Amusing Ourselves to Death?

A suggested x-risk/Great Filter is the possibility of advanced entertainment technology leading to wireheading/mass sterility/population collapse and extinction. As media consumption patterns are highly heritable, any such effect would trigger rapid human adaptation, implying extinction is almost impossible unless immediate collapse or exponentially accelerating addictiveness.
transhumanism, genetics, sociology, technology, bibliography, music
2018-05-122019-06-25 in progress certainty: log importance: 5


In one nar­ra­tive of doom, de­vel­op­ments in en­ter­tain­ment & recre­ation like the mass me­dia or de­signer drugs con­tin­u­ously threaten hu­man­ity by cre­at­ing ever more effec­tive —s­tim­uli which are ir­re­sistible, as they ex­ploit hard­wired pref­er­ences, which hu­mans find im­pos­si­ble to re­sist en masse, any more than the her­ring gull chick can re­sist beg­ging for food from a col­or­ful­ly-painted nee­dle rather than an ac­cu­rate model of her­ring gull heads, or other birds can re­sist nur­tur­ing big­ger brighter more col­or­ful eggs rather than their own, or Aus­tralian jewel bee­tles .

Obe­sity is on the rise as the food-in­dus­trial com­plex en­gi­neers ever more palat­able foods, stuffed with salt and fat and sug­ar, de­li­ciously ad­dic­tive. Tech com­pa­nies har­vest gi­ga­bytes of per­sonal data, us­ing ever more so­phis­ti­cated & ad­vanced AI tai­lor­ing of ads to in­di­vid­u­als, per­va­sively in­serted into their me­dia streams, per­suad­ing them to buy or think what­ever the ad­ver­tis­ers wish. Me­dia and pornog­ra­phy and har­le­quin ro­mance nov­els offer in­hu­manly per­fect sim­u­lacrum of sex­u­ally at­trac­tive & high sta­tus peo­ple, se­lect­ing the most beau­ti­ful peo­ple out of hun­dreds of mil­lions and then fur­ther en­hanc­ing them with spe­cial effects into hy­per­re­al­i­ty, with in­fi­nite amounts of porn for every pref­er­ence and kink on tap via the In­ter­net—and sexbots even­tu­ally to come. So­cial me­dia like Face­book or In­sta­gram ex­pose us to high­ly-s­e­lec­tive cu­rated ideal lifestyles, in­spir­ing envy for lives that never were, and spread­ing rage and de­pres­sion. Cheap per­va­sive ‘fire­wa­ter’ shat­tered abo­rig­i­nal tribes and groups, al­ready weak­ened by epi­demic and dis­pos­ses­sion, who had never been ex­posed to in­dus­tri­al-s­cale al­co­hol, even in Eng­land, where in the early In­dus­trial Rev­o­lu­tion, al­co­hol con­sump­tion spiked in the USA1 and “there were gin push­carts work­ing their way through the streets of Lon­don” as Shirky puts it (“Gin, Tele­vi­sion, and So­cial Sur­plus”), and al­co­holism & the “cor­ner sa­loon” was seen as one of the most se­vere of all so­cial ills (prompt­ing Pro­hi­bi­tion). Ul­tra­vi­o­lence on TV de­sen­si­tizes men to vi­o­lence while early TV was a “vast cul­tural waste­land” suck­ing up hun­dreds of bil­lions of man-hours a year watch­ing va­pid shows like Gilli­gan’s Is­land (even now, if time di­aries are to be be­lieved, Amer­i­cans con­tinue to spend mul­ti­ple hours a day on av­er­age watch­ing TV).2 Penny dread­fuls, and then comic books, with their grue­some lurid im­agery blur­ring the line be­tween fan­tasy & re­al­ity while glo­ri­fy­ing crim­i­nal­ity & ag­gres­sion, trig­ger­ing waves of mur­der­ous ju­ve­nile delin­quen­cy. New highly po­tent “re­search chem­i­cal” opi­ates man­u­fac­tured in Chi­nese labs rav­age the Amer­i­can hin­ter­land. Video games offer ex­pe­ri­ences more com­pelling than real life, with video gamers col­laps­ing in In­ter­net cafes and stream­ers dy­ing at their post, ‘click’ or ‘so­cial gam­ing’ com­pa­nies like Zynga cun­ningly ex­ploit­ing help­lessly ad­dic­tive users by mas­tery of em­bod­ied in Far­mville, steadily drain­ing them of all their cash in re­turn for mak­ing mean­ing­less num­bers go up while the play­ers cease even to en­joy the game (and VR in­creas­ingly offer­ing a full re­place­ment for dreary re­al­i­ty)—and need one men­tion how vi­o­lent games glam­or­ize gun vi­o­lence and are are sim­u­la­tors train­ing teenagers for school shoot­ings like Columbine? “Fake news”, man­u­fac­tured in bulk on­line & flood­ing Amer­i­cans through so­cial me­dia, en­sured the elec­tion of Pres­i­dent Don­ald Trump & the reign of the Re­pub­li­can Par­ty, threat­en­ing to end the Amer­i­can de­mo­c­ra­tic ex­per­i­ment for­ev­er. Psy­cho­log­i­cal re­search into hu­man be­hav­ior has been weaponized as “nudges” by greedy mar­keters, suck­er­ing buy­ers into buy­ing over­priced goods like ho­tel rooms by shady gim­micks such as claim­ing to al­most be out of rooms. Worse, new on­line medi­ums and ad­vanced ‘re­in­force­ment learn­ing’ al­go­rithms ma­nip­u­late in­no­cent view­ers into watch­ing or read­ing dan­ger­ous ma­te­ri­als, lead­ing to a steady spi­ral of ever more ex­treme con­tent con­sump­tion cul­mi­nat­ing in an­ti-vac­cine or Flat Earth or Re­pub­li­can be­liefs. With con­tin­ued progress in sci­ence & tech­nol­o­gy, one day we may in­vent the fi­nal en­ter­tain­ment or drug, a species-wide In­fi­nite Jest, some­thing so en­ter­tain­ing or ad­dic­tive that hu­man­ity wire­heads it­self into be­ing un­able to feed, pro­tect, or re­pro­duce it­self—even­tu­ally go­ing ex­tinct. They lit­er­ally amuse them­selves to death.

This the­ory can even be ex­tended to ex­plain the Great Si­lence: why do we see ab­solutely no trace of alien civ­i­liza­tions when as­tro­nom­i­cal data in­di­cates hab­it­able worlds should be quite com­mon and tech­no­log­i­cal/s­ta­tis­ti­cal con­sid­er­a­tions show the uni­verse could be rapidly col­o­nized? Many ex­pla­na­tions for the Great Si­lence show a spec­tac­u­lar fail­ure of imag­i­na­tion by pos­tu­lat­ing ex­tremely nar­row mech­a­nisms, like “West­ern lib­er­al­ism” or “nu­clear war”, for the Si­lence, which do not do a good job of ex­plain­ing why the hy­per­in­tel­li­gent eu­so­cial ants of Knara Prime went ex­tinct or the im­mor­tal sen­tient sil­i­con crys­tals of Delti 10 never spread across the uni­verse or the ab­sence of the self­-sta­bi­liz­ing chaotic storm cell civ­i­liza­tions of the Jov­ian plan­ets. But the “amus­ing one­self to death” hy­poth­e­sis is plau­si­bly uni­ver­sal: since pre­cog­ni­tion is im­pos­si­ble and it’s im­pos­si­ble to know the true fit­ness of ac­tions & choices in ad­vance, all evolved species must use prox­ies for fit­ness; if they ad­vance in sci­ence & tech­nol­ogy to the point of in­ter­stel­lar civ­i­liza­tion be­ing pos­si­ble, they must also have de­vel­oped a wide va­ri­ety of tools and un­der­stand­ing of their own phys­i­cal sub­strates, which al­low fak­ing fit­ness sig­nals and hi­jack­ing pref­er­ences; if that is pos­si­ble, then at least some in­di­vid­u­als will do so out of cu­rios­ity or for in­cen­tives; hence, all in­ter­stel­lar civ­i­liza­tions are at risk of amus­ing them­selves to death and if the risk is suffi­ciently great, it could be the Great Fil­ter.

In an­other nar­ra­tive, su­per­stim­uli may be prob­lems, but they tend to be self­-lim­it­ing ones: peo­ple adapt, cul­tur­ally and bi­o­log­i­cal­ly, to them, and the prob­lems grad­u­ally go away, if in­deed they were ever re­motely as big as , in an end­less . Early ad­ver­tis­ing strikes a mod­ern reader as be­ing laugh­ably trans­par­ent, crude, and un­con­vinc­ing3; the first In­ter­net ban­ner ads in the 1990s re­port­edly had click­through rates >10%, while now the most so­phis­ti­cated & care­fully tar­geted ad is do­ing well if it can get a 0.01% click­through rate—as­sum­ing the traffic is­n’t all bots or ac­ci­den­tal misclick­s—as au­di­ences ex­pe­ri­ence “ad­ver­tis­ing wearout” & adapt to ig­nore ads (Kin­nu­can et al 1993, Blair 1987/2000, Braun & Moe 2013) ; and there are se­ri­ous ques­tions about to what ex­tent In­ter­net ad­ver­tis­ing works at all & if the tiny effects can ac­tu­ally be mea­sured (see ref­er­ences in ). Al­co­hol rav­aged Amer­i­can In­dian tribes and con­tributed to the de­struc­tion of many of them, but while al­co­holism and drug abuse re­main en­demic prob­lems on In­dian reser­va­tions, the pitch does not ap­pear so apoc­a­lyp­tic these days; Pro­hi­bi­tion to re­duce al­co­holism, rather than be­ing such a burn­ing is­sue that the very Con­sti­tu­tion must be amend­ed, is in­voked mostly as a his­tor­i­cal fi­asco & crit­i­cism of the War on Drugs. TV faces com­pe­ti­tion from other forms of recre­ation, and is no longer so dom­i­nant, with the in­tel­lec­tual qual­ity of TV mas­sively in­creas­ing over time (in part thanks to pe­cu­liar tech eco­nom­ics like Wall Street in­vest­ing tens of bil­lions of dol­lars into Net­flix/A­ma­zon to try to re­place Hol­ly­wood), lead­ing to what has been widely called a golden age of tele­vi­sion. Con­sumers, just as they did in re­sponse to ear­lier ad­ver­tis­ing, grad­u­ally wise up to gim­micks when they seen them too often, and are in­creas­ingly cyn­i­cal about “nudges”. Fake news, what­ever con­tri­bu­tion it did make to the 2016 US Pres­i­den­tial elec­tion, saw its view­er­ship among Amer­i­cans then crash 2016–2018 (and a dis­as­trous 2018 mid-term elec­tion for the Re­pub­li­can­s/Trump). Video and com­puter games, for all the moral pan­ics over them, have proven to be mostly sub­sti­tutes for other forms of so­cial­iz­ing and me­dia con­sump­tion, and the oc­ca­sional “young man col­lapses dead while play­ing MMORPG/FPS/etc game” news re­port re­mains but a highly rare event, of no more con­se­quence than “young man col­lapses dead when tack­led in sports game” (and often per­haps for the same rea­son, con­gen­i­tal heart de­fect­s), with the var­i­ous laws passed like cur­fews be­ing largely un­nec­es­sary over­re­ac­tions; Zyn­ga, poster child of the new wave of ex­ploita­tive games fore­cast to be a boot stomp­ing on the wal­let of hu­man­ity forever, has since reeled from FB changes & loss of most of its users, its 2018 stock now a quar­ter of its 2012 high; so­cial games have taken over the gam­ing world in the form of “e-s­ports” com­pet­i­tive gam­ing leagues & pro­fes­sional play­ers with their own sta­di­ums, stream­ing, ca­sual mo­bile gam­ing, and mul­ti­player games (bear­ing a de­lib­er­ate and strik­ing re­sem­blance to reg­u­lar sports, and a far cry from play­ing Su­per Mario Broth­ers by one­self on an NES). Me­dia con­sump­tion often ap­pears mo­ti­vated far less by the en­ter­tain­ment or es­thetic value of the me­dia, than by the de­sire to par­tic­i­pate in trends, sig­nal affil­i­a­tion with par­tic­u­lar groups, or cre­ate com­mon ref­er­ents with other peo­ple—all of which in­her­ently cur­tails me­dia con­sump­tion be­cause there is no point in too-ob­scure me­dia or con­sum­ing too much, as that elim­i­nates or crowds out the true func­tion of the me­dia con­sump­tion (one might en­ter­tain­ment gives it­self far too much credit for be­ing en­ter­tain­ing). Norms for so­cial me­dia are al­ready evolv­ing rapid­ly, with wide­spread aware­ness of the fal­sity of self­-p­re­sen­ta­tions on so­cial me­dia and coun­ter-memes for re­duc­ing use, or at least con­tain­ing the harm with meth­ods like au­to-delet­ing posts (eg Snapchat). Porn and me­dia are more ac­ces­si­ble than ever, in­deed, but nev­er­the­less, ac­cess to them ap­pears to have lit­tle to do with re­pro­duc­tion—Amer­i­can fer­til­ity rates are sta­ble and ap­pear far more affected by eco­nomic re­ces­sions & real es­tate prices & col­lege at­ten­dance than by ac­cess to broad­band. Like­wise, the de­mo­graphic tran­si­tion world­wide ap­pears linked mostly to fe­male ed­u­ca­tion, in­de­pen­dent of pornog­ra­phy. This is de­spite the ad­mit­tedly enor­mous time soaked up by me­di­a—­peak­ing at 9 hours of TV per day per Amer­i­can house­hold around 2009, and yet, peo­ple man­aged to hold down jobs and live their lives and do sci­ence and have chil­dren. In­her­ent­ly, any new prob­lem trig­gers re­sponses and back­lashes as peo­ple burn out, learn, and pass on knowl­edge of how to avoid the prob­lems & use it health­ily, the tech­nol­ogy is mod­i­fied, so­ci­etal mech­a­nisms like laws & reg­u­la­tion kick in, the new thing be­comes in­te­grated into ex­ist­ing so­cial norm­s/ritu­als, and if noth­ing else, peo­ple adapt to it ei­ther by cul­tural in­her­i­tance (fam­i­lies/­sub­group­s/eth­nic­i­ties with adap­tive memes flour­ish while oth­ers fall into deca­dence) or ge­net­i­cally (al­co­hol abuse may be an ex­am­ple).

Wild pop­u­la­tions con­stantly in­crease in fit­ness (Burt 1995, ), and larger se­lec­tive pres­sures pro­duce larger changes, as demon­strated by many suc­cess­ful ar­ti­fi­cial se­lec­tion ex­per­i­ments. Fur­ther, there is both ge­netic & cul­tural evo­lu­tion at work.

Heritability of Leisure-time Activities & Media Consumption

MaTCH

The twin-s­tudy mega-meta-analy­sis of k = 2,748 stud­ies picks up a few re­sults rel­e­vant to the ques­tion of me­di­a/en­ter­tain­men­t/leisure-time, with the most rel­e­vant cat­e­go­riza­tion be­ing “Recre­ation and Leisure”, but their on­line in­ter­face for vi­su­al­iza­tion has no way to get the orig­i­nal stud­ies rather than just the mod­el-fit­ting & word­clouds AFAIK (con­sid­er­ably lim­it­ing MaTCH’s use­ful­ness as a data­base to con­sult for meta-analy­ses about spe­cific trait­s):

MaTCH (“Meta-Analy­sis of Twin Cor­re­la­tions and Her­i­tabil­ity”) data­base vi­su­al­iza­tion of twin study re­sults on traits clas­si­fied un­der ICF/ICD10 sub­chap­ter “Recre­ation and Leisure”

General literature

For a more fine-grained de­scrip­tion, I con­sulted my bib­li­ogra­phies and used a Google Scholar search along with fol­lowup searches of music heritable/game heritable, searches of re­verse ci­ta­tion & “re­lated ar­ti­cles” for a few key ar­ti­cles, and check­ing rel­e­van­t-look­ing ci­ta­tions in the body of ar­ti­cles.

I looked pri­mar­ily for her­i­tabil­ity es­ti­mates of things which could be de­scribed as me­dia or en­ter­tain­ment con­sump­tion pat­terns, me­dia or es­thetic pref­er­ences, leisure time ac­tiv­i­ties, and the like. I ex­clude most stud­ies of re­li­gios­ity be­cause while highly her­i­ta­ble & rel­e­vant, it’s ar­guably not per­ceived as op­tional or recre­ational by most peo­ple; I ex­cluded many stud­ies of mu­si­cal pitch per­cep­tion/­tone iden­ti­fi­ca­tion be­cause those re­flect a ba­sic mu­si­cal ap­ti­tude which ap­par­ently is not even causally in­creased by mu­si­cal prac­tice4; I also ex­clude mea­sures of vo­ca­tional ap­ti­tude/in­ter­est (like the in­ven­to­ries col­lected in sev­eral large-s­cale twin reg­istries) as those may re­flect eco­nomic con­sid­er­a­tions & lo­cal op­por­tu­ni­ties & wish­ful dream­ing more than ac­tual life ac­tiv­i­ties; for phys­i­cal ac­tiv­i­ty, I try to in­clude only mea­sures of vol­un­tary/leisure rather than work-re­lated or raw phys­i­cal move­ment (eg ac­celerom­e­ter logs, which would in­clude things like fid­get­ing); sim­i­lar­ly, I don’t try to com­pre­hen­sively cover food pref­er­ences or eat­ing habits (much less the vast lit­er­a­ture on var­i­ous kinds of drug con­sump­tion & abuse), even though those are ar­guably pri­mar­ily recre­ational ac­tiv­i­ties. Where mul­ti­ple mod­els fits are re­port­ed, I try to use the her­i­tabil­ity from what the au­thors re­gard as the best-fit­ting mod­el, and when a CE or E model is se­lected rather than ACE/DCE/DE, I re­port as 0.00, and I sum a2 and d2 if both are avail­able; if only monozy­gotic & dizy­gotic twin cor­re­la­tions are re­port­ed, I (or an­other au­thor) use the Fal­coner for­mula ().

The full ta­ble is avail­able in the ap­pen­dices due to length (>500 en­tries).

Look­ing over the table, we can see that the pre­dic­tions are borne out: all sorts of pref­er­ences & ac­tiv­i­ties are sub­stan­tially her­i­ta­ble, and a good guess at a mean her­i­tabil­ity would in­deed be ~0.50 (a sim­ple un­weighted av­er­age of all the her­i­tabil­i­ties in the ta­ble is ~0.30, dragged down by the es­pe­cially high mea­sure­ment er­ror/in­sta­bil­ity of many Loehlin & Nichols 1976 item­s).

Some of the her­i­tabil­i­ties are es­ti­mated at 0.00 but look­ing at those, they tend to be small sam­ples where the con­fi­dence in­ter­vals are wide (often the mod­el-fit­ting gives up & set­tles on a sim­ple E model for lack of data) or where the trait is prob­a­bly not be­ing mea­sured well (in­deed, prob­a­bly most of the her­i­tabil­i­ties have sub­stan­tial mea­sure­ment er­ror as they are based on self­-re­ports and sin­gle-item bi­na­ry/­Lik­ert scale ques­tion­naires), so their true her­i­tabil­i­ties are al­most cer­tainly much high­er; gen­er­al­ly, only the ex­er­cise/s­port-re­lated her­i­tabil­i­ties have ad­e­quate sam­ple sizes be­cause data is rou­tinely col­lected on those for in­ves­ti­ga­tion into ba­sic de­mo­graph­ics like weight/BMI/health, while traits like bingo play­ing or TV watch­ing are al­most never mea­sured. There is an un­for­tu­nate ab­sence of any fol­lowups or in­ves­ti­ga­tions us­ing mod­ern mol­e­c­u­lar ge­net­ics, so there are no SNP her­i­tabil­i­ties or poly­genic scores to men­tion.5 Hope­fully fu­ture stud­ies will pro­vide much more pre­cise and broad es­ti­mates of these vari­ables, such as us­ing pedi­grees ex­tracted from so­cial me­di­a—an ex­am­ple would be Face­book, where their re­searchers can eas­ily ex­tract large fam­ily pedi­grees with rich de­tail on book­s/­movies/etc, giv­ing pre­cise es­ti­mates of ad­di­tive her­i­tabil­ity & epis­ta­sis & es­ti­mat­ing time trends, or even just di­rectly ex­tract­ing sam­ples of tens of thou­sands of iden­ti­cal twins, and al­low ex­am­i­na­tion of other co­vari­ates to ex­plain in­ter­ests6

Other things I no­ticed look­ing through the stud­ies were that dom­i­nance ge­net­ics are re­ported un­usu­ally often (per­haps re­lated to the in­flu­ence of per­son­al­ity on pref­er­ences/ac­tiv­i­ties, as per­son­al­ity traits ap­pear likely to be un­der /fre­quen­cy-de­pen­dent se­lec­tion which would re­duce ad­di­tive ge­net­ics7), shared-en­vi­ron­ment effects show defi­nite pat­terns of fade­out with age while her­i­tabil­ity seems to in­crease with age and pos­si­bly peak in young adult­hood (a Wil­son effec­t?), and there may be sex-de­pen­dent effects where fe­males have higher shared-en­vi­ron­ment and lower her­i­tabil­i­ties than males (greater con­formis­m/­so­cial con­cern­s?).

