created: 23 Aug 2013
modified: 08 Feb 2015
created: 23 Aug 2013; modified: 08 Feb 2015
created: 23 Aug 2013; modified: 08 Feb 2015
status: in progress; belief: log
created: 23 Aug 2013; modified: 08 Feb 2015; status: in progress; belief: log
This is a sortable table of books I have read; it is compiled from a CSV export of my Goodreads account to Markdown/HTML by a Haskell script I wrote. (The GoodReads interface is too fancy for its own good.)
|Radiance: A Novel||Carter Scholz||★★★★★||2003||2014/02/20||(Quotes are extracted from my annotated ebook edition of Radiance; see also my list of other review & excerpts from them.)
Somewhere in California, in the 1990s, a nuclear weapons lab develops advanced technologies for its post-Cold War mission. Advanced as in not working yet. Mission as in continued funding. A scandal-plagued missile defense program presses forward, dragging physicist Philip Quine deep into the machinations of those who would use the lab for their own gain.
Years ago, I ran into a book review titled “‘Its awful and enticing radiance’: The Beauty and Terror of Carter Scholz’s Radiance” by L. Timmel Duchamp; about a 2001 novel I had never heard of by an author I had never heard of, but it sounded interesting and I read the review until towards the end, it quote a key passage in Radiance:
A murmur of rain had started again. He lay there in the abyss of his thoughts as her breathing beside him steadied and deepened. Almost a voice stirred in him. It starts before Hanford, it almost said. It starts with Röntgen, with the piece of barium glowing in the path of invisible rays, striking out the fire that God had put there. It starts with his wife’s hand on the photographic plate, its transparence there, the ashen bones visible within the milky flesh. Who could imagine that this radiance at the heart of matter could be malign? That with its light came fire? (Yet from the first the ashen bones were there to see within the flesh.) It starts with Becquerel carrying the radium in his pocket that burned his skin, and darkened the unexposed film. It starts with Marie Curie poisoning herself in that pale uncanny glow. With Rutherford guessing at this new alchemy, guessing that matter, giving up its glow, transformed itself one element into another. With the miners at Joachimsthal, deep under the Erzgebirge, inhaling the dust of uranium and dying of “mountain sickness”. With women who by the thousands in watch factories tipped their brushes with that glow, touched it to their tongues before painting the dial face, women who only much later, when the watches’ glow had faded, sickened and died from that radiance taken into their bones. It begins with Ernest Lawrence rushing across the Berkeley campus, the idea of a proton accelerator uncontainable in his mind, calling out, I’m going to be famous! With Oppenheimer at Jornada del Muerte that morning of Trinity. With the scientists who had prised open the gates to that blazing realm past heaven or hell. What were they now at the Lab in all their thousands, but the colonial bureaucrats of that realm, the followers and functionaries, the clerks and commissars? Mere gatekeepers of that power. Or in its keeping. It goes of its own momentum beyond Hanford, to Trinity, to Hiroshima, to the prisoners, the cancer patients, the retarded children, the pregnant women injected or fed this goblin matter to see would it bring health or sickness, the soldiers huddled in trenches against the flash, bones visible in their arms through closed eyes, staring up at the roiling cloudrise, the sheepherders, the farms, the homes, the gardens downwind. And in his sleep the voice long stilled spoke once more. It starts with Sforza; in case of need I will make bombards, mortars, and firethrowing engines of beautiful and practical design. It starts with Archimedes focusing the sun’s rays upon the fleet at Syracuse, it starts with the first rock hurled by the first grasping hand. It starts where we start. It is mind, it is hunger, it is greed, it is defense, it is mischief, it is the devil, it is the god; it is life.
The force of the incantation struck me and a few years later, a copy finally appeared in my local library system. I requested it and devoured it in one or two sittings; Scholz’s favored punctuation-less style, using hyphens for voice transitions, annoyed me (but did not challenge me - I’d already read Stand On Zanzibar & Dos Passos’s U.S.A.). The swirl of references drenched the work in reality - Scholz seems to know everything about everything, from philosophy of science to the L5 Society to Wagner’s Parsifal, but the themes were grand and ones ‘modern literature’ so often fails to address and cedes to science fiction: the role of science in society, the tension between future gains and present losses, what is corruption, whether we live up to our own standards, the worth of truth…
You could only call it a satire if you didn’t realize how closely it all tracks to real events: it is a roman à clef of the Star Wars program, down to the nuclear tests which intrude onto 5 pages in the final section. (Scholz seems to have drawn heavily on Gregory Benford’s autobiographical essay “Old Legends”, included in the anthology the “Radiance” novella was first published in.)
The novel begins in media res, depicting a failed exorcism of the government labs, quickly turning to its protagonist, a good-natured but despairing and baffled Quine’s attempts to understand his predicament: in charge of designing a nuclear weapon where the data simply disagrees with the theory which is supposed to be right. The story unravels into one of deception and funding pressure, and Quine triumphs, unseating the culprit in it all, and realizing he doesn’t belong at the labs - “I belong inside!” he says, even as he is forced out in the turmoil of anti-nuclear protesters.
A hallmark of Radiance is the Gibsonian sense of alien entities and organisms clashing for life, at a level above individuals: the Labs has generated its own culture, with its own imperatives and loyalties and goals, fed by government money, but in this respect, we can say little better of the continual antagonist of the labs, the protesters, as it is its own alien entity, seeking funding for its protests (funding, Réti reminds us, comes from the enemy), subverting Lab members for information, pressuring characters like Lynn to serve it. And it doesn’t end there: the Pentagon lurks in the background, represented by Reese, quietly pushing along research into ever better nuclear weapons, and hinted at twice are foreign governments like North Korea, and beyond that? Here I borrow a term from Kevin Kelly and refer to the Technium: science and technology regarded as its own entity with its own drives and selection effects, including the proliferation of all forms of technology.
