der from the 2006 dataset (which hope­fully is not too wrong), we con­clude:

    1. UK: (, ); (5.64%, 2.85%)
    2. USA: (, ); (6.15%, 1.59%)

    The rel­a­tive rates differ by fac­tors of 2-3, sug­gest­ing that even with these short­cuts and ap­prox­i­ma­tions, there’s prob­a­bly both a differ­ence in how many Amer­i­can & Eng­lish women or men are in Japan and also how likely each woman or man is to marry while there.↩︎

  11. Ex­pat Matt, “Sta­tis­tics on for­eign­ers in Ko­rea, and the ROK be­fore the CERD, sum­ma­riz­ing “Com­bined fifteenth and six­teenth pe­ri­odic re­ports of States par­ties due in 2010”:

    The num­ber of mar­ried im­mi­grants (for­eign­ers who mar­ried a Ko­rean cit­i­zen) is con­sis­tently in­creas­ing every year. As of De­cem­ber 2010, 141,654 mar­ried im­mi­grants are re­sid­ing in the coun­try: 18,561 (13.1%) are males and 123,093 (86.9%) are fe­males. By na­tion­al­i­ty, there are 66,687 Chi­nese (in­clud­ing 31,664 eth­nic Ko­re­ans, 47.1%), 35,355 Viet­namese (25%), 10,451 Japan­ese (7.4%), 7,476 Fil­ipinos (5.3%), 4,195 Cam­bo­di­ans (3.0%), 2,533 Thais (1.8%), and 2,421 Mon­go­lians (1.7%).

    ↩︎
  12. From an in­for­mal trans­la­tion of “Im­mi­grants in Den­mark, 2011”:

    When it comes to male im­mi­grants from West­ern coun­tries who are clas­si­fied as be­ing in a re­la­tion­ship, in 59% of the cases the part­ner is of Dan­ish ori­gin and in 37% of the cases the part­ner is an im­mi­grant from a West­ern coun­try. When it comes to the fe­male im­mi­grants from a West­ern coun­try, 63% of the part­ners are of Dan­ish ori­gin and in one-third of the cases it’s a West­ern im­mi­grant. The pat­tern is differ­ent when it comes to im­mi­grants from non-West­ern coun­tries. For male im­mi­grants from non-West­ern coun­tries, 13% have part­ners of Dan­ish ori­gin and 80% have part­ners from a non-West­ern coun­try. For fe­male im­mi­grants from non-West­ern coun­tries, 28% have part­ners of Dan­ish ori­gin and 68% have part­ners of non-West­ern ori­gin. In­ter­est­ing­ly, when it comes to de­scen­dants West­ern im­mi­grants are more likely to have a part­ner of Dan­ish ori­gin than are first gen­er­a­tion im­mi­grants (83% and 85% for males and fe­males re­spec­tive­ly), whereas this pat­tern is ac­tu­ally re­versed for fe­males from non-West­ern coun­tries, where de­scen­dants are less likely to have a Dan­ish part­ner than are first gen­er­a­tion im­mi­grants (19% of fe­males who are de­scen­dants of im­mi­grants from non-West­ern coun­tries with a part­ner have a part­ner of Dan­ish orig­in, whereas the cor­re­spond­ing num­ber for the first gen­er­a­tion non-West­ern fe­male im­mi­grants is 28%.) 3 out of 5 non-West­ern de­scen­dants who are in a re­la­tion­ship are in a re­la­tion­ship with a non-West­ern im­mi­grant and 18% of them have a part­ner who’s also a de­scen­dant of im­mi­grants from a non-West­ern coun­try. (all num­bers above from Tabel 1.9, p.32)

    The pat­terns seems to be that im­mi­grants from wealth­ier/pres­ti­gious - and West­ern - coun­tries can com­pete suc­cess­fully for na­tive Danes, while im­mi­grants from poorer coun­tries like Turkey must often seek mates from back home; the women from poorer coun­tries also part­ner ‘up’, gain­ing more Danes than their male coun­ter­parts, just as we see with Japan.↩︎

  13. This fits with my read­ing in the South Ko­rean ex­pat bl­o­gos­phere, where I know of one fe­male blog­ger with a Ko­rean boyfriend but many male blog­gers with Ko­rean loved ones. We can find quotes for Japan, Hong Kong, and China as well:

