Amusing Ourselves to Death?

A suggested x-risk/Great Filter is the possibility of advanced entertainment technology leading to wireheading/mass sterility/population collapse and extinction. As media consumption patterns are highly heritable, any such effect would trigger rapid human adaptation, implying extinction is almost impossible unless immediate collapse or exponentially accelerating addictiveness. (transhumanism, genetics, sociology, technology)
created: 12 May 2018; modified: 17 Jun 2018; status: in progress; confidence: log; importance: 5

In one narrative, developments in recreational pursuits like the media or drugs continuously threaten humanity by creating ever more effective superstimuli - stimuli which are irresistible, as they exploit hardwired preferences, which humans find impossible to resist en masse, any more than the herring gull chick can resist begging for food from a colorfully-painted needle rather than an accurate model of herring gull heads, or other birds can resist nurturing bigger brighter more colorful eggs rather than their own.

Obesity is on the rise as the food-industrial complex engineers ever more palatable foods, stuffed with salt and fat and sugar, deliciously addictive. Tech companies harvest gigabytes of personal data, using ever more sophisticated & advanced AI tailoring of ads to individuals, pervasively inserted into their media streams, persuading them to buy or think whatever the advertisers wish. Media and pornography and harlequin romance novels offer inhumanly perfect simulacrum of sexually attractive & high status people, selecting the most beautiful people out of hundreds of millions and then further enhancing them with special effects into hyperreality, with infinite amounts of porn for every preference and kink on tap via the Internet - and sexbots eventually to come. Social media like Facebook or Instagram expose us to highly-selective curated ideal lifestyles, inspiring envy for lives that never were, and spreading rage and depression. Cheap pervasive firewater shattered aboriginal tribes and groups, already weakened by epidemic and dispossession, who had never been exposed to industrial-scale alcohol, even in England, where in the early Industrial Revolution, there were gin pushcarts working their way through the streets of London as Shirky puts it (Gin, Television, and Social Surplus), and alcoholism & the corner saloon was seen as one of the most severe of all social ills (prompting Prohibition). Ultraviolence on TV desensitizes men to violence while early TV was a vast cultural wasteland sucking up hundreds of billions of man-hours a year watching vapid shows like Gilligan’s Island (even now, if time diaries are to be believed, Americans continue to spend multiple hours a day on average watching TV). New highly potent research chemical opiates manufactured in Chinese labs ravage the American hinterland. And video games offer experiences more compelling than real life, with video gamers collapsing in Internet cafes and streamers dying at their post, click or social gaming companies like Zynga cunningly exploiting helplessly addictive users by mastery of Pavlovian operant conditioning techniques embodied in Farmville, steadily draining them of all their cash in return for making meaningless numbers go up while the players cease even to enjoy the game (and VR increasingly offering a full replacement for dreary reality). With continued progress in science & technology, one day we may invent the final entertainment or drug, a species-wide Infinite Jest, something so entertaining or addictive that humanity wireheads itself into being unable to feed, protect, or reproduce itself - eventually going extinct. They literally amuse themselves to death.

This theory can even be extended to explain the Fermi paradox’s Great Silence: why do we see absolutely no trace of alien civilizations when astronomical data indicates habitable worlds should be quite common and technological/statistical considerations show the universe could be rapidly colonized? Many explanations for the Great Silence show a spectacular failure of imagination by postulating extremely narrow mechanisms, like Western liberalism or nuclear war, for the Silence, which do not do a good job of explaining why the hyperintelligent eusocial ants of Knara Prime went extinct or the immortal sentient silicon crystals of Delti 10 never spread across the universe or the absence of the self-stabilizing chaotic storm cell civilizations of the Jovian planets. But the amusing oneself to death hypothesis is plausibly universal: since precognition is impossible and it’s impossible to know the true fitness of actions & choices in advance, all evolved species must use proxies for fitness; if they advance in science & technology to the point of interstellar civilization being possible, they must also have developed a wide variety of tools and understanding of their own physical substrates, which allow faking fitness signals and hijacking preferences; if that is possible, then at least some individuals will do so out of curiosity or for incentives; hence, all interstellar civilizations are at risk of amusing themselves to death and if the risk is sufficiently great, it could be the Great Filter.

In another narrative, superstimuli may be problems, but they tend to be self-limiting ones: people adapt, culturally and biologically, to them, and the problems gradually go away. Early advertising strikes a modern reader as being laughably transparent, crude, and unconvincing1; the first Internet banner ads in the 1990s reportedly had clickthrough rates >10%, while now the most sophisticated & carefully targeted ad is doing well if it can get a 0.01% clickthrough rate - assuming the traffic isn’t all bots or accidental misclicks - as audiences experience advertising wearout & adapt to ignore ads (Kinnucan et al 1993, Blair 1987/2000, Braun & Moe 2013) ; and there are serious questions about to what extent Internet advertising works at all & if the tiny effects can actually be measured (see references in my ad A/B test). Alcohol ravaged American Indian tribes and contributed to the destruction of many of them, but while alcoholism and drug abuse remain endemic problems on Indian reservations, the pitch does not appear so apocalyptic these days; Prohibition to reduce alcoholism, rather than being such a burning issue that the very Constitution must be amended, is invoked mostly as a historical fiasco & criticism of the War on Drugs. TV faces competition from other forms of recreation, and is no longer so dominant, with the intellectual quality of TV massively increasing over time (in part thanks to peculiar tech economics like Wall Street investing tens of billions of dollars into Netflix/Amazon to try to replace Hollywood), leading to what has been widely called a golden age of television. Video and computer games, for all the moral panics over them, have proven to be mostly substitutes for other forms of socializing and media consumption, and the occasional young man collapses dead while playing MMORPG/FPS/etc game news report remains but a highly rare event, of no more consequence than young man collapses dead when tackled in sports game (and often perhaps for the same reason, congenital heart defects), with the various laws passed like curfews being largely unnecessary overreactions; Zynga, poster child of the new wave of exploitative games forecast to be a boot stomping on the wallet of humanity forever, has since reeled from FB changes & loss of most of its users, its 2018 stock now a quarter of its 2012 high; social games have taken over the gaming world in the form of e-sports competitive gaming leagues & professional players with their own stadiums, streaming, casual mobile gaming, and multiplayer games (bearing a deliberate and striking resemblance to regular sports, and a far cry from playing Super Mario Brothers by oneself on an NES). Media consumption often appears motivated far less by the entertainment or esthetic value of the media, than by the desire to participate in trends, signal affiliation with particular groups, or create common referents with other people - all of which inherently curtails media consumption because there is no point in too-obscure media or consuming too much, as that eliminates or crowds out the true function of the media consumption (one might entertainment gives itself far too much credit for being entertaining). Norms for social media are already evolving rapidly, with widespread awareness of the falsity of self-presentations on social media and counter-memes for reducing use, or at least containing the harm with methods like auto-deleting posts (eg Snapchat). Porn and media are more accessible than ever, indeed, but nevertheless, access to them appears to have little to do with reproduction - American fertility rates are stable and appear far more affected by economic recessions & real estate prices & college attendance than by access to broadband. Likewise, the demographic transition worldwide appears linked mostly to female education, independent of pornography. This is despite the admittedly enormous time soaked up by media - peaking at 9 hours of TV per day per American household around 2009, and yet, people managed to hold down jobs and live their lives and do science and have children. Inherently, any new problem triggers responses and backlashes as people burn out, learn, and pass on knowledge of how to avoid the problems & use it healthily, the technology is modified, societal mechanisms like laws & regulation kick in, the new thing becomes integrated into existing social norms/rituals, and if nothing else, people adapt to it either by cultural inheritance (families/subgroups/ethnicities with adaptive memes flourish while others fall into decadence) or genetically (alcohol abuse may be an example).

Heritability of Leisure-time Activities & Media Consumption

MaTCH

The Polderman et al 2015 twin-study mega-meta-analysis of k=2,748 studies picks up a few results relevant to the question of media/entertainment/leisure-time, with the most relevant categorization being Recreation and Leisure, but their online interface for visualization has no way to get the original studies rather than just the model-fitting & wordclouds AFAIK (considerably limiting MaTCH’s usefulness as a database to consult for meta-analyses about specific traits):

MaTCH (Meta-Analysis of Twin Correlations and Heritability) database visualization of twin study results on traits classified under ICF/ICD10 subchapter Recreation and Leisure
MaTCH (Meta-Analysis of Twin Correlations and Heritability) database visualization of twin study results on traits classified under ICF/ICD10 subchapter Recreation and Leisure

Literature review

For a more fine-grained description, I consulted my bibliographies and used a Google Scholar search along with followup searches of music heritable/game heritable, searches of reverse citation & related articles for a few key articles, and checking relevant-looking citations in the body of articles.

I looked primarily for heritability estimates of things which could be described as media or entertainment consumption patterns, media or esthetic preferences, leisure time activities, and the like. I exclude most studies of religiosity because while highly heritable & relevant, it’s arguably not perceived as optional or recreational by most people; I excluded many studies of musical pitch perception/tone identification because those reflect a basic musical aptitude which apparently is not even causally increased by musical practice2; I also exclude measures of vocational aptitude/interest (like the inventories collected in several large-scale twin registries) as those may reflect economic considerations & local opportunities & wishful dreaming more than actual life activities; for physical activity, I try to include only measures of voluntary/leisure rather than work-related or raw physical movement (eg accelerometer logs, which would include things like fidgeting); similarly, I don’t try to comprehensively cover food preferences or eating habits (much less the vast literature on various kinds of drug consumption & abuse), even though those are arguably primarily recreational activities. Where multiple models fits are reported, I try to use the heritability from what the authors regard as the best-fitting model, and when a CE or E model is selected rather than ACE/DCE/DE, I report as 0.00, and I sum a2a^2 and d2d^2 if both are available; if only monozygotic & dizygotic twin correlations are reported, I (or another author) use the Falconer formula (2(rMZ2 \cdot (r_{MZ} - rDZ)r_{DZ})).