Section two turns to the unseated Highet: his ouster, and the epilogue of his story as he looks over the ruins of his life and seeks out a final resting place in a think-tank. The Biblical and Wagnerian overtones are strong in this section. Thinking of Parsifal‘s Grail quest, it’s hard not to remember that only one knight finds the Holy Grail in the end: the others all go astray or have sinned in various ways.
Section three completes the work. Just like Dune Messiah thoroughly subverted and undermined the simplistic narratives presented for the reader to swallow in Dune, part three shows the reader how Quine in his own turn is fully subverted by the environment, his sense of duty, and yes, his own belief in the desirability of progress. (“He goes right to the point and carries the reader / Into the midst of things, as if known already; / And if there’s material that he despairs of presenting / So as to shine for us, he leaves it out; / And he makes his whole poem one. What’s true, what’s invented, / Beginning, middle, and end, all fit together.”) The imagery and parallelism at times is not even subtle: for both Quine and Highet, Scholz arranges for them to at some point limp (just like Edward Teller) and have inflamed reddish faces - the implication could hardly be clearer if one of the characters had been named ’Faust’ and Lynn Hamlin renamed Margaret Hamlin.
And finally, having been ‘corrupted’ (but having succeeded in securing the future of the National Ignition Facility which runs to this day), Quine is dealt the final blow: the revelation of the leak of nuclear test data. The Technium strives toward openness and proliferation. Technology may be amoral but it has imperatives of its own. The book ends in Quine in despair and granted a moment of lucidity: seeing his entire life as a mixture of success and failure, as but a pawn of vast forces beyond his comprehension, beholding the presence of the ghostly Technium, far from exorcised.
…he stabbed the radio to silence as the dash blinked JAM and he accelerated into the next lane with the needle climbing past 80 past 90 when the CD player blinked PLAY and a falsetto whined, –gonna be just dirt in the ground –Damn it! Shut up…! banging the dash as his wheels trilled on the raised lane dividers and a horn snapped his head around to the panicked face of another drive too close as he yanked the wheel and the road slid on despite his foot wedged on the brake and the yank of the wheel back against a fishtailing swerve into a chorus of horns and gaping faces traveling sideways past him until the car came up hard against a curb and stopped. He was on the shoulder turned sideways. Through the passenger window he saw traffic rush toward him and pass behind him. Ahead of him, smoke rose from fields of stubble, and a flight of bird, scattered by some disturbance, wheeled, now black, now white, against the empty burning sky.
The 3 sections form closed circle: a tight ball of historical forces, corruption, science, despair, progress, failure, and personal tragedies.
The reader expecting further satire will not be pleased by this section. They’ve missed the point: this isn’t a comedy, it’s a tragedy. And what would a tragedy be without there being a great gap between what we hoped a character might accomplish and what actually happens? The higher they can fly, the sadder a crash.
Coyote, First Angry, enemy of all law, wanderer, desert mind, outlaw, spoiler, loser, clown, glutton, lecher, thief, cheat, pragmatist, survivor, bricoleur, silver-tongued Taliesin, latterday Leonardo, usurper Sforza, adulterer Lancelot, tell, wily one, by any means, of the man with two hearts, of knowledge and desire safely hidden from each other. Did not Paracelsus command us to falsify and dissimulate so that ignorant men might not look upon our mysteries? Did not the noble da Vinci hide the meaning of his thought by the manner of his script? What man has not two masters, two minds, two hearts? Tell of the man so wounded in himself that he tore his second heart from him and cast it out, naming it the world, and swore to wound it as it had wounded him.
It’s not as simple as ‘good’ and ‘evil’. It’s not even as simple as ‘corruption’ vs ‘honesty’: look around. Progress is not inevitable. Athens declined. Florence declined. Countries fall. Knowledge can be lost (look at scurvy). Science is not a formalized process, but a spirit of honesty and inquiry, which can be aped and the wordless teaching lost (how can Japanese or Chinese researchers run hundred of experiments, apparently complying with all known standards, every single one of which concludes acupuncture works, when results elsewhere show dramatically lower success rates?). After WWII, many Americans saw the ruins of Germany and Japan, and took to heart a lesson: the darkness waits. Anti-vaxxers to our left, Creationists to our right. And that’s in America, still preeminent in science, still one of the wealthiest countries in the world - based on just that science & technology. Highet is not wrong - just one-sided.
(“If only there were evil people somewhere insidiously committing evil deeds and it were necessary only to separate them from the rest of us and destroy them. But the line dividing good and evil cuts through the heart of every human being. And who is willing to destroy a piece of his own heart?”)
Throughout the book, we know “the work goes on”. Another of Scholz’s references, this time to alchemy’s magnum opus, the philosopher’s stone, which grants moral purification, eternal life, and the transmutation of base elements into nobler ones. (Transmutation has been realized as radioactive decay, while modern medicine would astound Bacon, and it does not seem absurd that in the next few centuries mankind will cure aging.) The double aspect pops up again, of fraud and greatness: research as practical work but also as spiritual quest. Another double aspect: alchemists were notorious scam artists & mountebanks, tricking others (particularly secular lords and governments) into funding their researches based on tricks with gold - but Isaac Newton was an alchemist, Robert Boyle based modern chemistry in part on the knowledge painfully gleaned by centuries of alchemists, and the formation of modern states was due in part to gunpowder (Chinese alchemists), and Roger Bacon, who I cannot resist supplying an apt quote about:
“Once upon a time, there was a man who was convinced that he possessed a Great Idea. Indeed, as the man thought upon the Great Idea more and more, he realized that it was not just a great idea, but the most wonderful idea ever. The Great Idea would unravel the mysteries of the universe, supersede the authority of the corrupt and error-ridden Establishment, confer nigh-magical powers upon its wielders, feed the hungry, heal the sick, make the whole world a better place, etc. etc. etc.