Appendix

Literature review

To demon­strate the point that there are per­va­sive ge­netic in­flu­ences on all as­pects of me­dia con­sump­tion or leisure time ac­tiv­i­ties/pref­er­ences/at­ti­tudes, I com­pile >580 her­i­tabil­ity es­ti­mates from the be­hav­ioral ge­net­ics lit­er­a­ture (draw­ing par­tic­u­larly on Loehlin & Nichols 1976’s A Study of 850 Sets of Twins), roughly di­vided in ~13 cat­e­gories.

Ta­ble of ~580 her­i­tabil­ity es­ti­mates of hu­man traits re­lated to me­dia con­sump­tion or leisure time ac­tiv­i­ties/pref­er­ences/at­ti­tudes.
Cat­e­gory Trait/mea­sure­ment H2 Study Notes
Com­puter “Gen­er­al­ized Prob­lem­atic In­ter­net Use Scale 2” (GPIUS-2) to­tal 0.00 Hahn et al 2017
Com­puter “Prob­lem­atic In­ter­net Use Scale” (PIUS) to­tal 0.42 Deryakulu & Ur­savas 2014, “Ge­netic and en­vi­ron­men­tal in­flu­ences on prob­lem­atic in­ter­net use: A twin study”
Com­puter Com­pul­sive In­ter­net Use Scale (CIUS) 0.48 Vink et al 2015, “Her­i­tabil­ity of com­pul­sive In­ter­net use in ado­les­cents”
Com­puter GPIUS-2 sub­scale Mood reg­u­la­tion 0.33 Hahn et al 2017
Com­puter GPIUS-2 sub­scale Neg­a­tive out­comes 0.22 Hahn et al 2017
Com­puter GPIUS-2 sub­scale Self­-reg­u­la­tion 0.21 Hahn et al 2017
Com­puter GPIUS-2 sub­scale So­cial in­ter­ac­tion 0.00 Hahn et al 2017
Com­puter IAT sub­scale Loss of con­trol 0.16 Hahn et al 2017
Com­puter IAT sub­scale Salient use 0.00 Hahn et al 2017
Com­puter In­ter­net so­cial me­dia use (all) 0.48 York 2017
Com­puter In­ter­net so­cial me­dia use (fam­i­ly) 0.30 York 2017
Com­puter In­ter­net so­cial me­dia use (friends) 0.61 York 2017, “A re­gres­sion ap­proach to test­ing ge­netic in­flu­ence on com­mu­ni­ca­tion be­hav­ior: So­cial me­dia use as an ex­am­ple”
Com­puter PIUS sub­scale “ex­ces­sive use” of In­ter­net 0.19 Deryakulu & Ur­savas 2014
Com­puter PIUS sub­scale “neg­a­tive con­se­quences as­so­ci­ated with In­ter­net use” 0.86 Deryakulu & Ur­savas 2014
Com­puter PIUS sub­scale “so­cial com­fort/ben­e­fit” of In­ter­net use 0.21 Deryakulu & Ur­savas 2014
Com­puter Young’s “In­ter­net Ad­dic­tion Test” (IAT) to­tal 0.00 Hahn et al 2017, “In­ter­net ad­dic­tion and its facets: The role of ge­net­ics and the re­la­tion to self­-di­rect­ed­ness”
Com­puter Young’s “In­ter­net Ad­dic­tion Test” (IAT) 0.58 Li et al 2014,
Com­puter Young’s “In­ter­net Ad­dic­tion Test” (IAT) 0.66 Li et al 2014
Com­puter fre­quency of In­ter­net use after 11PM 0.36 Long et al 2016
Com­puter fre­quency of In­ter­net use 0.41 Long et al 2016,
Com­puter hours of In­ter­net use 0.10 Kirzinger et al 2012
Com­puter time on ed­u­ca­tional In­ter­net web­sites 0.34 Ay­orech et al 2017,
Com­puter time on en­ter­tain­ment In­ter­net web­sites 0.37 Ay­orech et al 2017
Com­puter time spent play­ing com­puter games on In­ter­net 0.39 Ay­orech et al 2017
Com­puter time spent us­ing Face­book on In­ter­net 0.24 Ay­orech et al 2017
Com­puter to­tal In­ter­net time/Pri­vate In­ter­net use 0.44 Hahn et al 2017
Com­puter us­ing the In­ter­net pri­mar­ily to ac­cess so­cial net­work­ing sites 0.39 Long et al 2016
Com­puter us­ing the In­ter­net to con­tact peers 0.00 Long et al 2016
Com­puter hours of com­puter use 0.34 Kirzinger et al 2012,
Com­puter mo­bile phone use (yes/no) 0.49 Miller et al 2012,
Com­puter phone talk­ing fre­quency 0.59 Miller et al 2012
Com­puter phone talk­ing fre­quency 0.34 Miller et al 2012
Com­puter phone tex­ting fre­quency 0.53 Miller et al 2012
Com­puter phone tex­ting fre­quency 0.51 Miller et al 2012
Com­puter Talked for over 30 min­utes at a time on the tele­phone 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976, Hered­i­ty, En­vi­ron­ment and Per­son­al­i­ty: A Study of 850 Sets of Twins Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #191; for full de­tails on all Loehlin & Nichols 1976 cal­cu­la­tion, see the ap­pen­dix.
Com­puter Placed a long dis­tance call of over 500 miles 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #223
Mu­sic LTI “Mu­sic and Artis­tic Ac­tiv­i­ties” 0.51 Hur et al 1996
Mu­sic LTI “The Arts” 0.62 Waller et al 1995, “Oc­cu­pa­tional and Leisure Time In­ter­ests, and Per­son­al­ity” Note: Waller et al 1995 re­ports MZ/DZ cor­re­la­tions split by sex, MZA sep­a­rate­ly, and pro­vides test-retest re­li­a­bil­ity for each sub­scale; I have com­bined the 3 groups into a sin­gle un­at­ten­u­ated her­i­tabil­ity es­ti­mate. See the ap­pen­dix for de­tails.
Mu­sic In­ter­est fac­tor 0.21 Coon & Carey 1987, “Twins and mu­si­cal abil­i­ty: An analy­sis of if-then re­la­tion­ships (ab­stract)”/Coon & Carey 1989, “Ge­netic and en­vi­ron­men­tal de­ter­mi­nants of mu­si­cal abil­ity in twins” Coon & Carey 1989 is a fac­tor analy­sis of 27 items from the ap­pen­dix of Loehlin & Nichols 1977, most/all of which are in­cluded in this ta­ble as well on the item-lev­el. (See also Ham­brick & Tuck­er-Drob 2015.)
Mu­sic In­ter­est fac­tor 0.17 Coon & Carey 1987
Mu­sic School Per­for­mance fac­tor 0.30 Coon & Carey 1989
Mu­sic School Per­for­mance fac­tor 0.14 Coon & Carey 1989
Mu­sic Vo­cal Per­for­mance fac­tor 0.71 Coon & Carey 1989
Mu­sic Vo­cal Per­for­mance fac­tor 0.20 Coon & Carey 1989
Mu­sic Non­school Per­for��mance fac­tor 0.38 Coon & Carey 1989
Mu­sic Non­school Per­for­mance fac­tor 0.10 Coon & Carey 1989
Mu­sic Hon­ors fac­tor 0.38 Coon & Carey 1989
Mu­sic Hon­ors fac­tor 0.20 Coon & Carey 1989
Mu­sic mu­sic ac­com­plish­ment 0.26 Ham­brick & Tuck­er-Drob 2015, “The ge­net­ics of mu­sic ac­com­plish­ment: Ev­i­dence for gene-en­vi­ron­ment cor­re­la­tion and in­ter­ac­tion” Like Coon & Carey 1989, a re-analy­sis of Loehlin & Nichols 1977 da­ta.
Mu­sic mu­sic prac­tice 0.38 Ham­brick & Tuck­er-Drob 2015
Mu­sic McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Mu­sic 0.66 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a, “The Her­i­tabil­ity of Ap­ti­tude and Ex­cep­tional Tal­ent Across Differ­ent Do­mains in Ado­les­cents and Young Adults”
Mu­sic McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Mu­sic 0.30 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a
Mu­sic McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Mu­sic (ex­treme re­spon­se) 0.92 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a con­ducted a sec­ond set of her­i­tabil­i­ties us­ing a ex­trem­ized di­chotomiza­tion for re­spon­dents claim­ing top-end/ex­cep­tional ap­ti­tude/­tal­ent
Mu­sic Par­tic­i­pat­ing in mu­si­cal, dra­matic or artis­tic ac­tiv­i­ties 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Di­ary, #35
Mu­sic One or more mu­si­cal in­stru­ments 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #578
Mu­sic Prac­ticed on a mu­si­cal in­stru­ment 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #133
Mu­sic Played a mu­si­cal in­stru­ment 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1029
Mu­sic Hours of mu­sic prac­tice, life­time 0.41 Mos­ing et al 2014 See also Mos­ing et al 2015.
Mu­sic Hours of mu­sic prac­tice, life­time 0.69 Mos­ing et al 2014
Mu­sic Mu­sic achieve­ment 0.57 Mos­ing et al 2015, (Ta­ble S2) Cre­ative Achieve­ment Ques­tion­naire (CAQ)8 (male)
Mu­sic Mu­sic achieve­ment 0.09 Mos­ing et al 2015 CAQ (fe­male)
Mu­sic Swedish Flow Prone­ness Ques­tion­naire: Mu­sic Flow sub­scale 0.40 Butkovic et al 2015, “Per­son­al­ity re­lated traits as pre­dic­tors of mu­sic prac­tice: Un­der­ly­ing en­vi­ron­men­tal and ge­netic in­flu­ences”
Mu­sic Took voice lessons 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #137
Mu­sic Num­ber of years tak­ing mu­sic lessons 0.60 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b
Mu­sic Cur­rent mu­si­cal in­stru­ment play­ing/­lessons 0.85 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b
Mu­sic Be­com­ing an ac­com­plished mu­si­cian (per­former or com­poser) 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #390
Mu­sic Gave a pub­lic recital (vo­cal, in­stru­men­tal etc) 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #79
Mu­sic Played a pi­ano or other in­stru­ment while oth­ers were singing 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #84
Mu­sic Sang in a church choir 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #105
Mu­sic Sang in a school choir 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #106
Mu­sic Sang in a small en­sem­ble (trio, quar­tet, etc.) 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #107
Mu­sic Played in a dance or jazz band 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #205
Mu­sic Played in a con­cert or­ches­tra 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #300
Mu­sic Per­formed with a pro­fes­sional or­ches­tra 0.60 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1027
Mu­sic Played in a school mu­si­cal or­ga­ni­za­tion 0.30 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1028
Mu­sic Played in a dance or jazz band for wages 0.54 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1030
Mu­sic Re­ceived a rat­ing of ‘Good’ or ‘Ex­cel­lent’ in a: na­tional mu­sic con­test 0.68 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1032
Mu­sic Re­ceived a rat­ing of ‘Good’ or ‘Ex­cel­lent’ in a: re­gional or state mu­sic con­test 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1033
Mu­sic Re­ceived a rat­ing of ‘Good’ or ‘Ex­cel­lent’ in a: city or county mu­sic con­test 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1034
Mu­sic Re­ceived a rat­ing of ‘Good’ or ‘Ex­cel­lent’ in a: school mu­sic con­test 0.48 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1035
Mu­sic Or­ga­nized your own dance or jazz band 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1031
Mu­sic Or­ga­nized a singing group 0.42 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1036
Mu­sic Con­ducted a choir, band or or­ches­tra 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #136
Mu­sic Di­rected (pub­licly) a band or or­ches­tra 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1037
Mu­sic Played in a march­ing band 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #307
Mu­sic mu­si­cal cre­ativ­ity (com­bined score) 0.84 Ukkola et al 2009, See also Ukko­la-Vuoti et al 2011 whose pedi­gree sta­tis­tics sug­gest her­i­tabil­ity of lis­ten­ing to mu­sic at var­i­ous ages, but does­n’t re­port her­i­tabil­i­ties.
Mu­sic mu­si­cal cre­ativ­i­ty: com­pos­ing 0.40 Ukkola et al 2009
Mu­sic mu­si­cal cre­ativ­i­ty: ar­rang­ing 0.46 Ukkola et al 2009
Mu­sic mu­si­cal cre­ativ­i­ty: im­pro­vis­ing 0.62 Ukkola et al 2009
Mu­sic Com­posed mu­sic which has been given at least one pub­lic per­for­mance 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1026
Mu­sic IPAT Mu­sic Pref­er­ence Test: fac­tor A 0.41 Van­den­berg 1962, “The Hered­i­tary Abil­i­ties Study: Hered­i­tary Com­po­nents in a Psy­cho­log­i­cal Test Bat­tery” Fac­tor B & E are not re­ported by Van­den­berg 1962 for un­spec­i­fied rea­sons; the IPAT hand­book is not avail­able, but 2 Cat­tell pa­pers (Cat­tell & An­der­son 1953/Cat­tell & Saun­ders 1954) sug­gest to me that the fac­tors are not sim­ply mu­si­cal gen­res.
Mu­sic IPAT Mu­sic Pref­er­ence Test: fac­tor C 0.31 Van­den­berg 1962
Mu­sic IPAT Mu­sic Pref­er­ence Test: fac­tor D 0.49 Van­den­berg 1962
Mu­sic IPAT Mu­sic Pref­er­ence Test: fac­tor F 0.24 Van­den­berg 1962
Mu­sic IPAT Mu­sic Pref­er­ence Test: fac­tor G 0.27 Van­den­berg 1962
Mu­sic IPAT Mu­sic Pref­er­ence Test: fac­tor H 0.00 Van­den­berg 1962
Mu­sic IPAT Mu­sic Pref­er­ence Test: fac­tor I 0.34 Van­den­berg 1962
Mu­sic IPAT Mu­sic Pref­er­ence Test: fac­tor J 0.38 Van­den­berg 1962
Mu­sic IPAT Mu­sic Pref­er­ence Test: fac­tor K 0.11 Van­den­berg 1962
Mu­sic com­puter mu­sic 0.26 Mar­tin et al 1986
Mu­sic loud mu­sic 0.11 Ol­son et al 2001
Mu­sic jazz mu­sic 0.42 Si­mon­son & Sela 2011
Mu­sic jazz mu­sic 0.45 Mar­tin et al 1986
Mu­sic Lis­tened to mod­ern (pro­gres­sive) jazz 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #56
Mu­sic Lis­tened to New Or­leans’ (Dix­ieland) jazz 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #57
Mu­sic Lis­tened to folk mu­sic 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #58
Mu­sic Lis­tened to clas­sic or semi­-clas­si­cal mu­sic 0.40 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #267
Mu­sic Lis­tened to records in a store with­out buy­ing 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #204
Mu­sic Bought a folk mu­sic record 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #86
Mu­sic Bought a pop­u­lar or jazz record 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #109
Mu­sic Bought a clas­si­cal or semi­-clas­si­cal record 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #128
Mu­sic A col­lec­tion of clas­si­cal records 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #585
Mu­sic At­tended an or­ches­tra con­cert 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #148
Mu­sic opera mu­sic 0.39 Si­mon­son & Sela 2011
Mu­sic Lis­tened to the ra­dio 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #81
Mu­sic Stud­ied with the ra­dio, record play­er, or TV on 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #319
Mu­sic An FM ra­dio 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #613
Mu­sic A Hi-Fi or Stereo set 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #586
Mu­sic Worked on Hi-Fi or ra­dio equip­ment 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #303
Mu­sic A tape recorder 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #600
Video days per week with TV us­age 0.24 Kirzinger et al 2012
Video LTI “TV View­ing” 0.09 Hur et al 1996
Video LTI “Pas­sive En­ter­tain­ment” 0.82 Waller et al 1995
Video LTI “Po­lice Call­s-Fires” 0.61 Waller et al 1995
Video TV view­ing time 0.27 Plomin et al 1990, “In­di­vid­ual differ­ences in tele­vi­sion view­ing in early child­hood: Na­ture as well as nur­ture”
Video TV view­ing time 0.36 Plomin et al 1990
Video TV view­ing time 0.35 Plomin et al 1990
Video Watch­ing TV/TV view­ing time 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Di­ary, #26
Video hours of TV watch­ing 0.36 Kirzinger et al 2012
Video hours of TV watch­ing 0.23 Kirzinger et al 2012
Video pas­sive ac­tiv­ity (hours of TV/“sit­ting around do­ing noth­ing”/lis­ten­ing to mu­sic) 0.00 Haber­stick et al 2014
Video pas­sive ac­tiv­ity (hours of TV/“sit­ting around do­ing noth­ing”/lis­ten­ing to mu­sic) 0.35 Haber­stick et al 2014
Video hours of video watch­ing 0.30 Kirzinger et al 2012
Video Watched TV 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #171
Video A TV set 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #615
Video Day­dream­ing 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Di­ary, #32
Video Fool­ing around, wast­ing time 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Di­ary, #37
Video Spent an hour at a time day­dream­ing 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #325
Video At­tend­ing movies and plays 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Di­ary, #27
Video Went to the movies 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #154
Video Saw a for­eign movie 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #160
Video Went to the movies alone 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #264
Video A movie or slide pro­jec­tor 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #601
Video X-rated movies 0.687 Hatemi et al 2010, Ta­ble 3
Video striptease shows 0.51 Mar­tin et al 1986, “Trans­mis­sion of so­cial at­ti­tudes” Ta­ble 19
Video At­tended a bur­lesque show 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #121
Video At­tended a pro­fes­sional stage play 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #156
Video At­tended a stu­dent stage play 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #165
Video At­tended a bal­let per­for­mance 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #173
Video Pin-ups 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #813
Video Went to a night club with a floor show 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #143
In­tel­lec­tual To­tal Cre­ative Achieve­ment scale (TCA=ACA+SCA) of the Cre­ative Achieve­ment Ques­tion­naire (CAQ) 0.61 Piffer & Hur 2014, “Her­i­tabil­ity of Cre­ative Achieve­ment” Based on Car­son et al 2005. The CAQ might be taken as vo­ca­tional as­sess­ment rather than leisure-time/hob­bies, but as de Man­zano & Ul­lén 2018 point out, “The twin sam­ple was fairly smal­l­—338 twin­s…As­sum­ing the same preva­lence as re­ported in , this means that there would only have been around 9 pro­fes­sional artists in­cluded in the sam­ple.”
In­tel­lec­tual Sci­en­tific Cre­ative Achieve­ment (SCA) CAQ sub­scale (sci­en­tific dis­cov­ery/in­ven­tion/­culi­nary) 0.43 Piffer & Hur 2014
In­tel­lec­tual Sci­en­tific Cre­ative Achieve­ment (SCA) CAQ sub­scale (sci­en­tific dis­cov­ery/in­ven­tion); ex­trem­ized (max­i­mal re­sponse across any do­main) 0.68 de Man­zano & Ul­lén 2018, “Ge­netic and en­vi­ron­men­tal in­flu­ences on the phe­no­typic as­so­ci­a­tions be­tween in­tel­li­gence, per­son­al­i­ty, and cre­ative achieve­ment in the arts and sci­ences” Ta­ble S6
In­tel­lec­tual “Leisure-Time In­ter­ests” in­ven­tory (LTI): “In­tel­lec­tual Ac­tiv­i­ties” 0.57 Hur et al 1996, “Ge­netic and shared en­vi­ron­men­tal in­flu­ences on leisure-time in­ter­ests in male ado­les­cents”
In­tel­lec­tual LTI “In­tel­lec­tual In­ter­ests” 0.76 Waller et al 1995
In­tel­lec­tual in­tel­lec­tual ac­tiv­ity 0.40 Haber­stick et al 2014
In­tel­lec­tual in­tel­lec­tual ac­tiv­ity 0.16 Haber­stick et al 2014
In­tel­lec­tual In­tel­lec­tual Ac­tiv­i­ties 0.47 McGue et al 2014 eg “How often do you take a course or par­tic­i­pate in study group? How often do you read a book, news mag­a­zine or tech­ni­cal re­port?”
In­tel­lec­tual Be­ing read to by par­ents 0.81 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b, “Ge­netic in­flu­ences on ‘en­vi­ron­men­tal’ fac­tors”
In­tel­lec­tual Read­ing books be­fore age 12 0.72 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b
In­tel­lec­tual Read­ing books at/after age 13 0.72 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b
In­tel­lec­tual LTI “Read­ing” 0.75 Waller et al 1995
In­tel­lec­tual read­ing books 0.47 Ol­son et al 2001
In­tel­lec­tual Read­ing for plea­sure 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Di­ary, #24
In­tel­lec­tual McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Writ­ing 0.43 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a
In­tel­lec­tual McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Writ­ing (ex­treme re­spon­se) 0.83 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a
In­tel­lec­tual McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Lan­guage 0.71 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a
In­tel­lec­tual McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Lan­guage (ex­treme re­spon­se) 0.50 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a
In­tel­lec­tual McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Math­e­mat­ics 0.11 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a
In­tel­lec­tual McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Math­e­mat­ics (ex­treme re­spon­se) 0.87 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a
In­tel­lec­tual Made en­tries in a di­ary or jour­nal 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #88
In­tel­lec­tual Worked on a scrap book 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #90
In­tel­lec­tual Bought a pa­per-back book 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #127
In­tel­lec­tual Sci-Fi 0.46 Si­mon­son & Sela 2011
In­tel­lec­tual Wrote ar­ti­cles for a school pa­per, year­book, or sim­i­lar pub­li­ca­tion 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #142
In­tel­lec­tual Read mag­a­zines at a news­stand with­out buy­ing any 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #150
In­tel­lec­tual Read po­etry that was not re­quired read­ing 0.42 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #231
In­tel­lec­tual Wrote po­etry on your own ini­tia­tive 0.30 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #232
In­tel­lec­tual Looked some­thing up in an en­cy­clo­pe­dia 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #241
In­tel­lec­tual Read in bed be­fore go­ing to sleep 0.42 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #329
In­tel­lec­tual Prac­ticed dec­o­ra­tive or un­usual hand­writ­ing 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #346
In­tel­lec­tual Looked up a word in the dic­tio­nary 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #363
In­tel­lec­tual Writ­ing good fic­tion (po­ems, nov­els, short sto­ries, etc.) 0.64 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #384
In­tel­lec­tual Be­ing well read 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #385
In­tel­lec­tual Took a course over and above re­quire­ments 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #412
In­tel­lec­tual Read one or more non-fic­tion books that were not re­quired read­ing 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #427
In­tel­lec­tual Read one or more nov­els that were not re­quired 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #446
In­tel­lec­tual Read the bi­og­ra­phy of a fa­mous per­son 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #454
In­tel­lec­tual Li­brary of more than 200 books 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #577
In­tel­lec­tual A type­writer 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #603
In­tel­lec­tual An en­cy­clo­pe­dia set 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #604
In­tel­lec­tual An unabridged dic­tio­nary 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #606
In­tel­lec­tual 5 or more mag­a­zine sub­scrip­tions 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #607
In­tel­lec­tual A world at­las 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #608
In­tel­lec­tual Books in a for­eign lan­guage 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #609
In­tel­lec­tual Maps 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #814
In­tel­lec­tual Quo­ta­tions and mot­toes 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #816
In­tel­lec­tual Diplo­mas 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #819
In­tel­lec­tual cal­en­dars or sched­ules 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #821
In­tel­lec­tual Medals 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #827
In­tel­lec­tual Bi­o­log­i­cal charts 0.50 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #828
In­tel­lec­tual Flags 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #829
In­tel­lec­tual Had a pa­per pub­lished in a sci­en­tific jour­nal 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1003
In­tel­lec­tual Won a prize for any other sci­en­tific work or study 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1011
In­tel­lec­tual Won a prize or award for a work pub­lished in a pub­lic news­pa­per or mag­a­zine 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1046
In­tel­lec­tual Edited a school pa­per or lit­er­ary mag­a­zine 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1047
In­tel­lec­tual Won a lit­er­ary award for cre­ative writ­ing 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1048
In­tel­lec­tual Had po­ems, sto­ries, es­says or ar­ti­cles pub­lished in a school pub­li­ca­tion 0.30 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1049
In­tel­lec­tual Wrote an orig­i­nal, but un­pub­lished piece of cre­ative writ­ing on my own (not as part of a course) 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1050
In­tel­lec­tual Pub­lished one or more is­sues of my own news­pa­per 0.46 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1051
In­tel­lec­tual Had po­ems, sto­ries or ar­ti­cles pub­lished in a pub­lic news­pa­per or mag­a­zine (not school) 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1052
In­tel­lec­tual Ob­tained a book or jour­nal from the li­brary 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #176
In­tel­lec­tual Read the Bible 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #177
In­tel­lec­tual Vis­ited a mu­seum 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #184
In­tel­lec­tual Par­tic­i­pated in a sci­ence con­test or tal­ent search 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #298
In­tel­lec­tual Par­tic­i­pated in a sci­en­tific con­test or tal­ent search 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1005
In­tel­lec­tual Did an in­de­pen­dent, sci­en­tific ex­per­i­ment (not a course as­sign­ment) 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1000
In­tel­lec­tual In­vented a patentable de­vice 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1002
In­tel­lec­tual Gave a pre­pared talk to 15 or more peo­ple 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #80
In­tel­lec­tual At­tended a pub­lic lec­ture (not for a course) 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #77
In­tel­lec­tual En­tered a speech or de­bate con­test 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #249
In­tel­lec­tual Par­tic­i­pated in a de­bate or speech con­test 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #305
In­tel­lec­tual Placed first, sec­ond or third in a: na­tional speech or de­bate con­test 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1012
In­tel­lec­tual Placed first, sec­ond or third in a: re­gional or state speech or de­bate con­test 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1013
In­tel­lec­tual Placed first, sec­ond or third in a: city or county speech or de­bate con­test 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1014
In­tel­lec­tual Placed first, sec­ond or third in a: school speech or de­bate con­test 0.70 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1015
In­tel­lec­tual Tried to con­vince some­one to change his (her) re­li­gious be­liefs 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #344
In­tel­lec­tual LTI “Pol­i­tics” 0.44 Waller et al 1995
In­tel­lec­tual Po­lit­i­cal in­ter­est (PI) at age 17 0.70 Ko­r­nadt et al 2018,
In­tel­lec­tual Po­lit­i­cal in­ter­est (PI) at age 23 0.67 Ko­r­nadt et al 2018
In­tel­lec­tual Tried to con­vince some­one to change his (her) po­lit­i­cal or so­cial be­liefs 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #345
In­tel­lec­tual im­por­tance of news con­sump­tion 0.35 Kirzinger et al 2012
In­tel­lec­tual Read the ed­i­to­r­ial page of a news­pa­per 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #348
In­tel­lec­tual Keep­ing up to date with po­lit­i­cal affairs 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #392
In­tel­lec­tual Signed a pe­ti­tion 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #425
In­tel­lec­tual Wrote a ‘let­ter-to-the-ed­i­tor’ 0.46 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #227
In­tel­lec­tual Wrote a let­ter to a con­gress­man 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #353
In­tel­lec­tual Talked in a lan­guage other than Eng­lish 0.40 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #135
In­tel­lec­tual Tu­tored some­one for money 0.58 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #140
In­tel­lec­tual Tu­tored some­one for free 0.46 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #141
In­tel­lec­tual Bought or sold cor­po­rate stocks 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #242
In­tel­lec­tual Read the Stock Mar­ket quo­ta­tions 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #359
In­tel­lec­tual Bought stamps for a stamp col­lec­tion 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #194
In­tel­lec­tual Ob­tained the au­to­graph of a fa­mous per­son 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #332
In­tel­lec­tual Set up a sched­ule with spe­cific times for var­i­ous ac­tiv­i­ties 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #431
In­tel­lec­tual The walls are blank (by choice) 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #811
In­tel­lec­tual A tele­scope 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #595
In­tel­lec­tual Chem­i­cal lab­o­ra­tory equip­ment 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #597
In­tel­lec­tual Elec­tronic lab­o­ra­tory equip­ment 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #598
In­tel­lec­tual Botany or zo­ol­ogy lab­o­ra­tory equip­ment 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #599
In­tel­lec­tual A barom­e­ter 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #612
In­tel­lec­tual A [hang­ing] mo­bile 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #815
In­tel­lec­tual Sci­en­tific mod­els 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #817
In­tel­lec­tual Schol­ar­ship tro­phies 0.52 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #820
In­tel­lec­tual Built a piece of equip­ment or lab­o­ra­tory ap­pa­ra­tus on my own (not course work) 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1004
In­tel­lec­tual Col­lected in­sect spec­i­mens 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #314
In­tel­lec­tual hy­brid cars 0.37 Si­mon­son & Sela 2011
In­tel­lec­tual nud­ist camps 0.28 Mar­tin et al 1986
In­tel­lec­tual self­-de­nial 0.28 Mar­tin et al 1986
In­tel­lec­tual Fre­quency of news use: Fre­quency of news use: “Lo­cal TV news” 0
In­tel­lec­tual Fre­quency of news use: “News on com­edy shows” 0.34 York & Hari­dakis 2020
In­tel­lec­tual Fre­quency of news use: “On­line news” 0.54 York & Hari­dakis 2020
In­tel­lec­tual Fre­quency of news use: “So­cial me­dia news” 0.15 York & Hari­dakis 2020
In­tel­lec­tual Fre­quency of news use: “Mo­bile news use” 0.35 York & Hari­dakis 2020
In­tel­lec­tual Fre­quency of news use: “Lib­eral news (MSNBC, CNN)” 0.59 York & Hari­dakis 2020
In­tel­lec­tual Fre­quency of news use: “NPR 0.47 York & Hari­dakis 2020
In­tel­lec­tual Fre­quency of news use: “Con­ser­v­a­tive news (FOX)” 0.58 York & Hari­dakis 2020
In­tel­lec­tual Fre­quency of news use: “Con­ser­v­a­tive talk ra­dio” 0.45 York & Hari­dakis 2020
In­tel­lec­tual Fre­quency of news use: “Over­all news Use” 0.35 York & Hari­dakis 2020
Artis­tic Artis­tic Cre­ative Achieve­ment (ACA) CAQ sub­scale (vi­sual art­s/­mu­sic/cre­ative writ­ing/­dance/­dra­ma/ar­chi­tec­ture/hu­mor) 0.67 Piffer & Hur 2014
Artis­tic Artis­tic Cre­ative Achieve­ment (ACA) CAQ sub­scale (vi­sual art­s/­mu­sic/cre­ative writ­ing/­dance/­dra­ma); ex­trem­ized 0.37 de Man­zano & Ul­lén 2018
Artis­tic cul­tural ac­tiv­ity per­sonal goals 0.00 Salme­la-Aro et al 2009
Artis­tic McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Arts 0.60 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a
Artis­tic McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Arts (ex­treme re­spon­se) 0.56 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a
Artis­tic Mod­ern Art 0.46 Hatemi et al 2010
Artis­tic Per­formed magic or card tricks 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #82
Artis­tic Worked back­stage on a play 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #114
Artis­tic Read for a part in a high school or church play 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1021
Artis­tic Read for a part in a play which was not spon­sored by my school or church 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1022
Artis­tic Acted in a play 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #275
Artis­tic Had mi­nor roles in one or more play­ers 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1017
Artis­tic Had a lead­ing role in one or more plays 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1016
Artis­tic Wrote a play 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1018
Artis­tic Ap­peared on ra­dio or TV as a per­former 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1020
Artis­tic Di­rected a play 0.88 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1019
Artis­tic Some art sup­plies or equip­ment 0.30 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #579
Artis­tic Re­pro­duc­tions of fa­mous paint­ings 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #587
Artis­tic Ex­am­ples of orig­i­nal art work (paint­ings, sculp­ture, ce­ram­ics, etc.) 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #588
Artis­tic Ab­stract paint­ings 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #822
Artis­tic Other paint­ings or draw­ings 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #823
Artis­tic Sculp­ture 0.42 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #825
Artis­tic At­tended an art ex­hi­bi­tion 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #271
Artis­tic Pro­duced a work of art (not for a course) 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #254
Artis­tic Made your own Christ­mas cards 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #434
Artis­tic Worked on a num­ber paint­ing 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #118
Artis­tic Painted a pic­ture (oil, wa­ter­col­or, pastel, etc.) 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #201
Artis­tic Be­com­ing ac­com­plished in one of the per­form­ing arts (act­ing, danc­ing, etc.) 0.40 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #371
Artis­tic Pro­duc­ing good artis­tic work (paint­ing, sculp­ture, dec­o­rat­ing, etc.) 0.52 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #389
Artis­tic Ex­hib­ited a work of art (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A na­tional art show 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1038
Artis­tic Ex­hib­ited a work of art (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A re­gional or state art show 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1039
Artis­tic Ex­hib­ited a work of art (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A city or county art show 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1040
Artis­tic Ex­hib­ited a work of art (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A school art show 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1041
Artis­tic Won a prize or award for an artis­tic cre­ation (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A na­tional art show 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1042
Artis­tic Won a prize or award for an artis­tic cre­ation (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A re­gional or state art show 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1043
Artis­tic Won a prize or award for an artis­tic cre­ation (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A city or county art show 0.52 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1044
Artis­tic Won a prize or award for an artis­tic cre­ation (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A school art show 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1045
Re­li­gion Re­li­gious Leisure Time In­ter­ests (LTI) 0.47 Waller et al 1990, “Ge­netic And En­vi­ron­men­tal In­flu­ences On Re­li­gious In­ter­ests, At­ti­tudes, And Val­ues: A Study Of Twins Reared Apart and To­gether”10
Re­li­gion LTI “Re­li­gion” 0.66 Waller et al 1995
Re­li­gion LTI “Re­li­gious Ac­tiv­i­ties” 0.00 Hur et al 1996
Re­li­gion Re­li­gious group at­ten­dance 0.046 Day et al 2018 SNP her­i­tabil­i­ty.
Re­li­gion Taught Sun­day school 0.44 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #277
Re­li­gion Re­li­gious ar­ti­cles 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #818
Re­li­gion Dis­cussed re­li­gion with friends 0.48 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #189
Re­li­gion At­tended a church or ser­vice of a re­li­gion other than your own 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #222
Re­li­gion At­tended a re­li­gious re­vival meet­ing 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #240
Ap­pear­ance Per­sonal care (bathing, fix­ing hair, putting on make-up, etc) 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Di­ary, #33
Ap­pear­ance Used ‘Man-Tan’, ‘Tan-O-Rama’, ‘Q.T.’ or sim­i­lar [tan­ning] prod­ucts 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #69
Ap­pear­ance Pol­ished your toe­nails 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #94
Ap­pear­ance Paid some­one to pol­ish your shoes 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #321
Ap­pear­ance Got a tat­too 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #429
Ap­pear­ance Cut your own hair 0.50 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #322
Ap­pear­ance Grew a beard 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #435
Ap­pear­ance Bleached or dyed your hair 0.44 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #436
Ap­pear­ance Wore a wig 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #437
Ap­pear­ance Changed your hair style 0.56 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #456
Ap­pear­ance Changed clothes dur­ing the day (ex­clude gyms or ath­let­ics) 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #101