Table of ~560 heritability estimates of human traits related to media consumption or leisure time activities/preferences/attitudes.
Category Trait/measurement description Heritability Study Notes
Computer Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS-2) total 0.00 Hahn et al 2017
Computer Problematic Internet Use Scale (PIUS) total 0.42 Deryakulu & Ursavas 2014, Genetic and environmental influences on problematic internet use: A twin study
Computer Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) 0.48 Vink et al 2015, Heritability of compulsive Internet use in adolescents
Computer GPIUS-2 subscale Mood regulation 0.33 Hahn et al 2017
Computer GPIUS-2 subscale Negative outcomes 0.22 Hahn et al 2017
Computer GPIUS-2 subscale Self-regulation 0.21 Hahn et al 2017
Computer GPIUS-2 subscale Social interaction 0.00 Hahn et al 2017
Computer IAT subscale Loss of control 0.16 Hahn et al 2017
Computer IAT subscale Salient use 0.00 Hahn et al 2017
Computer Internet social media use (all) 0.48 York 2017
Computer Internet social media use (family) 0.30 York 2017
Computer Internet social media use (friends) 0.61 York 2017, A regression approach to testing genetic influence on communication behavior: Social media use as an example
Computer PIUS subscale excessive use of Internet 0.19 Deryakulu & Ursavas 2014
Computer PIUS subscale negative consequences associated with Internet use 0.86 Deryakulu & Ursavas 2014 a2=0.00+d2=0.864a^2=0.00 + d^2=0.864
Computer PIUS subscale social comfort/benefit of Internet use 0.21 Deryakulu & Ursavas 2014
Computer Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT) total 0.00 Hahn et al 2017, Internet addiction and its facets: The role of genetics and the relation to self-directedness
Computer Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT) 0.58/0.66 Li et al 2014, A twin study of problematic internet use: its heritability and genetic association with effortful control
Computer frequency of Internet use after 11PM 0.36 Long et al 2016
Computer frequency of Internet use 0.41 Long et al 2016, The genetic and environmental contributions to internet use and associations with psychopathology: A twin study
Computer hours of Internet use 0.10 Kirzinger et al 2012
Computer time on educational Internet websites 0.34 Ayorech et al 2017, Personalized Media: A Genetically Informative Investigation of Individual Differences in Online Media Use
Computer time on entertainment Internet websites 0.37 Ayorech et al 2017
Computer time spent playing computer games on Internet 0.39 Ayorech et al 2017
Computer time spent using Facebook on Internet 0.24 Ayorech et al 2017
Computer total Internet time/Private Internet use 0.44 Hahn et al 2017
Computer using the Internet primarily to access social networking sites 0.39 Long et al 2016
Computer using the Internet to contact peers 0.00 Long et al 2016
Computer hours of computer use 0.34 Kirzinger et al 2012, Genetic and environmental influences on media use and communication behavior
Computer mobile phone use (yes/no) 0.49 Miller et al 2012, The Heritability and Genetic Correlates of Mobile Phone Use: A Twin Study of Consumer Behavior
Computer phone talking frequency 0.59/0.34 Miller et al 2012
Computer phone texting frequency 0.53/0.51 Miller et al 2012
Computer Talked for over 30 minutes at a time on the telephone 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976, Heredity, Environment and Personality: A Study of 850 Sets of Twins Objective Behavior Inventory, #191; for full details on all Loehlin & Nichols 1976 calculation, see the appendix.
Computer Placed a long distance call of over 500 miles 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #223
Music LTI Music and Artistic Activities 0.51 Hur et al 1996
Music LTI The Arts 0.62 Waller et al 1995, Occupational and Leisure Time Interests, and Personality Note: Waller et al 1995 reports MZ/DZ correlations split by sex, MZA separately, and provides test-retest reliability for each subscale; I have combined the 3 groups into a single unattenuated heritability estimate. See the appendix for details.
Music Interest factor 0.21/0.17 Coon & Carey 1987, Twins and musical ability: An analysis of if-then relationships (abstract)/Coon & Carey 1989, Genetic and environmental determinants of musical ability in twins Coon & Carey 1989 is a factor analysis of 27 items from the appendix of Loehlin & Nichols 1977, most/all of which are included in this table as well on the item-level. (See also Hambrick & Tucker-Drob 2015.)
Music School Performance factor 0.30/0.14 Coon & Carey 1989
Music Vocal Performance factor 0.71/0.20 Coon & Carey 1989
Music Nonschool Performance factor 0.38/0.10 Coon & Carey 1989
Music Honors factor 0.38/0.20 Coon & Carey 1989
Music music accomplishment 0.26 Hambrick & Tucker-Drob 2015, The genetics of music accomplishment: Evidence for gene-environment correlation and interaction Like Coon & Carey 1989, a re-analysis of Loehlin & Nichols 1977 data.
Music music practice 0.38 Hambrick & Tucker-Drob 2015
Music McGue Talent Inventory: Music 0.66/0.30 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009, The Heritability of Aptitude and Exceptional Talent Across Different Domains in Adolescents and Young Adults
Music McGue Talent Inventory: Music (extreme response) 0.92 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009 conducted a second set of heritabilities using a extremized dichotomization for respondents claiming top-end/exceptional aptitude/talent
Music Participating in musical, dramatic or artistic activities 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Diary, #35
Music One or more musical instruments 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #578
Music Practiced on a musical instrument 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #133
Music Played a musical instrument 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1029
Music Hours of music practice, lifetime 0.41/0.69 Mosing et al 2014 See also Mosing et al 2015.
Music Swedish Flow Proneness Questionnaire: Music Flow subscale 0.40 Butkovic et al 2015, Personality related traits as predictors of music practice: Underlying environmental and genetic influences
Music Took voice lessons 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #137
Music Becoming an accomplished musician (performer or composer) 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #390
Music Gave a public recital (vocal, instrumental etc) 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #79
Music Played a piano or other instrument while others were singing 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #84
Music Sang in a church choir 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #105
Music Sang in a school choir 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #106
Music Sang in a small ensemble (trio, quartet, etc.) 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #107
Music Played in a dance or jazz band 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #205
Music Played in a concert orchestra 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #300
Music Performed with a professional orchestra 0.60 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1027
Music Played in a school musical organization 0.30 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1028
Music Played in a dance or jazz band for wages 0.54 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1030
Music Received a rating of Good or Excellent in a: national music contest 0.68 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1032
Music Received a rating of Good or Excellent in a: regional or state music contest 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1033
Music Received a rating of Good or Excellent in a: city or county music contest 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1034
Music Received a rating of Good or Excellent in a: school music contest 0.48 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1035
Music Organized your own dance or jazz band 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1031
Music Organized a singing group 0.42 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1036
Music Conducted a choir, band or orchestra 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #136
Music Directed (publicly) a band or orchestra 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1037
Music Played in a marching band 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #307
Music musical creativity (combined score) 0.84 Ukkola et al 2009, Musical aptitude is associated with AVPR1A-haplotypes See also Ukkola-Vuoti et al 2011 whose pedigree statistics suggest heritability of listening to music at various ages, but doesn’t report heritabilities.
Music musical creativity: composing 0.40 Ukkola et al 2009
Music musical creativity: arranging 0.46 Ukkola et al 2009
Music musical creativity: improvising 0.62 Ukkola et al 2009
Music Composed music which has been given at least one public performance 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1026
Music IPAT Music Preference Test: factor A 0.41 Vandenberg 1962, The Hereditary Abilities Study: Hereditary Components in a Psychological Test Battery Factor B & E are not reported by Vandenberg 1962 for unspecified reasons; the IPAT handbook is not available, but 2 Cattell papers (Cattell & Anderson 1953/Cattell & Saunders 1954) suggest to me that the factors are not simply musical genres.
Music IPAT Music Preference Test: factor C 0.31 Vandenberg 1962
Music IPAT Music Preference Test: factor D 0.49 Vandenberg 1962
Music IPAT Music Preference Test: factor F 0.24 Vandenberg 1962
Music IPAT Music Preference Test: factor G 0.27 Vandenberg 1962
Music IPAT Music Preference Test: factor H 0.00 Vandenberg 1962
Music IPAT Music Preference Test: factor I 0.34 Vandenberg 1962
Music IPAT Music Preference Test: factor J 0.38 Vandenberg 1962
Music IPAT Music Preference Test: factor K 0.11 Vandenberg 1962
Music computer music 0.26 Martin et al 1986
Music loud music 0.11 Olson et al 2001
Music jazz music 0.42 Simonson & Sela 2011
Music jazz music 0.45 Martin et al 1986
Music Listened to modern (progressive) jazz 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #56
Music Listened to New Orleans’ (Dixieland) jazz 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #57
Music Listened to folk music 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #58
Music Listened to classic or semi-classical music 0.40 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #267
Music Listened to records in a store without buying 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #204
Music Bought a folk music record 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #86
Music Bought a popular or jazz record 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #109
Music Bought a classical or semi-classical record 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #128
Music A collection of classical records 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #585
Music Attended an orchestra concert 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #148
Music opera music 0.39 Simonson & Sela 2011
Music Listened to the radio 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #81
Music Studied with the radio, record player, or TV on 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #319
Music An FM radio 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #613
Music A Hi-Fi or Stereo set 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #586
Music Worked on Hi-Fi or radio equipment 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #303
Music A tape recorder 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #600
Video days per week with TV usage 0.24 Kirzinger et al 2012
Video LTI TV Viewing 0.09 Hur et al 1996
Video LTI Passive Entertainment 0.82 Waller et al 1995
Video LTI Police Calls-Fires 0.61 Waller et al 1995
Video TV viewing time 0.27/0.36/0.35 Plomin et al 1990, Individual differences in television viewing in early childhood: Nature as well as nurture
Video Watching TV/TV viewing time 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Diary, #26
Video hours of TV watching 0.36/0.23 Kirzinger et al 2012
Video passive activity (hours of TV/sitting around doing nothing/listening to music) 0.00/0.35 Haberstick et al 2014
Video hours of video watching 0.30 Kirzinger et al 2012
Video Watched TV 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #171
Video A TV set 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #615
Video Daydreaming 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Diary, #32
Video Fooling around, wasting time 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Diary, #37
Video Spent an hour at a time daydreaming 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #325
Video Attending movies and plays 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Diary, #27
Video Went to the movies 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #154
Video Saw a foreign movie 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #160
Video Went to the movies alone 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #264
Video A movie or slide projector 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #601
Video X-rated movies 0.687 Hatemi et al 2010, Not by Twins Alone: Using the Extended Family Design to Investigate Genetic Influence on Political Beliefs Table 3
Video striptease shows 0.51 Martin et al 1986, Transmission of social attitudes Table 13
Video Attended a burlesque show 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #121
Video Attended a professional stage play 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #156
Video Attended a student stage play 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #165
Video Attended a ballet performance 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #173
Video Pin-ups 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #813
Video Went to a night club with a floor show 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #143
Intellectual Total Creative Achievement scale (TCA=ACA+SCA) of the Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ) 0.61 Piffer & Hur 2014, Heritability of Creative Achievement Based on Carson et al 2005. The CAQ might be taken as vocational assessment rather than leisure-time/hobbies, but as de Manzano & Ullén 2018 point out, The twin sample was fairly small - 338 twins…Assuming the same prevalence as reported in Roeling et al 2017, this means that there would only have been around 9 professional artists included in the sample.
Intellectual Scientific Creative Achievement (SCA) CAQ subscale (scientific discovery/invention/culinary) 0.43 Piffer & Hur 2014
Intellectual Scientific Creative Achievement (SCA) CAQ subscale (scientific discovery/invention); extremized (maximal response across any domain) 0.68 de Manzano & Ullén 2018, Genetic and environmental influences on the phenotypic associations between intelligence, personality, and creative achievement in the arts and sciences Table S6
Intellectual Leisure-Time Interests inventory (LTI): Intellectual Activities 0.57 Hur et al 1996, Genetic and shared environmental influences on leisure-time interests in male adolescents
Intellectual LTI Intellectual Interests 0.76 Waller et al 1995
Intellectual intellectual activity 0.40/0.16 Haberstick et al 2014
Intellectual LTI Reading 0.75 Waller et al 1995
Intellectual reading books 0.47 Olson et al 2001 a2=0.37+d2=0.20a^2=0.37 + d^2=0.20
Intellectual Reading for pleasure 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Diary, #24
Intellectual McGue Talent Inventory: Writing 0.43 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009
Intellectual McGue Talent Inventory: Writing (extreme response) 0.83 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009
Intellectual McGue Talent Inventory: Language 0.71 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009
Intellectual McGue Talent Inventory: Language (extreme response) 0.50 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009
Intellectual McGue Talent Inventory: Mathematics 0.11 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009
Intellectual McGue Talent Inventory: Mathematics (extreme response) 0.87 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009
Intellectual Made entries in a diary or journal 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #88
Intellectual Worked on a scrap book 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #90
Intellectual Bought a paper-back book 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #127
Intellectual Sci-Fi 0.46 Simonson & Sela 2011
Intellectual Wrote articles for a school paper, yearbook, or similar publication 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #142
Intellectual Read magazines at a newsstand without buying any 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #150
Intellectual Read poetry that was not required reading 0.42 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #231
Intellectual Wrote poetry on your own initiative 0.30 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #232
Intellectual Looked something up in an encyclopedia 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #241
Intellectual Read in bed before going to sleep 0.42 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #329
Intellectual Practiced decorative or unusual handwriting 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #346
Intellectual Looked up a word in the dictionary 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #363
Intellectual Writing good fiction (poems, novels, short stories, etc.) 0.64 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #384
Intellectual Being well read 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #385
Intellectual Took a course over and above requirements 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #412
Intellectual Read one or more non-fiction books that were not required reading 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #427
Intellectual Read one or more novels that were not required 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #446
Intellectual Read the biography of a famous person 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #454
Intellectual Library of more than 200 books 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #577
Intellectual A typewriter 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #603
Intellectual An encyclopedia set 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #604
Intellectual An unabridged dictionary 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #606
Intellectual 5 or more magazine subscriptions 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #607
Intellectual A world atlas 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #608
Intellectual Books in a foreign language 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #609
Intellectual Maps 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #814
Intellectual Quotations and mottoes 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #816
Intellectual Diplomas 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #819
Intellectual calendars or schedules 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #821
Intellectual Medals 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #827
Intellectual Biological charts 0.50 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #828
Intellectual Flags 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #829
Intellectual Had a paper published in a scientific journal 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1003
Intellectual Won a prize for any other scientific work or study 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1011
Intellectual Won a prize or award for a work published in a public newspaper or magazine 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1046
Intellectual Edited a school paper or literary magazine 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1047
Intellectual Won a literary award for creative writing 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1048
Intellectual Had poems, stories, essays or articles published in a school publication 0.30 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1049
Intellectual Wrote an original, but unpublished piece of creative writing on my own (not as part of a course) 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1050
Intellectual Published one or more issues of my own newspaper 0.46 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1051
Intellectual Had poems, stories or articles published in a public newspaper or magazine (not school) 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1052
Intellectual Obtained a book or journal from the library 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #176
Intellectual Read the Bible 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #177
Intellectual Visited a museum 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #184
Intellectual Participated in a science contest or talent search 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #298
Intellectual Participated in a scientific contest or talent search 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1005
Intellectual Did an independent, scientific experiment (not a course assignment) 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1000
Intellectual Invented a patentable device 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1002
Intellectual Gave a prepared talk to 15 or more people 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #80
Intellectual Attended a public lecture (not for a course) 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #77
Intellectual Entered a speech or debate contest 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #249
Intellectual Participated in a debate or speech contest 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #305
Intellectual Placed first, second or third in a: national speech or debate contest 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1012
Intellectual Placed first, second or third in a: regional or state speech or debate contest 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1013
Intellectual Placed first, second or third in a: city or county speech or debate contest 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1014
Intellectual Placed first, second or third in a: school speech or debate contest 0.70 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1015
Intellectual Tried to convince someone to change his (her) religious beliefs 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #344
Intellectual LTI Politics 0.44 Waller et al 1995
Intellectual Tried to convince someone to change his (her) political or social beliefs 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #345
Intellectual Talked in a language other than English 0.40 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #135
Intellectual Tutored someone for money 0.58 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #140
Intellectual Tutored someone for free 0.46 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #141
Intellectual Bought or sold corporate stocks 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #242
Intellectual Read the Stock Market quotations 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #359
Intellectual Bought stamps for a stamp collection 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #194
Intellectual Obtained the autograph of a famous person 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #332
Intellectual Set up a schedule with specific times for various activities 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #431
Intellectual The walls are blank (by choice) 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #811
Intellectual A telescope 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #595
Intellectual Chemical laboratory equipment 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #597
Intellectual Electronic laboratory equipment 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #598
Intellectual Botany or zoology laboratory equipment 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #599
Intellectual A barometer 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #612
Intellectual A [hanging] mobile 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #815
Intellectual Scientific models 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #817
Intellectual Scholarship trophies 0.52 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #820
Intellectual Built a piece of equipment or laboratory apparatus on my own (not course work) 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1004
Intellectual Collected insect specimens 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #314
Intellectual importance of news consumption 0.35 Kirzinger et al 2012
Intellectual Read the editorial page of a newspaper 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #348
Intellectual Keeping up to date with political affairs 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #392
Intellectual Signed a petition 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #425
Intellectual Wrote a letter-to-the-editor 0.46 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #227
Intellectual Wrote a letter to a congressman 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #353
Intellectual hybrid cars 0.37 Simonson & Sela 2011
Intellectual nudist camps 0.28 Martin et al 1986
Intellectual self-denial 0.28 Martin et al 1986
Artistic Artistic Creative Achievement (ACA) CAQ subscale (visual arts/music/creative writing/dance/drama/architecture/humor) 0.67 Piffer & Hur 2014
Artistic Artistic Creative Achievement (ACA) CAQ subscale (visual arts/music/creative writing/dance/drama); extremized 0.37 de Manzano & Ullén 2018
Artistic cultural activity personal goals 0.00 Salmela-Aro et al 2009
Artistic McGue Talent Inventory: Arts 0.60 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009
Artistic McGue Talent Inventory: Arts (extreme response) 0.56 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009
Artistic Modern Art 0.46 Hatemi et al 2010
Artistic Performed magic or card tricks 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #82
Artistic Worked backstage on a play 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #114
Artistic Read for a part in a high school or church play 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1021
Artistic Read for a part in a play which was not sponsored by my school or church 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1022
Artistic Acted in a play 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #275
Artistic Had minor roles in one or more players 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1017
Artistic Had a leading role in one or more plays 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1016
Artistic Wrote a play 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1018
Artistic Appeared on radio or TV as a performer 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1020
Artistic Directed a play 0.88 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1019
Artistic Some art supplies or equipment 0.30 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #579
Artistic Reproductions of famous paintings 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #587
Artistic Examples of original art work (paintings, sculpture, ceramics, etc.) 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #588
Artistic Abstract paintings 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #822
Artistic Other paintings or drawings 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #823
Artistic Sculpture 0.42 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #825
Artistic Attended an art exhibition 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #271
Artistic Produced a work of art (not for a course) 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #254
Artistic Made your own Christmas cards 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #434
Artistic Worked on a number painting 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #118
Artistic Painted a picture (oil, watercolor, pastel, etc.) 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #201
Artistic Becoming accomplished in one of the performing arts (acting, dancing, etc.) 0.40 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #371
Artistic Producing good artistic work (painting, sculpture, decorating, etc.) 0.52 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #389
Artistic Exhibited a work of art (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A national art show 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1038
Artistic Exhibited a work of art (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A regional or state art show 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1039
Artistic Exhibited a work of art (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A city or county art show 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1040
Artistic Exhibited a work of art (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A school art show 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1041
Artistic Won a prize or award for an artistic creation (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A national art show 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1042
Artistic Won a prize or award for an artistic creation (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A regional or state art show 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1043
Artistic Won a prize or award for an artistic creation (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A city or county art show 0.52 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1044