It starts with Bacon…
But the traffic rushes on. And the work goes on.
|Worm||wildbow||★★★★★||2013||2014/08/13||Worm (Table of Contents/official summary/TvTropes/Reddit/post-interview) is addictive superhero SF posing as fantasy; it is long, of consistently high quality, and features a huge amount of imaginative powers with equally imaginative applications & combos (the protagonist usage of bugs, as impressive as it is, is only one of many possible examples, although I particularly like the Regent & Shadow Stalker incident as an example of social-engineering/hacking); the setting excellently rationalizes the standard superheroes vs supervillains setup (which as often observed, makes little sense prima facie). The series opens in the smallest possible setting, the geeky introverted protagonist Taylor being bullied in school, steps logically towards a life of crime as a supervillain while trying to do the right thing (and being manipulated by multiple parties, some prescient) and slowly expands to multiversal scope with an appropriately epic & bittersweet ending. (Reminds me of Watchmen.) Or to borrow from the official summary:
An introverted teenage girl with an unconventional superpower, Taylor goes out in costume to find escape from a deeply unhappy and frustrated civilian life. Her first attempt at taking down a supervillain sees her mistaken for one, thrusting her into the midst of the local ‘cape’ scene’s politics, unwritten rules, and ambiguous morals. As she risks life and limb, Taylor faces the dilemma of having to do the wrong things for the right reasons…Readers should be cautioned that Worm is fairly dark as fiction goes, and it gets far darker as the story progresses. Morality isn’t black and white, Taylor and her acquaintances aren’t invincible, the heroes aren’t winning the war between right and wrong, and superpowers haven’t necessarily affected society for the better. Just the opposite on every count, really. Even on a more fundamental level, Taylor’s day to day life is unhappy, with her clinging to the end of her rope from the story’s outset. The denizens of the Wormverse (as readers have termed it) don’t pull punches, and I try to avoid doing so myself, as a writer. There’s graphic language, descriptions of violence and sex does happen (albeit offscreen).
I recommend reading single arcs at a time: calling the whole thing ‘Worm’ is a bit of a misnomer, it’d make much more sense to group a few arcs and call them individual novels in the ‘Worm Saga’ or something. Length-wise, it’s upwards of a million words, and according to my arbtt logs (using the rule ‘current window $title =~ [/.* Worm - Iceweasel/] ==> tag Worm’), took me 37 hours & 42 minutes over 5 days to read.
The work is not perfect. The opening is perhaps too slow: the first fight with Lung, which hooked me, took a while to happen as it only really starts in ch4. In the middle, I suspect there was perhaps too much material devoted to the Slaughterhouse Nine arc and not enough to later plot arcs like Taylor joining the heroes or dealing with later Endbringers. Further, there’s so many characters that a binge read is a good idea, but during a binge, the fights can blur together and become exhausting, suggesting Worm may spend too much time on that. Some good parts, like characters having reasons to be bad, are taken to an extreme where it seems like every character, no matter how mundane, must have a backstory explaining how their environment/society made them evil (even for characters like Emma where such a cause is unnecessary). But the flaws are relatively small and hopefully will be addressed in the editing process. I look forward to reading Wildbow’s Pact when it finished, and I think I’ll check out some of the fanfics like Cenotaph.
I read Worm after it was finished and I continued to see positive reviews of it, such as Eliezer Yudkowsky:
…I commend to you…the just-completed story Worm, which is roughly 1.75 million words in 30 volumes. The characters in Worm use their powers so intelligently I didn’t even notice until something like the 10th volume that the alleged geniuses were behaving like actual geniuses and that the flying bricks who would be the primary protagonists and villains of lesser tales were properly playing second fiddle to characters with cognitive, informational, or probability-based powers…Doing this so smoothly that I don’t even notice because my brain considers the resulting world to be ‘normal’ really ought to deserve some kind of epic bonus points….There are stories which are better than Worm, and stories which were written faster than Worm, but I don’t know of any epic which was ever written faster and better than Worm.
Other reviews include Joshua Blaine:
…a self consistent and expansive Super-hero universe, and with a ton of unique and powerful abilities, I’ve really been enjoying it. The story is Worm, and It’s easily one of my favorite web stories in awhile, and very dark (especially as the story progresses further).
I’ve been reading this awesome web serial called Worm. Highly recommend if you want some action and suspense. There’s a bit of rationality business in there as well, but it’s spaced out and the story is long. I see it’s been recommended previously on here as well.
Caveat: Worm is really dark. The characters are clever, the protagonist makes the most out of a superpower that seems mediocre at first glance, and there are enough twists and turns that I would look at the clock and realize that I’d been reading for six hours. (Worm is really long, so if you’re the sort of person who has to keep reading fiction be warned that it will eat a week or two.) But, despite those positives, terrible things happen to everyone always. I found it similar to Game of Thrones in that it was engaging but depressing, and unlike GoT where new characters are introduced, dance about, and then die, in Worm there’s a clear protagonist who, as far as I can tell, always wins eventually. I also found the superhero fight sequences less engaging as time went on - but they can be skimmed with little loss.
Indeed. Although, frankly, what I’ve seen of Worm so far seems to designate it as very similar to my idea of Hell; every accomplishment is either made moot or cost something irreplaceable and possibly of superior value, every victory is short-lived, every mistake is paid for dearly. Every situation is desperate, every problem urgent. By the time a conflict reaches its resolution, another is at its peak, and two more are right around the corner. Perhaps it’s even worse; hardship, instead of building character, corrupts it. For the characters, it must be like a nightmare they can’t wake up from.
|Urne Burial||Thomas Browne||★★★★★||2005||2012/07/14||I first heard of Browne in Borges - as so often - in the ending of “Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius” where the narrator is attempting to translate it into Spanish. Borges is always interested in translation (see for example his fantastic essay on translating the 1001 Nights) and I made a note to look up this work which presented such challenges for rendering into Spanish. (The actual edition I used was James Eason’s online edition.)