Ap­pear­ance Tried on clothes in a store with­out buy­ing any­thing 0.42 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #265
Ap­pear­ance At­tended a fash­ion show 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #183
Ap­pear­ance Bor­rowed cloth­ing from a friend 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #237
Ap­pear­ance Lent cloth­ing to a friend 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #295
Ap­pear­ance Wore sun glasses after dark 0.50 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #244
Tourism LTI “For­eign Travel” 0.21 Hur et al 1996
Tourism LTI “For­eign Travel” 0.84 Waller et al 1995
Tourism Vis­ited a for­eign coun­try 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #443
Tourism Went to a car­ni­val, amuse­ment park or cir­cus 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #432
Tourism Went on a va­ca­tion trip with friends your own age 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #447
Tourism Drove a car 0.46 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #166
Tourism Rode in a sports car 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #131
Tourism Drive a car over 80MPH 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #64
Tourism Flew in an air­plane 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #182
Tourism Went sight­see­ing 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #132
Tourism Went win­dow shop­ping 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #198
Tourism Rode on a roller coast­er, Fer­ris wheel, merry go round, or sim­i­lar ride 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #317
Tourism roller coaster rides 0.52 Ol­son et al 2001
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal LTI “Hand­i­crafts” 0.38 Hur et al 1996
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal LTI “Hus­bandry” 0.84 Waller et al 1995
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal LTI “Do­mes­tic” 0.54 Waller et al 1995
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Work­ing on other projects or hob­bies not di­rectly re­lated to course work or a job 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Di­ary, #36
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Cleaned and dusted your room 0.92 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #112
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Washed dishes 0.92 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #168
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Took a bub­ble bath 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #347
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Made mi­nor re­pairs around the house 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #49
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Washed and/or pol­ished a car 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #361
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Re­paired or worked on a car 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #100
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Cus­tomized a car 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #426
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Mended cloth­ing 0.30 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #282
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Knit­ted 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #91
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Made an ar­ti­cle of cloth­ing 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #92
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Cro­cheted 0.54 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #138
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal A sewing ma­chine 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #581
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Leather work­ing tools 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #602
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Took pho­tographs 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #144
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal De­vel­oped pic­tures (dark­room work) 0.66 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #155
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Built or flew a model air­plane 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #145
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Painted a room or house 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #428
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Car­pen­try tools (hand) 0.68 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #575
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Power tools 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #576
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Pho­to­graphic equip­ment 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #582
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal A pho­to­graphic dark room 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #583
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Farm equip­ment 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #596
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal A flower or veg­etable gar­den 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #592
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Au­to­mo­tive tools or work shop 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #605
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal 2 or more cars 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #614
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Cared for trop­i­cal fish or gold­fish 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #51
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Cared for other pet an­i­mals 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #52
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Cared for a pot­ted plant 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #125
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal A pet dog or cat 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #593
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal A pet dog 0.57 Fe­male own­ers
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal A pet dog 0.51 Fall et al 2019 Male own­ers
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal “Dur­ing the past 30 days, how often did you play with pets?” 0.37
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Other an­i­mal pets 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #594
House­hold/me­chan­i­cal Fed a stray dog or cat 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #360
Game Play­ing games (cards, chess, etc.) 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Di­ary, #38
Game play­ing chess 0.38 Ol­son et al 2001
Game Played chess 0.48 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #44
Game McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Chess 0.49 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a a2 = 0.01 + d2 = 0.48 = 0.49; Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a has no ex­treme re­sponse her­i­tabil­ity for chess due to too few re­spons­es.
Game Played cha­rades 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #120
Game Played Tic-Tac-Toe, Hang­man’s Noose, or sim­i­lar games in class 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #96
Game Played Monopoly, Scrab­ble, or sim­i­lar games 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #296
Game Played check­ers 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #43
Game cross­word puz­zles 0.45 Ol­son et al 2001, “The Her­i­tabil­ity of At­ti­tudes: A Study of Twins” a2 = 0.02 + d2
Game Worked cross­word puz­zles 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #169
Game Played a pin­ball ma­chine 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #269
Game Played cards (bridge, pinochle, etc.) 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #202
Game Played Soli­taire 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #313
Game LTI “Gam­bling” 0.39 Waller et al 1995
Game Gam­bled with cards 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #61
Game play­ing bingo 0.00 Ol­son et al 2001
Game Played a slot ma­chine 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #229
Game Gam­bled with dice 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #62
Game Made bets on a game or other event (not cards or dice) 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #119
Game toy pref­er­ence re­ac­tion times 0.31 Scarr 1966, “Ge­netic Fac­tors in Ac­tiv­ity Mo­ti­va­tion”
Game toy pref­er­ence re­ac­tion times 0.36 Scarr 1966
Game toy pref­er­ence re­ac­tion times 0.36 Scarr 1966
Game toy pref­er­ence re­ac­tion times 0.24 Scarr 1966
Game toy pref­er­ence re­ac­tion times 0.26 Scarr 1966
Game pref­er­ence for large va­ri­ety of toys 0.40 Scarr 1966
Food milk choco­late 0.30 Si­mon­son & Sela 2011, “On the her­i­tabil­ity of con­sumer de­ci­sion mak­ing: An ex­ploratory ap­proach for study­ing ge­netic effects on judg­ment and choice”11
Food dark choco­late 0.29 Si­mon­son & Sela 2011 Note: I in­clude some food en­tries for amuse­ment val­ue, I did not at­tempt a com­pre­hen­sive search of food pref­er­ence lit­er­a­ture; for a more com­pre­hen­sive ex­am­ple, see Smith et al 201612.
Food mus­tard 0.22 Si­mon­son & Sela 2011
Food Cooked a com­plete meal 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #111
Food Ate candy 0.78 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #315
Food Ate 2 or more candy bars a day 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #339
Food Baked a cake or pie from scratch (no mix­es) 0.52 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #243
Food Chewed gum 0.66 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #129
Food Ate a steak cooked rare 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #246
Food Ate break­fast in bed (not as a pa­tient) 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #362
Food A for­eign cook book 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #589
Food Ate Chi­nese food 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #206
So­cial So­cial Ac­tiv­ity scale 0.36 McGue & Chris­tensen 2007, “So­cial ac­tiv­ity and healthy ag­ing: A study of ag­ing Dan­ish twins”
So­cial Re­vised Rut­ter Par­ent Scale for Preschool Chil­dren (RRPSP): Proso­cial Be­hav­ior sub­scale 0.37 Knafo & Plomin 2006, “Proso­cial Be­hav­ior From Early to Mid­dle Child­hood: Ge­netic and En­vi­ron­men­tal In­flu­ences on Sta­bil­ity and Change”
So­cial RRPSP: Proso­cial Be­hav­ior sub­scale 0.47 Knafo & Plomin 2006
So­cial RRPSP: Proso­cial Be­hav­ior sub­scale 0.52 Knafo & Plomin 2006
So­cial RRPSP: Proso­cial Be­hav­ior sub­scale 0.62 Knafo & Plomin 2006
So­cial RRPSP: Proso­cial Be­hav­ior sub­scale 0.72 Knafo & Plomin 2006
So­cial RRPSP: Proso­cial Be­hav­ior sub­scale 0.26 Knafo & Plomin 2006
So­cial RRPSP: Proso­cial Be­hav­ior sub­scale 0.30 Knafo & Plomin 2006
So­cial RRPSP: Proso­cial Be­hav­ior sub­scale 0.51 Knafo & Plomin 2006
So­cial RRPSP: Proso­cial Be­hav­ior sub­scale 0.60 Knafo & Plomin 2006
So­cial RRPSP: Proso­cial Be­hav­ior sub­scale 0.51 Knafo & Plomin 2006
So­cial LTI “Dat­ing and So­cial Ac­tiv­i­ties” 0.07 Hur et al 1996
So­cial LTI “So­cial­iz­ing” 0.64 Waller et al 1995
So­cial So­cial in­ter­est (SI) at age 17 0.33 Ko­r­nadt et al 2018 Ad­di­tive+non-ad­di­tive ()
So­cial So­cial in­ter­est (SI) at age 23 0.42 Ko­r­nadt et al 2018 Ad­di­tive+non-ad­di­tive ()
So­cial “Meet­ings of clubs and or­ga­ni­za­tions” 0.55 Kendler 1997, “So­cial Sup­port: A Ge­net­ic-Epi­demi­o­logic Analy­sis” a^2 = 0.75 for “So­cial in­te­gra­tion” fac­tor, club/or­ga­ni­za­tion load­ing of 0.73, so
So­cial fam­ily ac­tiv­ity 0.31 Haber­stick et al 2014
So­cial fam­ily ac­tiv­ity 0.44 Haber­stick et al 2014
So­cial so­cial ac­tiv­ity 0.50 Haber­stick et al 2014
So­cial so­cial ac­tiv­ity 0.55 Haber­stick et al 2014
So­cial So­cial Ac­tiv­i­ties 0.38 McGue et al 2014 eg “How often do you visit fam­ily or friends at their home? How often do you par­tic­i­pate in a party or other so­cial event?”
So­cial talk­ing at par­ties 0.09 Kirzinger et al 2012
So­cial pa­jama par­ties 0.08 Mar­tin et al 1986
So­cial re­la­tion­al/­so­cial ag­gres­sion me­dia pref­er­ence 0.26 Jam­nik & Di­Lalla 2018
So­cial Picked-up a date in a bar, restau­rant, or sim­i­lar place 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #48
So­cial Went to a party 0.54 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #60
So­cial Stayed up all night 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #76
So­cial Arranged a date for a friend 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #116
So­cial Went to a party with a date 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #122
So­cial Had a friend visit your home overnight 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #262
So­cial Had a blind date 0.30 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #285
So­cial Wore for­mal cloth­ing (evening gown, tuxe­do, din­ner jack­et, etc.) 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #288
So­cial Told a ‘dirty joke’ to male friends 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #289
So­cial Told a ‘dirty joke’ to fe­male friends 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #290
So­cial Went on a dou­ble date 0.68 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #224
So­cial Wrote a ‘love-let­ter’ 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #225
So­cial Dined by can­dle light 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #304
So­cial Fre­quency of dates: Ca­sual coke [so­da], coffee or study dates per month 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Dat­ing, #406
So­cial Fre­quency of dates: In­for­mal dates to movies, stu­dent gath­ers etc per month 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Dat­ing, #407
So­cial Fre­quency of dates: For­mal dates to dances and big par­ties per month 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Dat­ing, #408
So­cial Had your back rubbed 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #250
So­cial Be­came pinned [‘go­ing steady’] or en­gaged 0.58 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #414
So­cial Went to an overnight or week-end party 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #123
So­cial Vis­ited a friend’s home overnight 0.40 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #260
So­cial Put up dec­o­ra­tions for a party 0.44 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #172
So­cial LTI “Swing­ing” [nightlife/­danc­ing] 0.59 Waller et al 1995
So­cial Danced the twist 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #178
So­cial At­tended a for­mal dance 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #149
So­cial Did an im­i­ta­tion or im­per­son­ation of an­other per­son 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #218
So­cial Made a new friend 0.46 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #349
So­cial Turned down an in­vi­ta­tion for a date 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #357
So­cial Stayed out on a date after 2 A.M. 0.42 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #358
So­cial Dis­cussed how to make money with friends 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #55
So­cial Dis­cussed school sub­jects with friends 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #63
So­cial Wrote let­ters to friends your own age 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #197
So­cial Pho­tographs of friends 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #824
So­cial Did vol­un­tary work for a hos­pi­tal or ser­vice or­ga­ni­za­tion (Red Cross, Heart Fund, etc.) 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #115
So­cial Baby sat 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #102
So­cial Per­formed [fra­ter­ni­ty] pledge-du­ties 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #103
So­cial At­tend­ing club or or­ga­ni­za­tional ac­tiv­i­ties (meet­ings, [fra­ter­ni­ty] pledge-du­ties, etc) 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Di­ary, #34
So­cial Pub or so­cial club at­ten­dance 0.04 Day et al 2018 SNP her­i­tabil­i­ty. Day et al 2018 gives a range 0.034–0.046 for the 3 so­cial phe­no­types, but omits the pub­/­so­cial-club SNP her­i­tabil­ity aside from im­ply­ing it falls within that range.
So­cial Worked for a club or or­ga­ni­za­tion 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #151
So­cial So­licited ad­ver­tis­ing for a school pa­per, year­book, or sim­i­lar pub­li­ca­tion 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #157
So­cial Par­tic­i­pated in a stu­dent demon­stra­tion (strike, wa­ter-fight, etc.) 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #147
So­cial Vis­ited a per­son in a hos­pi­tal 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #175
So­cial Par­tic­i­pated in a wed­ding (ush­er, brides­maid, etc.) 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #193
So­cial Pushed a stalled car (other than your own) 0.02 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #266
So­cial Be­com­ing a com­mu­nity leader 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #377
So­cial Do­nated money to a char­ity 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #417
So­cial Po­lit­i­cal par­tic­i­pa­tion (POP) at age 17 0.25 Ko­r­nadt et al 2018
So­cial Po­lit­i­cal par­tic­i­pa­tion (POP) at age 23 0.46 Ko­r­nadt et al 2018
So­cial Worked for the elec­tion of a po­lit­i­cal party or can­di­date 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #418
So­cial Con­tributed money to a po­lit­i­cal party or can­di­date 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #419
So­cial Or­ga­nized a school po­lit­i­cal group or cam­paign 0.42 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1023
So­cial Or­ga­nized my own busi­ness or ser­vice 0.74 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1024
So­cial Re­ceived a Ju­nior Achieve­ment award 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Hon­ors, #1025
So­cial Do­nated blood 0.72 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Done Dur­ing Past Year, #449
So­cial Was con­sulted for help or ad­vice by some­one with a per­sonal prob­lem 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #210
So­cial Wrote a let­ter to a ‘pen-pal’ whom you have never met in per­son 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #217
So­cial Vis­ited a rel­a­tive’s home overnight 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #261
So­cial Started a con­ver­sa­tion with strangers 0.46 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #263
So­cial Tried to hyp­no­tize some­one 0.48 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #276
So­cial Told jokes 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #203
So­cial Jokes 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #826
So­cial Played a prac­ti­cal joke on some­one 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #70
So­cial Con­fused peo­ple by pre­tend­ing to be your twin 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #365
Ath­letic At­tended ath­letic events 0.78 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #117
Ath­letic Watch­ing sports events 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Di­ary, #28
Ath­letic Par­tic­i­pat­ing in sports and prac­tice ses­sions 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Time Di­ary, #39
Ath­letic sports club or gym at­ten­dance 0.03 Day et al 2018, “Elu­ci­dat­ing the ge­netic ba­sis of so­cial in­ter­ac­tion and iso­la­tion” SNP her­i­tabil­ity (see ); in­ter­pre­ta­tion is com­pli­cated by this be­ing a sin­gle-item mea­sure of en­tirely un­known re­li­a­bil­ity in the older UK Biobank co­hort, so it’s un­clear if the her­i­tabil­ity is so low due to mea­sure­ment er­ror, if ad­di­tive SNP her­i­tabil­ity sim­ply is that low and only a small part of nar­row or broad­-sense her­i­tabil­i­ty.
Ath­letic Num­ber of years sport par­tic­i­pa­tion 0.48 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b
Ath­letic Num­ber of years sport com­pe­ti­tion 0.51 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b
Ath­letic Cur­rent sports par­tic­i­pa­tion 0.29 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b
Ath­letic At­tended a pro­fes­sional prize fight or wrestling match 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #181
Ath­letic Dis­cussed sports with friends 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #283
Ath­letic Took ex­er­cises 0.80 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #355
Ath­letic Be­com­ing an out­stand­ing ath­lete 0.40 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #375
Ath­letic Keep­ing in good phys­i­cal con­di­tion 0.14 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #388
Ath­letic En­gag­ing in ex­cit­ing and stim­u­lat­ing ac­tiv­i­ties 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Life Goals, #400
Ath­letic Sports equip­ment 0.36 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #580
Ath­letic Pen­nants 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #812
Ath­letic Sports tro­phies 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #830
Ath­letic Sports equip­ment 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In Room, #831
Ath­letic phys­i­cal ag­gres­sion me­dia pref­er­ence 0.02 Jam­nik & Di­Lalla 2018, “A Mul­ti­method­olog­i­cal Study of Preschool­ers’ Pref­er­ences for Ag­gres­sive Tele­vi­sion and Video Games”
Ath­letic pref­er­ence for phys­i­cally ac­tive games 0.00 Scarr 1966
Ath­letic en­joy­ment of high im­pact ac­tiv­ity 0.85 Fisher et al 2010
Ath­letic en­joy­ment of leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.33 Aal­to­nen et al 2016, “Ge­netic ar­chi­tec­ture of mo­tives for leisure-time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­i­ty: a twin study”
Ath­letic en­joy­ment of leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.53 Aal­to­nen et al 2016
Ath­letic en­joy­ment of low im­pact ac­tiv­ity 0.74 Fisher et al 2010,
Ath­letic en­joy­ment of medium im­pact ac­tiv­ity 0.80 Fisher et al 2010
Ath­letic (lack of) en­joy­ment of ex­er­cise 0.47 Hup­pertz et al 2014,
Ath­letic (lack of) en­joy­ment of ex­er­cise 0.44 Hup­pertz et al 2014
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.00 Pérusse et al 1989, “Ge­netic And En­vi­ron­men­tal In­flu­ences On Level Of Ha­bit­ual Phys­i­cal Ac­tiv­ity And Ex­er­cise Par­tic­i­pa­tion”
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.23 Stubbe et al 2006, 13
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.31 Stubbe et al 2006
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.44 Stubbe et al 2006
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.50 Stubbe et al 2006
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.56 Stubbe et al 2006
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.68 Stubbe et al 2006
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.50 Stubbe et al 2006
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.37 Stubbe et al 2006
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.57 Stubbe et al 2006
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.64 Stubbe et al 2006
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.60 Stubbe et al 2006
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.71 Stubbe et al 2006
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.24 Si­mo­nen et al 2004, “Mul­ti­vari­ate ge­netic analy­sis of life­time ex­er­cise and en­vi­ron­men­tal fac­tors”
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.24 Hup­pertz et al 2012,
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.22 Hup­pertz et al 2012
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.66 Hup­pertz et al 2012
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.16 Hup­pertz et al 2012
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.80 Hup­pertz et al 2012
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.15 Hup­pertz et al 2012
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.38 Hup­pertz et al 2012
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.36 Hup­pertz et al 2012
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.42 de Moor et al 2011,
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.45 Dun­can et al 2008,
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.00 Dun­can et al 2008
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.50 Hup­pertz et al 2014
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.43 Hup­pertz et al 2014
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.64 Carls­son et al 2006, “Ge­netic effects on phys­i­cal ac­tiv­i­ty: Re­sults from the Swedish twin reg­istry”
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.40 Carls­son et al 2006
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.51 Carls­son et al 2006
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.41 Carls­son et al 2006
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.85 van der Aa et al 2010, “Ge­netic In­flu­ences on In­di­vid­ual Differ­ences in Ex­er­cise Be­hav­ior dur­ing Ado­les­cence”
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.38 van der Aa et al 2010
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.80 van der Aa et al 2010
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.80 van der Aa et al 2010
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.72 van der Aa et al 2010
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.72 van der Aa et al 2010
Ath­letic ex­er­cise 0.36 Ol­son et al 2001
Ath­letic ex­er­cise be­hav­ior 0.67 Schutte et al 2018, “A twin study on the cor­re­lates of vol­un­tary ex­er­cise be­hav­ior in ado­les­cence”
Ath­letic jog­ging/run­ning >10 miles/week 0.53 Laud­erdale 1997
Ath­letic any vig­or­ous ex­er­cise in past 2 weeks 0.39 Heller et al 1988, “Lifestyle fac­tors in monozy­gotic and dizy­gotic twins”
Ath­letic leisure phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity vol­ume ≥2 MET-hours/day 0.45 Ku­jala et al 2002
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.62 Kaprio et al 1981, “Cig­a­rette smok­ing, use of al­co­hol, and leisure-time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity among same-sexed adult male twins”
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity (all) 0.55 Eriks­son et al 2006, “Ge­netic fac­tors in phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity and the equal en­vi­ron­ment as­sump­tion—the Swedish Young Male Twins Study”
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity (non-s­ports) 0.40 Eriks­son et al 2006
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.07 Haber­stick et al 2014, “Ge­netic and en­vi­ron­men­tal in­flu­ences on the al­lo­ca­tion of ado­les­cent leisure time ac­tiv­i­ties”
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.54 Haber­stick et al 2014
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.41 Mustelin et al 2012, “Ge­netic in­flu­ences on phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity in young adults: a twin study”
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.47 Aal­to­nen et al 2010,
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.42 Aal­to­nen et al 2010
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.38 Aal­to­nen et al 2010
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.31 Aal­to­nen et al 2010
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.52 Aal­to­nen et al 2013, “Ge­netic and En­vi­ron­men­tal In­flu­ences on Lon­gi­tu­di­nal Changes in Leisure-Time Phys­i­cal Ac­tiv­ity From Ado­les­cence to Young Adult­hood”
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.52 Aal­to­nen et al 2013
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.44 Aal­to­nen et al 2013
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.50 Aal­to­nen et al 2013
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.46 Aal­to­nen et al 2013
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.51 Aal­to­nen et al 2013
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.34 Aal­to­nen et al 2013
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.31 Aal­to­nen et al 2013
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.63 Maia et al 2002
Ath­letic leisure time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.32 Maia et al 2002
Ath­letic leisure-time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.54 Aarnio et al 1997, “Fa­mil­ial ag­gre­ga­tion of leisure-time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­i­ty: A three gen­er­a­tion study” As quoted in Stubbe & de Geus 2009, where they note they cal­cu­lated the her­i­tabil­ity from the raw cor­re­la­tions re­ported in Aarnio et al 1997.
Ath­letic leisure-time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.46 Aarnio et al 1997 As quoted in Stubbe & de Geus 2009 etc.
Ath­letic Phys­i­cal Ac­tiv­i­ties 0.45 McGue et al 2014, “The na­ture of be­hav­ioural cor­re­lates of healthy age­ing: a twin study of lifestyle in mid to late life” eg “How often do you run, work out, do aer­o­bics? How often do you cy­cle at least 3 km?”
Ath­letic Phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.78 Gao et al 2019
Ath­letic Phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.59 Gao et al 2019
Ath­letic Seden­tary be­hav­iour 0.68 Gao et al 2019, (pre­vi­ously re­ported in a Chi­ne­se-lan­guage study, Zhang et al 2014, “A twin study in Qing­dao and Lishui: her­i­tabil­ity of ex­er­cise par­tic­i­pa­tion and seden­tary be­hav­ior”)
Ath­letic Seden­tary be­hav­iour 0.32 Gao et al 2019
Ath­letic low/medi­um/high im­pact ac­tiv­ity pref­er­ence 0.60 Fisher et al 2010
Ath­letic mod­er­ate leisure-time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.38 Laud­erdale 1997, “Fa­mil­ial de­ter­mi­nants of mod­er­ate and in­tense phys­i­cal ac­tiv­i­ty: a twin study”
Ath­letic phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity per­sonal goals 0.00 Salme­la-Aro et al 2009, “Per­sonal Goals of Older Fe­male Twins: Ge­netic and En­vi­ron­men­tal Effects”
Ath­letic play stren­u­ous non-rac­quet sports >5 hours/week 0.30 Laud­erdale 1997
Ath­letic play stren­u­ous rac­quet sports >5 hours/week 0.48 Laud­erdale 1997
Ath­letic play­ing or­ga­nized sports 0.52 Ol­son et al 2001
Ath­letic Went horse­back rid­ing 0.34 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #45
Ath­letic Took horse­back rid­ing lessons 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #110
Ath­letic At­tended a horse race 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #162
Ath­letic Played polo (in­door or out­door) 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #272
Ath­letic Rode a horse 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #331
Ath­letic ride a bi­cy­cle >50 miles/week 0.58 Laud­erdale 1997
Ath­letic Rode a bi­cy­cle 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #161
Ath­letic Rode a mo­tor­cy­cle 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #59
Ath­letic Par­tic­i­pated in a drag race 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #180
Ath­letic A mo­tor boat or sail boat 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #590
Ath­letic A mo­tor­cy­cle or mo­tor­bike 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #591
Ath­letic McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Sports 0.64 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a
Ath­letic McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Sports 0.29 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a
Ath­letic McGue Tal­ent In­ven­to­ry: Sports (ex­treme re­spon­se) 0.85 Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a
Ath­letic sports 0.44 Ol­son et al 2001
Ath­letic sports 0.00 Stubbe et al 2005, “Sports par­tic­i­pa­tion dur­ing ado­les­cence: A shift from en­vi­ron­men­tal to ge­netic fac­tors”
Ath­letic sports 0.00 Stubbe et al 2005
Ath­letic sports 0.36 Stubbe et al 2005
Ath­letic sports 0.85 Stubbe et al 2005
Ath­letic sports 0.35 Boomsma et al 1989, “Re­sem­blances of par­ents and twins in sports par­tic­i­pa­tion and heart rate”
Ath­letic sports 0.77 Boomsma et al 1989
Ath­letic sports 0.48 Koop­mans et al 1994,
Ath­letic sports 0.52 Fred­erik­sen & Chris­tensen 2003, “The in­flu­ence of ge­netic fac­tors on phys­i­cal func­tion­ing and ex­er­cise in sec­ond half of life” d2
Ath­letic sports 0.54 Be­unen & Thomis 1999, “Ge­netic de­ter­mi­nants of sports par­tic­i­pa­tion and daily phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity”
Ath­letic sports 0.83 Be­unen & Thomis 1999
Ath­letic sports 0.56 Eriks­son et al 2006
Ath­letic sports 0.64 Mustelin et al 2012
Ath­letic sports 0.68 Maia et al 2002,
Ath­letic sports 0.40 Maia et al 2002
Ath­letic sports 0.81 Si­mo­nen et al 2004
Ath­letic LTI “Sports” 0.53 Hur et al 1996
Ath­letic LTI “Fit­ness” 0.78 Waller et al 1995
Ath­letic LTI “Sports Fan” 0.51 Waller et al 1995
Ath­letic LTI “Dan­ger Seek­ing” [ex­treme sports] 0.57 Waller et al 1995
Ath­letic swim >2 miles/week 0.08 Laud­erdale 1997
Ath­letic Went ice skat­ing 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #46
Ath­letic Went swim­ming 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #158
Ath­letic Went skin div­ing 0.46 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #270
Ath­letic Dove from a div­ing board or tower more than 6 feet above the wa­ter 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #335
Ath­letic Went fish­ing 0.04 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #309
Ath­letic Went boat­ing 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #167
Ath­letic Went wa­ter ski­ing or surf board rid­ing 0.08 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #73
Ath­letic Went ski­ing 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #74
Ath­letic Par­tic­i­pated in crew events (s­culls, pairs, fours, etc.) 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #75
Ath­letic vig­or­ous leisure-time phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity 0.55 Ku­jala et al 2002, “Mod­i­fi­able risk fac­tors as pre­dic­tors of al­l-cause mor­tal­i­ty: The roles of ge­net­ics and child­hood en­vi­ron­ment”
Ath­letic LTI “Hunt­ing and Out­door Ac­tiv­i­ties” 0.37 Hur et al 1996
Ath­letic LTI “Hunt­ing-Fish­ing” 0.53 Waller et al 1995
Ath­letic Went hunt­ing 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #188
Ath­letic Fish­ing or hunt­ing equip­ment 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #584
Ath­letic Went skeet or trap­shoot­ing 0.64 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #273
Ath­letic Bowled 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #153
Ath­letic Went roller skat­ing 0.16 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #47
Ath­letic Played golf 0.12 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #71
Ath­letic Took golf lessons 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #108
Ath­letic Ran track (dash­es, hur­dles, dis­tance, etc) 0.20 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #72
Ath­letic Par­tic­i­pated in field events (shot put, javelin, high jump, etc.) 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #159
Ath­letic Took danc­ing lessons 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #98
Ath­letic Went so­cial (ball­room) danc­ing 0.38 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #93
Ath­letic Went square danc­ing 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #124
Ath­letic Played foot­ball (touch or tack­le) 0.22 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #152
Ath­letic Played ten­nis 0.26 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #163
Ath­letic Played ta­ble ten­nis or ping-pong 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #302
Ath­letic Played base­ball or soft­ball 0.32 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #185
Ath­letic Played bas­ket­ball 0.54 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #281
Ath­letic Played soc­cer 0.18 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #306
Ath­letic LTI “Sierra Club” 0.68 Waller et al 1995
Ath­letic Went on a camp­ing trip 0.10 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #186
Ath­letic A tent or sleep­ing bag 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #611
Ath­letic Twirled a ba­ton 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #196
Ath­letic A stop watch 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Items In The Home, #610
Ath­letic Jumped in a para­chute 0.00 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #336
Ath­letic Lifted weights 0.06 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #301
Ath­letic Led a cheer­ing sec­tion 0.24 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #311
Ath­letic Took a long walk alone 0.28 Loehlin & Nichols 1976 Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­to­ry, #352