Artistic Won a prize or award for an artistic creation (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A school art show 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1045
Religion Religious Leisure Time Interests (LTI) 0.47 Waller et al 1990, Genetic And Environmental Influences On Religious Interests, Attitudes, And Values: A Study Of Twins Reared Apart and Together4
Religion LTI Religion 0.66 Waller et al 1995
Religion LTI Religious Activities 0.00 Hur et al 1996
Religion Taught Sunday school 0.44 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #277
Religion Religious articles 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #818
Religion Discussed religion with friends 0.48 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #189
Religion Attended a church or service of a religion other than your own 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #222
Religion Attended a religious revival meeting 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #240
Appearance Personal care (bathing, fixing hair, putting on make-up, etc) 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Diary, #33
Appearance Used Man-Tan, Tan-O-Rama, Q.T. or similar [tanning] products 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #69
Appearance Polished your toenails 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #94
Appearance Paid someone to polish your shoes 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #321
Appearance Got a tattoo 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #429
Appearance Cut your own hair 0.50 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #322
Appearance Grew a beard 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #435
Appearance Bleached or dyed your hair 0.44 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #436
Appearance Wore a wig 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #437
Appearance Changed your hair style 0.56 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #456
Appearance Changed clothes during the day (exclude gyms or athletics) 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #101
Appearance Tried on clothes in a store without buying anything 0.42 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #265
Appearance Attended a fashion show 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #183
Appearance Borrowed clothing from a friend 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #237
Appearance Lent clothing to a friend 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #295
Appearance Wore sun glasses after dark 0.50 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #244
Tourism LTI Foreign Travel 0.21 Hur et al 1996
Tourism LTI Foreign Travel 0.84 Waller et al 1995
Tourism Visited a foreign country 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #443
Tourism Went to a carnival, amusement park or circus 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #432
Tourism Went on a vacation trip with friends your own age 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #447
Tourism Drove a car 0.46 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #166
Tourism Rode in a sports car 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #131
Tourism Drive a car over 80MPH 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #64
Tourism Flew in an airplane 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #182
Tourism Went sightseeing 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #132
Tourism Went window shopping 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #198
Tourism Rode on a roller coaster, Ferris wheel, merry go round, or similar ride 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #317
Tourism roller coaster rides 0.52 Olson et al 2001
Household/mechanical LTI Handicrafts 0.38 Hur et al 1996
Household/mechanical LTI Husbandry 0.84 Waller et al 1995
Household/mechanical LTI Domestic 0.54 Waller et al 1995
Household/mechanical Working on other projects or hobbies not directly related to course work or a job 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Diary, #36
Household/mechanical Cleaned and dusted your room 0.92 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #112
Household/mechanical Washed dishes 0.92 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #168
Household/mechanical Took a bubble bath 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #347
Household/mechanical Made minor repairs around the house 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #49
Household/mechanical Washed and/or polished a car 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #361
Household/mechanical Repaired or worked on a car 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #100
Household/mechanical Customized a car 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #426
Household/mechanical Mended clothing 0.30 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #282
Household/mechanical Knitted 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #91
Household/mechanical Made an article of clothing 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #92
Household/mechanical Crocheted 0.54 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #138
Household/mechanical A sewing machine 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #581
Household/mechanical Leather working tools 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #602
Household/mechanical Took photographs 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #144
Household/mechanical Developed pictures (darkroom work) 0.66 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #155
Household/mechanical Built or flew a model airplane 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #145
Household/mechanical Painted a room or house 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #428
Household/mechanical Carpentry tools (hand) 0.68 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #575
Household/mechanical Power tools 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #576
Household/mechanical Photographic equipment 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #582
Household/mechanical A photographic dark room 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #583
Household/mechanical Farm equipment 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #596
Household/mechanical A flower or vegetable garden 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #592
Household/mechanical Automotive tools or work shop 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #605
Household/mechanical 2 or more cars 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #614
Household/mechanical Cared for tropical fish or goldfish 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #51
Household/mechanical Cared for other pet animals 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #52
Household/mechanical Cared for a potted plant 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #125
Household/mechanical A pet dog or cat 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #593
Household/mechanical Other animal pets 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #594
Household/mechanical Fed a stray dog or cat 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #360
Game Playing games (cards, chess, etc.) 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Diary, #38
Game playing chess 0.38 Olson et al 2001
Game Played chess 0.48 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #44
Game McGue Talent Inventory: Chess 0.49 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009 a2=0.01+d2=0.48=0.49a^2=0.01 + d^2=0.48 = 0.49; Vinkhuyzen et al 2009 has no extreme response heritability for chess due to too few responses.
Game Played charades 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #120
Game Played Tic-Tac-Toe, Hangman’s Noose, or similar games in class 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #96
Game Played Monopoly, Scrabble, or similar games 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #296
Game Played checkers 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #43
Game crossword puzzles 0.45 Olson et al 2001, The Heritability of Attitudes: A Study of Twins a2=0.02+d2a^2=0.02 + d^2
Game Worked crossword puzzles 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #169
Game Played a pinball machine 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #269
Game Played cards (bridge, pinochle, etc.) 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #202
Game Played Solitaire 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #313
Game LTI Gambling 0.39 Waller et al 1995
Game Gambled with cards 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #61
Game playing bingo 0.00 Olson et al 2001
Game Played a slot machine 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #229
Game Gambled with dice 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #62
Game Made bets on a game or other event (not cards or dice) 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #119
Game toy preference reaction times 0.31/0.36/0.36/0.24/0.26 Scarr 1966, Genetic Factors in Activity Motivation
Game preference for large variety of toys 0.40 Scarr 1966
Food milk chocolate 0.30 Simonson & Sela 2011, On the heritability of consumer decision making: An exploratory approach for studying genetic effects on judgment and choice5
Food dark chocolate 0.29 Simonson & Sela 2011 Note: I include some food entries for amusement value, I did not attempt a comprehensive search of food preference literature; for a more comprehensive example, see Smith et al 20166.
Food mustard 0.22 Simonson & Sela 2011
Food Cooked a complete meal 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #111
Food Ate candy 0.78 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #315
Food Ate 2 or more candy bars a day 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #339
Food Baked a cake or pie from scratch (no mixes) 0.52 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #243
Food Chewed gum 0.66 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #129
Food Ate a steak cooked rare 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #246
Food Ate breakfast in bed (not as a patient) 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #362
Food A foreign cook book 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #589
Food Ate Chinese food 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #206
Social Social Activity scale 0.36 McGue & Christensen 2007, Social activity and healthy aging: A study of aging Danish twins
Social Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (RRPSP): Prosocial Behavior subscale 0.37/0.47/0.52/0.62/0.72/0.26/0.30/0.51/0.60/0.51 Knafo & Plomin 2006, Prosocial Behavior From Early to Middle Childhood: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Stability and Change
Social LTI Dating and Social Activities 0.07 Hur et al 1996
Social LTI Socializing 0.64 Waller et al 1995
Social Meetings of clubs and organizations 0.55 Kendler 1997, Social Support: A Genetic-Epidemiologic Analysis a2=0.75a^2=0.75 for Social integration factor, club/organization loading of 0.73, so 0.730.75=0.54750.73 \cdot 0.75=0.5475
Social family activity 0.31/0.44 Haberstick et al 2014
Social social activity 0.50/0.55 Haberstick et al 2014
Social talking at parties 0.09 Kirzinger et al 2012
Social pajama parties 0.08 Martin et al 1986
Social relational/social aggression media preference 0.26 Jamnik & DiLalla 2018 2(0.550.42)2 \cdot (0.55 - 0.42)
Social Picked-up a date in a bar, restaurant, or similar place 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #48
Social Went to a party 0.54 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #60
Social Stayed up all night 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #76
Social Arranged a date for a friend 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #116
Social Went to a party with a date 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #122
Social Had a friend visit your home overnight 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #262
Social Had a blind date 0.30 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #285
Social Wore formal clothing (evening gown, tuxedo, dinner jacket, etc.) 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #288
Social Told a dirty joke to male friends 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #289
Social Told a dirty joke to female friends 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #290
Social Went on a double date 0.68 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #224
Social Wrote a love-letter 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #225
Social Dined by candle light 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #304
Social Frequency of dates: Casual coke [soda], coffee or study dates per month 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Dating, #406
Social Frequency of dates: Informal dates to movies, student gathers etc per month 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Dating, #407
Social Frequency of dates: Formal dates to dances and big parties per month 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Dating, #408
Social Had your back rubbed 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #250
Social Became pinned [going steady] or engaged 0.58 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #414
Social Went to an overnight or week-end party 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #123
Social Visited a friend’s home overnight 0.40 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #260
Social Put up decorations for a party 0.44 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #172
Social LTI Swinging [nightlife/dancing] 0.59 Waller et al 1995
Social Danced the twist 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #178
Social Attended a formal dance 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #149
Social Did an imitation or impersonation of another person 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #218
Social Made a new friend 0.46 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #349
Social Turned down an invitation for a date 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #357
Social Stayed out on a date after 2 A.M. 0.42 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #358
Social Discussed how to make money with friends 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #55
Social Discussed school subjects with friends 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #63
Social Wrote letters to friends your own age 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #197
Social Photographs of friends 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #824
Social Did voluntary work for a hospital or service organization (Red Cross, Heart Fund, etc.) 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #115
Social Baby sat 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #102
Social Performed [fraternity] pledge-duties 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #103
Social Attending club or organizational activities (meetings, [fraternity] pledge-duties, etc) 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Diary, #34
Social Worked for a club or organization 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #151
Social Solicited advertising for a school paper, yearbook, or similar publication 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #157
Social Participated in a student demonstration (strike, water-fight, etc.) 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #147
Social Visited a person in a hospital 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #175
Social Participated in a wedding (usher, bridesmaid, etc.) 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #193
Social Pushed a stalled car (other than your own) 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #266
Social Becoming a community leader 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #377
Social Donated money to a charity 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #417
Social Worked for the election of a political party or candidate 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #418
Social Contributed money to a political party or candidate 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #419
Social Organized a school political group or campaign 0.42 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1023
Social Organized my own business or service 0.74 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1024
Social Received a Junior Achievement award 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Honors, #1025
Social Donated blood 0.72 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done During Past Year, #449
Social Was consulted for help or advice by someone with a personal problem 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #210
Social Wrote a letter to a pen-pal whom you have never met in person 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #217
Social Visited a relative’s home overnight 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #261
Social Started a conversation with strangers 0.46 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #263
Social Tried to hypnotize someone 0.48 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #276
Social Told jokes 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #203
Social Jokes 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #826
Social Played a practical joke on someone 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #70
Social Confused people by pretending to be your twin 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #365
Athletic Attended athletic events 0.78 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #117
Athletic Watching sports events 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Diary, #28
Athletic Participating in sports and practice sessions 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Diary, #39
Athletic Attended a professional prize fight or wrestling match 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #181
Athletic Discussed sports with friends 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #283
Athletic Took exercises 0.80 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #355
Athletic Becoming an outstanding athlete 0.40 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #375
Athletic Keeping in good physical condition 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #388
Athletic Engaging in exciting and stimulating activities 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #400
Athletic Sports equipment 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #580
Athletic Pennants 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #812
Athletic Sports trophies 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #830
Athletic Sports equipment 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #831
Athletic physical aggression media preference 0.02 Jamnik & DiLalla 2018, A Multimethodological Study of Preschoolers’ Preferences for Aggressive Television and Video Games 2(0.400.39)2 \cdot (0.40 - 0.39)
Athletic preference for physically active games 0.00 Scarr 1966
Athletic enjoyment of high impact activity 0.85 Fisher et al 2010
Athletic enjoyment of leisure time physical activity 0.33/0.53 Aaltonen et al 2016, Genetic architecture of motives for leisure-time physical activity: a twin study
Athletic enjoyment of low impact activity 0.74 Fisher et al 2010, Environmental influences on children’s physical activity: Quantitative estimates using a twin design
Athletic enjoyment of medium impact activity 0.80 Fisher et al 2010
Athletic (lack of) enjoyment of exercise 0.47/0.44 Huppertz et al 2014, A twin-sibling study on the relationship between exercise attitudes and exercise behavior
Athletic exercise 0.00 Pérusse et al 1989, Genetic And Environmental Influences On Level Of Habitual Physical Activity And Exercise Participation
Athletic exercise 0.23/0.31/0.44/0.50/0.56/0.68/0.50/0.37/0.57/0.64/0.60/0.71 Stubbe et al 2006, Genetic influences on exercise participation in 37,051 twin pairs from seven countries7
Athletic exercise 0.24 Simonen et al 2004, Multivariate genetic analysis of lifetime exercise and environmental factors
Athletic exercise 0.24/0.22/0.66/0.16/0.80/0.15/0.38/0.36 Huppertz et al 2012, The impact of shared environmental factors on exercise behavior from age 7 to 12
Athletic exercise 0.42 de Moor et al 2011, Exercise participation in adolescents and their parents: Evidence for genetic and generation specific environmental effects
Athletic exercise 0.45/0.00 Duncan et al 2008, Unique environmental effects on physical activity participation: a twin study
Athletic exercise 0.50/0.43 Huppertz et al 2014, A twin-sibling study on the relationship between exercise attitudes and exercise behavior
Athletic exercise 0.64/0.40/0.51/0.41 Carlsson et al 2006, Genetic effects on physical activity: Results from the Swedish twin registry
Athletic exercise 0.85/0.38/0.80/0.80/0.72/0.72 van der Aa et al 2010, Genetic Influences on Individual Differences in Exercise Behavior during Adolescence
Athletic exercise 0.85/0.38/0.80/0.80/0.72/0.72 van der Aa et al 2012, Genetic influences on individual differences in exercise behavior during adolescence
Athletic exercise 0.36 Olson et al 2001
Athletic jogging/running >10 miles/week 0.53 Lauderdale 1997
Athletic any vigorous exercise in past 2 weeks 0.39 Heller et al 1988, Lifestyle factors in monozygotic and dizygotic twins
Athletic leisure physical activity volume ≥2 MET-hours/day 0.45 Kujala et al 2002
Athletic leisure time physical activity 0.62 Kaprio et al 1981, Cigarette smoking, use of alcohol, and leisure-time physical activity among same-sexed adult male twins As quoted elsewhere; requested copy.
Athletic leisure time physical activity (all) 0.55 Eriksson et al 2006, Genetic factors in physical activity and the equal environment assumption - the Swedish Young Male Twins Study
Athletic leisure time physical activity (non-sports) 0.40 Eriksson et al 2006
Athletic leisure time physical activity 0.07/0.54 Haberstick et al 2014, Genetic and environmental influences on the allocation of adolescent leisure time activities
Athletic leisure time physical activity 0.41 Mustelin et al 2012, Genetic influences on physical activity in young adults: a twin study
Athletic leisure time physical activity 0.47/0.42/0.38/0.31 Aaltonen et al 2010, A Longitudinal Study on Genetic and Environmental Influences on Leisure Time Physical Activity in the Finnish Twin Cohort
Athletic leisure time physical activity 0.52/0.52/0.44/0.50/0.46/0.51/0.34/0.31 Aaltonen et al 2013, Genetic and Environmental Influences on Longitudinal Changes in Leisure-Time Physical Activity From Adolescence to Young Adulthood
Athletic leisure time physical activity 0.63/0.32 Maia et al 2002
Athletic leisure-time physical activity 0.54/0.46 Aarnio et al 1997, Familial aggregation of leisure-time physical activity: A three generation study As quoted in Stubbe & de Geus 2009, where they note they calculated the heritability from the raw correlations reported in Aarnio et al 1997.
Athletic low/medium/high impact activity preference 0.60 Fisher et al 2010
Athletic moderate leisure-time physical activity 0.38 Lauderdale 1997, Familial determinants of moderate and intense physical activity: a twin study
Athletic physical activity personal goals 0.00 Salmela-Aro et al 2009, Personal Goals of Older Female Twins: Genetic and Environmental Effects
Athletic play strenuous non-racquet sports >5 hours/week 0.30 Lauderdale 1997
Athletic play strenuous racquet sports >5 hours/week 0.48 Lauderdale 1997
Athletic playing organized sports 0.52 Olson et al 2001 a2=0.00+d2=0.52a^2=0.00 + d^2=0.52
Athletic Went horseback riding 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #45
Athletic Took horseback riding lessons 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #110
Athletic Attended a horse race 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #162
Athletic Played polo (indoor or outdoor) 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #272
Athletic Rode a horse 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #331
Athletic ride a bicycle >50 miles/week 0.58 Lauderdale 1997
Athletic Rode a bicycle 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #161
Athletic Rode a motorcycle 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #59
Athletic Participated in a drag race 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #180
Athletic A motor boat or sail boat 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #590
Athletic A motorcycle or motorbike 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #591
Athletic McGue Talent Inventory: Sports 0.64/0.29 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009
Athletic McGue Talent Inventory: Sports (extreme response) 0.85 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009
Athletic sports 0.44 Olson et al 2001
Athletic sports 0.00/0.00/0.36/0.85 Stubbe et al 2005, Sports participation during adolescence: A shift from environmental to genetic factors
Athletic sports 0.35/0.77 Boomsma et al 1989, Resemblances of parents and twins in sports participation and heart rate
Athletic sports 0.48 Koopmans et al 1994, Smoking and sports in participation
Athletic sports 0.52 Frederiksen & Christensen 2003, The influence of genetic factors on physical functioning and exercise in second half of life d2d^2
Athletic sports 0.54/0.83 Beunen & Thomis 1999, Genetic determinants of sports participation and daily physical activity
Athletic sports 0.56 Eriksson et al 2006
Athletic sports 0.64 Mustelin et al 2012
Athletic sports 0.68/0.40 Maia et al 2002, Genetic factors in physical activity levels: A twin study
Athletic sports 0.81 Simonen et al 2004
Athletic LTI Sports 0.53 Hur et al 1996
Athletic LTI Fitness 0.78 Waller et al 1995
Athletic LTI Sports Fan 0.51 Waller et al 1995
Athletic LTI Danger Seeking [extreme sports] 0.57 Waller et al 1995
Athletic swim >2 miles/week 0.08 Lauderdale 1997
Athletic Went ice skating 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #46
Athletic Went swimming 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #158
Athletic Went skin diving 0.46 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #270
Athletic Dove from a diving board or tower more than 6 feet above the water 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #335
Athletic Went fishing 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #309
Athletic Went boating 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #167
Athletic Went water skiing or surf board riding 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #73
Athletic Went skiing 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #74
Athletic Participated in crew events (sculls, pairs, fours, etc.) 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #75
Athletic vigorous leisure-time physical activity 0.55 Kujala et al 2002, Modifiable risk factors as predictors of all-cause mortality: The roles of genetics and childhood environment
Athletic LTI Hunting and Outdoor Activities 0.37 Hur et al 1996
Athletic LTI Hunting-Fishing 0.53 Waller et al 1995
Athletic Went hunting 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #188
Athletic Fishing or hunting equipment 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #584
Athletic Went skeet or trapshooting 0.64 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #273
Athletic Bowled 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #153
Athletic Went roller skating 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #47
Athletic Played golf 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #71
Athletic Took golf lessons 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #108
Athletic Ran track (dashes, hurdles, distance, etc) 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #72
Athletic Participated in field events (shot put, javelin, high jump, etc.) 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #159
Athletic Took dancing lessons 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #98
Athletic Went social (ballroom) dancing 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #93
Athletic Went square dancing 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #124
Athletic Played football (touch or tackle) 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #152
Athletic Played tennis 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #163
Athletic Played table tennis or ping-pong 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #302
Athletic Played baseball or softball 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #185
Athletic Played basketball 0.54 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #281
Athletic Played soccer 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #306
Athletic LTI Sierra Club 0.68 Waller et al 1995
Athletic Went on a camping trip 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #186
Athletic A tent or sleeping bag 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #611
Athletic Twirled a baton 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #196
Athletic A stop watch 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #610
Athletic Jumped in a parachute 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #336
Athletic Lifted weights 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #301
Athletic Led a cheering section 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #311
Athletic Took a long walk alone 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Objective Behavior Inventory, #352