Urn Burial is hugely archaic, but also amazing. I am not sure where I have last seen any literary pyrotechnics to match Browne in English. David Foster Wallace sometimes approaches him, but beyond that I draw blanks. The book defies any simple summary as many passages are cryptic tangles and Browne says many things. So I will not try, and simply present some passages that struck me:
“He that lay in a golden Urne eminently above the Earth, was not likely to finde the quiet of these bones. Many of these Urnes were broke by a vulgar discoverer in hope of inclosed treasure. The ashes of Marcellus were lost above ground, upon the like account. Where profit hath prompted, no age hath wanted such miners. For which the most barbarous Expilators found the most civill Rhetorick. Gold once out of the earth is no more due unto it; What was unreasonably committed to the ground is reasonably resumed from it: Let Monuments and rich Fabricks, not Riches adorn mens ashes. The commerce of the living is not to be transferred unto the dead: It is not injustice to take that which none complains to lose, and no man is wronged where no man is possessor.”
“If the nearnesse of our last necessity, brought a nearer conformity unto it, there were a happinesse in hoary hairs, and no calamity in half senses. But the long habit of living indisposeth us for dying; When Avarice makes us the sport of death; When even David grew politickly cruell; and Solomon could hardly be said to be the wisest of men. But many are too early old, and before the date of age. Adversity stretcheth our dayes, misery makes Alcmenas nights, and time hath no wings unto it. But the most tedious being is that which can unwish it self, content to be nothing, or never to have been, which was beyond the male-content of Job, who cursed not the day of his life, but his Nativity; Content to have so farre been, as to have a title to future being; Although he had lived here but in an hidden state of life, and as it were an abortion.”
“Nature hath furnished one part of the Earth, and man another. The treasures of time lie high, in Urnes, Coynes, and Monuments, scarce below the roots of some vegetables. Time hath endlesse rarities, and shows of all varieties; which reveals old things in heaven, makes new discoveries in earth, and even earth it self a discovery. That great Antiquity America lay buried for a thousand years; and a large part of the earth is still in the Urne unto us.”
“Some bones make best Skeletons, some bodies quick and speediest ashes: Who would expect a quick flame from Hydropicall Heraclitus? The poysoned Souldier when his Belly brake, put out two pyres in Plutarch. But in the plague of Athens, one private pyre served two or three Intruders; and the Saracens burnt in large heaps, by the King of Castile, shewed how little Fuell sufficeth. Though the Funerall pyre of Patroclus took up an hundred foot, a peece of an old boat burnt Pompey; And if the burthen of Isaac were sufficient for an holocaust, a man may carry his owne pyre.”
“The long habit of living indisposeth us for dying.”
“To be content that times to come should only know there was such a man, not caring whether they knew more of him, was a frigid ambition in Cardan: disparaging his horoscopal inclination and judgement of himself, who cares to subsist like Hippocrates Patients, or Achilles horses in Homer, under naked nominations, without deserts and noble acts, which are the balsame of our memories, the Entelecchia and soul of our subsistences. To be namelesse in worthy deeds exceeds an infamous history. The Canaanitish woman lives more happily without a name, then Herodias with one. And who had not rather have been the good theef, then Pilate?
“What Song the Syrens sang, or what name Achilles assumed when he hid himself among women, though puzling Questions are not beyond all conjecture. What time the persons of these Ossuaries entred the famous Nations of the dead, and slept with Princes and Counsellours, might admit a wide resolution. But who were the proprietaries of these bones, or what bodies these ashes made up, were a question above Antiquarism. Not to be resolved by man, nor easily perhaps by spirits, except we consult the Provinciall Guardians, or tutellary Observators. Had they made as good provision for their names, as they have done for their Reliques, they had not so grosly erred in the art of perpetuation. But to subsist in bones, and be but Pyramidally extant, is a fallacy in duration. Vain ashes, which in the oblivion of names, persons, times, and sexes, have found unto themselves, a fruitlesse continuation, and only arise unto late posterity, as Emblemes of mortall vanities; Antidotes against pride, vain-glory, and madding vices. Pagan vain-glories which thought the world might last for ever, had encouragement for ambition, and finding no Atropos unto the immortality of their Names, were never dampt with the necessity of oblivion. Even old ambitions had the advantage of ours, in the attempts of their vain-glories, who acting early, and before the probable Meridian of time, have by this time found great accomplishment of their designes, whereby the ancient Heroes have already out-lasted their Monuments, and Mechanicall preservations. But in this latter Scene of time we cannot expect such Mummies unto our memories, when ambition may fear the Prophecy of Elias, and Charles the fifth can never hope to live within two Methusela’s of Hector.”
|The Discovery of France: A Historical Geography from the Revolution to the First World War||Graham Robb||★★★★★||2007||2013/10/24||Discovery of France charts the transition of the region covered by modern France into the unified cultural/political/geographic entity of today. This is incredibly interesting because from our perspective, we have forgotten (if we ever knew) what went into the process of taking the thousands of villages and regions differing in all sorts of ways, and crushing them into the relatively homogeneous high-tech culture of today - unifying languages, political systems, forms of transportation, religion, and so on. A theme throughout is Scott’s legibility (Seeing Like A State); Robb gives all sorts of examples demonstrating local knowledge, specialized information, and resistance to outsiders.