Loehlin & Nichols 1976: A Study of 850 Sets of Twins

A dis­cus­sion of ex­tract­ing ~376 be­hav­ioral items re­lat­ing to recre­ation/leisure from Loehlin & Nichols 1976: A Study of 850 Sets of Twins, which re­ports com­pre­hen­sive sum­mary sta­tis­tic twin cor­re­la­tions from an early large-s­cale twin study (can­vassed via the Na­tional Merit Schol­ar­ship Qual­i­fy­ing Test, 1962). I tran­scribe them from the book, pool the weighted cor­re­la­tions by gen­der, and com­pute sim­ple her­i­tabil­ity es­ti­mates by Fal­con­er’s for­mula for use in the recre­ation/leisure her­i­tabil­ity lit­er­a­ture re­view.

Loehlin & Nichols 1976’s (see also the briefer dis­cus­sion in Hered­ity and En­vi­ron­ment: Ma­jor Find­ings from Twin Stud­ies of Abil­i­ty, Per­son­al­i­ty, and In­ter­ests, Nichols 1976/197914) is a twin study which at­tempted to com­pile a rel­a­tively large-s­cale twin sam­ple by an ex­ten­sive mail sur­vey of the n = 1507 11th-grade ado­les­cent pairs of par­tic­i­pants in the high school Na­tional Merit Schol­ar­ship Qual­i­fy­ing Test of 1962 (to­tal n ~ 600,000) who in­di­cated they were twins (as well as a con­trol sam­ple of non-twin­s), yield­ing 514 iden­ti­cal twin & 336 (same-sex) fra­ter­nal twin pairs; they were ques­tioned as fol­lows:

…to these [par­tic­i­pants] were mailed a bat­tery of per­son­al­ity and in­ter­est tests, in­clud­ing the Cal­i­for­nia Psy­cho­log­i­cal In­ven­tory (CPI), the Hol­land Vo­ca­tional Pref­er­ence In­ven­tory (VPI), an ex­per­i­men­tal Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory (OBI), an Ad­jec­tive Check List (ACL), and a num­ber of oth­er, briefer self­-rat­ing scales, at­ti­tude mea­sures, and other items. In ad­di­tion, a par­ent was asked to fill out a ques­tion­naire de­scrib­ing the early ex­pe­ri­ences and home en­vi­ron­ment of the twins. Other brief ques­tion­naires were sent to teach­ers and friends, ask­ing them to rate the twins on a num­ber of per­son­al­ity traits; be­cause these rat­ings were avail­able for only part of our ba­sic sam­ple, they have not been an­a­lyzed in de­tail and will not be dis­cussed fur­ther in this book. (The par­ent and twin ques­tion­naires, ex­cept for the CPI, are re­pro­duced in Ap­pen­dix A.)

Many of the ques­tions asked about recre­ation & leisure, in­clud­ing hob­bies, pref­er­ences, hon­ors/achieve­ments, and items avail­able in their house (most of which would be use­ful for hob­bies or non-school-work); Loehlin & Nichols 1976 has been cited by eg Plomin et al 1990 for the TV watch­ing time use item demon­strat­ing her­i­tabil­ity of TV view­ing, but most or all of the other items have not been cited much (if at al­l). The two ex­cep­tions ap­pear to be the re-analy­ses Coon & Carey 1989, and .

Un­usu­al­ly, the book in­cludes twin-pair cor­re­la­tions for all of the re­ported items, not just full test-s­cales or sub­fac­tors, so it’s pos­si­ble to ex­tract all rel­e­van­t-look­ing items and run Fal­coner on them to go far be­yond just TV watch­ing. I have done so be­low for ~376 items, skip­ping Vo­ca­tional Pref­er­ence In­ven­to­ry, oblig­a­tory re­li­gious ques­tions, some dat­ing ques­tions that seem to re­flect other par­ties’ ac­tions rather than pref­er­ences/ac­tiv­i­ties, “Ideal Self” pref­er­ences, and most school-re­lated or mis­be­hav­ior ques­tions. Be­cause the re­spon­dent sam­ple sizes are not al­ways bal­anced by gen­der, I com­bine male/fe­male cor­re­la­tions be­fore es­ti­mat­ing her­i­tabil­i­ty, by trans­form­ing them into and then tak­ing an av­er­age of the 2 cor­re­la­tions weighted by re­spon­dent n; re­sults are rounded to 2 dig­its and floored at 0.

In in­ter­pret­ing the re­sults, it’s worth re­mem­ber­ing that sin­gle-item re­sponses have se­vere mea­sure­ment er­ror and many of the items ex­em­plify this by be­ing ex­tremely spe­cific or suffer­ing from di­chotomiz­ing or and //sex differ­ences even though most of them have high re­sponse rates and su­per­fi­cially seem like large n: for ex­am­ple, in the en­tire sam­ple of ~1700 re­spon­dents, only around 2 to­tal have ever en­gaged in sky­div­ing (un­sur­pris­ing given the era & par­ents not gen­er­ally en­dors­ing that ac­tiv­i­ty); only 1 twin man­aged to pub­lish a sci­en­tific pa­per; 0 twins re­port get­ting a tat­too in the past year; 0 twins re­port na­tional de­bate suc­cesses or in­vent­ing a patentable de­vice; while in the other di­rec­tion, ~96% re­port hav­ing a TV in the house and ~99.9% re­port ever us­ing a dic­tio­nary; and it is not sur­pris­ing that only a hand­ful of twins have en­gaged in stock trad­ing (or read the stock list­ings reg­u­lar­ly), have at­tended prize fights, or that fe­male twins never re­port grow­ing beards in the past year. (And oth­ers are ob­so­lete: teenagers are no longer “pinned” or go for “ca­sual cokes”, and I have never pushed a stalled car to get it started in my life nor seen any­one do so, al­though it’s in­ter­est­ing to note that ap­par­ently al­most as many house­holds had sewing ma­chines as had TVs but only ~25% had tape recorder­s). Since there is no vari­ance or only a lit­tle vari­ance, the her­i­tabil­ity es­ti­mates will be 0 or will be ex­tremely im­pre­cise and could take on any value 0–1.

Some of these are rare for any­one, oth­ers are asked pre­ma­ture­ly; but of course, we know that some­thing like dic­tio­nary use would be her­i­ta­ble if we mea­sured it bet­ter in terms of some­thing like “num­ber of dic­tio­nary uses per year”, or that pub­lish­ing sci­en­tific pa­pers or at­tend­ing bur­lesque shows would be more eas­ily shown to be her­i­ta­ble if the ques­tion was asked of the high school­ers a decade or two lat­er, and TV own­er­ship will prob­a­bly be more her­i­ta­ble now that it is rar­er. I could have tried to ex­clude any items which did­n’t have a rea­son­able num­ber of mean affir­ma­tive re­sponses like 50, but that would risk cher­ryp­ick­ing, so I in­clude all en­tries which I ini­tially se­lected as rel­e­vant while read­ing the ques­tion­naires and then tran­scribed the raw num­bers for.

En­tries are cat­e­go­rized by the sur­vey in­stru­ment, and pre­sented in the same or­der as in the Loehlin & Nichols 1976 ap­pen­dix; n refers to re­spon­dents, not how many en­dorse an item (which oc­ca­sion­ally is as low as 0).