    I turned to the In­ter­net for ad­vice and was sur­prised to learn that the Date­less West­ern Woman was a fa­mil­iar char­ac­ter in the ex­pat world, at least judg­ing from the score of post­ings on ex­pat fo­rums by lone­ly, sin­gle fe­males…Not true for their Y-chro­mo­some-car­ry­ing ex­pat bud­dies though. While the fe­male ex­pats spent Sat­ur­day nights alone, cry­ing into their Ra­men bowls, their male coun­ter­parts drank freely from the dat­ing pool like they owned it. Which in a way, they did. If you’ve ever vis­ited Asia, you’ve likely seen the pale, rail-thin, greasy-haired white boy walk­ing hand-in hand with a per­fectly made-up, mini-skirt wear­ing Asian chick. This would never hap­pen any­where else in the world. Be­cause every­where else, Bar­bie ends up with Ken, not his un­der­em­ployed, so­cial­ly-awk­ward, samu­rai-s­word-col­lect­ing neigh­bor, Kevin. But in Asia, dat­ing rules defy all logic or evo­lu­tion­ary law. In Asia, the nerd is king…But as I often re­minded my­self, I had­n’t come to Asia for a boyfriend. I’d come be­cause I wanted to mas­ter Japan­ese and ex­plore a cul­ture dras­ti­cally differ­ent from my own. But I just had­n’t ex­pected that mov­ing my life to Japan would mean leav­ing my love life at home. As much as I’d en­joyed my life in Tokyo, it just did­n’t seem like a fair trade. Not that the fe­male dat­ing sit­u­a­tion in Japan was­n’t with­out the oc­ca­sional suc­cess sto­ry. I knew of a few women who’d come to Japan and left with hus­bands or fi­ancées in tow. But they were the mi­nor­i­ty. Most west­ern women came to Japan sin­gle and stayed that way.

    “No Sex in the City: What It’s Like to Be Fe­male and For­eign in Japan”, Re­an­non Muth

    When I’m in Chi­na, I tend to turn a lot of heads, es­pe­cially in the coun­try­side - and that’s not just be­cause I’m a for­eign­er. It’s be­cause I’m often seen hold­ing hands with my Chi­nese hus­band. It’s true - the sight of a for­eign woman and Chi­nese boyfriend or Chi­nese hus­band is much rarer than its coun­ter­part, the for­eign man and Chi­nese woman.

    “On the Rar­ity of For­eign Women and Chi­nese Boyfriend­s/Chi­nese Hus­bands”, Jo­ce­lyn Eiken­burg

    Be­tween the ta­bles of men sits a gweilo (Cau­casian) wom­an, She is alone, read­ing the lo­cal ex­pat Eng­lish-medium mag­a­zine. She is wear­ing glasses and a shapely grey dress. She’s the kind of girl I would have set up with my brother when he was sin­gle. None of the men around her have glanced her way or made eye con­tac­t…I was sin­gle for my first five years in Hong Kong. The first few years I was cu­ri­ous about the in­vis­i­bil­ity fac­tor. The third year I was de­spon­dent.

    “Sin­gle Women in Hong Kong: Stream of Con­scious­ness”, janet

    Ex­pat women face an un­for­tu­nate predica­ment in China and, from what I hear, through­out Asia. Their prob­lem is that the ex­pa­tri­ate men who come to China come for the lo­cal Chi­nese girls - and the lo­cal Chi­nese guys are too in­tim­i­dated to go for ex­pat wom­en, or are too fo­cused on find­ing a lo­cal wife, and in any event re­ally aren’t all that at­trac­tive in their own right. What that means, of course, is that there are a lot of lonely ex­pat girls in Chi­na.[…] It’s some­thing you can tell right away. When I first moved to Bei­jing, I saw three Russ­ian women on the sub­way, one of them strik­ingly beau­ti­ful, and the other two not half bad. The in­stant I started talk­ing to them, you could see their faces melt, and they just about started star­ing at me like a fat kid looks at a ham­burg­er. I’m start­ing to think of this as the “ex­pat girl stare” and I get it every­where I go that there are ex­pat girls. Even the most drop dead beau­ti­ful women here blow open to the lamest open­ers you can imag­ine, be­cause they’re so thrilled to meet a man who’s ac­tu­ally in­ter­ested and is the kind of guy they could get to­gether with. Women of a cal­iber of looks I used to have to some­times take a lit­tle while to crack open in Cal­i­for­nia, or who might at times be down­right cold to me on my ap­proach, open eas­ily here.