Often people dramatically underestimate this. It’s easy to assume that the vast nation-states like China or America just sort of came into existence naturally, but this overlooks the amount of effort Chinese/American governments/organizations have put into unification, in aspects ranging from stamping out as many languages and other cultures as possible to simplifying existing languages (particularly striking in China) to enforcing standardized units & measures (encouraging cash crops is a good way) to standardized national educational curriculum inculcating patriotism and common beliefs. You may not think that they are ‘unified’, but they are far more unified than they used to be - contrast the original 13 American colonies to how large America is now, or look at historical maps of Han China with the current boundaries, and think about all the cultural, linguistic, political, and economic differences that used to exist, and how many of, say, the languages are now extinct. (To say nothing of the peoples… Tibet and the American Indians come to mind as examples unique only for the documentation and notice taken of their particular instance.) The process of homogenization and simplification happens in many large countries, for easily-understood reasons such as the convenience of the state. Besides Robb & Scott, some views of this process can be found in Fukuyama’s The Origins of Political Order for China. (You could also get a bit of the American process out of Howard Zinn’s A People’s History of the United States by looking at various incidents in the right way, but that’s too polemical & focused on other topics for me to really recommend.)
This may sound like a very grand theme, but Robb is able to give so many fascinating examples that one forgets the underlying demonstration and just basks in the knowledge of how the past is a very foreign country. (As I mention in my review of The Dark Enlightenment, a sense of distance and alienation is one of the things I prize most in historical works - while there is continuity, continuity is easy to find and it is beyond easy to portray the past as proceeding Whiggishly and comprehensibly into the present, obscuring all the ways in which we are profoundly alien from the past.)
Where do I start… The extraordinary fact that until the 20th century, French was only a plurality language in France? The stiltwalking shepherds? The horrifying bits about drunken dying babies being carted to Paris by the ‘angel-makers’? The packs of smuggler dogs who smuggled goods in and out of France for their human masters? (Or the dog-powered factories?) The forgotten persecution of the cagot caste? The Parisian who sold maggots to fisherman, which he raised in his closet on a pile of cat & dog roadkill collected from the streets? The wars between rival villages? The commuting peasants who thought nothing of a 50 mile walk? The strange twists of fate that lead regions to specialize in particular wares? The villages of cretins or families who regard a cretinous child as a gift from god? The mapping of the hidden communication networks that spread rumor at the speed of a horse? The corvée system of road-building, so inefficient at points that transporting the materials to build 1 more meter of a road could destroy more than 1 meter of that same road? All of this and much more is to be found in Robb’s dizzying tour of France, past and present, a tour I found as entertaining as educational.
I made per-chapter excerpts of parts I liked:
|Stories of Your Life and Others||Ted Chiang||★★★★★||2010||2012/12/12||What’s there to say about Chiang that all the others don’t say? He is the closest thing to a modern Jorge Luis Borges in melding high concepts with literature to create something better than either; in some respects, I’d rank his best short stories as better than Gene Wolfe’s. His writing is deceptively excellent: I would call him a writer’s writer, because the flat evenness of his prose may strike a reader as boring unless they have tried to write as clearly themselves and failed abysmally, at which point they begin to appreciate Chiang’s infallible choice of words and lucid prose which sinks into the mind without friction.
Stories of Your Life and Others is much superior to his novella Life Cycle of Software Objects, and contains pretty much all of his greatest short stories which I have read, except for his excellent “Exhalation”. I read most of them online, so when I had the chance to read a hardcopy of the full collection, I seized it.
1. “The Tower of Babylon”; amusing, and in describing the lives of the people living on the tower, moving in some respects. The final ending feels like an appropriate conclusion. If one had to criticize it, it would be that the Tower itself is completely unrealistic even in the Biblical cosmology of the story: as I said, the best Chiang stories unite literature and good ideas. I would rank this #5 of the 8 stories.
2. “Division by Zero”; not terribly impressive - over-wrought, and I feel I have read this story before and better. #7.
3. “Understand”; a classic in the niche genre of superintelligence, and IMO better than Vinge’s “Bookworm, Run!” and at least as good as Flowers for Algernon. Chiang, like every other author, confronts the limits of his writing ability in trying to write convincingly of a superintelligence who is by definition vastly smarter than he is (the same challenge laid down by Campbell to Vinge: “you can’t write this story, and neither can anyone else”), and so the start of the story is much stronger than the later passages. But the whole is still memorable. #4.
4. “Story of Your Life”; I had actually read this one before, and dismissed it as sentimental tripe with some weak physics or linguistic layering that I didn’t really understand. Fortunately, just a few weeks ago I happened to read some material on the Lagrangian interpretations of physics and combined with knowing in advance the ending, I was able to appreciate the story much better this time. I would rank this #3 of the 8 stories. #3.
5. “The Evolution of Human Science”; short, dubious. Not Chiang’s best work, on either dimension. #8.
6. “Seventy-Two Letters”; simply fantastic. The setting is wonderful, the problem great, the ideas even better, and the solution & meaning better still. #2.
7. “Hell Is the Absence of God”; as an atheist who keeps coming back to the Book of Job, this story came as a gut punch. The writing is Chiang at his most Chiang-y, the world interesting and provocative, and the ending simply unspeakable. But don’t take my word for it, ‘decide for yourself’, as the fallen angels say. #1.
8. “Liking What You See: A Documentary”; interesting ideas, but something about the dialogues and characters seem off. It just jars me. #6.
|Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World||Liaquat Ahamed||★★★★★||2009||2012/09/16||I enjoyed this tremendously for revealing a new world to me where I thought I already knew the lay of the land. Throughout were revelations to me - just how ruinous WWI was, how reparations kept echoing and damaging Germany, how exactly the hyperinflation started (it was only partly the Versailles payments but more the social programs?), how America aggravated the issue (the Coolidge quote and the American tourists certainly never appeared in my history textbooks…), how late the stock bubble was and the details of the endless succession of crises that rocked Europe. It’s also interesting to understand why Keynes had such a grip on economics until recently: he predicted repeatedly what would happen, and it’s hard not to sympathize a great deal with him.