Recre­ation or leisure-time item-re­sponses ex­tracted from Loehlin & Nichols 1976, A Study of 850 Sets of Twins.
Cat­e­gory ID Item Iden­ti­cal Male r Iden­ti­cal Fe­male r Fra­ter­nal Male r Fra­ter­nal Fe­male r Iden­ti­cal Male n Iden­ti­cal Fe­male n Fra­ter­nal Male n Fra­ter­nal Fe­male n Iden­ti­cal r Fra­ter­nal r h2
Time Di­ary 24 Read­ing for plea­sure 0.11 0.28 0.03 0.28 209 285 129 192 0.21 0.18 0.06
Time Di­ary 26 Watch­ing TV 0.38 0.57 0.32 0.42 207 284 131 192 0.5 0.38 0.24
Time Di­ary 27 At­tend­ing movies and plays 0.01 0.43 0.13 0.47 201 281 128 186 0.27 0.34 0
Time Di­ary 28 Watch­ing sports events 0.19 0.52 0.52 0.46 203 276 129 181 0.39 0.49 0
Time Di­ary 32 Day­dream­ing 0.04 0.19 0 0.51 198 275 123 182 0.13 0.32 0
Time Di­ary 33 Per­sonal care (bathing, fix­ing hair, putting on make-up, etc) 0.13 0.2 −0.03 0.22 208 286 129 188 0.17 0.12 0.1
Time Di­ary 34 At­tend­ing club or or­ga­ni­za­tional ac­tiv­i­ties (meet­ings, [fra­ter­ni­ty] pledge-du­ties, etc) 0.08 0.4 0.08 0.45 196 279 127 184 0.27 0.31 0
Time Di­ary 35 Par­tic­i­pat­ing in mu­si­cal, dra­matic or artis­tic ac­tiv­i­ties 0.24 0.53 0.28 0.41 194 264 122 182 0.42 0.36 0.12
Time Di­ary 36 Work­ing on other projects or hob­bies not di­rectly re­lated to course work or a job 0.1 0.38 0.04 0.14 197 271 127 180 0.27 0.1 0.34
Time Di­ary 37 Fool­ing around, wast­ing time 0.08 0.49 0.07 0.38 199 278 123 185 0.33 0.26 0.14
Time Di­ary 38 Play­ing games (cards, chess, etc.) 0.02 0.42 0.21 0.29 197 271 124 178 0.26 0.26 0
Time Di­ary 39 Par­tic­i­pat­ing in sports and prac­tice ses­sions 0.47 0.52 0.37 0.32 202 269 128 180 0.5 0.34 0.32
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 43 Played check­ers 0.4 0.4 0.21 0.35 215 292 135 195 0.4 0.29 0.22
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 44 Played chess 0.61 0.66 0.32 0.46 215 292 135 195 0.64 0.4 0.48
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 45 Went horse­back rid­ing 0.62 0.65 0.43 0.5 215 291 134 195 0.64 0.47 0.34
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 46 Went ice skat­ing 0.71 0.65 0.49 0.57 215 292 135 195 0.68 0.54 0.28
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 47 Went roller skat­ing 0.58 0.55 0.49 0.48 214 292 134 195 0.56 0.48 0.16
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 48 Picked-up a date in a bar, restau­rant, or sim­i­lar place 0.25 0.41 0.15 0.45 213 292 135 193 0.34 0.33 0.02
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 49 Made mi­nor re­pairs around the house 0.34 0.21 0.1 0.27 214 290 134 192 0.27 0.2 0.14
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 51 Cared for trop­i­cal fish or gold­fish 0.41 0.47 0.27 0.58 215 290 135 194 0.44 0.47 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 52 Cared for other pet an­i­mals 0.74 0.65 0.63 0.64 213 290 134 194 0.69 0.64 0.1
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 55 Dis­cussed how to make money with friends 0.29 0.25 0.04 0.13 215 292 135 193 0.27 0.09 0.36
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 56 Lis­tened to mod­ern (pro­gres­sive) jazz 0.19 0.37 0.14 0.3 215 291 135 195 0.3 0.24 0.12
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 57 Lis­tened to New Or­leans’ (Dix­ieland) jazz 0.23 0.28 0.15 0.17 215 292 135 195 0.26 0.16 0.2
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 58 Lis­tened to folk mu­sic 0.38 0.25 0.27 0.25 215 292 135 195 0.31 0.26 0.1
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 59 Rode a mo­tor­cy­cle 0.17 0.49 0.29 0.31 214 292 134 195 0.36 0.3 0.12
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 60 Went to a party 0.42 0.35 0.3 −0.02 214 291 135 194 0.38 0.11 0.54
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 61 Gam­bled with cards 0.53 0.51 0.31 0.42 215 292 135 195 0.52 0.38 0.28
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 62 Gam­bled with dice 0.37 0.27 0.43 0.23 215 292 134 195 0.31 0.32 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 63 Dis­cussed school sub­jects with friends 0 −0.01 −0.01 0 215 291 134 195 −0.01 0 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 64 Drive a car over 80MPH 0.57 0.51 0.49 0.28 215 291 134 195 0.54 0.37 0.34
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 69 Used ‘Man-Tan’, ‘Tan-O-Rama’, ‘Q.T.’ or sim­i­lar [tan­ning] prod­ucts 0.34 0.48 0.33 0.44 213 292 134 193 0.42 0.4 0.04
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 70 Played a prac­ti­cal joke on some­one 0.33 0.42 0.28 0.23 214 290 134 195 0.38 0.25 0.26
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 71 Played golf 0.53 0.55 0.58 0.4 214 290 135 195 0.54 0.48 0.12
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 72 Ran track (dash­es, hur­dles, dis­tance, etc) 0.51 0.55 0.32 0.5 214 289 135 194 0.53 0.43 0.2
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 73 Went wa­ter ski­ing or surf board rid­ing 0.61 0.64 0.5 0.65 215 291 134 195 0.63 0.59 0.08
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 74 Went ski­ing 0.5 0.65 0.31 0.69 214 291 133 195 0.59 0.56 0.06
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 75 Par­tic­i­pated in crew events (s­culls, pairs, fours, etc.) 0.35 0.18 0.25 0.34 213 289 129 190 0.25 0.3 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 76 Stayed up all night 0.36 0.51 0.31 0.38 214 292 134 195 0.45 0.35 0.2
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 77 At­tended a pub­lic lec­ture (not for a course) 0.3 0.47 0.2 0.24 215 288 133 194 0.4 0.22 0.36
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 79 Gave a pub­lic recital (vo­cal, in­stru­men­tal etc) 0.29 0.4 0.21 0.3 215 289 134 194 0.35 0.26 0.18
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 80 Gave a pre­pared talk to 15 or more peo­ple 0.3 0.26 0.25 0.22 215 292 135 195 0.28 0.23 0.1
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 81 Lis­tened to the ra­dio 0 0 −0.01 −0.01 213 292 135 195 0 −0.01 0.02
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 82 Per­formed magic or card tricks 0.28 0.36 0.21 0.23 215 291 134 194 0.33 0.22 0.22
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 84 Played a pi­ano or other in­stru­ment while oth­ers were singing 0.43 0.54 0.45 0.41 214 292 134 193 0.5 0.43 0.14
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 86 Bought a folk mu­sic record 0.53 0.6 0.3 0.6 215 292 134 194 0.57 0.49 0.16
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 88 Made en­tries in a di­ary or jour­nal 0.11 0.5 0.11 0.24 215 292 135 195 0.35 0.19 0.32
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 90 Worked on a scrap book 0.46 0.45 0.28 0.3 215 291 135 194 0.45 0.29 0.32
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 91 Knit­ted −0.01 0.58 −0.02 0.37 213 290 135 194 0.36 0.22 0.28
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 92 Made an ar­ti­cle of cloth­ing −0.01 0.54 −0.01 0.4 215 290 134 194 0.33 0.24 0.18
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 93 Went so­cial (ball­room) danc­ing 0.39 0.44 0.05 0.35 214 289 135 190 0.42 0.23 0.38
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 94 Pol­ished your toe­nails 0.3 0.48 0.28 0.44 215 292 135 194 0.41 0.38 0.06
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 96 Played Tic-Tac-Toe, Hang­man’s Noose, or sim­i­lar games in class 0.21 0.32 0.12 0.2 215 291 135 193 0.27 0.17 0.2
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 98 Took danc­ing lessons 0.51 0.33 0.18 0.37 215 291 135 194 0.41 0.29 0.24
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 100 Re­paired or worked on a car 0.52 0.26 0.31 0.36 215 291 135 194 0.38 0.34 0.08
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 101 Changed clothes dur­ing the day (ex­clude gyms or ath­let­ics) 0.14 0.24 0.15 0.09 215 292 135 195 0.2 0.11 0.18
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 102 Baby sat 0.62 0.6 0.51 0.46 215 292 135 194 0.61 0.48 0.26
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 103 Per­formed [fra­ter­ni­ty] pledge-du­ties 0.31 0.37 0.04 0.39 212 282 133 190 0.34 0.25 0.18
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 105 Sang in a church choir 0.68 0.71 0.53 0.65 215 291 135 195 0.7 0.6 0.2
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 106 Sang in a school choir 0.71 0.75 0.49 0.61 214 292 134 194 0.73 0.56 0.34
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 107 Sang in a small en­sem­ble (trio, quar­tet, etc.) 0.65 0.55 0.35 0.53 215 292 135 195 0.59 0.46 0.26
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 108 Took golf lessons 0.15 0.61 0.48 0.42 215 291 135 195 0.44 0.45 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 109 Bought a pop­u­lar or jazz record 0.57 0.48 0.43 0.4 215 291 135 194 0.52 0.41 0.22
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 110 Took horse­back rid­ing lessons 0.39 0.34 0.65 0.26 215 292 135 195 0.36 0.44 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 111 Cooked a com­plete meal 0.32 0.35 0.35 0.32 215 292 135 195 0.34 0.33 0.02
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 112 Cleaned and dusted your room 0.45 0.66 0.28 0 215 291 135 195 0.58 0.12 0.92
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 114 Worked back­stage on a play 0.37 0.57 0.29 0.4 214 292 135 195 0.49 0.36 0.26
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 115 Did vol­un­tary work for a hos­pi­tal or ser­vice or­ga­ni­za­tion (Red Cross, Heart Fund, etc.) 0.29 0.52 0.31 0.3 215 292 135 194 0.43 0.3 0.26
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 116 Arranged a date for a friend 0.42 0.55 0.38 0.47 215 291 135 193 0.5 0.43 0.14
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 117 At­tended ath­letic events 0.33 0.38 −0.03 −0.03 215 292 135 195 0.36 −0.03 0.78
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 118 Worked on a num­ber paint­ing 0.24 0.52 0.12 0.33 215 292 133 195 0.41 0.25 0.32
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 119 Made bets on a game or other event (not cards or dice) 0.45 0.21 0.43 0.14 215 291 135 195 0.32 0.26 0.12
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 120 Played cha­rades 0.48 0.36 0.44 0.42 214 289 134 194 0.41 0.43 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 121 At­tended a bur­lesque show 0.63 −0.01 0.43 0.59 215 292 135 195 0.3 0.53 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 122 Went to a party with a date 0.49 0.63 0.47 0.42 215 290 134 195 0.57 0.44 0.26
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 123 Went to an overnight or week-end party 0.31 0.47 0.26 0.32 213 291 135 194 0.41 0.3 0.22
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 124 Went square danc­ing 0.57 0.47 0.58 0.49 215 292 135 195 0.51 0.53 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 125 Cared for a pot­ted plant 0.2 0.47 0.24 0.21 215 290 134 194 0.36 0.22 0.28
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 127 Bought a pa­per-back book 0.33 0.59 0.38 0.44 213 292 134 195 0.49 0.42 0.14
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 128 Bought a clas­si­cal or semi­-clas­si­cal record 0.33 0.5 0.13 0.48 215 291 135 195 0.43 0.35 0.16
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 129 Chewed gum 0.37 0.32 0.08 −0.04 215 292 135 195 0.34 0.01 0.66
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 131 Rode in a sports car 0.36 0.54 0.3 0.5 215 292 135 195 0.47 0.42 0.1
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 132 Went sight­see­ing 0.3 0.36 0.36 0.18 215 291 135 195 0.33 0.26 0.14
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 133 Prac­ticed on a mu­si­cal in­stru­ment 0.56 0.62 0.4 0.5 215 292 135 195 0.6 0.46 0.28
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 135 Talked in a lan­guage other than Eng­lish 0.49 0.56 0.32 0.34 215 292 135 194 0.53 0.33 0.4
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 136 Con­ducted a choir, band or or­ches­tra 0.3 0.36 0.4 0.32 215 292 135 195 0.33 0.35 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 137 Took voice lessons −0.03 0.5 −0.01 0.56 215 292 135 195 0.29 0.35 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 138 Cro­cheted 0.2 0.49 −0.03 0.2 214 290 132 195 0.38 0.11 0.54
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 140 Tu­tored some­one for money 0.35 0.48 0.36 −0.02 215 292 135 195 0.43 0.14 0.58
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 141 Tu­tored some­one for free 0.31 0.52 0.12 0.27 212 291 134 194 0.44 0.21 0.46
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 142 Wrote ar­ti­cles for a school pa­per, year­book, or sim­i­lar pub­li­ca­tion 0.46 0.47 0.25 0.48 215 292 135 194 0.47 0.39 0.16
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 143 Went to a night club with a floor show 0.6 0.5 0.42 0.54 215 292 135 195 0.54 0.49 0.1
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 144 Took pho­tographs 0.32 0.4 0.21 0.38 215 292 135 195 0.37 0.31 0.12
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 145 Built or flew a model air­plane 0.11 −0.02 0.2 0.49 215 292 135 195 0.04 0.38 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 147 Par­tic­i­pated in a stu­dent demon­stra­tion (strike, wa­ter-fight, etc.) 0.28 0.3 0.13 0.51 215 291 135 193 0.29 0.37 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 148 At­tended an or­ches­tra con­cert 0.41 0.49 0.42 0.41 215 292 135 195 0.46 0.41 0.1
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 149 At­tended a for­mal dance 0.56 0.64 0.41 0.63 213 292 135 195 0.61 0.55 0.12
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 150 Read mag­a­zines at a news­stand with­out buy­ing any 0.42 0.4 0.32 0.23 215 292 135 195 0.41 0.27 0.28
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 151 Worked for a club or or­ga­ni­za­tion 0.4 0.38 0.22 0.3 215 292 135 194 0.39 0.27 0.24
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 152 Played foot­ball (touch or tack­le) 0.41 0.42 0.24 0.35 215 290 134 195 0.42 0.31 0.22
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 153 Bowled 0.51 0.6 0.51 0.36 215 291 134 195 0.56 0.42 0.28
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 154 Went to the movies 0.45 0.49 0.43 0.68 215 289 134 195 0.47 0.59 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 155 De­vel­oped pic­tures (dark­room work) 0.63 0.66 0.12 0.44 215 291 133 195 0.65 0.32 0.66
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 156 At­tended a pro­fes­sional stage play 0.46 0.5 0.34 0.38 215 291 131 195 0.48 0.36 0.24
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 157 So­licited ad­ver­tis­ing for a school pa­per, year­book, or sim­i­lar pub­li­ca­tion 0.48 0.58 0.4 0.44 215 291 133 194 0.54 0.42 0.24
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 158 Went swim­ming 0.56 0.52 0.22 0.57 214 289 134 195 0.54 0.44 0.2
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 159 Par­tic­i­pated in field events (shot put, javelin, high jump, etc.) 0.39 0.43 0.23 0.45 215 291 134 194 0.41 0.36 0.1
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 160 Saw a for­eign movie 0.43 0.43 0.32 0.44 212 288 134 195 0.43 0.39 0.08
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 161 Rode a bi­cy­cle 0.44 0.51 0.19 0.51 215 291 134 195 0.48 0.39 0.18
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 162 At­tended a horse race 0.66 0.52 0.36 0.59 212 291 134 195 0.58 0.5 0.16
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 163 Played ten­nis 0.64 0.66 0.45 0.57 215 290 134 195 0.65 0.52 0.26
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 165 At­tended a stu­dent stage play 0.3 0.44 0.25 0.19 214 291 134 194 0.38 0.21 0.34
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 166 Drove a car 0.88 0.64 0.57 0.51 215 290 134 195 0.77 0.54 0.46
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 167 Went boat­ing 0.5 0.44 0.32 0.5 215 291 134 195 0.47 0.43 0.08
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 168 Washed dishes 0.35 0.66 0.2 0 215 291 134 195 0.54 0.08 0.92
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 169 Worked cross­word puz­zles 0.27 0.38 0.22 0.3 215 291 134 194 0.33 0.27 0.12
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 171 Watched TV −0.01 0.21 0.11 0.3 215 291 134 195 0.12 0.22 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 172 Put up dec­o­ra­tions for a party 0.39 0.54 0.27 0.25 215 291 134 195 0.48 0.26 0.44
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 173 At­tended a bal­let per­for­mance 0.43 0.48 0.65 0.18 215 291 133 195 0.46 0.4 0.12
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 175 Vis­ited a per­son in a hos­pi­tal 0.58 0.55 0.28 0.52 214 290 134 194 0.56 0.43 0.26
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 176 Ob­tained a book or jour­nal from the li­brary 0.03 0.33 0.11 −0.03 215 291 134 194 0.21 0.03 0.36
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 177 Read the Bible 0.34 0.52 0.31 0.47 215 291 134 195 0.45 0.41 0.08
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 178 Danced the twist 0.39 0.56 0.55 0.26 215 291 134 194 0.49 0.39 0.2
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 180 Par­tic­i­pated in a drag race 0.53 0.38 0.37 0.4 215 290 134 195 0.45 0.39 0.12
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 181 At­tended a pro­fes­sional prize fight or wrestling match 0.55 0.35 0.47 0.27 215 291 134 195 0.44 0.36 0.16
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 182 Flew in an air­plane 0.51 0.49 0.49 0.51 215 290 134 194 0.5 0.5 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 183 At­tended a fash­ion show 0.37 0.56 0.6 0.55 214 291 134 195 0.48 0.57 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 184 Vis­ited a mu­seum 0.45 0.51 0.28 0.41 215 291 134 194 0.49 0.36 0.26
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 185 Played base­ball or soft­ball 0.43 0.48 0.32 0.28 215 291 132 195 0.46 0.3 0.32
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 186 Went on a camp­ing trip 0.54 0.61 0.55 0.51 215 291 133 195 0.58 0.53 0.1
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 188 Went hunt­ing 0.72 0.54 0.56 0.47 215 291 133 195 0.62 0.51 0.22
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 189 Dis­cussed re­li­gion with friends 0.15 0.41 0.05 0.07 215 291 133 195 0.3 0.06 0.48
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 191 Talked for over 30 min­utes at a time on the tele­phone 0.49 0.46 0.21 0.41 214 291 133 195 0.47 0.33 0.28
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 193 Par­tic­i­pated in a wed­ding (ush­er, brides­maid, etc.) 0.69 0.65 0.42 0.68 215 290 133 195 0.67 0.59 0.16
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 194 Bought stamps for a stamp col­lec­tion 0.25 0.26 0.34 0.11 215 291 134 195 0.26 0.21 0.1
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 196 Twirled a ba­ton 0.22 0.43 0.22 0.5 214 290 133 194 0.34 0.39 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 197 Wrote let­ters to friends your own age 0.42 0.39 0.2 0.25 215 290 134 194 0.4 0.23 0.34
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 198 Went win­dow shop­ping 0.27 0.18 0.2 0.36 215 290 134 195 0.22 0.3 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 201 Painted a pic­ture (oil, wa­ter­col­or, pastel, etc.) 0.24 0.39 0.1 0.26 214 289 134 194 0.33 0.2 0.26
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 202 Played cards (bridge, pinochle, etc.) 0.29 0.47 0.25 0.34 215 291 133 195 0.4 0.3 0.2
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 203 Told jokes 0.09 0.29 −0.02 0.22 213 290 134 93 0.21 0.08 0.26
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 204 Lis­tened to records in a store with­out buy­ing 0.37 0.46 0.24 0.38 215 291 134 195 0.42 0.32 0.2
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 205 Played in a dance or jazz band 0.56 0.44 0.49 0.7 213 291 133 194 0.49 0.62 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 206 Ate Chi­nese food 0.48 0.61 0.36 0.5 215 290 134 195 0.56 0.45 0.22
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 210 Was con­sulted for help or ad­vice by some­one with a per­sonal prob­lem 0.28 0.22 0.06 0.09 215 292 134 195 0.25 0.08 0.34
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 217 Wrote a let­ter to a ‘pen-pal’ whom you have never met in per­son 0.16 0.47 0.18 0.31 215 292 134 195 0.35 0.26 0.18
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 218 Did an im­i­ta­tion or im­per­son­ation of an­other per­son 0.23 0.31 0.2 0.21 215 292 134 194 0.28 0.21 0.14
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 222 At­tended a church or ser­vice of a re­li­gion other than your own 0.37 0.54 0.5 0.42 214 291 134 194 0.47 0.45 0.04
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 223 Placed a long dis­tance call of over 500 miles 0.38 0.4 0.28 0.17 215 290 134 194 0.39 0.22 0.34
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 224 Went on a dou­ble date 0.67 0.63 0.29 0.32 214 292 134 194 0.65 0.31 0.68
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 225 Wrote a ‘love-let­ter’ 0.38 0.37 0.25 0.27 214 290 134 194 0.37 0.26 0.22
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 227 Wrote a ‘let­ter-to-the-ed­i­tor’ 0.35 0.65 0.33 0.29 215 292 134 195 0.54 0.31 0.46
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 229 Played a slot ma­chine 0.18 0.34 0.4 0.41 215 292 134 195 0.27 0.41 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 231 Read po­etry that was not re­quired read­ing 0.4 0.46 0.15 0.29 215 292 134 195 0.44 0.23 0.42
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 232 Wrote po­etry on your own ini­tia­tive 0.17 0.3 0.08 0.11 213 291 134 193 0.25 0.1 0.3
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 237 Bor­rowed cloth­ing from a friend 0.48 0.45 0.42 0.43 214 292 134 194 0.46 0.43 0.06
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 240 At­tended a re­li­gious re­vival meet­ing 0.59 0.7 0.5 0.57 215 292 132 193 0.66 0.54 0.24
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 241 Looked some­thing up in an en­cy­clo­pe­dia −0.01 0 −0.02 0.32 215 291 134 194 0 0.19 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 242 Bought or sold cor­po­rate stocks 0.46 0.28 0.46 0.49 215 291 134 194 0.36 0.48 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 243 Baked a cake or pie from scratch (no mix­es) 0.28 0.54 −0.03 0.32 215 292 134 195 0.44 0.18 0.52
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 244 Wore sun glasses after dark 0.46 0.39 0.15 0.19 214 292 133 191 0.42 0.17 0.5
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 246 Ate a steak cooked rare 0.25 0.42 0.24 0.23 215 292 134 195 0.35 0.23 0.24
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 249 En­tered a speech or de­bate con­test 0.36 0.41 0.21 0.39 215 290 133 195 0.39 0.32 0.14
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 250 Had your back rubbed 0.26 0.38 0.14 0.34 214 291 134 195 0.33 0.26 0.14
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 254 Pro­duced a work of art (not for a course) 0.24 0.29 0.05 0.19 214 292 133 195 0.27 0.13 0.28
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 260 Vis­ited a friend’s home overnight 0.47 0.62 0.3 0.4 213 292 135 194 0.56 0.36 0.4
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 261 Vis­ited a rel­a­tive’s home overnight 0.48 0.53 0.42 0.44 215 291 135 194 0.51 0.43 0.16
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 262 Had a friend visit your home overnight 0.61 0.6 0.45 0.46 215 292 135 193 0.6 0.46 0.28
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 263 Started a con­ver­sa­tion with strangers 0.3 0.28 0.15 −0.01 215 292 135 194 0.29 0.06 0.46
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 264 Went to the movies alone 0.43 0.36 0.38 0.35 214 290 135 192 0.39 0.36 0.06
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 265 Tried on clothes in a store with­out buy­ing any­thing 0.4 0.4 0.23 0.16 215 292 135 192 0.4 0.19 0.42
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 266 Pushed a stalled car (other than your own) 0.38 0.37 0.4 0.33 215 290 135 194 0.37 0.36 0.02
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 267 Lis­tened to clas­sic or semi­-clas­si­cal mu­sic 0.31 0.41 0.25 0.12 215 292 135 193 0.37 0.17 0.4
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 269 Played a pin­ball ma­chine 0.39 0.41 0.36 0.37 215 292 135 194 0.4 0.37 0.06
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 270 Went skin div­ing 0.43 0.49 0.54 −0.01 215 292 135 194 0.47 0.24 0.46
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 271 At­tended an art ex­hi­bi­tion 0.26 0.39 0.29 0.35 215 291 135 194 0.34 0.33 0.02