    “Dat­ing in China”, Chase

    The dat­ing prob­lem of Chi­na’s for­lorn for­eign fe­males has be­come a hot topic on on­line fo­rums for ex­pa­tri­ate such as www.thats­b­j.­com and http://asi­ax­pat.­com. Threads with ti­tles such as “Why for­eign women will NEVER have a dat­ing scene” and “How can a woman find a man?” are be­com­ing in­creas­ingly pop­u­lar…“The ma­jor­ity of men come here be­cause they have is­sues back home … or they just can’t get a woman back home for a num­ber of rea­sons,” she said. “They come here be­cause they be­come a big fish in a lit­tle pond; they be­come very im­por­tant and sought after.”[..] For these rea­sons, these women see the pool of sin­gle, date­able for­eign men more as a small pud­dle. And they don’t con­sider dat­ing lo­cals a vi­able op­tion.

    “For­eign women la­bel Bei­jing a dat­ing waste­land”, Erik Nils­son (China Daily 2006)↩︎

  14. on­line dat­ing ser­vice found large dis­par­i­ties in in­ter­est by race; from “How Your Race Affects The Mes­sages You Get”:

    White women pre­fer white men to the ex­clu­sion of every­one else-and Asian and His­panic women pre­fer them even more ex­clu­sive­ly. These three types of women only re­spond well to white men. More sig­nifi­cant­ly, these groups’ re­ply rates to non-whites is ter­ri­ble. Asian women write back non-white males at 21.9%, His­panic women at 22.9%, and white women at 23.0%. It’s here where things get in­ter­est­ing, for white women in par­tic­u­lar. If you look at the match-by-race ta­ble be­fore this one, the “should-look-like” one, you see that white women have an above-av­er­age com­pat­i­bil­ity with al­most every group. Yet they only re­ply well to guys who look like them. There’s more data on this to­wards the end of the post.

    Their up­date “Race and At­trac­tion, 2009 - 2014” has sim­i­lar re­sults. The Face­book dat­ing app, Are You In­ter­est­ed, has ap­par­ently found sim­i­lar re­sults for 2.4 mil­lion in­ter­ac­tions on its ser­vice. claims:

    In April 2011, I at­tended a sem­i­nar on the topic of the sex­ual and “hookup” be­hav­ior of Amer­i­can col­lege stu­dents. The sem­i­nar speaker had data, col­lected from on­line sur­veys con­ducted over a decade, from nearly 20,000 re­spon­dents from 20 differ­ent uni­ver­si­ties, on all as­pects of their dat­ing and sex­ual be­hav­ior. One of the find­ings that she pre­sented - but could not ex­plain - was the con­sis­tent pat­tern that, on all uni­ver­sity cam­puses in the United States, black fe­male and Asian male stu­dents had the fewest dates and sex­ual part­ners. I was very in­trigued by the find­ing and wanted to ex­plain it. (It’s in my na­ture as the Sci­en­tific Fun­da­men­tal­ist that I can­not leave any in­ter­est­ing em­pir­i­cal find­ing un­ex­plained. I have to ex­plain every­thing.) My ini­tial sus­pi­cion was that this might be be­cause black fe­males and Asian males were less phys­i­cally at­trac­tive than their com­peti­tors. Thus be­gan my sci­en­tific in­ter­est in race differ­ences in phys­i­cal at­trac­tive­ness. As Paul Har­vey used to say, “And now you know the rest of the sto­ry.” Very cu­ri­ously and quite co­in­ci­den­tal­ly, in the past 12 months, there have been at least three ar­ti­cles, pub­lished in highly pres­ti­gious, peer-re­viewed sci­en­tific jour­nals, which con­firm all of my con­clu­sions and spec­u­la­tions in my orig­i­nal blog post last year. Many com­men­ta­tors have pointed out in vain that, us­ing ex­actly the same data and ex­actly the same sta­tis­ti­cal meth­ods, I have also shown that women are [s­ta­tis­ti­cal­ly-]sig­nifi­cantly more phys­i­cally at­trac­tive than men and black men are [s­ta­tis­ti­cal­ly-]sig­nifi­cantly more phys­i­cally at­trac­tive than non­black men. Few com­plained about these find­ings, be­cause they are not po­lit­i­cally in­cor­rect.