Looking over the table, we can see that the predictions are borne out: all sorts of preferences & activities are substantially heritable, and a good guess at a mean heritability would indeed be ~0.50 (a simple unweighted average of all the heritabilities in the table is ~0.30, dragged down by the especially high measurement error/instability of many Loehlin & Nichols 1976 items).

Some of the heritabilities are estimated at 0.00 but looking at those, they tend to be small samples where the confidence intervals are wide (often the model-fitting gives up & settles on a simple E model for lack of data) or where the trait is probably not being measured well (indeed, probably most of the heritabilities have substantial measurement error as they are based on self-reports and single-item binary/Likert scale questionnaires), so their true heritabilities are almost certainly much higher; generally, only the exercise/sport-related heritabilities have adequate sample sizes because data is routinely collected on those for investigation into basic demographics like weight/BMI/health, while traits like bingo playing or TV watching are almost never measured. There is an unfortunate absence of any followups or investigations using modern molecular genetics, so there are no SNP heritabilities or polygenic scores to mention.8 Hopefully future studies will provide much more precise and broad estimates of these variables, such as using pedigrees extracted from social media - an example would be Facebook, where their researchers can easily extract large family pedigrees with rich detail on books/movies/etc, giving precise estimates of additive heritability & epistasis & estimating time trends, or even just directly extracting samples of tens of thousands of identical twins, and allow examination of other covariates to explain interests9

Other things I noticed looking through the studies were that dominance genetics are reported unusually often (perhaps related to the influence of personality on preferences/activities, as personality traits appear likely to be under balancing selection/frequency-dependent selection which would reduce additive genetics10), shared-environment effects show definite patterns of fadeout with age while heritability seems to peak in young adulthood, and there may be sex-dependent effects where females have higher shared-environment and lower heritabilities than males (greater conformism/social concerns?).

Appendix

Loehlin & Nichols 1976: A Study of 850 Sets of Twins

Loehlin & Nichols 1976’s Heredity, Environment and Personality: A Study of 850 Sets of Twins (see also the briefer discussion in Heredity and Environment: Major Findings from Twin Studies of Ability, Personality, and Interests, Nichols 1976/197911) is a twin study which attempted to compile a relatively large-scale twin sample by an extensive mail survey of the n=1507 11th-grade adolescent pairs of participants in the high school National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test of 1962 (total n ~ 600,000) who indicated they were twins (as well as a control sample of non-twins), yielding 514 identical twin & 336 (same-sex) fraternal twin pairs; they were questioned as follows:

…to these [participants] were mailed a battery of personality and interest tests, including the California Psychological Inventory (CPI), the Holland Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI), an experimental Objective Behavior Inventory (OBI), an Adjective Check List (ACL), and a number of other, briefer self-rating scales, attitude measures, and other items. In addition, a parent was asked to fill out a questionnaire describing the early experiences and home environment of the twins. Other brief questionnaires were sent to teachers and friends, asking them to rate the twins on a number of personality traits; because these ratings were available for only part of our basic sample, they have not been analyzed in detail and will not be discussed further in this book. (The parent and twin questionnaires, except for the CPI, are reproduced in Appendix A.)

Many of the questions asked about recreation & leisure, including hobbies, preferences, honors/achievements, and items available in their house (most of which would be useful for hobbies or non-school-work); Loehlin & Nichols 1976 has been cited by eg Plomin et al 1990 for the TV watching time use item demonstrating heritability of TV viewing, but most or all of the other items have not been cited much (if at all). The two exceptions appear to be the re-analyses Coon & Carey 1989, and Hambrick & Tucker-Drob 2015.

Unusually, the book includes twin-pair correlations for all of the reported items, not just full test-scales or subfactors, so it’s possible to extract all relevant-looking items and run Falconer on them to go far beyond just TV watching. I have done so below for ~376 items, skipping Vocational Preference Inventory, obligatory religious questions, some dating questions that seem to reflect other parties’ actions rather than preferences/activities, Ideal Self preferences, and most school-related or misbehavior questions. Because the respondent sample sizes are not always balanced by gender, I combine male/female correlations before estimating heritability, by transforming them into Fisher’s Z and then taking an average of the 2 correlations weighted by respondent n; results are rounded to 2 digits and floored at 0.

In interpreting the results, it’s worth remembering that single-item responses have severe measurement error and many of the items exemplify this by being extremely specific or suffering from dichotomizing or range restriction and floor/ceiling/sex differences even though most of them have high response rates and superficially seem like large n: for example, in the entire sample of ~1700 respondents, only around 2 total have ever engaged in skydiving; 1 twin managed to publish a scientific paper; 0 report getting a tattoo in the past year; 0 report national debate successes or inventing a patentable device; in other direction, around 96% report having a TV in the house while around 99.9% report ever using a dictionary (if only for school); and it is not surprising that only a handful of twins have engaged stock trading (or read the stock listings regularly), attended prize fights, or that female twins never report growing beards in the past year. (And others are obsolete: teenagers are no longer pinned or go for casual cokes, and I have never pushed a stalled car to get it started in my life nor seen anyone do so, although it’s interesting to note that apparently almost as many households had sewing machines as had TVs but only ~25% had tape recorders) Since there is no variance or only a little variance, the heritability estimates will be 0 or will be extremely imprecise and could take on any value 0-1. Some of these are rare for anyone, others are asked prematurely; but of course, we know that something like dictionary use would be heritable if we measured it better in terms of something like number of dictionary uses per year, or that publishing scientific papers or attending burlesque shows would be more easily shown to be heritable if the question was asked of the high schoolers a decade or two later. I could have tried to exclude any items which didn’t have a reasonable number of mean affirmative responses like 50, but that would risk cherrypicking, so I include all entries which I initially selected as relevant while reading the questionnaires and then transcribed the raw numbers for.

Entries are categorized by the survey instrument, and presented in the same order as in the Loehlin & Nichols 1976 appendix; n refers to respondents, not how many endorse an item (which occasionally is as low as 0).