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 272 Played polo (in­door or out­door) 0.16 0 −0.02 0.39 214 292 135 194 0.07 0.23 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 273 Went skeet or trap­shoot­ing 0.55 0.39 0.34 −0.01 214 291 135 194 0.46 0.14 0.64
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 275 Acted in a play 0.37 0.48 0.53 0.44 215 292 135 194 0.43 0.48 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 276 Tried to hyp­no­tize some­one 0.38 0.45 0.1 0.23 215 292 135 194 0.42 0.18 0.48
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 277 Taught Sun­day school 0.75 0.69 0.34 0.59 215 291 135 193 0.72 0.5 0.44
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 281 Played bas­ket­ball 0.47 0.6 0.07 0.42 215 292 135 194 0.55 0.28 0.54
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 282 Mended cloth­ing 0.3 0.12 0.1 0.01 215 291 135 194 0.2 0.05 0.3
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 283 Dis­cussed sports with friends 0.38 0.3 0.18 0.39 214 292 135 194 0.33 0.31 0.04
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 285 Had a blind date 0.25 0.42 0.13 0.24 215 291 135 193 0.35 0.2 0.3
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 288 Wore for­mal cloth­ing (evening gown, tuxe­do, din­ner jack­et, etc.) 0.51 0.6 0.31 0.51 215 289 135 194 0.56 0.43 0.26
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 289 Told a ‘dirty joke’ to male friends 0.35 0.56 0.34 0.37 215 288 135 194 0.48 0.36 0.24
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 290 Told a ‘dirty joke’ to fe­male friends 0.38 0.55 0.33 0.42 215 289 135 194 0.48 0.38 0.2
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 295 Lent cloth­ing to a friend 0.5 0.41 0.4 0.4 215 289 135 194 0.45 0.4 0.1
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 296 Played Monopoly, Scrab­ble, or sim­i­lar games 0.33 0.39 0.42 0.34 215 291 135 194 0.36 0.37 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 298 Par­tic­i­pated in a sci­ence con­test or tal­ent search 0.5 0.39 0.25 0.36 214 290 135 194 0.44 0.32 0.24
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 300 Played in a con­cert or­ches­tra 0.5 0.59 0.31 0.4 215 291 135 194 0.55 0.36 0.38
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 301 Lifted weights 0.42 0.39 0.35 0.39 214 290 135 194 0.4 0.37 0.06
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 302 Played ta­ble ten­nis or ping-pong 0.26 0.42 0.45 0.4 215 290 135 194 0.35 0.42 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 303 Worked on Hi-Fi or ra­dio equip­ment 0.37 0.06 0.22 0.07 215 291 133 194 0.2 0.13 0.14
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 304 Dined by can­dle light 0.38 0.49 0.27 0.26 214 290 135 194 0.44 0.26 0.36
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 305 Par­tic­i­pated in a de­bate or speech con­test 0.33 0.44 0.07 0.47 214 291 134 194 0.39 0.32 0.14
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 306 Played soc­cer 0.43 0.44 0.31 0.37 215 291 135 194 0.44 0.35 0.18
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 307 Played in a march­ing band 0.69 0.78 0.59 0.55 215 291 135 194 0.74 0.57 0.34
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 309 Went fish­ing 0.54 0.42 0.41 0.47 215 291 135 194 0.47 0.45 0.04
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 311 Led a cheer­ing sec­tion 0.27 0.47 0.19 0.32 215 291 135 194 0.39 0.27 0.24
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 313 Played Soli­taire 0.46 0.55 0.35 0.4 215 290 135 194 0.51 0.38 0.26
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 314 Col­lected in­sect spec­i­mens 0.28 0.33 −0.07 0.28 215 291 135 194 0.31 0.14 0.34
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 315 Ate candy −0.02 0.66 0.11 −0.02 215 291 135 194 0.42 0.03 0.78
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 317 Rode on a roller coast­er, Fer­ris wheel, merry go round, or sim­i­lar ride 0.51 0.44 0.24 0.3 215 292 135 195 0.47 0.28 0.38
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 319 Stud­ied with the ra­dio, record play­er, or TV on 0.45 0.23 0.34 0 215 292 135 194 0.33 0.14 0.38
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 321 Paid some­one to pol­ish your shoes 0.36 0.25 0.35 −0.04 215 292 135 195 0.3 0.13 0.34
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 322 Cut your own hair 0.42 0.49 0.12 0.27 215 292 135 194 0.46 0.21 0.5
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 325 Spent an hour at a time day­dream­ing 0.17 0.26 0 0.3 215 292 135 194 0.22 0.18 0.08
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 329 Read in bed be­fore go­ing to sleep 0.39 0.54 0.41 0.17 215 292 135 195 0.48 0.27 0.42
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 331 Rode a horse 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.48 214 292 135 195 0.6 0.41 0.38
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 332 Ob­tained the au­to­graph of a fa­mous per­son 0.24 0.56 0.19 0.43 215 292 135 195 0.44 0.34 0.2
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 335 Dove from a div­ing board or tower more than 6 feet above the wa­ter 0.51 0.37 0.4 0.28 215 292 135 195 0.43 0.33 0.2
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 336 Jumped in a para­chute 0 0 0 0 215 289 135 195 0 0 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 339 Ate 2 or more candy bars a day 0.28 0.47 0.23 0.26 215 291 135 195 0.39 0.25 0.28
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 344 Tried to con­vince some­one to change his (her) re­li­gious be­liefs 0.22 0.48 0.26 0.22 215 289 135 195 0.38 0.24 0.28
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 345 Tried to con­vince some­one to change his (her) po­lit­i­cal or so­cial be­liefs 0.22 0.36 0.08 0.25 215 289 135 194 0.3 0.18 0.24
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 346 Prac­ticed dec­o­ra­tive or un­usual hand­writ­ing 0.24 0.12 0.15 0.11 214 290 135 195 0.17 0.13 0.08
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 347 Took a bub­ble bath 0.28 0.49 0.2 0.26 215 290 135 195 0.41 0.24 0.34
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 348 Read the ed­i­to­r­ial page of a news­pa­per 0.2 0.23 0.11 0.31 215 290 135 195 0.22 0.23 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 349 Made a new friend 0.13 0.28 −0.02 −0.01 215 291 135 195 0.22 −0.01 0.46
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 352 Took a long walk alone 0.38 0.38 0.15 0.3 214 290 135 195 0.38 0.24 0.28
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 353 Wrote a let­ter to a con­gress­man 0.22 0.41 0.09 0.42 213 291 135 195 0.33 0.29 0.08
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 355 Took ex­er­cises 0.34 0.39 −0.02 −0.04 215 289 134 195 0.37 −0.03 0.8
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 357 Turned down an in­vi­ta­tion for a date 0.55 0.58 0.33 0.42 214 290 135 195 0.57 0.38 0.38
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 358 Stayed out on a date after 2 A.M. 0.51 0.52 0.32 0.3 215 291 135 195 0.52 0.31 0.42
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 359 Read the Stock Mar­ket quo­ta­tions 0.45 0.37 0.42 0.22 215 292 135 195 0.4 0.31 0.18
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 360 Fed a stray dog or cat 0.26 0.38 0.14 0.37 213 291 135 195 0.33 0.28 0.1
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 361 Washed and/or pol­ished a car 0.45 0.42 0.22 0.54 215 292 135 194 0.43 0.42 0.02
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 362 Ate break­fast in bed (not as a pa­tient) 0.12 0.25 −0.03 0.38 215 292 135 195 0.2 0.22 0
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 363 Looked up a word in the dic­tio­nary 0 0 0 −0.01 215 292 134 195 0 −0.01 0.02
Ob­jec­tive Be­hav­ior In­ven­tory 365 Con­fused peo­ple by pre­tend­ing to be your twin 0.35 0.39 0.3 0.5 214 291 135 195 0.37 0.42 0
Life Goals 371 Be­com­ing ac­com­plished in one of the per­form­ing arts (act­ing, danc­ing, etc.) 0.23 0.44 0.05 0.22 211 285 130 189 0.35 0.15 0.4
Life Goals 375 Be­com­ing an out­stand­ing ath­lete 0.43 0.36 0.25 0.14 212 289 134 193 0.39 0.19 0.4
Life Goals 377 Be­com­ing a com­mu­nity leader 0.41 0.36 0.23 0.27 213 288 133 193 0.38 0.25 0.26
Life Goals 384 Writ­ing good fic­tion (po­ems, nov­els, short sto­ries, etc.) 0.31 0.39 0.09 0.01 209 286 131 193 0.36 0.04 0.64
Life Goals 385 Be­ing well read 0.26 0.32 0.14 0.33 207 290 132 194 0.3 0.26 0.08
Life Goals 388 Keep­ing in good phys­i­cal con­di­tion 0.25 0.18 0.04 0.21 214 288 132 189 0.21 0.14 0.14
Life Goals 389 Pro­duc­ing good artis­tic work (paint­ing, sculp­ture, dec­o­rat­ing, etc.) 0.29 0.42 0.04 0.15 214 285 133 192 0.37 0.11 0.52
Life Goals 390 Be­com­ing an ac­com­plished mu­si­cian (per­former or com­poser) 0.33 0.6 0.32 0.4 212 289 131 188 0.5 0.37 0.26
Life Goals 392 Keep­ing up to date with po­lit­i­cal affairs 0.38 0.4 0.19 0.25 213 291 134 193 0.39 0.23 0.32
Life Goals 400 En­gag­ing in ex­cit­ing and stim­u­lat­ing ac­tiv­i­ties 0.21 0.29 0.03 0.14 214 288 133 191 0.26 0.1 0.32
Dat­ing 406 Fre­quency of dates: Ca­sual coke [so­da], coffee or study dates per month 0.13 0.38 0.19 0.21 189 271 126 186 0.28 0.2 0.16
Dat­ing 407 Fre­quency of dates: In­for­mal dates to movies, stu­dent gath­ers etc per month 0.26 0.5 0.25 0.24 200 277 131 186 0.41 0.24 0.34
Dat­ing 408 Fre­quency of dates: For­mal dates to dances and big par­ties per month 0.26 0.41 0.1 0.44 194 274 125 179 0.35 0.31 0.08
Done Dur­ing Past Year 412 Took a course over and above re­quire­ments 0.14 0.33 0.23 0.13 214 290 134 194 0.25 0.17 0.16
Done Dur­ing Past Year 414 Be­came pinned [‘go­ing steady’] or en­gaged 0.29 0.37 0.01 0.08 215 289 134 193 0.34 0.05 0.58
Done Dur­ing Past Year 417 Do­nated money to a char­ity 0.29 0.35 0.17 0.17 210 289 133 191 0.33 0.17 0.32
Done Dur­ing Past Year 418 Worked for the elec­tion of a po­lit­i­cal party or can­di­date 0.41 0.4 0.1 0.3 215 291 134 193 0.4 0.22 0.36
Done Dur­ing Past Year 419 Con­tributed money to a po­lit­i­cal party or can­di­date 0.15 0.2 0.27 −0.02 214 290 134 191 0.18 0.1 0.16
Done Dur­ing Past Year 425 Signed a pe­ti­tion 0.32 0.39 0.32 0.42 215 291 133 191 0.36 0.38 0
Done Dur­ing Past Year 426 Cus­tomized an au­to­mo­bile 0.45 −0.01 0.1 −0.01 207 285 134 190 0.2 0.04 0.32
Done Dur­ing Past Year 427 Read one or more non-fic­tion books that were not re­quired read­ing 0.16 0.36 0.18 0.22 215 291 134 193 0.28 0.2 0.16
Done Dur­ing Past Year 428 Painted a room or house 0.31 0.58 0.39 0.47 215 291 134 193 0.48 0.44 0.08
Done Dur­ing Past Year 429 Got a tat­too 0 0 0 0 215 291 133 193 0 0 0
Done Dur­ing Past Year 431 Set up a sched­ule with spe­cific times for var­i­ous ac­tiv­i­ties 0.28 0.35 0.01 0.22 215 288 134 193 0.32 0.14 0.36
Done Dur­ing Past Year 432 Went to a car­ni­val, amuse­ment park or cir­cus 0.32 0.39 0.35 0.26 215 290 133 193 0.36 0.3 0.12
Done Dur­ing Past Year 434 Made your own Christ­mas cards 0.16 0.54 0.25 0.26 215 289 134 192 0.39 0.26 0.26
Done Dur­ing Past Year 435 Grew a beard 0.32 0 0.23 0 214 291 134 192 0.14 0.1 0.08
Done Dur­ing Past Year 436 Bleached or dyed your hair 0.54 0.63 0.27 0.44 215 291 134 191 0.59 0.37 0.44
Done Dur­ing Past Year 437 Wore a wig 0.39 0.19 −0.01 0.31 214 289 134 191 0.28 0.18 0.2
Done Dur­ing Past Year 443 Vis­ited a for­eign coun­try 0.35 0.57 0.55 0.66 212 287 134 191 0.48 0.62 0
Done Dur­ing Past Year 446 Read one or more nov­els that were not re­quired 0.26 0.47 0.28 0.28 215 287 134 191 0.38 0.28 0.2
Done Dur­ing Past Year 447 Went on a va­ca­tion trip with friends your own age 0.38 0.5 0.32 0.47 214 288 134 191 0.45 0.41 0.08
Done Dur­ing Past Year 449 Do­nated blood 0.7 0 −0.01 0 215 287 134 191 0.36 0 0.72
Done Dur­ing Past Year 454 Read the bi­og­ra­phy of a fa­mous per­son 0.11 0.13 0.11 0.13 213 284 133 188 0.12 0.12 0
Done Dur­ing Past Year 456 Changed your hair style 0.29 0.36 0.09 0.02 212 289 134 190 0.33 0.05 0.56
Items In The Home 575 Car­pen­try tools (hand) 0.43 0.39 −0.03 0.14 215 292 132 194 0.41 0.07 0.68
Items In The Home 576 Power tools 0.75 0.68 0.71 0.56 215 290 132 193 0.71 0.63 0.16
Items In The Home 577 Li­brary of more than 200 books 0.64 0.74 0.62 0.71 214 288 132 192 0.7 0.68 0.04
Items In The Home 578 One or more mu­si­cal in­stru­ments 0.75 0.75 0.73 0.82 215 291 132 193 0.75 0.79 0
Items In The Home 579 Some art sup­plies or equip­ment 0.41 0.54 0.32 0.36 214 289 132 192 0.49 0.34 0.3
Items In The Home 580 Sports equip­ment 0.26 0.54 −0.03 0.42 215 292 132 193 0.43 0.25 0.36
Items In The Home 581 A sewing ma­chine 0.9 0.86 0.91 0.94 215 291 132 194 0.88 0.93 0
Items In The Home 582 Pho­to­graphic equip­ment 0.26 0.43 0.31 0.21 215 291 132 193 0.36 0.25 0.22
Items In The Home 583 A pho­to­graphic dark room 0.65 0.74 0.68 0.95 213 288 129 194 0.7 0.89 0
Items In The Home 584 Fish­ing or hunt­ing equip­ment 0.83 0.75 0.62 0.83 215 292 130 194 0.79 0.76 0.06
Items In The Home 585 A col­lec­tion of clas­si­cal records 0.63 0.68 0.47 0.7 213 291 132 194 0.66 0.62 0.08
Items In The Home 586 A Hi-Fi or Stereo set 0.74 0.75 0.73 0.79 214 291 132 194 0.75 0.77 0
Items In The Home 587 Re­pro­duc­tions of fa­mous paint­ings 0.41 0.65 0.58 0.49 215 292 132 192 0.56 0.53 0.06
Items In The Home 588 Ex­am­ples of orig­i­nal art work (paint­ings, sculp­ture, ce­ram­ics, etc.) 0.33 0.36 0.34 0.42 215 291 132 193 0.35 0.39 0
Items In The Home 589 A for­eign cook book 0.42 0.65 0.51 0.63 214 290 131 192 0.56 0.58 0
Items In The Home 590 A mo­tor boat or sail boat 0.84 0.86 0.75 0.91 215 292 132 193 0.85 0.86 0
Items In The Home 591 A mo­tor­cy­cle or mo­tor­bike 0.82 0.49 0.79 0.66 215 292 132 193 0.66 0.72 0
Items In The Home 592 A flower or veg­etable gar­den 0.44 0.69 0.55 0.64 215 292 132 194 0.6 0.61 0
Items In The Home 593 A pet dog or cat 0.95 0.98 0.95 0.97 214 291 132 194 0.97 0.96 0.02
Items In The Home 594 Other an­i­mal pets 0.65 0.83 0.72 0.86 211 284 130 190 0.77 0.81 0
Items In The Home 595 A tele­scope 0.68 0.78 0.67 0.8 215 292 131 194 0.74 0.75 0
Items In The Home 596 Farm equip­ment 0.67 0.77 0.59 0.86 215 291 131 192 0.73 0.78 0
Items In The Home 597 Chem­i­cal lab­o­ra­tory equip­ment 0.52 0.59 0.49 0.52 215 291 131 192 0.56 0.51 0.1
Items In The Home 598 Elec­tronic lab­o­ra­tory equip­ment 0.53 0.62 0.77 0.59 214 292 130 194 0.58 0.67 0
Items In The Home 599 Botany or zo­ol­ogy lab­o­ra­tory equip­ment 0.5 0.57 0.27 0.42 214 291 131 194 0.54 0.36 0.36
Items In The Home 600 A tape recorder 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.93 214 292 131 194 0.93 0.93 0
Items In The Home 601 A movie or slide pro­jec­tor 0.94 0.9 0.88 0.89 214 292 131 194 0.92 0.89 0.06
Items In The Home 602 Leather work­ing tools 0.66 0.58 0.39 0.65 213 290 131 193 0.62 0.56 0.12
Items In The Home 603 A type­writer 0.82 0.8 0.65 0.7 214 292 131 194 0.81 0.68 0.26
Items In The Home 604 An en­cy­clo­pe­dia set 0.74 0.81 0.85 0.75 214 292 131 194 0.78 0.8 0
Items In The Home 605 Au­to­mo­tive tools or work shop 0.47 0.46 0.43 0.47 214 289 131 193 0.46 0.45 0.02
Items In The Home 606 An unabridged dic­tio­nary 0.43 0.43 0.34 0.37 214 291 131 190 0.43 0.36 0.14
Items In The Home 607 5 or more mag­a­zine sub­scrip­tions 0.58 0.66 0.52 0.76 214 290 131 194 0.63 0.68 0
Items In The Home 608 A world at­las 0.58 0.58 0.61 0.71 213 288 131 193 0.58 0.67 0
Items In The Home 609 Books in a for­eign lan­guage 0.41 0.67 0.45 0.67 214 291 131 191 0.57 0.59 0
Items In The Home 610 A stop watch 0.68 0.61 0.88 0.64 214 290 131 194 0.64 0.76 0
Items In The Home 611 A tent or sleep­ing bag 0.85 0.77 0.84 0.87 212 292 131 194 0.81 0.86 0
Items In The Home 612 A barom­e­ter 0.69 0.68 0.71 0.76 213 290 131 193 0.68 0.74 0
Items In The Home 613 An FM ra­dio 0.59 0.61 0.58 0.67 214 287 131 191 0.6 0.64 0
Items In The Home 614 2 or more cars 0.86 0.85 0.95 0.93 214 292 131 194 0.85 0.94 0
Items In The Home 615 A tele­vi­sion set 1 0.91 0.92 0.92 215 292 131 194 1 0.92 0.16
Items In Room 811 The walls are blank (by choice) 0.35 0.54 0.4 0.28 216 293 135 195 0.46 0.33 0.26
Items In Room 812 Pen­nants 0.67 0.68 0.49 0.64 216 293 135 195 0.68 0.58 0.2
Items In Room 813 Pin-ups 0.51 0.41 0.2 0.51 216 293 135 195 0.45 0.39 0.12
Items In Room 814 Maps 0.55 0.51 0.62 0.42 216 293 135 195 0.53 0.51 0.04
Items In Room 815 A [hang­ing] mo­bile 0.31 0.55 0.23 0.32 216 293 135 195 0.46 0.28 0.36
Items In Room 816 Quo­ta­tions and mot­toes 0.5 0.59 0.25 0.44 216 293 135 195 0.55 0.37 0.36
Items In Room 817 Sci­en­tific mod­els 0.31 0.33 0.08 0.32 216 293 135 195 0.32 0.22 0.2
Items In Room 818 Re­li­gious ar­ti­cles 0.58 0.65 0.33 0.64 216 293 135 195 0.62 0.53 0.18
Items In Room 819 Diplo­mas 0.47 0.41 0.25 0.49 216 293 135 195 0.44 0.4 0.08
Items In Room 820 Schol­ar­ship tro­phies 0.43 0.51 0.2 0.24 216 293 135 195 0.48 0.22 0.52
Items In Room 821 cal­en­dars or sched­ules 0.52 0.5 0.34 0.43 216 293 135 195 0.51 0.39 0.24
Items In Room 822 Ab­stract paint­ings 0.6 0.49 0.35 0.43 216 293 135 195 0.54 0.4 0.28
Items In Room 823 Other paint­ings or draw­ings 0.5 0.52 0.35 0.51 216 293 135 195 0.51 0.45 0.12
Items In Room 824 Pho­tographs of friends 0.52 0.45 0.2 0.51 216 293 135 195 0.48 0.39 0.18
Items In Room 825 Sculp­ture 0.41 0.47 0.25 0.24 216 293 135 195 0.45 0.24 0.42
Items In Room 826 Jokes 0.63 0.24 0.21 0.38 216 293 135 195 0.43 0.31 0.24
Items In Room 827 Medals 0.44 0.41 0.39 0.4 216 293 135 195 0.42 0.4 0.04
Items In Room 828 Bi­o­log­i­cal charts 0.39 0.66 0.66 0 216 293 135 195 0.56 0.31 0.5
Items In Room 829 Flags 0.42 0.42 0.45 0.53 216 293 135 195 0.42 0.5 0
Items In Room 830 Sports tro­phies 0.45 0.53 0.47 0.47 216 293 135 195 0.5 0.47 0.06
Items In Room 831 Sports equip­ment 0.51 0.27 0.12 0.23 216 293 135 195 0.38 0.19 0.38
Hon­ors 1000 Did an in­de­pen­dent, sci­en­tific ex­per­i­ment (not a course as­sign­ment) 0.32 0.22 0.12 0.18 216 293 135 195 0.26 0.16 0.2
Hon­ors 1002 In­vented a patentable de­vice 0 0 0 0 216 293 135 195 0 0 0
Hon­ors 1003 Had a pa­per pub­lished in a sci­en­tific jour­nal −0.01 0 0 0 216 293 135 195 0 0 0
Hon­ors 1004 Built a piece of equip­ment or lab­o­ra­tory ap­pa­ra­tus on my own (not course work) 0.21 0.17 0.19 −0.02 216 293 135 195 0.19 0.07 0.24
Hon­ors 1005 Par­tic­i­pated in a sci­en­tific con­test or tal­ent search 0.49 0.43 0.22 0.3 216 293 135 195 0.46 0.27 0.38
Hon­ors 1011 Won a prize for any other sci­en­tific work or study 0.33 0.25 0.29 0.18 216 293 135 195 0.28 0.23 0.1
Hon­ors 1012 Placed first, sec­ond or third in a: na­tional speech or de­bate con­test 0 0 0 0 216 293 135 195 0 0 0
Hon­ors 1013 Placed first, sec­ond or third in a: re­gional or state speech or de­bate con­test 0.27 0.19 0.72 0.48 216 293 135 195 0.22 0.59 0
Hon­ors 1014 Placed first, sec­ond or third in a: city or county speech or de­bate con­test 0.16 0.24 −0.03 0.22 216 293 135 195 0.21 0.12 0.18
Hon­ors 1015 Placed first, sec­ond or third in a: school speech or de­bate con­test 0.41 0.47 0.11 0.1 216 293 135 195 0.45 0.1 0.7
Hon­ors 1016 Had a lead­ing role in one or more plays 0.41 0.39 0.38 0.08 216 293 135 195 0.4 0.21 0.38
Hon­ors 1017 Had mi­nor roles in one or more play­ers 0.35 0.43 0.48 0.26 216 293 135 195 0.4 0.36 0.08
Hon­ors 1018 Wrote a play 0.49 0.31 0.23 0.48 216 293 135 195 0.39 0.38 0.02
Hon­ors 1019 Di­rected a play 0.79 0.36 −0.02 0.26 216 293 135 195 0.59 0.15 0.88
Hon­ors 1020 Ap­peared on ra­dio or TV as a per­former 0.41 0.51 0.14 0.56 216 293 135 195 0.47 0.41 0.12
Hon­ors 1021 Read for a part in a high school or church play 0.44 0.48 0.3 0.33 216 293 135 195 0.46 0.32 0.28
Hon­ors 1022 Read for a part in a play which was not spon­sored by my school or church 0.1 0.48 −0.05 0.48 216 293 135 195 0.33 0.28 0.1
Hon­ors 1023 Or­ga­nized a school po­lit­i­cal group or cam­paign 0.33 0.42 0.14 0.19 216 293 135 195 0.38 0.17 0.42
Hon­ors 1024 Or­ga­nized my own busi­ness or ser­vice 0.39 0.57 0.32 −0.01 216 293 135 195 0.5 0.13 0.74
Hon­ors 1025 Re­ceived a Ju­nior Achieve­ment award 0.17 0.27 0.1 0.29 216 293 135 195 0.23 0.21 0.04
Hon­ors 1026 Com­posed mu­sic which has been given at least one pub­lic per­for­mance −0.01 0.24 0.39 0 216 293 135 195 0.14 0.17 0
Hon­ors 1027 Per­formed with a pro­fes­sional or­ches­tra 0.32 0.44 0.23 −0.01 216 293 135 195 0.39 0.09 0.6
Hon­ors 1028 Played in a school mu­si­cal or­ga­ni­za­tion 0.71 0.65 0.57 0.5 216 293 135 195 0.68 0.53 0.3
Hon­ors 1029 Played a mu­si­cal in­stru­ment 0.57 0.65 0.5 0.64 216 293 135 195 0.62 0.59 0.06
Hon­ors 1030 Played in a dance or jazz band for wages 0.47 0.33 0.31 −0.01 216 293 135 195 0.39 0.12 0.54
Hon­ors 1031 Or­ga­nized your own dance or jazz band 0.38 0 0.25 0 216 293 135 195 0.17 0.1 0.14
Hon­ors 1032 Re­ceived a rat­ing of ‘Good’ or ‘Ex­cel­lent’ in a: na­tional mu­sic con­test 0.39 0.5 0.27 −0.01 216 293 135 195 0.45 0.11 0.68
Hon­ors 1033 Re­ceived a rat­ing of ‘Good’ or ‘Ex­cel­lent’ in a: re­gional or state mu­sic con­test 0.55 0.56 0.47 0.48 216 293 135 195 0.56 0.48 0.16
Hon­ors 1034 Re­ceived a rat­ing of ‘Good’ or ‘Ex­cel­lent’ in a: city or county mu­sic con­test 0.41 0.14 0.22 0.32 216 293 135 195 0.26 0.28 0
Hon­ors 1035 Re­ceived a rat­ing of ‘Good’ or ‘Ex­cel­lent’ in a: school mu­sic con­test 0.52 0.62 0.07 0.5 216 293 135 195 0.58 0.34 0.48
Hon­ors 1036 Or­ga­nized a singing group 0.45 0.53 0.3 0.28 216 293 135 195 0.5 0.29 0.42
Hon­ors 1037 Di­rected (pub­licly) a band or or­ches­tra 0.35 −0.01 0.27 0.49 216 293 135 195 0.15 0.41 0
Hon­ors 1038 Ex­hib­ited a work of art (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A na­tional art show −0.01 −0.01 0 0.32 216 293 135 195 −0.01 0.19 0
Hon­ors 1039 Ex­hib­ited a work of art (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A re­gional or state art show −0.01 0.33 −0.01 0.16 216 293 135 195 0.19 0.09 0.2
Hon­ors 1040 Ex­hib­ited a work of art (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A city or county art show −0.03 0.46 −0.05 0.21 216 293 135 195 0.27 0.11 0.32
Hon­ors 1041 Ex­hib­ited a work of art (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A school art show 0.23 0.32 0.05 0.23 216 293 135 195 0.28 0.16 0.24
Hon­ors 1042 Won a prize or award for an artis­tic cre­ation (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A na­tional art show 0 0.33 0 0 216 293 135 195 0.19 0 0.38
Hon­ors 1043 Won a prize or award for an artis­tic cre­ation (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A re­gional or state art show 0 −0.01 −0.01 −0.02 216 293 135 195 −0.01 −0.02 0.02
Hon­ors 1044 Won a prize or award for an artis­tic cre­ation (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A city or county art show −0.02 0.54 −0.01 0.12 216 293 135 195 0.33 0.07 0.52
Hon­ors 1045 Won a prize or award for an artis­tic cre­ation (paint­ing, sculp­ture, etc.) at: A school art show −0.02 0.27 −0.02 −0.03 216 293 135 195 0.15 −0.03 0.36
Hon­ors 1046 Won a prize or award for a work pub­lished in a pub­lic news­pa­per or mag­a­zine −0.02 0.25 0.23 0.32 216 293 135 195 0.14 0.28 0
Hon­ors 1047 Edited a school pa­per or lit­er­ary mag­a­zine 0.19 0.34 0.08 0.27 216 293 135 195 0.28 0.19 0.18
Hon­ors 1048 Won a lit­er­ary award for cre­ative writ­ing 0.17 0.17 0.1 0.37 216 293 135 195 0.17 0.26 0
Hon­ors 1049 Had po­ems, sto­ries, es­says or ar­ti­cles pub­lished in a school pub­li­ca­tion 0.43 0.47 0.15 0.4 216 293 135 195 0.45 0.3 0.3
Hon­ors 1050 Wrote an orig­i­nal, but un­pub­lished piece of cre­ative writ­ing on my own (not as part of a course) 0.32 0.33 0.14 0.4 216 293 135 195 0.33 0.3 0.06
Hon­ors 1051 Pub­lished one or more is­sues of my own news­pa­per 0.39 0.39 −0.01 0.27 216 293 135 195 0.39 0.16 0.46
Hon­ors 1052 Had po­ems, sto­ries or ar­ti­cles pub­lished in a pub­lic news­pa­per or mag­a­zine (not school) 0.26 0.22 0.17 0.12 216 293 135 195 0.24 0.14 0.2
loehlin <- read.table(sep="|", quote="", file="loehlin.txt",
    colClasses=c("factor", "factor", "character", "numeric", "numeric", "numeric", "numeric",
                  "integer", "integer", "integer", "integer"), header=TRUE)
averageRviaZ <- function(r1, r2, n1, n2) { n <- n1+n2;
                 tanh(weighted.mean(c(atanh(r1), atanh(r2)), c(n1, n2))) }
averageRviaZ(0.39, 0.39, 216, 293)
# [1] 0.39
averageRviaZ(0.19, 0.34, 216, 293)
# [1] 0.2779414388
loehlin$Identical._r_ <- with(loehlin, round(digits=2,
    unlist(Map(averageRviaZ, Identical.Male._r_, Identical.Female._r_,
    Identical.Male._n_, Identical.Female._n_))))
loehlin$Fraternal._r_ <- with(loehlin, round(digits=2,
    unlist(Map(averageRviaZ, Fraternal.Male._r_, Fraternal.Female._r_,
    Fraternal.Male._n_, Fraternal.Female._n_))))
loehlin$H2 <- with(loehlin, unlist(Map(function(rmz, rdz) {
    round(digits=2, max(0.00, 2*(rmz-rdz)))}, Identical._r_, Fraternal._r_)))