    ↩︎
  15. See also Karen Kel­sky’s 1996 pa­per, “Flirt­ing With the For­eign: In­ter­ra­cial Sex in Japan’s ‘In­ter­na­tional’ Age”.↩︎

  16. Banks 2011; chap­ter 8 “Be­yond Race?”, pg 128:

    While re­searchers’ find­ings differ, most In­ter­net dat­ing stud­ies have found that men are much more open than women to in­ter­ra­cial dat­ing.252 Women are more likely to ex­clude men on the ba­sis of race than men are to ex­clude women on the ba­sis of race.253 In one re­cent study of In­ter­net dat­ing, for ex­am­ple, 64% of white women stated a pref­er­ence for a white man, while only 29% of white men stated a pref­er­ence for a white woman.254 In an­other study, only 22% of white men reg­is­tered a pref­er­ence for dat­ing while women.255 While the par­tic­u­lars of these stud­ies vary, they all con­verge on the same con­clu­sion: Dat­ing pools are lim­ited more by the racial pref­er­ences of women than by those of men. One im­pli­ca­tion of this fact is that black wom­en, ac­cord­ing to In­ter­net dat­ing stud­ies, have greater op­por­tu­ni­ties to date across racial lines than do black men.256

    • 252: One study us­ing a ma­jor on­line dat­ing site found that women were more than twice as likely as men to ex­press a pref­er­ence for a part­ner of their own race. 38% of women had such a pref­er­ence, but only 18% of men did. Guenter J. Hitsch, Ali Hor­tas­cu, and Dan Ariely. 2006. “What Makes You Click? Mate Pref­er­ences and Match­ing Out­comes in On­line Dat­ing”. MIT Sloan Re­search Pa­per N. 4603-06, Feb­ru­ary. Avail­able on SSRN.
    • 253: This gen­der differ­ence is likely due to the fact that men are less con­cerned than women with the ac­cep­tance of fam­ily and friends, as men in­vest less in such re­la­tion­ships than do women.
    • 254: Cyn­thia Fe­li­ciano, Be­linda Rob­nett, and Gol­naz Ko­maie. 2009. “Gen­dered Racial Ex­clu­sion among White In­ter­net Daters”. So­cial Sci­ence Re­search 38:23.
    • 255: Hitsch et al 2006
    • 256: Ray­mond Fis­man, Sheena Iyen­gar, Emir Ka­meni­ca, and Ita­mar Si­mon­son. 2007. “Racial Pref­er­ences in Dat­ing”. Re­view of eco­nomic Stud­ies 75(1): 117-132, at 124. Cyn­thia Fe­li­ciano…­More than 90% of the 72% of white women who name a racial pref­er­ence stated that they would not date a black man. Among men, 58% stated a racial pref­er­ence, and 93% would ex­clude black wom­en; Guenter J. Hitsch…This study found that 38% of all women say that they pre­fer to meet some­one of the same eth­nic back­ground as them­selves, while only 18% of men do so; Robert Kurzban and Ja­son Wee­den 2007. “Do Ad­ver­tised Pref­er­ences Pre­dict the Be­hav­ior of Speed Daters?” Per­sonal Re­la­tion­ships 14: 623-632. This study ex­am­ined data from speed-dat­ing par­tic­i­pants and found that women were more likely to state racial pref­er­ences than men.
    ↩︎
  17. An anony­mous reader lists a Japan­ese porno­graphic web­site JAVModels’s “Mixed-Race” cat­e­gory (NSFW), with some na­tion­al­ity notes:

    • Ameri Ichi­nose
    • Anna Anjo
    • Anna Hizaki
    • Anna Mit­sui
    • Anna Nat­suki
    • Anna Ooura
    • Anri Okita
    • Ce­cil Fu­jisaki, French
    • Daiya Na­gare
    • Dina Ka­tou
    • Fu­jii Shelly
    • Jes­sica Kizaki
    • JULIA
    • Karela Ariki
    • Ki­rari
    • Koko Aiba
    • Lala Hoshino
    • Lemon Tachibana
    • Liley
    • Maria Di­zon
    • Maria Eriy­ori
    • Maria Oza­wa, French-Cana­dian
    • Meisa Hanai, Bul­gar­ian
    • Ni­na, Brazil­ian
    • Rei Mizuna
    • Ri­o/Tina Yuzuki, Por­tuguese
    • Rola Tak­iza­wa, Russ­ian
    • Saori Hara, Ger­man (1/4)
    • Sarah, Brazil­ian
    • Sara Ser­iza­wa, Fil­ipino-Sin­ga­porean
    • Sophia Kura­suno
    • Sophia Nikaidou
    • Yuka Os­awa, Turk­ish
    • Yuria Ashina

    Iron­i­cal­ly, al­though the sam­ple size is small, it seems that in his list, Japan­ese pornog­ra­phy is more di­verse than ani­me/­man­ga! Fur­ther, look­ing through the thumb­nails, it seems that claims of blondness be­ing re­ces­sive & it (al­most) im­pos­si­ble for ha­fus to be blond are vin­di­cat­ed: black hair is uni­ver­sal among these porn ac­tress­es.↩︎

  18. Ex­cerpted sec­tion ‘Hāfu (Half-Breeds) and Bira­cial­ity in Japan’ from Fellezs 2012.↩︎

  19. In the doc­u­ment­ing , dis­cusses why the char­ac­ter (half-Ger­man, for­eign moth­er) is so at­trac­tive and his diffi­culty in­te­grat­ing an­other hāfu char­ac­ter (, half-Eng­lish, prob­a­ble for­eign moth­er):

    Con­cern­ing the mat­ter of strength­en­ing Mar­i’s char­ac­ter, An­no-san had al­ready been ask­ing me if I had any ideas, so I started to in­ves­ti­gate the prob­lem. How­ev­er, as I worked through it, the two­some ‘ and Asuka’ was such a pow­er­ful com­bi­na­tion that they seemed to stand in the way. When I tried to in­ves­ti­gate what made this pair so strong, I re­al­ized that this com­bi­na­tion fol­lowed the ar­che­type of the so called ‘’, and that all the de­sires, lusts, and dreams of young men were bound up in them.

    One ‘type’ is the girl who was a child­hood friend, who has al­ways been with you since you were born, and with whom there are no new or strange feel­ings. Rei is es­tab­lished to re­sem­ble a ‘mother’ in some re­spects, and so she pro­duces in young men a feel­ing of dis­tance [from things?] as though they were still half in the womb. Now, Asuka’s par­tic­u­lar type is that of the girl who comes from a for­eign coun­try. This also pro­duces a very good feel­ing. Prob­a­bly it is the male in­stinct to think, in some re­spects, that girls from an­other world are bet­ter than girls who are fa­mil­iar and close to hand [laugh­s].

    ↩︎
  20. “Now, One Out of 20 Mar­riages are Mixed!”, ↩︎

  21. Eri Iza­wa, “Notes from the Japan­ese Pop­u­lar Cul­ture Con­fer­ence at the Cen­tre for Asi­a-Pa­cific Ini­tia­tives, Uni­ver­sity of Vic­to­ria in Vic­to­ria, Canada”:

    Karen Kel­sky (U­ni­ver­sity of Ore­gon) not­ed, among other things, how women in com­mer­cials are de­picted as ve­hi­cles or con­duits of male pow­er. She also noted (and I found this par­tic­u­larly amus­ing) that com­mer­cials by West­ern com­pa­nies tended to show white men as ob­jects of Japan­ese wom­en’s de­sire, while Japan­ese com­pa­nies tended to show Japan­ese men usurp­ing white men. [Check­ing Kel­sky’s CV, she does not seem to have pub­lished on this topic yet.]

    ↩︎
  22. Meagher & Neal 2005 ran their eye color analy­sis on 14 Dis­ney an­i­mated movies, but I sus­pect it would repli­cate in ani­me, even al­low­ing for sin­is­ter for­eign­ers.↩︎