Category ID Item Identical Male r Identical Female r Fraternal Male r Fraternal Female r Identical Male n Identical Female n Fraternal Male n Fraternal Female n Identical r Fraternal r h2h^2
Time Diary 24 Reading for pleasure 0.11 0.28 0.03 0.28 209 285 129 192 0.21 0.18 0.06
Time Diary 26 Watching TV 0.38 0.57 0.32 0.42 207 284 131 192 0.5 0.38 0.24
Time Diary 27 Attending movies and plays 0.01 0.43 0.13 0.47 201 281 128 186 0.27 0.34 0
Time Diary 28 Watching sports events 0.19 0.52 0.52 0.46 203 276 129 181 0.39 0.49 0
Time Diary 32 Daydreaming 0.04 0.19 0 0.51 198 275 123 182 0.13 0.32 0
Time Diary 33 Personal care (bathing, fixing hair, putting on make-up, etc) 0.13 0.2 -0.03 0.22 208 286 129 188 0.17 0.12 0.1
Time Diary 34 Attending club or organizational activities (meetings, [fraternity] pledge-duties, etc) 0.08 0.4 0.08 0.45 196 279 127 184 0.27 0.31 0
Time Diary 35 Participating in musical, dramatic or artistic activities 0.24 0.53 0.28 0.41 194 264 122 182 0.42 0.36 0.12
Time Diary 36 Working on other projects or hobbies not directly related to course work or a job 0.1 0.38 0.04 0.14 197 271 127 180 0.27 0.1 0.34
Time Diary 37 Fooling around, wasting time 0.08 0.49 0.07 0.38 199 278 123 185 0.33 0.26 0.14
Time Diary 38 Playing games (cards, chess, etc.) 0.02 0.42 0.21 0.29 197 271 124 178 0.26 0.26 0
Time Diary 39 Participating in sports and practice sessions 0.47 0.52 0.37 0.32 202 269 128 180 0.5 0.34 0.32
Objective Behavior Inventory 43 Played checkers 0.4 0.4 0.21 0.35 215 292 135 195 0.4 0.29 0.22
Objective Behavior Inventory 44 Played chess 0.61 0.66 0.32 0.46 215 292 135 195 0.64 0.4 0.48
Objective Behavior Inventory 45 Went horseback riding 0.62 0.65 0.43 0.5 215 291 134 195 0.64 0.47 0.34
Objective Behavior Inventory 46 Went ice skating 0.71 0.65 0.49 0.57 215 292 135 195 0.68 0.54 0.28
Objective Behavior Inventory 47 Went roller skating 0.58 0.55 0.49 0.48 214 292 134 195 0.56 0.48 0.16
Objective Behavior Inventory 48 Picked-up a date in a bar, restaurant, or similar place 0.25 0.41 0.15 0.45 213 292 135 193 0.34 0.33 0.02
Objective Behavior Inventory 49 Made minor repairs around the house 0.34 0.21 0.1 0.27 214 290 134 192 0.27 0.2 0.14
Objective Behavior Inventory 51 Cared for tropical fish or goldfish 0.41 0.47 0.27 0.58 215 290 135 194 0.44 0.47 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 52 Cared for other pet animals 0.74 0.65 0.63 0.64 213 290 134 194 0.69 0.64 0.1
Objective Behavior Inventory 55 Discussed how to make money with friends 0.29 0.25 0.04 0.13 215 292 135 193 0.27 0.09 0.36
Objective Behavior Inventory 56 Listened to modern (progressive) jazz 0.19 0.37 0.14 0.3 215 291 135 195 0.3 0.24 0.12
Objective Behavior Inventory 57 Listened to New Orleans’ (Dixieland) jazz 0.23 0.28 0.15 0.17 215 292 135 195 0.26 0.16 0.2
Objective Behavior Inventory 58 Listened to folk music 0.38 0.25 0.27 0.25 215 292 135 195 0.31 0.26 0.1
Objective Behavior Inventory 59 Rode a motorcycle 0.17 0.49 0.29 0.31 214 292 134 195 0.36 0.3 0.12
Objective Behavior Inventory 60 Went to a party 0.42 0.35 0.3 -0.02 214 291 135 194 0.38 0.11 0.54
Objective Behavior Inventory 61 Gambled with cards 0.53 0.51 0.31 0.42 215 292 135 195 0.52 0.38 0.28
Objective Behavior Inventory 62 Gambled with dice 0.37 0.27 0.43 0.23 215 292 134 195 0.31 0.32 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 63 Discussed school subjects with friends 0 -0.01 -0.01 0 215 291 134 195 -0.01 0 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 64 Drive a car over 80MPH 0.57 0.51 0.49 0.28 215 291 134 195 0.54 0.37 0.34
Objective Behavior Inventory 69 Used Man-Tan, Tan-O-Rama, Q.T. or similar [tanning] products 0.34 0.48 0.33 0.44 213 292 134 193 0.42 0.4 0.04
Objective Behavior Inventory 70 Played a practical joke on someone 0.33 0.42 0.28 0.23 214 290 134 195 0.38 0.25 0.26
Objective Behavior Inventory 71 Played golf 0.53 0.55 0.58 0.4 214 290 135 195 0.54 0.48 0.12
Objective Behavior Inventory 72 Ran track (dashes, hurdles, distance, etc) 0.51 0.55 0.32 0.5 214 289 135 194 0.53 0.43 0.2
Objective Behavior Inventory 73 Went water skiing or surf board riding 0.61 0.64 0.5 0.65 215 291 134 195 0.63 0.59 0.08
Objective Behavior Inventory 74 Went skiing 0.5 0.65 0.31 0.69 214 291 133 195 0.59 0.56 0.06
Objective Behavior Inventory 75 Participated in crew events (sculls, pairs, fours, etc.) 0.35 0.18 0.25 0.34 213 289 129 190 0.25 0.3 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 76 Stayed up all night 0.36 0.51 0.31 0.38 214 292 134 195 0.45 0.35 0.2
Objective Behavior Inventory 77 Attended a public lecture (not for a course) 0.3 0.47 0.2 0.24 215 288 133 194 0.4 0.22 0.36
Objective Behavior Inventory 79 Gave a public recital (vocal, instrumental etc) 0.29 0.4 0.21 0.3 215 289 134 194 0.35 0.26 0.18
Objective Behavior Inventory 80 Gave a prepared talk to 15 or more people 0.3 0.26 0.25 0.22 215 292 135 195 0.28 0.23 0.1
Objective Behavior Inventory 81 Listened to the radio 0 0 -0.01 -0.01 213 292 135 195 0 -0.01 0.02
Objective Behavior Inventory 82 Performed magic or card tricks 0.28 0.36 0.21 0.23 215 291 134 194 0.33 0.22 0.22
Objective Behavior Inventory 84 Played a piano or other instrument while others were singing 0.43 0.54 0.45 0.41 214 292 134 193 0.5 0.43 0.14
Objective Behavior Inventory 86 Bought a folk music record 0.53 0.6 0.3 0.6 215 292 134 194 0.57 0.49 0.16
Objective Behavior Inventory 88 Made entries in a diary or journal 0.11 0.5 0.11 0.24 215 292 135 195 0.35 0.19 0.32
Objective Behavior Inventory 90 Worked on a scrap book 0.46 0.45 0.28 0.3 215 291 135 194 0.45 0.29 0.32
Objective Behavior Inventory 91 Knitted -0.01 0.58 -0.02 0.37 213 290 135 194 0.36 0.22 0.28
Objective Behavior Inventory 92 Made an article of clothing -0.01 0.54 -0.01 0.4 215 290 134 194 0.33 0.24 0.18
Objective Behavior Inventory 93 Went social (ballroom) dancing 0.39 0.44 0.05 0.35 214 289 135 190 0.42 0.23 0.38
Objective Behavior Inventory 94 Polished your toenails 0.3 0.48 0.28 0.44 215 292 135 194 0.41 0.38 0.06
Objective Behavior Inventory 96 Played Tic-Tac-Toe, Hangman’s Noose, or similar games in class 0.21 0.32 0.12 0.2 215 291 135 193 0.27 0.17 0.2
Objective Behavior Inventory 98 Took dancing lessons 0.51 0.33 0.18 0.37 215 291 135 194 0.41 0.29 0.24
Objective Behavior Inventory 100 Repaired or worked on a car 0.52 0.26 0.31 0.36 215 291 135 194 0.38 0.34 0.08
Objective Behavior Inventory 101 Changed clothes during the day (exclude gyms or athletics) 0.14 0.24 0.15 0.09 215 292 135 195 0.2 0.11 0.18
Objective Behavior Inventory 102 Baby sat 0.62 0.6 0.51 0.46 215 292 135 194 0.61 0.48 0.26
Objective Behavior Inventory 103 Performed [fraternity] pledge-duties 0.31 0.37 0.04 0.39 212 282 133 190 0.34 0.25 0.18
Objective Behavior Inventory 105 Sang in a church choir 0.68 0.71 0.53 0.65 215 291 135 195 0.7 0.6 0.2
Objective Behavior Inventory 106 Sang in a school choir 0.71 0.75 0.49 0.61 214 292 134 194 0.73 0.56 0.34
Objective Behavior Inventory 107 Sang in a small ensemble (trio, quartet, etc.) 0.65 0.55 0.35 0.53 215 292 135 195 0.59 0.46 0.26
Objective Behavior Inventory 108 Took golf lessons 0.15 0.61 0.48 0.42 215 291 135 195 0.44 0.45 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 109 Bought a popular or jazz record 0.57 0.48 0.43 0.4 215 291 135 194 0.52 0.41 0.22
Objective Behavior Inventory 110 Took horseback riding lessons 0.39 0.34 0.65 0.26 215 292 135 195 0.36 0.44 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 111 Cooked a complete meal 0.32 0.35 0.35 0.32 215 292 135 195 0.34 0.33 0.02
Objective Behavior Inventory 112 Cleaned and dusted your room 0.45 0.66 0.28 0 215 291 135 195 0.58 0.12 0.92
Objective Behavior Inventory 114 Worked backstage on a play 0.37 0.57 0.29 0.4 214 292 135 195 0.49 0.36 0.26
Objective Behavior Inventory 115 Did voluntary work for a hospital or service organization (Red Cross, Heart Fund, etc.) 0.29 0.52 0.31 0.3 215 292 135 194 0.43 0.3 0.26
Objective Behavior Inventory 116 Arranged a date for a friend 0.42 0.55 0.38 0.47 215 291 135 193 0.5 0.43 0.14
Objective Behavior Inventory 117 Attended athletic events 0.33 0.38 -0.03 -0.03 215 292 135 195 0.36 -0.03 0.78
Objective Behavior Inventory 118 Worked on a number painting 0.24 0.52 0.12 0.33 215 292 133 195 0.41 0.25 0.32
Objective Behavior Inventory 119 Made bets on a game or other event (not cards or dice) 0.45 0.21 0.43 0.14 215 291 135 195 0.32 0.26 0.12
Objective Behavior Inventory 120 Played charades 0.48 0.36 0.44 0.42 214 289 134 194 0.41 0.43 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 121 Attended a burlesque show 0.63 -0.01 0.43 0.59 215 292 135 195 0.3 0.53 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 122 Went to a party with a date 0.49 0.63 0.47 0.42 215 290 134 195 0.57 0.44 0.26
Objective Behavior Inventory 123 Went to an overnight or week-end party 0.31 0.47 0.26 0.32 213 291 135 194 0.41 0.3 0.22
Objective Behavior Inventory 124 Went square dancing 0.57 0.47 0.58 0.49 215 292 135 195 0.51 0.53 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 125 Cared for a potted plant 0.2 0.47 0.24 0.21 215 290 134 194 0.36 0.22 0.28
Objective Behavior Inventory 127 Bought a paper-back book 0.33 0.59 0.38 0.44 213 292 134 195 0.49 0.42 0.14
Objective Behavior Inventory 128 Bought a classical or semi-classical record 0.33 0.5 0.13 0.48 215 291 135 195 0.43 0.35 0.16
Objective Behavior Inventory 129 Chewed gum 0.37 0.32 0.08 -0.04 215 292 135 195 0.34 0.01 0.66
Objective Behavior Inventory 131 Rode in a sports car 0.36 0.54 0.3 0.5 215 292 135 195 0.47 0.42 0.1
Objective Behavior Inventory 132 Went sightseeing 0.3 0.36 0.36 0.18 215 291 135 195 0.33 0.26 0.14
Objective Behavior Inventory 133 Practiced on a musical instrument 0.56 0.62 0.4 0.5 215 292 135 195 0.6 0.46 0.28
Objective Behavior Inventory 135 Talked in a language other than English 0.49 0.56 0.32 0.34 215 292 135 194 0.53 0.33 0.4
Objective Behavior Inventory 136 Conducted a choir, band or orchestra 0.3 0.36 0.4 0.32 215 292 135 195 0.33 0.35 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 137 Took voice lessons -0.03 0.5 -0.01 0.56 215 292 135 195 0.29 0.35 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 138 Crocheted 0.2 0.49 -0.03 0.2 214 290 132 195 0.38 0.11 0.54
Objective Behavior Inventory 140 Tutored someone for money 0.35 0.48 0.36 -0.02 215 292 135 195 0.43 0.14 0.58
Objective Behavior Inventory 141 Tutored someone for free 0.31 0.52 0.12 0.27 212 291 134 194 0.44 0.21 0.46
Objective Behavior Inventory 142 Wrote articles for a school paper, yearbook, or similar publication 0.46 0.47 0.25 0.48 215 292 135 194 0.47 0.39 0.16
Objective Behavior Inventory 143 Went to a night club with a floor show 0.6 0.5 0.42 0.54 215 292 135 195 0.54 0.49 0.1
Objective Behavior Inventory 144 Took photographs 0.32 0.4 0.21 0.38 215 292 135 195 0.37 0.31 0.12
Objective Behavior Inventory 145 Built or flew a model airplane 0.11 -0.02 0.2 0.49 215 292 135 195 0.04 0.38 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 147 Participated in a student demonstration (strike, water-fight, etc.) 0.28 0.3 0.13 0.51 215 291 135 193 0.29 0.37 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 148 Attended an orchestra concert 0.41 0.49 0.42 0.41 215 292 135 195 0.46 0.41 0.1
Objective Behavior Inventory 149 Attended a formal dance 0.56 0.64 0.41 0.63 213 292 135 195 0.61 0.55 0.12
Objective Behavior Inventory 150 Read magazines at a newsstand without buying any 0.42 0.4 0.32 0.23 215 292 135 195 0.41 0.27 0.28
Objective Behavior Inventory 151 Worked for a club or organization 0.4 0.38 0.22 0.3 215 292 135 194 0.39 0.27 0.24
Objective Behavior Inventory 152 Played football (touch or tackle) 0.41 0.42 0.24 0.35 215 290 134 195 0.42 0.31 0.22
Objective Behavior Inventory 153 Bowled 0.51 0.6 0.51 0.36 215 291 134 195 0.56 0.42 0.28
Objective Behavior Inventory 154 Went to the movies 0.45 0.49 0.43 0.68 215 289 134 195 0.47 0.59 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 155 Developed pictures (darkroom work) 0.63 0.66 0.12 0.44 215 291 133 195 0.65 0.32 0.66
Objective Behavior Inventory 156 Attended a professional stage play 0.46 0.5 0.34 0.38 215 291 131 195 0.48 0.36 0.24
Objective Behavior Inventory 157 Solicited advertising for a school paper, yearbook, or similar publication 0.48 0.58 0.4 0.44 215 291 133 194 0.54 0.42 0.24
Objective Behavior Inventory 158 Went swimming 0.56 0.52 0.22 0.57 214 289 134 195 0.54 0.44 0.2
Objective Behavior Inventory 159 Participated in field events (shot put, javelin, high jump, etc.) 0.39 0.43 0.23 0.45 215 291 134 194 0.41 0.36 0.1
Objective Behavior Inventory 160 Saw a foreign movie 0.43 0.43 0.32 0.44 212 288 134 195 0.43 0.39 0.08
Objective Behavior Inventory 161 Rode a bicycle 0.44 0.51 0.19 0.51 215 291 134 195 0.48 0.39 0.18
Objective Behavior Inventory 162 Attended a horse race 0.66 0.52 0.36 0.59 212 291 134 195 0.58 0.5 0.16
Objective Behavior Inventory 163 Played tennis 0.64 0.66 0.45 0.57 215 290 134 195 0.65 0.52 0.26
Objective Behavior Inventory 165 Attended a student stage play 0.3 0.44 0.25 0.19 214 291 134 194 0.38 0.21 0.34
Objective Behavior Inventory 166 Drove a car 0.88 0.64 0.57 0.51 215 290 134 195 0.77 0.54 0.46
Objective Behavior Inventory 167 Went boating 0.5 0.44 0.32 0.5 215 291 134 195 0.47 0.43 0.08
Objective Behavior Inventory 168 Washed dishes 0.35 0.66 0.2 0 215 291 134 195 0.54 0.08 0.92
Objective Behavior Inventory 169 Worked crossword puzzles 0.27 0.38 0.22 0.3 215 291 134 194 0.33 0.27 0.12
Objective Behavior Inventory 171 Watched TV -0.01 0.21 0.11 0.3 215 291 134 195 0.12 0.22 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 172 Put up decorations for a party 0.39 0.54 0.27 0.25 215 291 134 195 0.48 0.26 0.44
Objective Behavior Inventory 173 Attended a ballet performance 0.43 0.48 0.65 0.18 215 291 133 195 0.46 0.4 0.12
Objective Behavior Inventory 175 Visited a person in a hospital 0.58 0.55 0.28 0.52 214 290 134 194 0.56 0.43 0.26
Objective Behavior Inventory 176 Obtained a book or journal from the library 0.03 0.33 0.11 -0.03 215 291 134 194 0.21 0.03 0.36
Objective Behavior Inventory 177 Read the Bible 0.34 0.52 0.31 0.47 215 291 134 195 0.45 0.41 0.08
Objective Behavior Inventory 178 Danced the twist 0.39 0.56 0.55 0.26 215 291 134 194 0.49 0.39 0.2
Objective Behavior Inventory 180 Participated in a drag race 0.53 0.38 0.37 0.4 215 290 134 195 0.45 0.39 0.12
Objective Behavior Inventory 181 Attended a professional prize fight or wrestling match 0.55 0.35 0.47 0.27 215 291 134 195 0.44 0.36 0.16
Objective Behavior Inventory 182 Flew in an airplane 0.51 0.49 0.49 0.51 215 290 134 194 0.5 0.5 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 183 Attended a fashion show 0.37 0.56 0.6 0.55 214 291 134 195 0.48 0.57 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 184 Visited a museum 0.45 0.51 0.28 0.41 215 291 134 194 0.49 0.36 0.26
Objective Behavior Inventory 185 Played baseball or softball 0.43 0.48 0.32 0.28 215 291 132 195 0.46 0.3 0.32
Objective Behavior Inventory 186 Went on a camping trip 0.54 0.61 0.55 0.51 215 291 133 195 0.58 0.53 0.1
Objective Behavior Inventory 188 Went hunting 0.72 0.54 0.56 0.47 215 291 133 195 0.62 0.51 0.22
Objective Behavior Inventory 189 Discussed religion with friends 0.15 0.41 0.05 0.07 215 291 133 195 0.3 0.06 0.48
Objective Behavior Inventory 191 Talked for over 30 minutes at a time on the telephone 0.49 0.46 0.21 0.41 214 291 133 195 0.47 0.33 0.28
Objective Behavior Inventory 193 Participated in a wedding (usher, bridesmaid, etc.) 0.69 0.65 0.42 0.68 215 290 133 195 0.67 0.59 0.16
Objective Behavior Inventory 194 Bought stamps for a stamp collection 0.25 0.26 0.34 0.11 215 291 134 195 0.26 0.21 0.1
Objective Behavior Inventory 196 Twirled a baton 0.22 0.43 0.22 0.5 214 290 133 194 0.34 0.39 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 197 Wrote letters to friends your own age 0.42 0.39 0.2 0.25 215 290 134 194 0.4 0.23 0.34
Objective Behavior Inventory 198 Went window shopping 0.27 0.18 0.2 0.36 215 290 134 195 0.22 0.3 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 201 Painted a picture (oil, watercolor, pastel, etc.) 0.24 0.39 0.1 0.26 214 289 134 194 0.33 0.2 0.26
Objective Behavior Inventory 202 Played cards (bridge, pinochle, etc.) 0.29 0.47 0.25 0.34 215 291 133 195 0.4 0.3 0.2
Objective Behavior Inventory 203 Told jokes 0.09 0.29 -0.02 0.22 213 290 134 93 0.21 0.08 0.26
Objective Behavior Inventory 204 Listened to records in a store without buying 0.37 0.46 0.24 0.38 215 291 134 195 0.42 0.32 0.2
Objective Behavior Inventory 205 Played in a dance or jazz band 0.56 0.44 0.49 0.7 213 291 133 194 0.49 0.62 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 206 Ate Chinese food 0.48 0.61 0.36 0.5 215 290 134 195 0.56 0.45 0.22
Objective Behavior Inventory 210 Was consulted for help or advice by someone with a personal problem 0.28 0.22 0.06 0.09 215 292 134 195 0.25 0.08 0.34
Objective Behavior Inventory 217 Wrote a letter to a pen-pal whom you have never met in person 0.16 0.47 0.18 0.31 215 292 134 195 0.35 0.26 0.18
Objective Behavior Inventory 218 Did an imitation or impersonation of another person 0.23 0.31 0.2 0.21 215 292 134 194 0.28 0.21 0.14
Objective Behavior Inventory 222 Attended a church or service of a religion other than your own 0.37 0.54 0.5 0.42 214 291 134 194 0.47 0.45 0.04
Objective Behavior Inventory 223 Placed a long distance call of over 500 miles 0.38 0.4 0.28 0.17 215 290 134 194 0.39 0.22 0.34
Objective Behavior Inventory 224 Went on a double date 0.67 0.63 0.29 0.32 214 292 134 194 0.65 0.31 0.68
Objective Behavior Inventory 225 Wrote a love-letter 0.38 0.37 0.25 0.27 214 290 134 194 0.37 0.26 0.22
Objective Behavior Inventory 227 Wrote a letter-to-the-editor 0.35 0.65 0.33 0.29 215 292 134 195 0.54 0.31 0.46
Objective Behavior Inventory 229 Played a slot machine 0.18 0.34 0.4 0.41 215 292 134 195 0.27 0.41 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 231 Read poetry that was not required reading 0.4 0.46 0.15 0.29 215 292 134 195 0.44 0.23 0.42
Objective Behavior Inventory 232 Wrote poetry on your own initiative 0.17 0.3 0.08 0.11 213 291 134 193 0.25 0.1 0.3
Objective Behavior Inventory 237 Borrowed clothing from a friend 0.48 0.45 0.42 0.43 214 292 134 194 0.46 0.43 0.06
Objective Behavior Inventory 240 Attended a religious revival meeting 0.59 0.7 0.5 0.57 215 292 132 193 0.66 0.54 0.24
Objective Behavior Inventory 241 Looked something up in an encyclopedia -0.01 0 -0.02 0.32 215 291 134 194 0 0.19 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 242 Bought or sold corporate stocks 0.46 0.28 0.46 0.49 215 291 134 194 0.36 0.48 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 243 Baked a cake or pie from scratch (no mixes) 0.28 0.54 -0.03 0.32 215 292 134 195 0.44 0.18 0.52
Objective Behavior Inventory 244 Wore sun glasses after dark 0.46 0.39 0.15 0.19 214 292 133 191 0.42 0.17 0.5
Objective Behavior Inventory 246 Ate a steak cooked rare 0.25 0.42 0.24 0.23 215 292 134 195 0.35 0.23 0.24
Objective Behavior Inventory 249 Entered a speech or debate contest 0.36 0.41 0.21 0.39 215 290 133 195 0.39 0.32 0.14
Objective Behavior Inventory 250 Had your back rubbed 0.26 0.38 0.14 0.34 214 291 134 195 0.33 0.26 0.14
Objective Behavior Inventory 254 Produced a work of art (not for a course) 0.24 0.29 0.05 0.19 214 292 133 195 0.27 0.13 0.28
Objective Behavior Inventory 260 Visited a friend’s home overnight 0.47 0.62 0.3 0.4 213 292 135 194 0.56 0.36 0.4
Objective Behavior Inventory 261 Visited a relative’s home overnight 0.48 0.53 0.42 0.44 215 291 135 194 0.51 0.43 0.16
Objective Behavior Inventory 262 Had a friend visit your home overnight 0.61 0.6 0.45 0.46 215 292 135 193 0.6 0.46 0.28
Objective Behavior Inventory 263 Started a conversation with strangers 0.3 0.28 0.15 -0.01 215 292 135 194 0.29 0.06 0.46
Objective Behavior Inventory 264 Went to the movies alone 0.43 0.36 0.38 0.35 214 290 135 192 0.39 0.36 0.06
Objective Behavior Inventory 265 Tried on clothes in a store without buying anything 0.4 0.4 0.23 0.16 215 292 135 192 0.4 0.19 0.42
Objective Behavior Inventory 266 Pushed a stalled car (other than your own) 0.38 0.37 0.4 0.33 215 290 135 194 0.37 0.36 0.02
Objective Behavior Inventory 267 Listened to classic or semi-classical music 0.31 0.41 0.25 0.12 215 292 135 193 0.37 0.17 0.4
Objective Behavior Inventory 269 Played a pinball machine 0.39 0.41 0.36 0.37 215 292 135 194 0.4 0.37 0.06
Objective Behavior Inventory 270 Went skin diving 0.43 0.49 0.54 -0.01 215 292 135 194 0.47 0.24 0.46
Objective Behavior Inventory 271 Attended an art exhibition 0.26 0.39 0.29 0.35 215 291 135 194 0.34 0.33 0.02
Objective Behavior Inventory 272 Played polo (indoor or outdoor) 0.16 0 -0.02 0.39 214 292 135 194 0.07 0.23 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 273 Went skeet or trapshooting 0.55 0.39 0.34 -0.01 214 291 135 194 0.46 0.14 0.64
Objective Behavior Inventory 275 Acted in a play 0.37 0.48 0.53 0.44 215 292 135 194 0.43 0.48 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 276 Tried to hypnotize someone 0.38 0.45 0.1 0.23 215 292 135 194 0.42 0.18 0.48
Objective Behavior Inventory 277 Taught Sunday school 0.75 0.69 0.34 0.59 215 291 135 193 0.72 0.5 0.44
Objective Behavior Inventory 281 Played basketball 0.47 0.6 0.07 0.42 215 292 135 194 0.55 0.28 0.54
Objective Behavior Inventory 282 Mended clothing 0.3 0.12 0.1 0.01 215 291 135 194 0.2 0.05 0.3
Objective Behavior Inventory 283 Discussed sports with friends 0.38 0.3 0.18 0.39 214 292 135 194 0.33 0.31 0.04
Objective Behavior Inventory 285 Had a blind date 0.25 0.42 0.13 0.24 215 291 135 193 0.35 0.2 0.3
Objective Behavior Inventory 288 Wore formal clothing (evening gown, tuxedo, dinner jacket, etc.) 0.51 0.6 0.31 0.51 215 289 135 194 0.56 0.43 0.26