summary(loehlin)
#                           Category         ID          Item           Identical.Male._r_   Identical.Female._r_ Fraternal.Male._r_
#  Objective Behavior Inventory :220    100   :  1   Length:376         Min.   :-0.0300000   Min.   :-0.0200000   Min.   :-0.0700000
#  Honors                       : 47    1000  :  1   Class :character   1st Qu.: 0.2600000   1st Qu.: 0.3575000   1st Qu.: 0.1375000
#  Items In The Home            : 41    1002  :  1   Mode  :character   Median : 0.3850000   Median : 0.4500000   Median : 0.2700000
#  Done During Past Year        : 22    1003  :  1                      Mean   : 0.3861702   Mean   : 0.4428723   Mean   : 0.2891489
#  Items In Room                : 21    1004  :  1                      3rd Qu.: 0.5100000   3rd Qu.: 0.5500000   3rd Qu.: 0.4100000
#  Time Diary                   : 12    1005  :  1                      Max.   : 1.0000000   Max.   : 0.9800000   Max.   : 0.9500000
#  (Other)                      : 13   (Other):370
#  Fraternal.Female._r_ Identical.Male._n_ Identical.Female._n_ Fraternal.Male._n_ Fraternal.Female._n_ Identical._r_
#  Min.   :-0.0400000   Min.   :189.0000   Min.   :264.0000     Min.   :122.0000   Min.   : 93.0000     Min.   :-0.0100000
#  1st Qu.: 0.2275000   1st Qu.:214.0000   1st Qu.:290.0000     1st Qu.:134.0000   1st Qu.:194.0000     1st Qu.: 0.3300000
#  Median : 0.3600000   Median :215.0000   Median :291.0000     Median :135.0000   Median :194.0000     Median : 0.4200000
#  Mean   : 0.3544149   Mean   :214.0984   Mean   :290.5293     Mean   :133.7713   Mean   :193.4282     Mean   : 0.4224468
#  3rd Qu.: 0.4800000   3rd Qu.:215.0000   3rd Qu.:292.0000     3rd Qu.:135.0000   3rd Qu.:195.0000     3rd Qu.: 0.5200000
#  Max.   : 0.9700000   Max.   :216.0000   Max.   :293.0000     Max.   :135.0000   Max.   :195.0000     Max.   : 1.0000000
#
#  Fraternal._r_              H2
#  Min.   :-0.0300000   Min.   :0.0000000
#  1st Qu.: 0.2000000   1st Qu.:0.0600000
#  Median : 0.3100000   Median :0.1800000
#  Mean   : 0.3311436   Mean   :0.2106383
#  3rd Qu.: 0.4300000   3rd Qu.:0.3200000
#  Max.   : 0.9600000   Max.   :0.9200000

write.table(quote=FALSE, sep=" | ", row.names=FALSE, file="loehlin2.txt", loehlin)

Waller et al 1995, “Occupational and Leisure Time Interests, and Personality”

Ex­tract­ing do­main in­ter­ests from Waller et al 1995’s re­ported sum­mary sta­tis­tics & test-retest re­li­a­bil­i­ties, I com­pute pooled weighted cor­re­la­tions, cor­rected for mea­sure­ment er­ror based on the test-retest re­li­a­bil­i­ties, for use in the ta­ble of her­i­tabil­i­ties.