As far as criticism goes, I can agree with some of the other reviewers: Ahamed sometimes goes overboard with the narration, and skimps on the details one might want. He provides no convenient graphical network of how factors affect each other in a gold economy, so one is left constantly being surprised by connections, and the rare graph is not very helpful - for example, he provides a time graph of the big economies’ rises and falls in growths, and remarks that their recoveries in the Great Depression… and nowhere on the graph marks for each country the year in which they left gold! Well, that graph wasn’t very informative or helpful - Tufte would not be pleased.
Applying it to modern times is a little harder, although the ironies are many (particularly the Germans being hardasses on debt now, when they seemed to understand not all debts could be paid after WWI… -_-). One thing that struck me was how the nationalist demonstrations & protests in Germany reminded me of what I hear in China these days - which has a somewhat similar per capita GDP as those nations and is in a similar period of industrial growth, and indeed, is the young turk of Germany to the old tired island-nation England of Japan, with South Korea as a nervous smaller neighbor (France?). And China is quite aggressive lately. Before WWI, it was rightly pointed out that such a war between such networked nations as France/Germany/England would lead to ruin; and right now, one could point out a similar thing with China/SK/Japan/USA. But nevertheless, before WWI, they thought they could have a short victorious war against an encircling enemy; does China think it can have a short victorious war against their encircling enemy, the USA-coordinate nations? I don’t think it does, but I do think people underestimate the risk of war in East Asia. (Of course it could never happen; just like WWI could never happen.)
|The Notenki Memoirs: Studio Gainax & The Men Who Created Evangelion||Yasuhiro Takeda||★★★★★||2005||2009/01/01||For people interested in the history of the anime industry, Takeda fills in many gaps related to Gainax - it’s hard to think of any source which covers nearly so well DAICON III, DAICON IV, General Products, or throws in so many tidbits about surrounding people & Japanese SF fandom. It is an invaluable resource for any researcher, and I felt compelled to create an annotated e-book edition in order to elucidate various points and be able to link its claims with versions of stories by other people (for example, Okada’s extensive Animerica interview)
Those reading it solely for Evangelion material will probably be relatively disappointed: Takeda clearly finds NGE not very interesting, may have bad associations due to being targeted in the tax raids, and he was writing this in 2000 or so - too close to the events and still working at Gainax to really give a tell-all, and it’s not a terribly long or dense book in the first place. Nevertheless, NGE fans will still find many revelations here, like the origin of NGE production in the failure of the Aoki Uru film project (an origin simply not present in any Western sources before Notenki Memoirs was translated).
In general, Takeda is not interested in a ‘tell-all’; perhaps it’s due to fear, perhaps too many people involved are still alive and kicking, but he only covers the embarrassing things which are too well-known to omit, like the aforementioned tax raid or Okada’s ouster from Gainax.
I read it several times, and that was how I wound up transcribing my copy into a webpage which I could annotate with cross-references and interviews with other figures like Okada or Anno - I realized I could keep rereading it, or just do the job right the first time. It’s been a valuable resource for me ever since.
|The Remains of the Day||Kazuo Ishiguro||★★★★★||2005||2012/07/21||Of Ishiguro’s novels, this is the most elegant, most restrained, and most English. The prose is so smooth that like Gene Wolfe’s, it becomes invisible, and you pass through it to the slow silent sorrow of the protagonist. Ishiguro makes the tragedy clear enough, shows us the heart of the story, but without ever being gauche.
In July 2012, I re-read it and for good measure, I watched the movie too. (The movie, IMO, was pretty good with excellent casting, if unfortunately often blunter than the novel and the ending especially so.)
What struck me this time through was the ending of the novel: the butler has come to realize that his life has been suboptimal and less joyful than it could have been because he shunned Miss Kenton and denied his emotions out of a misguided sense of professionalism. But instead of the typical Hollywood ending where he woos Miss Kenton or quits his job etc, he realizes that it really is too late: his and Miss Kenton’s day is almost over, and the important thing to do is make the most of ‘the remains of the day’, which for him is returning to his butlering job but being less rigid and more human.
It is, in other words, a beautiful tale of not honoring sunk costs or pursuing lost opportunities.
|The Book of Lord Shang. a Classic of the Chinese School of Law.||Shang Yang||★★★★★||2011||2008/01/01||The Book of Lord Shang was very hard for me to read: there is something sublime about it, in the old sense of “terrifying” - the policies and reasoning laid out are a systematic crushing of anything that might oppose the State and its goals. It feels inhuman, mechanical, and all the more so when you know that these sort of policies were how the Qin crushed all their opposition - including those states espousing the other Hundred Schools of Thought like Mohism & Confucianism - and that the 20th century affords further examples of how these policies proved themselves in practice (unlike the former Schools).
It’s no wonder that there are so many negative reviews on the other copies here at Goodreads: you might as well ask your normal liberal Western to drink rat poison as read The Book of Lord Shang & try to fairly evaluate it. Even if they’ve read their share of Chinese classics & philosophy, they wouldn’t want to understand it, just like modern readers don’t want to understand the Unabomber’s philosophy.
(The version I read was an ebook version of Duyvlord.)
|The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution||Francis Fukuyama||★★★★★||2011||2012/01/01||It is, overall, an excellent book and one of the better ones on grand history I’ve read†… but Fukuyama does not have a very transparent prose style, and makes no concessions to those who don’t have a good grasp on global history and especially those who don’t know their Chinese history well (eg. if you can’t put the Qing, Han, Qin, and Shang dynasty in order, you aren’t going to enjoy at all the large amounts of material he rightfully devotes to Chinese politics). And it’s seriously big, no kidding. This is no fluffy Guns, Germs, and Steel walk through the park!