Objective Behavior Inventory 289 Told a dirty joke to male friends 0.35 0.56 0.34 0.37 215 288 135 194 0.48 0.36 0.24
Objective Behavior Inventory 290 Told a dirty joke to female friends 0.38 0.55 0.33 0.42 215 289 135 194 0.48 0.38 0.2
Objective Behavior Inventory 295 Lent clothing to a friend 0.5 0.41 0.4 0.4 215 289 135 194 0.45 0.4 0.1
Objective Behavior Inventory 296 Played Monopoly, Scrabble, or similar games 0.33 0.39 0.42 0.34 215 291 135 194 0.36 0.37 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 298 Participated in a science contest or talent search 0.5 0.39 0.25 0.36 214 290 135 194 0.44 0.32 0.24
Objective Behavior Inventory 300 Played in a concert orchestra 0.5 0.59 0.31 0.4 215 291 135 194 0.55 0.36 0.38
Objective Behavior Inventory 301 Lifted weights 0.42 0.39 0.35 0.39 214 290 135 194 0.4 0.37 0.06
Objective Behavior Inventory 302 Played table tennis or ping-pong 0.26 0.42 0.45 0.4 215 290 135 194 0.35 0.42 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 303 Worked on Hi-Fi or radio equipment 0.37 0.06 0.22 0.07 215 291 133 194 0.2 0.13 0.14
Objective Behavior Inventory 304 Dined by candle light 0.38 0.49 0.27 0.26 214 290 135 194 0.44 0.26 0.36
Objective Behavior Inventory 305 Participated in a debate or speech contest 0.33 0.44 0.07 0.47 214 291 134 194 0.39 0.32 0.14
Objective Behavior Inventory 306 Played soccer 0.43 0.44 0.31 0.37 215 291 135 194 0.44 0.35 0.18
Objective Behavior Inventory 307 Played in a marching band 0.69 0.78 0.59 0.55 215 291 135 194 0.74 0.57 0.34
Objective Behavior Inventory 309 Went fishing 0.54 0.42 0.41 0.47 215 291 135 194 0.47 0.45 0.04
Objective Behavior Inventory 311 Led a cheering section 0.27 0.47 0.19 0.32 215 291 135 194 0.39 0.27 0.24
Objective Behavior Inventory 313 Played Solitaire 0.46 0.55 0.35 0.4 215 290 135 194 0.51 0.38 0.26
Objective Behavior Inventory 314 Collected insect specimens 0.28 0.33 -0.07 0.28 215 291 135 194 0.31 0.14 0.34
Objective Behavior Inventory 315 Ate candy -0.02 0.66 0.11 -0.02 215 291 135 194 0.42 0.03 0.78
Objective Behavior Inventory 317 Rode on a roller coaster, Ferris wheel, merry go round, or similar ride 0.51 0.44 0.24 0.3 215 292 135 195 0.47 0.28 0.38
Objective Behavior Inventory 319 Studied with the radio, record player, or TV on 0.45 0.23 0.34 0 215 292 135 194 0.33 0.14 0.38
Objective Behavior Inventory 321 Paid someone to polish your shoes 0.36 0.25 0.35 -0.04 215 292 135 195 0.3 0.13 0.34
Objective Behavior Inventory 322 Cut your own hair 0.42 0.49 0.12 0.27 215 292 135 194 0.46 0.21 0.5
Objective Behavior Inventory 325 Spent an hour at a time daydreaming 0.17 0.26 0 0.3 215 292 135 194 0.22 0.18 0.08
Objective Behavior Inventory 329 Read in bed before going to sleep 0.39 0.54 0.41 0.17 215 292 135 195 0.48 0.27 0.42
Objective Behavior Inventory 331 Rode a horse 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.48 214 292 135 195 0.6 0.41 0.38
Objective Behavior Inventory 332 Obtained the autograph of a famous person 0.24 0.56 0.19 0.43 215 292 135 195 0.44 0.34 0.2
Objective Behavior Inventory 335 Dove from a diving board or tower more than 6 feet above the water 0.51 0.37 0.4 0.28 215 292 135 195 0.43 0.33 0.2
Objective Behavior Inventory 336 Jumped in a parachute 0 0 0 0 215 289 135 195 0 0 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 339 Ate 2 or more candy bars a day 0.28 0.47 0.23 0.26 215 291 135 195 0.39 0.25 0.28
Objective Behavior Inventory 344 Tried to convince someone to change his (her) religious beliefs 0.22 0.48 0.26 0.22 215 289 135 195 0.38 0.24 0.28
Objective Behavior Inventory 345 Tried to convince someone to change his (her) political or social beliefs 0.22 0.36 0.08 0.25 215 289 135 194 0.3 0.18 0.24
Objective Behavior Inventory 346 Practiced decorative or unusual handwriting 0.24 0.12 0.15 0.11 214 290 135 195 0.17 0.13 0.08
Objective Behavior Inventory 347 Took a bubble bath 0.28 0.49 0.2 0.26 215 290 135 195 0.41 0.24 0.34
Objective Behavior Inventory 348 Read the editorial page of a newspaper 0.2 0.23 0.11 0.31 215 290 135 195 0.22 0.23 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 349 Made a new friend 0.13 0.28 -0.02 -0.01 215 291 135 195 0.22 -0.01 0.46
Objective Behavior Inventory 352 Took a long walk alone 0.38 0.38 0.15 0.3 214 290 135 195 0.38 0.24 0.28
Objective Behavior Inventory 353 Wrote a letter to a congressman 0.22 0.41 0.09 0.42 213 291 135 195 0.33 0.29 0.08
Objective Behavior Inventory 355 Took exercises 0.34 0.39 -0.02 -0.04 215 289 134 195 0.37 -0.03 0.8
Objective Behavior Inventory 357 Turned down an invitation for a date 0.55 0.58 0.33 0.42 214 290 135 195 0.57 0.38 0.38
Objective Behavior Inventory 358 Stayed out on a date after 2 A.M. 0.51 0.52 0.32 0.3 215 291 135 195 0.52 0.31 0.42
Objective Behavior Inventory 359 Read the Stock Market quotations 0.45 0.37 0.42 0.22 215 292 135 195 0.4 0.31 0.18
Objective Behavior Inventory 360 Fed a stray dog or cat 0.26 0.38 0.14 0.37 213 291 135 195 0.33 0.28 0.1
Objective Behavior Inventory 361 Washed and/or polished a car 0.45 0.42 0.22 0.54 215 292 135 194 0.43 0.42 0.02
Objective Behavior Inventory 362 Ate breakfast in bed (not as a patient) 0.12 0.25 -0.03 0.38 215 292 135 195 0.2 0.22 0
Objective Behavior Inventory 363 Looked up a word in the dictionary 0 0 0 -0.01 215 292 134 195 0 -0.01 0.02
Objective Behavior Inventory 365 Confused people by pretending to be your twin 0.35 0.39 0.3 0.5 214 291 135 195 0.37 0.42 0
Life Goals 371 Becoming accomplished in one of the performing arts (acting, dancing, etc.) 0.23 0.44 0.05 0.22 211 285 130 189 0.35 0.15 0.4
Life Goals 375 Becoming an outstanding athlete 0.43 0.36 0.25 0.14 212 289 134 193 0.39 0.19 0.4
Life Goals 377 Becoming a community leader 0.41 0.36 0.23 0.27 213 288 133 193 0.38 0.25 0.26
Life Goals 384 Writing good fiction (poems, novels, short stories, etc.) 0.31 0.39 0.09 0.01 209 286 131 193 0.36 0.04 0.64
Life Goals 385 Being well read 0.26 0.32 0.14 0.33 207 290 132 194 0.3 0.26 0.08
Life Goals 388 Keeping in good physical condition 0.25 0.18 0.04 0.21 214 288 132 189 0.21 0.14 0.14
Life Goals 389 Producing good artistic work (painting, sculpture, decorating, etc.) 0.29 0.42 0.04 0.15 214 285 133 192 0.37 0.11 0.52
Life Goals 390 Becoming an accomplished musician (performer or composer) 0.33 0.6 0.32 0.4 212 289 131 188 0.5 0.37 0.26
Life Goals 392 Keeping up to date with political affairs 0.38 0.4 0.19 0.25 213 291 134 193 0.39 0.23 0.32
Life Goals 400 Engaging in exciting and stimulating activities 0.21 0.29 0.03 0.14 214 288 133 191 0.26 0.1 0.32
Dating 406 Frequency of dates: Casual coke [soda], coffee or study dates per month 0.13 0.38 0.19 0.21 189 271 126 186 0.28 0.2 0.16
Dating 407 Frequency of dates: Informal dates to movies, student gathers etc per month 0.26 0.5 0.25 0.24 200 277 131 186 0.41 0.24 0.34
Dating 408 Frequency of dates: Formal dates to dances and big parties per month 0.26 0.41 0.1 0.44 194 274 125 179 0.35 0.31 0.08
Done During Past Year 412 Took a course over and above requirements 0.14 0.33 0.23 0.13 214 290 134 194 0.25 0.17 0.16
Done During Past Year 414 Became pinned [going steady] or engaged 0.29 0.37 0.01 0.08 215 289 134 193 0.34 0.05 0.58
Done During Past Year 417 Donated money to a charity 0.29 0.35 0.17 0.17 210 289 133 191 0.33 0.17 0.32
Done During Past Year 418 Worked for the election of a political party or candidate 0.41 0.4 0.1 0.3 215 291 134 193 0.4 0.22 0.36
Done During Past Year 419 Contributed money to a political party or candidate 0.15 0.2 0.27 -0.02 214 290 134 191 0.18 0.1 0.16
Done During Past Year 425 Signed a petition 0.32 0.39 0.32 0.42 215 291 133 191 0.36 0.38 0
Done During Past Year 426 Customized an automobile 0.45 -0.01 0.1 -0.01 207 285 134 190 0.2 0.04 0.32
Done During Past Year 427 Read one or more non-fiction books that were not required reading 0.16 0.36 0.18 0.22 215 291 134 193 0.28 0.2 0.16
Done During Past Year 428 Painted a room or house 0.31 0.58 0.39 0.47 215 291 134 193 0.48 0.44 0.08
Done During Past Year 429 Got a tattoo 0 0 0 0 215 291 133 193 0 0 0
Done During Past Year 431 Set up a schedule with specific times for various activities 0.28 0.35 0.01 0.22 215 288 134 193 0.32 0.14 0.36
Done During Past Year 432 Went to a carnival, amusement park or circus 0.32 0.39 0.35 0.26 215 290 133 193 0.36 0.3 0.12
Done During Past Year 434 Made your own Christmas cards 0.16 0.54 0.25 0.26 215 289 134 192 0.39 0.26 0.26
Done During Past Year 435 Grew a beard 0.32 0 0.23 0 214 291 134 192 0.14 0.1 0.08
Done During Past Year 436 Bleached or dyed your hair 0.54 0.63 0.27 0.44 215 291 134 191 0.59 0.37 0.44
Done During Past Year 437 Wore a wig 0.39 0.19 -0.01 0.31 214 289 134 191 0.28 0.18 0.2
Done During Past Year 443 Visited a foreign country 0.35 0.57 0.55 0.66 212 287 134 191 0.48 0.62 0
Done During Past Year 446 Read one or more novels that were not required 0.26 0.47 0.28 0.28 215 287 134 191 0.38 0.28 0.2
Done During Past Year 447 Went on a vacation trip with friends your own age 0.38 0.5 0.32 0.47 214 288 134 191 0.45 0.41 0.08
Done During Past Year 449 Donated blood 0.7 0 -0.01 0 215 287 134 191 0.36 0 0.72
Done During Past Year 454 Read the biography of a famous person 0.11 0.13 0.11 0.13 213 284 133 188 0.12 0.12 0
Done During Past Year 456 Changed your hair style 0.29 0.36 0.09 0.02 212 289 134 190 0.33 0.05 0.56
Items In The Home 575 Carpentry tools (hand) 0.43 0.39 -0.03 0.14 215 292 132 194 0.41 0.07 0.68
Items In The Home 576 Power tools 0.75 0.68 0.71 0.56 215 290 132 193 0.71 0.63 0.16
Items In The Home 577 Library of more than 200 books 0.64 0.74 0.62 0.71 214 288 132 192 0.7 0.68 0.04
Items In The Home 578 One or more musical instruments 0.75 0.75 0.73 0.82 215 291 132 193 0.75 0.79 0
Items In The Home 579 Some art supplies or equipment 0.41 0.54 0.32 0.36 214 289 132 192 0.49 0.34 0.3
Items In The Home 580 Sports equipment 0.26 0.54 -0.03 0.42 215 292 132 193 0.43 0.25 0.36
Items In The Home 581 A sewing machine 0.9 0.86 0.91 0.94 215 291 132 194 0.88 0.93 0
Items In The Home 582 Photographic equipment 0.26 0.43 0.31 0.21 215 291 132 193 0.36 0.25 0.22
Items In The Home 583 A photographic dark room 0.65 0.74 0.68 0.95 213 288 129 194 0.7 0.89 0
Items In The Home 584 Fishing or hunting equipment 0.83 0.75 0.62 0.83 215 292 130 194 0.79 0.76 0.06
Items In The Home 585 A collection of classical records 0.63 0.68 0.47 0.7 213 291 132 194 0.66 0.62 0.08
Items In The Home 586 A Hi-Fi or Stereo set 0.74 0.75 0.73 0.79 214 291 132 194 0.75 0.77 0
Items In The Home 587 Reproductions of famous paintings 0.41 0.65 0.58 0.49 215 292 132 192 0.56 0.53 0.06
Items In The Home 588 Examples of original art work (paintings, sculpture, ceramics, etc.) 0.33 0.36 0.34 0.42 215 291 132 193 0.35 0.39 0
Items In The Home 589 A foreign cook book 0.42 0.65 0.51 0.63 214 290 131 192 0.56 0.58 0
Items In The Home 590 A motor boat or sail boat 0.84 0.86 0.75 0.91 215 292 132 193 0.85 0.86 0
Items In The Home 591 A motorcycle or motorbike 0.82 0.49 0.79 0.66 215 292 132 193 0.66 0.72 0
Items In The Home 592 A flower or vegetable garden 0.44 0.69 0.55 0.64 215 292 132 194 0.6 0.61 0
Items In The Home 593 A pet dog or cat 0.95 0.98 0.95 0.97 214 291 132 194 0.97 0.96 0.02
Items In The Home 594 Other animal pets 0.65 0.83 0.72 0.86 211 284 130 190 0.77 0.81 0
Items In The Home 595 A telescope 0.68 0.78 0.67 0.8 215 292 131 194 0.74 0.75 0
Items In The Home 596 Farm equipment 0.67 0.77 0.59 0.86 215 291 131 192 0.73 0.78 0
Items In The Home 597 Chemical laboratory equipment 0.52 0.59 0.49 0.52 215 291 131 192 0.56 0.51 0.1
Items In The Home 598 Electronic laboratory equipment 0.53 0.62 0.77 0.59 214 292 130 194 0.58 0.67 0
Items In The Home 599 Botany or zoology laboratory equipment 0.5 0.57 0.27 0.42 214 291 131 194 0.54 0.36 0.36
Items In The Home 600 A tape recorder 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.93 214 292 131 194 0.93 0.93 0
Items In The Home 601 A movie or slide projector 0.94 0.9 0.88 0.89 214 292 131 194 0.92 0.89 0.06
Items In The Home 602 Leather working tools 0.66 0.58 0.39 0.65 213 290 131 193 0.62 0.56 0.12
Items In The Home 603 A typewriter 0.82 0.8 0.65 0.7 214 292 131 194 0.81 0.68 0.26
Items In The Home 604 An encyclopedia set 0.74 0.81 0.85 0.75 214 292 131 194 0.78 0.8 0
Items In The Home 605 Automotive tools or work shop 0.47 0.46 0.43 0.47 214 289 131 193 0.46 0.45 0.02
Items In The Home 606 An unabridged dictionary 0.43 0.43 0.34 0.37 214 291 131 190 0.43 0.36 0.14
Items In The Home 607 5 or more magazine subscriptions 0.58 0.66 0.52 0.76 214 290 131 194 0.63 0.68 0
Items In The Home 608 A world atlas 0.58 0.58 0.61 0.71 213 288 131 193 0.58 0.67 0
Items In The Home 609 Books in a foreign language 0.41 0.67 0.45 0.67 214 291 131 191 0.57 0.59 0
Items In The Home 610 A stop watch 0.68 0.61 0.88 0.64 214 290 131 194 0.64 0.76 0
Items In The Home 611 A tent or sleeping bag 0.85 0.77 0.84 0.87 212 292 131 194 0.81 0.86 0
Items In The Home 612 A barometer 0.69 0.68 0.71 0.76 213 290 131 193 0.68 0.74 0
Items In The Home 613 An FM radio 0.59 0.61 0.58 0.67 214 287 131 191 0.6 0.64 0
Items In The Home 614 2 or more cars 0.86 0.85 0.95 0.93 214 292 131 194 0.85 0.94 0
Items In The Home 615 A television set 1 0.91 0.92 0.92 215 292 131 194 1 0.92 0.16
Items In Room 811 The walls are blank (by choice) 0.35 0.54 0.4 0.28 216 293 135 195 0.46 0.33 0.26
Items In Room 812 Pennants 0.67 0.68 0.49 0.64 216 293 135 195 0.68 0.58 0.2
Items In Room 813 Pin-ups 0.51 0.41 0.2 0.51 216 293 135 195 0.45 0.39 0.12
Items In Room 814 Maps 0.55 0.51 0.62 0.42 216 293 135 195 0.53 0.51 0.04
Items In Room 815 A [hanging] mobile 0.31 0.55 0.23 0.32 216 293 135 195 0.46 0.28 0.36
Items In Room 816 Quotations and mottoes 0.5 0.59 0.25 0.44 216 293 135 195 0.55 0.37 0.36
Items In Room 817 Scientific models 0.31 0.33 0.08 0.32 216 293 135 195 0.32 0.22 0.2
Items In Room 818 Religious articles 0.58 0.65 0.33 0.64 216 293 135 195 0.62 0.53 0.18
Items In Room 819 Diplomas 0.47 0.41 0.25 0.49 216 293 135 195 0.44 0.4 0.08
Items In Room 820 Scholarship trophies 0.43 0.51 0.2 0.24 216 293 135 195 0.48 0.22 0.52
Items In Room 821 calendars or schedules 0.52 0.5 0.34 0.43 216 293 135 195 0.51 0.39 0.24
Items In Room 822 Abstract paintings 0.6 0.49 0.35 0.43 216 293 135 195 0.54 0.4 0.28
Items In Room 823 Other paintings or drawings 0.5 0.52 0.35 0.51 216 293 135 195 0.51 0.45 0.12
Items In Room 824 Photographs of friends 0.52 0.45 0.2 0.51 216 293 135 195 0.48 0.39 0.18
Items In Room 825 Sculpture 0.41 0.47 0.25 0.24 216 293 135 195 0.45 0.24 0.42
Items In Room 826 Jokes 0.63 0.24 0.21 0.38 216 293 135 195 0.43 0.31 0.24
Items In Room 827 Medals 0.44 0.41 0.39 0.4 216 293 135 195 0.42 0.4 0.04
Items In Room 828 Biological charts 0.39 0.66 0.66 0 216 293 135 195 0.56 0.31 0.5
Items In Room 829 Flags 0.42 0.42 0.45 0.53 216 293 135 195 0.42 0.5 0
Items In Room 830 Sports trophies 0.45 0.53 0.47 0.47 216 293 135 195 0.5 0.47 0.06
Items In Room 831 Sports equipment 0.51 0.27 0.12 0.23 216 293 135 195 0.38 0.19 0.38
Honors 1000 Did an independent, scientific experiment (not a course assignment) 0.32 0.22 0.12 0.18 216 293 135 195 0.26 0.16 0.2
Honors 1002 Invented a patentable device 0 0 0 0 216 293 135 195 0 0 0
Honors 1003 Had a paper published in a scientific journal -0.01 0 0 0 216 293 135 195 0 0 0
Honors 1004 Built a piece of equipment or laboratory apparatus on my own (not course work) 0.21 0.17 0.19 -0.02 216 293 135 195 0.19 0.07 0.24
Honors 1005 Participated in a scientific contest or talent search 0.49 0.43 0.22 0.3 216 293 135 195 0.46 0.27 0.38
Honors 1011 Won a prize for any other scientific work or study 0.33 0.25 0.29 0.18 216 293 135 195 0.28 0.23 0.1
Honors 1012 Placed first, second or third in a: national speech or debate contest 0 0 0 0 216 293 135 195 0 0 0
Honors 1013 Placed first, second or third in a: regional or state speech or debate contest 0.27 0.19 0.72 0.48 216 293 135 195 0.22 0.59 0
Honors 1014 Placed first, second or third in a: city or county speech or debate contest 0.16 0.24 -0.03 0.22 216 293 135 195 0.21 0.12 0.18
Honors 1015 Placed first, second or third in a: school speech or debate contest 0.41 0.47 0.11 0.1 216 293 135 195 0.45 0.1 0.7
Honors 1016 Had a leading role in one or more plays 0.41 0.39 0.38 0.08 216 293 135 195 0.4 0.21 0.38
Honors 1017 Had minor roles in one or more players 0.35 0.43 0.48 0.26 216 293 135 195 0.4 0.36 0.08
Honors 1018 Wrote a play 0.49 0.31 0.23 0.48 216 293 135 195 0.39 0.38 0.02
Honors 1019 Directed a play 0.79 0.36 -0.02 0.26 216 293 135 195 0.59 0.15 0.88
Honors 1020 Appeared on radio or TV as a performer 0.41 0.51 0.14 0.56 216 293 135 195 0.47 0.41 0.12
Honors 1021 Read for a part in a high school or church play 0.44 0.48 0.3 0.33 216 293 135 195 0.46 0.32 0.28
Honors 1022 Read for a part in a play which was not sponsored by my school or church 0.1 0.48 -0.05 0.48 216 293 135 195 0.33 0.28 0.1
Honors 1023 Organized a school political group or campaign 0.33 0.42 0.14 0.19 216 293 135 195 0.38 0.17 0.42
Honors 1024 Organized my own business or service 0.39 0.57 0.32 -0.01 216 293 135 195 0.5 0.13 0.74
Honors 1025 Received a Junior Achievement award 0.17 0.27 0.1 0.29 216 293 135 195 0.23 0.21 0.04
Honors 1026 Composed music which has been given at least one public performance -0.01 0.24 0.39 0 216 293 135 195 0.14 0.17 0
Honors 1027 Performed with a professional orchestra 0.32 0.44 0.23 -0.01 216 293 135 195 0.39 0.09 0.6
Honors 1028 Played in a school musical organization 0.71 0.65 0.57 0.5 216 293 135 195 0.68 0.53 0.3
Honors 1029 Played a musical instrument 0.57 0.65 0.5 0.64 216 293 135 195 0.62 0.59 0.06
Honors 1030 Played in a dance or jazz band for wages 0.47 0.33 0.31 -0.01 216 293 135 195 0.39 0.12 0.54
Honors 1031 Organized your own dance or jazz band 0.38 0 0.25 0 216 293 135 195 0.17 0.1 0.14
Honors 1032 Received a rating of Good or Excellent in a: national music contest 0.39 0.5 0.27 -0.01 216 293 135 195 0.45 0.11 0.68
Honors 1033 Received a rating of Good or Excellent in a: regional or state music contest 0.55 0.56 0.47 0.48 216 293 135 195 0.56 0.48 0.16
Honors 1034 Received a rating of Good or Excellent in a: city or county music contest 0.41 0.14 0.22 0.32 216 293 135 195 0.26 0.28 0
Honors 1035 Received a rating of Good or Excellent in a: school music contest 0.52 0.62 0.07 0.5 216 293 135 195 0.58 0.34 0.48
Honors 1036 Organized a singing group 0.45 0.53 0.3 0.28 216 293 135 195 0.5 0.29 0.42
Honors 1037 Directed (publicly) a band or orchestra 0.35 -0.01 0.27 0.49 216 293 135 195 0.15 0.41 0
Honors 1038 Exhibited a work of art (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A national art show -0.01 -0.01 0 0.32 216 293 135 195 -0.01 0.19 0
Honors 1039 Exhibited a work of art (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A regional or state art show -0.01 0.33 -0.01 0.16 216 293 135 195 0.19 0.09 0.2
Honors 1040 Exhibited a work of art (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A city or county art show -0.03 0.46 -0.05 0.21 216 293 135 195 0.27 0.11 0.32
Honors 1041 Exhibited a work of art (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A school art show 0.23 0.32 0.05 0.23 216 293 135 195 0.28 0.16 0.24
Honors 1042 Won a prize or award for an artistic creation (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A national art show 0 0.33 0 0 216 293 135 195 0.19 0 0.38
Honors 1043 Won a prize or award for an artistic creation (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A regional or state art show 0 -0.01 -0.01 -0.02 216 293 135 195 -0.01 -0.02 0.02
Honors 1044 Won a prize or award for an artistic creation (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A city or county art show -0.02 0.54 -0.01 0.12 216 293 135 195 0.33 0.07 0.52
Honors 1045 Won a prize or award for an artistic creation (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A school art show -0.02 0.27 -0.02 -0.03 216 293 135 195 0.15 -0.03 0.36
Honors 1046 Won a prize or award for a work published in a public newspaper or magazine -0.02 0.25 0.23 0.32 216 293 135 195 0.14 0.28 0
Honors 1047 Edited a school paper or literary magazine 0.19 0.34 0.08 0.27 216 293 135 195 0.28 0.19 0.18
Honors 1048 Won a literary award for creative writing 0.17 0.17 0.1 0.37 216 293 135 195 0.17 0.26 0
Honors 1049 Had poems, stories, essays or articles published in a school publication 0.43 0.47 0.15 0.4 216 293 135 195 0.45 0.3 0.3
Honors 1050 Wrote an original, but unpublished piece of creative writing on my own (not as part of a course) 0.32 0.33 0.14 0.4 216 293 135 195 0.33 0.3 0.06
Honors 1051 Published one or more issues of my own newspaper 0.39 0.39 -0.01 0.27 216 293 135 195 0.39 0.16 0.46
Honors 1052 Had poems, stories or articles published in a public newspaper or magazine (not school) 0.26 0.22 0.17 0.12 216 293 135 195 0.24 0.14 0.2
loehlin <- read.table(sep="|", quote="", file="loehlin.txt",
    colClasses=c("factor", "factor", "character", "numeric", "numeric", "numeric", "numeric",
                  "integer", "integer", "integer", "integer"), header=TRUE)
averageRviaZ <- function(r1, r2, n1, n2) { n <- n1+n2;
                 tanh(weighted.mean(c(atanh(r1), atanh(r2)), c(n1, n2))) }
averageRviaZ(0.39, 0.39, 216, 293)
# [1] 0.39
averageRviaZ(0.19, 0.34, 216, 293)
# [1] 0.2779414388
loehlin$Identical._r_ <- with(loehlin, round(digits=2,
    unlist(Map(averageRviaZ, Identical.Male._r_, Identical.Female._r_,
    Identical.Male._n_, Identical.Female._n_))))
loehlin$Fraternal._r_ <- with(loehlin, round(digits=2,
    unlist(Map(averageRviaZ, Fraternal.Male._r_, Fraternal.Female._r_,
    Fraternal.Male._n_, Fraternal.Female._n_))))
loehlin$H2 <- with(loehlin, unlist(Map(function(rmz, rdz) {
    round(digits=2, max(0.00, 2*(rmz-rdz)))}, Identical._r_, Fraternal._r_)))