Pub­lished in As­sess­ing In­di­vid­ual Differ­ences in Hu­man Be­hav­ior: New Con­cepts, Meth­ods, and Find­ings, Lu­bin­ski et al 1995:

Ta­ble 2: 18 Leisure Time In­ter­est Fac­tors
Fac­tor Sam­ple Item
In­tel­lec­tual In­ter­ests Read­ing or reread­ing lit­er­ary clas­sics
Pol­i­tics Work­ing with oth­ers on po­lit­i­cal or so­cial is­sues
So­cial­iz­ing Get­ting to­gether with a lively group of friends and ac­quain­tances
Hunt­ing-Fish­ing Hunt­ing small game, rab­bits, squir­rels, etc.
Sierra Club Back­pack­ing, hik­ing, camp­ing out
Re­li­gion Do­ing work for your church or syn­a­gogue
Hus­bandry Re­build­ing, re­pair­ing things (fur­ni­ture, clothes, cars, ma­chi­nes, etc.)
Do­mes­tic Work­ing with fab­rics, yarn (sewing, knit­ting, cro­chet­ing, tai­lor­ing, etc.)
Pas­sive En­ter­tain­ment Watch­ing TV ad­ven­ture or com­edy pro­grams
Fit­ness Jog­ging or run­ning for ex­er­cise
Gam­bling Bet­ting on the hors­es, dog races, etc.
Po­lice Call­s-Fires Go­ing to fires
The Arts At­tend­ing live the­ater or mu­si­cals
For­eign Travel Go­ing on a cruise ship to in­ter­est­ing places
Read­ing Read­ing mys­tery or de­tec­tive nov­els
Sports Fan At­tend­ing sport­ing events (ball­games, races, hock­ey, etc.)
Swing­ing [danc­ing] Nightlife (bars, night­clubs, dis­cos, etc.)
Dan­ger Seek­ing Risky pas­times (hang glid­ing, moun­tain climb­ing, surfing, etc.)

[…]

A to­tal of 768 pairs of Min­nesota Reg­istry twins were con­cor­dant in pro­vid­ing com­plete test da­ta. Of these con­cor­dant pairs, 240 were asked to re­take the Oc­cu­pa­tional In­ter­ests In­ven­tory and the Leisure Time In­ter­est In­ven­tory be­tween two to three years after the first ad­min­is­tra­tion; com­plete re­turns were ob­tained from both mem­bers of 198 pairs, 53 MZ and 52 DZ fe­male pairs plus 49 MZ and 33 DZ male pairs. These data al­lowed us to in­ves­ti­gate both the her­i­tabil­ity and the sta­bil­ity of oc­cu­pa­tional and leisure time in­ter­ests.

Qua­dratic re­gres­sions on age were com­puted for the in­ter­est scales sep­a­rately by sex, and norms were con­structed to per­mit the scale scores to be con­verted to age- and sex-cor­rected t-s­cores with a mean of 50 and SD of 10. This pro­ce­dure par­tials out the effects of age and sex on the in­tr­a­class cor­re­la­tions and sub­se­quent her­i­tabil­ity es­ti­mates (see McGue & Bouchard 1984, for a jus­ti­fi­ca­tion of this pro­ce­dure).

Ta­bles 6 and 7 re­port the MZ and DZ in­tr­a­class cor­re­la­tions, her­i­tabil­i­ties (h2), and test-retest sta­bil­i­ties for the oc­cu­pa­tional in­ter­est and leisure time in­ter­est scales from this sam­ple. The her­i­tabil­i­ties were com­puted via Fal­con­er’s for­mu­la: twice the differ­ence be­tween the MZ and DZ cor­re­la­tions. This method pro­vides valid es­ti­mates of her­i­tabil­ity when the data sat­isfy the fol­low­ing as­sump­tions: (a) as­sor­ta­tive mat­ing is ab­sent, (b) ge­netic effects are purely ad­di­tive, and (c) gene-en­vi­ron­ment in­ter­ac­tion is min­i­mal. Even when these as­sump­tions are not en­tirely valid, mi­nor vi­o­la­tions of the as­sump­tions should not vi­ti­ate the gen­eral con­clu­sions. How­ev­er, when the MZ cor­re­la­tions are more than twice the value of the cor­re­spond­ing DZ cor­re­la­tions, the MZ cor­re­la­tion it­self is the best es­ti­mate of her­i­tabil­ity (these es­ti­mates are shown in paren­the­ses in the ta­bles). We do not present these data as fi­nal es­ti­mates of her­i­tabil­i­ty, but only as ev­i­dence that ge­netic fac­tors sig­nifi­cantly in­flu­ence ex­pressed in­ter­ests.

N of pairs: [listed sep­a­rately from Ta­ble 7, due to for­mat­ting lim­i­ta­tions]

  • Male MZ: 148
  • Male DZ: 119
  • Fe­male MZ: 273
  • Fe­male DZ: 228
  • MZA: 33 (~22 fe­male/11 male)15
Ta­ble 7: Her­i­tabil­i­ties and Test-Retest Sta­bil­i­ties for 18 Leisure Time In­ter­est Fac­tors (Note: Par­en­thet­i­cal fig­ures re­fer to es­ti­mates based on MZ cor­re­la­tion­s.)
Fac­tors MZ (male) DZ (male) Male h2 Test-retest MZ & DZ (male) MZ (fe­male) DZ (fe­male) Fe­male h2 Test-retest MZ & DZ (fe­male) MZA (M/F) h2
In­tel­lec­tual In­ter­ests 0.57 0.20 (0.57) 0.80 0.59 0.27 (0.59) 0.76 0.54
Pol­i­tics 0.46 0.20 (0.46) 0.70 0.42 0.27 0.30 0.70 0.16
So­cial­iz­ing 0.50 0.14 (0.50) 0.67 0.39 0.21 0.36 0.70 0.42
Hunt­ing-Fish­ing 0.67 0.39 0.56 0.87 0.48 0.26 0.44 0.75 0.42
Sierra Club 0.51 0.26 0.50 0.70 0.56 0.24 (0.56) 0.79 0.53
Re­li­gion 0.52 0.36 0.32 0.83 0.63 0.28 (0.63) 0.82 0.57
Hus­bandry 0.63 0.17 (0.63) 0.80 0.41 0.08 (0.41) 0.68 0.65
Do­mes­tic 0.47 0.25 0.44 0.73 0.46 0.21 (0.46) 0.83 0.46
Pas­sive En­ter­tain­ment 0.51 0.13 (0.51) 0.68 0.52 0.18 (0.52) 0.75 0.46
Fit­ness 0.49 0.13 (0.49) 0.79 0.56 0.23 (0.56) 0.71 0.41
Gam­bling 0.61 0.33 0.56 0.83 0.45 0.35 0.20 0.78 0.48
Po­lice Call­s-Fires 0.49 0.15 (0.49) 0.74 0.44 0.28 0.32 0.66 0.77
The Arts 0.50 0.18 (0.50) 0.78 0.47 0.21 (0.47) 0.76 0.22
For­eign Travel 0.27 -0.05 (0.27) 0.52 0.43 0.11 (0.43) 0.57 0.17
Read­ing 0.45 0.07 (0.45) 0.69 0.46 0.18 (0.46) 0.72 0.16
Sports Fan 0.51 0.34 0.34 0.87 0.46 0.22 (0.46) 0.75 0.59
Swing­ing 0.43 0.15 (0.43) 0.75 0.45 0.20 (0.45) 0.77 0.47
Dan­ger Seek­ing 0.39 0.26 0.26 0.63 0.43 0.14 (0.43) 0.75 0.46

The data re­ported in Ta­bles 6 and 7 il­lus­trate that the twin in­ter­cor­re­la­tions and test-retest sta­bil­i­ties for the in­ter­est scales were quite sim­i­lar for both sex­es. For ex­am­ple, the me­dian MZ cor­re­la­tions for the oc­cu­pa­tional in­ter­est scales were 0.43 and 0.44 for the male and fe­male sub­jects, re­spec­tive­ly. The me­dian DZ cor­re­la­tions were 0.18 and 0.21 for males and fe­males, re­spec­tive­ly. The me­dian test-retest sta­bil­i­ties were 0.75 and 0.72. With­in-pair cor­re­la­tions for MZ twins reared apart (MZA) di­rectly es­ti­mate broad her­i­tabil­ity With­out re­ly­ing on the as­sump­tions of the Fal­coner for­mu­la. It is note­wor­thy that 4 of the 17 oc­cu­pa­tional in­ter­est scales yield neg­li­gi­ble MZA cor­re­la­tions (0.13 or less), whereas 8 of them yield sub­stan­tial cor­re­la­tions, rang­ing from 0.41 to 0.65. The av­er­age MZA cor­re­la­tion for the oc­cu­pa­tional in­ter­est scales was 0.35, in con­trast to 0.14 for 34 DZA pairs. The av­er­age MZA cor­re­la­tion for the 18 leisure time in­ter­est scales was 0.45, ver­sus 0.18 for the DZA twins.

The data for the leisure time in­ter­est scales mir­ror al­most ex­actly the pat­tern of re­la­tions found for oc­cu­pa­tional in­ter­ests. The me­dian MZ cor­re­la­tion was 0.50 for the males and 0.46 for the fe­males. The me­dian DZ cor­re­la­tions were 0.19 and 0.18 for males and fe­males, re­spec­tive­ly; the me­dian test-retest sta­bil­i­ties were 0.75 for both sex­es. As might be ex­pect­ed, less sta­ble in­ter­ests (e.g., ‘Mil­i­tary’ or ‘For­eign Travel’) are as­so­ci­ated with lower MZ cor­re­la­tions. Put an­other way, it is the sta­ble com­po­nent of in­ter­est vari­ance that sets the up­per limit for her­i­tabil­i­ty. It may be that some of these in­ter­ests are less sta­ble be­cause they are, in fact, less trait­ed, that is, rel­a­tively large num­bers of peo­ple do not have well-de­fined at­ti­tudes to­ward some of these oc­cu­pa­tions or ac­tiv­i­ties.

The 3 sets of MZ/DZ/MZA cor­re­la­tions are con­verted to her­i­tabil­i­ties by Fal­con­er, the h2 is cor­rected for the re­spec­tive mea­sure­ment er­ror (ceil­ing at to avoid im­prob­a­bly high es­ti­mates or un­de­fined z es­ti­mates), then con­verted to Fish­er’s z, the weighted mean tak­en, and con­verted back to h2:

waller <- read.table(sep="|", quote="", file="waller.txt", header=TRUE)
f <- function(n1, mz1, dz1, merror1, n2, mz2, dz2, merror2, n3, mza3, merror3) {
    h2_1 <- 2*(mz1-dz1)
    h2_2 <- 2*(mz2-dz2)
    h2_3 <- mza3

    h2_1_latent <- min(0.9, h2_1 / sqrt(1*merror1))
    h2_2_latent <- min(0.9, h2_2 / sqrt(1*merror2))
    h2_3_latent <- min(0.9, h2_3 / sqrt(1*merror3))

    h2_1_latent_z <- atanh(h2_1_latent)
    h2_2_latent_z <- atanh(h2_2_latent)
    h2_3_latent_z <- atanh(h2_3_latent)

    h2_all <- tanh(weighted.mean(c(h2_1_latent_z, h2_2_latent_z, h2_3_latent_z), c(n1,n2,n3)))
    return(h2_all)
    }
waller$H2 <- with(waller, round(digits=2, unlist(Map(f, (148+119)/2, MZ..male., DZ..male., Test.retest.MZ...DZ,
    (273+228)/2, MZ..female., DZ..female., Test.retest.MZ...DZ.1,
    33, MZA.h2, Test.retest.MZ...DZ))))
subset(waller, select=c(Factors, H2))
#                Factors   H2
# Intellectual Interests 0.76
#               Politics 0.44
#            Socializing 0.64
#        Hunting-Fishing 0.53
#            Sierra Club 0.68
#               Religion 0.66
#              Husbandry 0.84
#               Domestic 0.54
#  Passive Entertainment 0.82
#                Fitness 0.78
#               Gambling 0.39
#     Police Calls-Fires 0.61
#               The Arts 0.62
#         Foreign Travel 0.84
#                Reading 0.75
#             Sports Fan 0.51
#               Swinging 0.59
#         Danger Seeking 0.57

  1. BBC: “most Amer­i­cans in 1790 con­sumed an av­er­age 5.8 gal­lons of pure al­co­hol a year…In 1830, con­sump­tion peaked at 7.1 gal­lons a year and drink­ing be­came a moral is­sue…[­con­tem­po­rary] Amer­i­cans drink an av­er­age of 2.3 gal­lons of pure al­co­hol a year.”↩︎

  2. I was struck by Net­flix’s 2019-01-17 quar­terly share­holder let­ter where they es­ti­mate they have ~10% of the US tele­vi­sion mar­ket—be­cause they serve 100 mil­lion hours of view­ing-time per day (or to put it an­other way, ~143 hu­man-life­times per day), and es­ti­mate to­tal US view­ing-time at ~1 bil­lion hours.

    Also im­pres­sive is es­ti­mate of com­puter gam­ing-time done just through : >20 bil­lion hours an­nu­ally.↩︎

  3. Aus­tan Gools­bee pro­vides an ex­am­ple from po­lit­i­cal ad­ver­tis­ing’s neg­a­tive at­tack ads:

    …As with spe­cial effects in movies, con­sumers be­come de­sen­si­tized to ads the more they see them. The scary crea­tures from 1950s films, the shark in Jaws or the space­ships from sci­ence-fic­tion movies of the 1990s now often look like jokes. Po­lit­i­cal ads often age bad­ly, too. In his his­tory of neg­a­tive cam­paign­ing, Go­ing Dirty, David Mark writes that in the 1994 elec­tion, dozens of Re­pub­li­can con­gres­sional can­di­dates used “mor­ph­ing” tech­nol­ogy in ads to vi­su­ally trans­form their De­mo­c­ra­tic op­po­nents into Pres­i­dent Bill Clin­ton, to dev­as­tat­ing effect. But, in my ob­ser­va­tion, even one elec­tion cy­cle lat­er, with the tech­nol­ogy out­dated and overused, peo­ple stopped re­spond­ing. That’s why po­lit­i­cal con­sul­tants say straight­for­ward TV ads no longer work. Peo­ple tune them out. As tech­nol­ogy de­vel­ops, the same wearout effect is likely to oc­cur with ad­ver­tis­ing based on fake news. As we are in­un­dated with new, tar­get­ed, de­cep­tive ads, we may get sick of them and, per­haps, stop find­ing them per­sua­sive. For now, it’s the best hope we have.

    ↩︎
  4. For more back­ground on early stud­ies of mu­si­cal oc­cu­pa­tion & per­cep­tion, see The Psy­chol­ogy of Mu­si­cal Abil­ity, Shuter 1968.↩︎

  5. There are a few can­di­date-gene stud­ies but they look typ­i­cal & no more likely to repli­cate than the usual can­di­date-gene study.↩︎

  6. Per­haps sur­pris­ing­ly, per­son­al­ity traits don’t seem to do a good job of pre­dict­ing in­ter­ests, to quote Hansen 1984: “for the most part, cor­re­la­tional stud­ies be­tween in­ter­est scores and per­son­al­ity scores have been ex­tremely dis­ap­point­ing.”↩︎

  7. See //. Per­son­al­ity s typ­i­cally find near-zero ad­di­tive SNP her­i­tabil­i­ties and ac­cord­ing­ly, as of 2018, even very large GWASes us­ing 23andMe/UKBB have failed to find more than a few hits for any of the or ex­plain more than a few per­cent­age points of vari­ance de­spite the usual ≥50% her­i­tabil­ity from twin stud­ies.↩︎

  8. Specifi­cal­ly: “a self­-re­port in­ven­tory ad­dress­ing in­volve­ment in differ­ent arts and sci­ence do­mains. Here, only the mu­sic item was used which con­sisted of seven state­ments about mu­sic achieve­ment, rang­ing from (1) ‘I am not en­gaged in mu­sic at all’ via (4) ‘I have played or sung, or my mu­sic has been played in pub­lic con­certs in my home town, but I have not been paid for this’ to (7) ‘I am pro­fes­sion­ally ac­tive as a mu­si­cian and have been re­viewed/fea­tured in the na­tional or in­ter­na­tional me­dia and/or have re­ceived an award for my mu­si­cal ac­tiv­i­ties’.”↩︎

  9. From Tesser 1993; re Tesser 1993, see also Ol­son et al 2001 & .↩︎

  10. See also & Waller et al 1995.↩︎

  11. See also Si­mon­son & Sela 2009.↩︎

  12. Smith et al 2016, “Ge­netic and en­vi­ron­men­tal in­flu­ences on food pref­er­ences in ado­les­cence”, re­ports ba­sic food­stuffs and 2 fac­tors per­tain­ing to more op­tion­al/recre­ational types of food in TEDS:

    • “fruit”: h2 = 0.49
    • “snacks”: h2 = 0.43

    Food-level cor­re­la­tions are re­port­ed; pick­ing out a sub­set which strike me as be­ing op­tion­al/recre­ational and cal­cu­lat­ing her­i­tabil­i­ties from Ta­ble 2:

    Ta­ble of 18 se­lected snack­/dessert/junk food pref­er­ence her­i­tabil­i­ties es­ti­mated via Fal­con­er’s for­mula from Smith et al 2016.
    Food­stuff Fal­coner h2
    Or­anges 0.400 0.177 0.45
    Grapes 0.429 0.107 0.64
    Ap­ples 0.553 0.000 1.00
    Melon 0.342 0.139 0.41
    Peaches 0.489 0.231 0.52
    Apri­cots 0.381 0.205 0.35
    Straw­ber­ries 0.460 0.082 0.76
    Cream 0.266 0.013 0.51
    Yo­gurt 0.310 0.067 0.49
    Cus­tard 0.494 0.203 0.58
    Chips 0.339 0.071 0.54
    Plain bis­cuits 0.329 0.200 0.26
    Choco­late bis­cuits 0.276 0.107 0.34
    Cake 0.179 0.140 0.08
    Ice cream 0.293 0.095 0.40
    Choco­late 0.277 0.076 0.40
    Crisps 0.362 0.114 0.50
    Gummy sweets 0.420 0.152 0.54
    Sug­ared ce­real 0.347 0.206 0.28

    Sim­i­lar food-level twin cor­re­la­tions are re­ported from the Gem­ini study in “Na­ture and nur­ture in chil­dren’s food pref­er­ences”, Fildes et al 2014, and . See also the 23andMe GWASes on ice cream & choco­late. is an in­ter­est­ing study on fat taste per­cep­tion.↩︎

  13. See also Fred­erik­sen & Chris­tensen 2003, Stubbe & de Geus 2009, Aal­to­nen et al 2014.↩︎

  14. Nichols 1979 is some­times cited as Nichols 1976, and in­ter­nally it ref­er­ences the up­com­ing pub­li­ca­tion of Loehlin & Nichols 1976; this is be­cause it is an ex­pan­sion/re­pub­li­ca­tion of a Nichols 1976 “In­vited ad­dress pre­sented at the Amer­i­can Psy­cho­log­i­cal As­so­ci­a­tion meet­ing, Wash­ing­ton, D. C., Sep­tem­ber 4, 1976.”, hence the con­fu­sion over years in ci­ta­tions.↩︎

  15. “33 pairs of adult MZ twins (MZA twins) and 34 pairs of DZ (DZA) twins who had been sep­a­rated in in­fancy and reared apart. This sam­ple is more fully de­scribed in Tel­le­gen et al 1988.”↩︎