† for example, I found some sections very useful for structuring my thinking on the evolution of ethics and regard for ancestors.
|The Histories||Herodotus||★★★★★||2003||Decided to finally read Herodotus after I read Gene Wolfe’s historical fantasy novel Solder of Arete which draws heavily on him, and then when I had to track down a quote on LessWrong.com to the exact Herodotus passage. Overall, far more interesting than I had expected. Surprisingly funny or interesting anecdotes. There is a superfusion of gods and oracles, which was curious - the oracles truly were treacherous! The Persian kings come off as remarkably capricious and destructive, even the good ones. And Herodotus has a strange capacity to skeptically reason well & sensibly and then be completely superstitious in the next passage. Having read about these ancient events many times, I found half the value was just seeing a thorough account from a single Greek’s perspective.|
|The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined||Steven Pinker||★★★★★||2011||This was really really good, as in, maybe the best book I’ve read that year. Time and again, I was shocked to find subjects treated of keen interest to me, or which read like Pinker had taken some of my essays but done them way better (on terrorism, on the expanding circle, etc.); even so, I was surprised to learn new things (resource problems don’t correlate well with violence?).
I initially thought I might excerpt some parts of it for an essay or article, but as the quotes kept piling up, I realized that it was hopeless. Reading reviews or discussions of it is not enough; Pinker just covers too much and rebuts too many possible criticisms. It’s very long, as a result, but absorbing.
|The Thousand Autumns of Jacob de Zoet||David Mitchell||★★★★★||2010||Finally got around to reading it. It was surprisingly unliterary and unpostmodern for Mitchell, but in exchange, he nailed the historical details and gave us an adventure which subverted many of the usual tropes - the raid on the nunnery was just a trap, the hero doesn’t get the girl, his chief heroism was standing there to be shot at, and the man who takes down the big baddie is someone we thought to be entirely in the baddie’s pocket. The supernatural aspects are implied to be genuine, but it’s never resolved, which I am grateful for. It would ruin the feel.|
|The Collapse of Complex Societies||Joseph A. Tainter||★★★★★||1990||Very good: much better than Jared Diamond’s Collapse, and much more convincing than Spengler or Toynbee.
It was also deeply disturbing - the Ik amazed me in chapter 1, and the statistics in chapter 4 were extremely dismal and tie in far too well to Cowen’s The Great Stagnation and Murray’s Human Accomplishment. There are a great many datapoints suggesting that diminishing marginal returns to modern tech/science began sometime in the late 1800s/early 1900s…
|Star Maker||Olaf Stapledon||★★★★★||1999||Star Maker is one of the very few SF books that I’d place up there with Blindsight and a few others in depicting truly alien aliens; and he doesn’t do it once but repeatedly throughout the book. It’s really impressive how Stapledon just casually scatters around handfuls of jewels that lesser authors might belabor singly throughout an entire book.|
|Nothing to Envy: Ordinary Lives in North Korea||Barbara Demick||★★★★★||2009||Highly recommended. Probably the second best book I’ve read about North Korea, after B.R. Myer’s The Cleanest Race: How North Koreans See Themselves and Why It Matters.|
|Schismatrix Plus||Bruce Sterling||★★★★★||1996||2010/11/13||Quite remarkable. One of the best solar system colonization universes with a baroque and cyberpunk-inflected computer/biology split.|
|Legend of the Golden Witch (Umineko no Naku Koro ni #1)||07th Expansion||★★★★★||2007||2013/07/01||For my full review, see http://www.gwern.net/Book%20reviews#umineko-no-naku-koro-ni|
|The Sign of the Seahorse||Graeme Base||★★★★★||1998||1999/01/01|
|Banquet of the Golden Witch (Umineko no Naku Koro ni #3)||07th Expansion||★★★★★||2008||2013/08/01|
|100 Suns||Michael Light||★★★★★||2003|
|The Collected Songs Of Cold Mountain||Han-shan||★★★★★||1983|
|Raptor Red||Robert T. Bakker||★★★★★||1996|
|The Jewish War||Josephus||★★★★★||1981|
|Cicero’s Treatise on the Nature of the Gods||Charles Duke Yonge||★★★★★||2010|
|Codex Seraphinianus||Luigi Serafini||★★★★★||1981|
|The Best of Little Nemo in Slumberland||Richard Marschall||★★★★★||1997|
|Code: Version 2.0||Lawrence Lessig||★★★★★||2006|
|The Complete Winnie the Pooh||A.A. Milne||★★★★★||1992|
|Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 6, Military Technology: Missiles and Sieges||Joseph Needham||★★★★★||1995|
|The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade||Alfred W. McCoy||★★★★★||2003|
|A Presocratics Reader||Richard D. McKirahan||★★★★★||1996|
|Unforgotten Dreams: Poems by the Zen Monk Shotetsu||Steven D. Carter||★★★★★||1996|
|The Secret History of Star Wars||Michael Kaminski||★★★★★||2008|
|The Golden Age (Golden Age #1)||John C. Wright||★★★★★||2003|
|The Napoleon of Notting Hill||G.K. Chesterton||★★★★★||2008|