summary(loehlin)
#                           Category         ID          Item           Identical.Male._r_   Identical.Female._r_ Fraternal.Male._r_
#  Objective Behavior Inventory :220    100   :  1   Length:376         Min.   :-0.0300000   Min.   :-0.0200000   Min.   :-0.0700000
#  Honors                       : 47    1000  :  1   Class :character   1st Qu.: 0.2600000   1st Qu.: 0.3575000   1st Qu.: 0.1375000
#  Items In The Home            : 41    1002  :  1   Mode  :character   Median : 0.3850000   Median : 0.4500000   Median : 0.2700000
#  Done During Past Year        : 22    1003  :  1                      Mean   : 0.3861702   Mean   : 0.4428723   Mean   : 0.2891489
#  Items In Room                : 21    1004  :  1                      3rd Qu.: 0.5100000   3rd Qu.: 0.5500000   3rd Qu.: 0.4100000
#  Time Diary                   : 12    1005  :  1                      Max.   : 1.0000000   Max.   : 0.9800000   Max.   : 0.9500000
#  (Other)                      : 13   (Other):370
#  Fraternal.Female._r_ Identical.Male._n_ Identical.Female._n_ Fraternal.Male._n_ Fraternal.Female._n_ Identical._r_
#  Min.   :-0.0400000   Min.   :189.0000   Min.   :264.0000     Min.   :122.0000   Min.   : 93.0000     Min.   :-0.0100000
#  1st Qu.: 0.2275000   1st Qu.:214.0000   1st Qu.:290.0000     1st Qu.:134.0000   1st Qu.:194.0000     1st Qu.: 0.3300000
#  Median : 0.3600000   Median :215.0000   Median :291.0000     Median :135.0000   Median :194.0000     Median : 0.4200000
#  Mean   : 0.3544149   Mean   :214.0984   Mean   :290.5293     Mean   :133.7713   Mean   :193.4282     Mean   : 0.4224468
#  3rd Qu.: 0.4800000   3rd Qu.:215.0000   3rd Qu.:292.0000     3rd Qu.:135.0000   3rd Qu.:195.0000     3rd Qu.: 0.5200000
#  Max.   : 0.9700000   Max.   :216.0000   Max.   :293.0000     Max.   :135.0000   Max.   :195.0000     Max.   : 1.0000000
#
#  Fraternal._r_              H2
#  Min.   :-0.0300000   Min.   :0.0000000
#  1st Qu.: 0.2000000   1st Qu.:0.0600000
#  Median : 0.3100000   Median :0.1800000
#  Mean   : 0.3311436   Mean   :0.2106383
#  3rd Qu.: 0.4300000   3rd Qu.:0.3200000
#  Max.   : 0.9600000   Max.   :0.9200000

write.table(quote=FALSE, sep=" | ", row.names=FALSE, file="loehlin2.txt", loehlin)

Waller et al 1995, Occupational and Leisure Time Interests, and Personality

Published in Assessing Individual Differences in Human Behavior: New Concepts, Methods, and Findings, Lubinski et al 1995:

Factor Sample Item
Intellectual Interests Reading or rereading literary classics
Politics Working with others on political or social issues
Socializing Getting together with a lively group of friends and acquaintances
Hunting-Fishing Hunting small game, rabbits, squirrels, etc.
Sierra Club Backpacking, hiking, camping out
Religion Doing work for your church or synagogue
Husbandry Rebuilding, repairing things (furniture, clothes, cars, machines, etc.)
Domestic Working with fabrics, yarn (sewing, knitting, crocheting, tailoring, etc.)
Passive Entertainment Watching TV adventure or comedy programs
Fitness Jogging or running for exercise
Gambling Betting on the horses, dog races, etc.
Police Calls-Fires Going to fires
The Arts Attending live theater or musicals
Foreign Travel Going on a cruise ship to interesting places
Reading Reading mystery or detective novels
Sports Fan Attending sporting events (ballgames, races, hockey, etc.)
Swinging [dancing] Nightlife (bars, nightclubs, discos, etc.)
Danger Seeking Risky pastimes (hang gliding, mountain climbing, surfing, etc.)

Table 2: 18 Leisure Time Interest Factors

[…]

A total of 768 pairs of Minnesota Registry twins were concordant in providing complete test data. Of these concordant pairs, 240 were asked to retake the Occupational Interests Inventory and the Leisure Time Interest Inventory between two to three years after the first administration; complete returns were obtained from both members of 198 pairs, 53 MZ and 52 DZ female pairs plus 49 MZ and 33 DZ male pairs. These data allowed us to investigate both the heritability and the stability of occupational and leisure time interests.

Quadratic regressions on age were computed for the interest scales separately by sex, and norms were constructed to permit the scale scores to be converted to age- and sex-corrected t-scores with a mean of 50 and SD of 10. This procedure partials out the effects of age and sex on the intraclass correlations and subsequent heritability estimates (see McGue & Bouchard 1984, for a justification of this procedure).

Tables 6 and 7 report the MZ and DZ intraclass correlations, heritabilities (h2h^2), and test-retest stabilities for the occupational interest and leisure time interest scales from this sample. The heritabilities were computed via Falconer’s formula: twice the difference between the MZ and DZ correlations. This method provides valid estimates of heritability when the data satisfy the following assumptions: (a) assortative mating is absent, (b) genetic effects are purely additive, and (c) gene-environment interaction is minimal. Even when these assumptions are not entirely valid, minor violations of the assumptions should not vitiate the general conclusions. However, when the MZ correlations are more than twice the value of the corresponding DZ correlations, the MZ correlation itself is the best estimate of heritability (these estimates are shown in parentheses in the tables). We do not present these data as final estimates of heritability, but only as evidence that genetic factors significantly influence expressed interests.

N of pairs: [listed separately from Table 7, due to formatting limitations]

  • Male MZ: 148
  • Male DZ: 119
  • Female MZ: 273
  • Female DZ: 228
  • MZA: 33 (~22 female/11 male)12
Factors MZ (male) DZ (male) Male h2h^2 Test-retest MZ & DZ (male) MZ (female) DZ (female) Female h2h^2 Test-retest MZ & DZ (female) MZA (M/F) h2h^2
Intellectual Interests 0.57 0.20 (0.57) 0.80 0.59 0.27 (0.59) 0.76 0.54
Politics 0.46 0.20 (0.46) 0.70 0.42 0.27 0.30 0.70 0.16
Socializing 0.50 0.14 (0.50) 0.67 0.39 0.21 0.36 0.70 0.42
Hunting-Fishing 0.67 0.39 0.56 0.87 0.48 0.26 0.44 0.75 0.42
Sierra Club 0.51 0.26 0.50 0.70 0.56 0.24 (0.56) 0.79 0.53
Religion 0.52 0.36 0.32 0.83 0.63 0.28 (0.63) 0.82 0.57
Husbandry 0.63 0.17 (0.63) 0.80 0.41 0.08 (0.41) 0.68 0.65
Domestic 0.47 0.25 0.44 0.73 0.46 0.21 (0.46) 0.83 0.46
Passive Entertainment 0.51 0.13 (0.51) 0.68 0.52 0.18 (0.52) 0.75 0.46
Fitness 0.49 0.13 (0.49) 0.79 0.56 0.23 (0.56) 0.71 0.41
Gambling 0.61 0.33 0.56 0.83 0.45 0.35 0.20 0.78 0.48
Police Calls-Fires 0.49 0.15 (0.49) 0.74 0.44 0.28 0.32 0.66 0.77
The Arts 0.50 0.18 (0.50) 0.78 0.47 0.21 (0.47) 0.76 0.22
Foreign Travel 0.27 -0.05 (0.27) 0.52 0.43 0.11 (0.43) 0.57 0.17
Reading 0.45 0.07 (0.45) 0.69 0.46 0.18 (0.46) 0.72 0.16
Sports Fan 0.51 0.34 0.34 0.87 0.46 0.22 (0.46) 0.75 0.59
Swinging 0.43 0.15 (0.43) 0.75 0.45 0.20 (0.45) 0.77 0.47
Danger Seeking 0.39 0.26 0.26 0.63 0.43 0.14 (0.43) 0.75 0.46

Table 7: Heritabilities and Test-Retest Stabilities for 18 Leisure Time Interest Factors (Note: Parenthetical figures refer to estimates based on MZ correlations.)

The data reported in Tables 6 and 7 illustrate that the twin intercorrelations and test-retest stabilities for the interest scales were quite similar for both sexes. For example, the median MZ correlations for the occupational interest scales were 0.43 and 0.44 for the male and female subjects, respectively. The median DZ correlations were 0.18 and 0.21 for males and females, respectively. The median test-retest stabilities were 0.75 and 0.72. Within-pair correlations for MZ twins reared apart (MZA) directly estimate broad heritability Without relying on the assumptions of the Falconer formula. It is noteworthy that 4 of the 17 occupational interest scales yield negligible MZA correlations (0.13 or less), whereas 8 of them yield substantial correlations, ranging from 0.41 to 0.65. The average MZA correlation for the occupational interest scales was 0.35, in contrast to 0.14 for 34 DZA pairs. The average MZA correlation for the 18 leisure time interest scales was 0.45, versus .18 for the DZA twins.

The data for the leisure time interest scales mirror almost exactly the pattern of relations found for occupational interests. The median MZ correlation was 0.50 for the males and 0.46 for the females. The median DZ correlations were 0.19 and 0.18 for males and females, respectively; the median test-retest stabilities were 0.75 for both sexes. As might be expected, less stable interests (e.g., Military or Foreign Travel) are associated with lower MZ correlations. Put another way, it is the stable component of interest variance that sets the upper limit for heritability. It may be that some of these interests are less stable because they are, in fact, less traited, that is, relatively large numbers of people do not have well-defined attitudes toward some of these occupations or activities.

The 3 sets of MZ/DZ/MZA correlations are converted to heritabilities by Falconer, the h2h^2 is corrected for the respective measurement error (ceiling at h2=0.9h^2=0.9 to avoid improbably high estimates or undefined z estimates), then converted to Fisher’s z, the weighted mean taken, and converted back to h2h^2:

waller <- read.table(sep="|", quote="", file="waller.txt", header=TRUE)
f <- function(n1, mz1, dz1, merror1, n2, mz2, dz2, merror2, n3, mza3, merror3) {
    h2_1 <- 2*(mz1-dz1)
    h2_2 <- 2*(mz2-dz2)
    h2_3 <- mza3

    h2_1_latent <- min(0.9, h2_1 / sqrt(1*merror1))
    h2_2_latent <- min(0.9, h2_2 / sqrt(1*merror2))
    h2_3_latent <- min(0.9, h2_3 / sqrt(1*merror3))

    h2_1_latent_z <- atanh(h2_1_latent)
    h2_2_latent_z <- atanh(h2_2_latent)
    h2_3_latent_z <- atanh(h2_3_latent)

    h2_all <- tanh(weighted.mean(c(h2_1_latent_z, h2_2_latent_z, h2_3_latent_z), c(n1,n2,n3)))
    return(h2_all)
    }
waller$H2 <- with(waller, round(digits=2, unlist(Map(f, (148+119)/2, MZ..male., DZ..male., Test.retest.MZ...DZ,
    (273+228)/2, MZ..female., DZ..female., Test.retest.MZ...DZ.1,
    33, MZA.h2, Test.retest.MZ...DZ))))
subset(waller, select=c(Factors, H2))
#                Factors   H2
# Intellectual Interests 0.76
#               Politics 0.44
#            Socializing 0.64
#        Hunting-Fishing 0.53
#            Sierra Club 0.68
#               Religion 0.66
#              Husbandry 0.84
#               Domestic 0.54
#  Passive Entertainment 0.82
#                Fitness 0.78
#               Gambling 0.39
#     Police Calls-Fires 0.61
#               The Arts 0.62
#         Foreign Travel 0.84
#                Reading 0.75
#             Sports Fan 0.51
#               Swinging 0.59
#         Danger Seeking 0.57

  1. Austan Goolsbee provides an example from political advertising’s negative attack ads:

    …As with special effects in movies, consumers become desensitized to ads the more they see them. The scary creatures from 1950s films, the shark in Jaws or the spaceships from science-fiction movies of the 1990s now often look like jokes. Political ads often age badly, too. In his history of negative campaigning, Going Dirty, David Mark writes that in the 1994 election, dozens of Republican congressional candidates used morphing technology in ads to visually transform their Democratic opponents into President Bill Clinton, to devastating effect. But, in my observation, even one election cycle later, with the technology outdated and overused, people stopped responding. That’s why political consultants say straightforward TV ads no longer work. People tune them out. As technology develops, the same wearout effect is likely to occur with advertising based on fake news. As we are inundated with new, targeted, deceptive ads, we may get sick of them and, perhaps, stop finding them persuasive. For now, it’s the best hope we have.

  2. For more background on early studies of musical occupation & perception, see The Psychology of Musical Ability, Shuter 1968.

  3. From Tesser 1993; re Tesser 1993, see also Olson et al 2001 & Conway III et al 2011.

  4. See also Lykken et al 1993 and Waller et al 1995.

  5. See also Simonson & Sela 2009.

  6. Smith et al 2016, Genetic and environmental influences on food preferences in adolescence, reports basic foodstuffs and 2 factors pertaining to more optional/recreational types of food:

    • fruit: h2h^2=0.49
    • snacks: h2h^2=0.43

    Food-level correlations are reported; picking out a subset which strike me as being optional/recreational and calculating heritabilities from Table 2:

    Table of 18 selected snack/dessert/junk food preference heritabilities estimated via Falconer’s formula from Smith et al 2016.
    Foodstuff rMZr_{MZ} rDZr_{DZ} Falconer h2h^2
    Oranges 0.400 0.177 2(0.4000.177)2 \cdot (0.400-0.177) 0.45
    Grapes 0.429 0.107 2(0.4290.107)2 \cdot (0.429-0.107) 0.64
    Apples 0.553 0.000 2(0.5530.000)2 \cdot (0.553-0.000) 1.00
    Melon 0.342 0.139 2(0.3420.139)2 \cdot (0.342-0.139) 0.41
    Peaches 0.489 0.231 2(0.4890.231)2 \cdot (0.489-0.231) 0.52
    Apricots 0.381 0.205 2(0.3810.205)2 \cdot (0.381-0.205) 0.35
    Strawberries 0.460 0.082 2(0.4600.082)2 \cdot (0.460-0.082) 0.76
    Cream 0.266 0.013 2(0.2660.013)2 \cdot (0.266-0.013) 0.51
    Yogurt 0.310 0.067 2(0.3100.067)2 \cdot (0.310-0.067) 0.49
    Custard 0.494 0.203 2(0.4940.203)2 \cdot (0.494-0.203) 0.58
    Chips 0.339 0.071 2(0.3390.071)2 \cdot (0.339-0.071) 0.54
    Plain biscuits 0.329 0.200 2(0.3290.200)2 \cdot (0.329-0.200) 0.26
    Chocolate biscuits 0.276 0.107 2(0.2760.107)2 \cdot (0.276-0.107) 0.34
    Cake 0.179 0.140 2(0.1790.140)2 \cdot (0.179-0.140) 0.08
    Ice cream 0.293 0.095 2(0.2930.095)2 \cdot (0.293-0.095) 0.40
    Chocolate 0.277 0.076 2(0.2770.076)2 \cdot (0.277-0.076) 0.40
    Crisps 0.362 0.114 2(0.3620.114)2 \cdot (0.362-0.114) 0.50
    Gummy sweets 0.420 0.152 2(0.4200.152)2 \cdot (0.420-0.152) 0.54
    Sugared cereal 0.347 0.206 2(0.3470.206)2 \cdot (0.347-0.206) 0.28
  7. See also Frederiksen & Christensen 2003, Stubbe & de Geus 2009, Aaltonen et al 2014.

  8. There are a few candidate-gene studies but they look typical & no more likely to replicate than the usual candidate-gene study.

  9. Perhaps surprisingly, personality traits don’t seem to do a good job of predicting interests, to quote Hansen 1984: for the most part, correlational studies between interest scores and personality scores have been extremely disappointing.

  10. See Penke et al 2007/Penke & Jokela 2016. Personality GCTAs typically find near-zero additive SNP heritabilities and accordingly, as of 2018, even very large GWASes using 23andMe/UKBB have failed to find more than a few hits for any of the Big Five personality traits or explain more than a few percentage points of variance despite the usual >=50% heritability from twin studies.

  11. Nichols 1979 is sometimes cited as Nichols 1976, and internally it references the upcoming publication of Loehlin & Nichols 1976; this is because it is an expansion/republication of a Nichols 1976 Invited address presented at the American Psychological Association meeting, Washington, D. C., September 4, 1976., hence the confusion over years in citations.

  12. 33 pairs of adult MZ twins (MZA twins) and 34 pairs of DZ (DZA) twins who had been separated in infancy and reared apart. This sample is more fully described in Tellegen et al 1988.