|The Dhammapada||Gautama Buddha||★★★★★||1995|
|Labyrinths: Selected Stories and Other Writings||Jorge Luis Borges||★★★★★||1997|
|The Protracted Game: A Wei-Ch’i Interpretation of Maoist Revolutionary Strategy||Scott Boorman||★★★★★||1971|
|The Westing Game||Ellen Raskin||★★★★★||2004|
|Strega Nona||Tomie dePaola||★★★★★||1975|
|The Velveteen Rabbit||Margery Williams||★★★★★||1990|
|Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (Charlie Bucket, #1)||Roald Dahl||★★★★★||2005|
|The Very Hungry Caterpillar||Eric Carle||★★★★★||1992|
|The Tale of Peter Rabbit||Beatrix Potter||★★★★★||2002|
|The Book of Imaginary Beings||Jorge Luis Borges||★★★★★||2006|
|Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead||Tom Stoppard||★★★★★||1994|
|Zen Flesh, Zen Bones||Paul Reps||★★★★★||1971|
|The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering||Frederick P. Brooks Jr.||★★★★★||1995|
|From the Mixed-Up Files of Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler||E.L. Konigsburg||★★★★★||2003|
|The Snarkout Boys and the Avocado of Death||Daniel Pinkwater||★★★★★||1983|
|Compact Oxford English Dictionary (Third Edition Revised)||Oxford University Press||★★★★★||2008|
|The Complete Calvin and Hobbes||Bill Watterson||★★★★★||2005|
|Ring (Xeelee Sequence, #4)||Stephen Baxter||★★★★★||2001|
|Principles of Forecasting: A Handbook for Researchers and Practitioners||Jon Scott Armstrong||★★★★★||2002|
|Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained (Signet Classics)||John Milton||★★★★★||1968|
|The Poetic Edda||Anonymous||★★★★★||1986|
|The Ring of the Nibelung||Richard Wagner||★★★★★||1977||2006/01/01|
|Travelers of a Hundred Ages: The Japanese as Revealed Through 1,000 Years of Diaries||Donald Keene||★★★★★||1999|
|Hiroshige: One Hundred Famous Views of Edo||Henry D. Smith II||★★★★★||2004|
|Ficciones||Jorge Luis Borges||★★★★★||1994|
|Spent: Sex, Evolution, and Consumer Behavior||Geoffrey Miller||★★★★★||2009|
|Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed||James C. Scott||★★★★★||1998|
|Is There Anything Good about Men?: How Cultures Flourish by Exploiting Men||Roy F. Baumeister||★★★★★||2010|
|Treasure Island||Robert Louis Stevenson||★★★★★||2001|
|Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (Extraordinary Voyages, #6)||Jules Verne||★★★★★||2002|
|Wizard’s First Rule (Sword of Truth, #1)||Terry Goodkind||★★★★★||2003|
|What Is Life? with Mind and Matter and Autobiographical Sketches||Erwin Schrödinger||★★★★★||1992|
|Invisible Cities||Italo Calvino||★★★★★||1974|
|Mark Lombardi: Global Networks||Mark Lombardi||★★★★★||2003|
|Willpower: Rediscovering the Greatest Human Strength||Roy F. Baumeister||★★★★★||2011|
|The Rediscovery of Man: The Complete Short Science Fiction of Cordwainer Smith||Cordwainer Smith||★★★★★||1993|
|Gormenghast (Gormenghast, #2)||Mervyn Peake||★★★★★||1998|
|Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950||Charles Murray||★★★★★||2004|
|Beowulf: A New Verse Translation||Unknown||★★★★★||2001|
|Little, Big||John Crowley||★★★★★||2006|
|A Farewell to Alms: A Brief Economic History of the World||Gregory Clark||★★★★★||2007|
|The Confessions of Aleister Crowley: An Autohagiography||Aleister Crowley||★★★★★||1989|
|A Colder War||Charles Stross||★★★★★||2005|
|Against the Day||Thomas Pynchon||★★★★★||2006|
|Gravity’s Rainbow||Thomas Pynchon||★★★★★||2006|
|James and the Giant Peach||Roald Dahl||★★★★★||2002|
|Creative Destruction: How Globalization Is Changing the World’s Cultures||Tyler Cowen||★★★★★||2004|
|The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind||Julian Jaynes||★★★★★||2000|
|Rationality and the Reflective Mind||Keith E. Stanovich||★★★★★||2010|
|The Transparent Society: Will Technology Force Us to Choose Between Privacy and Freedom?||David Brin||★★★★★||1999|
|The Consolation of Philosophy||Boethius||★★★★★||2000|
|City of Golden Shadow (Otherland, #1)||Tad Williams||★★★★★||1998|
|The Stars My Destination||Alfred Bester||★★★★★||1996|
|A Canticle for Leibowitz (St. Leibowitz, #1)||Walter M. Miller Jr.||★★★★★||2006|
|The Gunslinger (The Dark Tower, #1)||Stephen King||★★★★★||2003|
|Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art||Scott McCloud||★★★★★||1994|
|Hell is the Absence of God||Ted Chiang||★★★★★||2002|
|Strategy||B.H. Liddell Hart||★★★★★||1991|
|The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire||Edward N. Luttwak||★★★★★||2009|
|Clock Of The Long Now: Time And Responsibility: The Ideas Behind The World’s Slowest Computer||Stewart Brand||★★★★★||2000|
|Alice in Wonderland (Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland #1)||Lewis Carroll||★★★★★||2004|
|Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland #2)||Lewis Carroll||★★★★★||1993|
|Snow Crash||Neal Stephenson||★★★★★||2000|
|Heart of Darkness||Joseph Conrad||★★★★★||2003|
|Dreamtigers||Jorge Luis Borges||★★★★★||1985|
|Selected Non-Fictions||Jorge Luis Borges||★★★★★||2000|
|The Library of Babel||Jorge Luis Borges||★★★★★||2000|
|Collected Fictions||Jorge Luis Borges||★★★★★||1999|
|Dune Messiah (Dune Chronicles, #2)||Frank Herbert||★★★★★||1987|
|The Leopard||Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa||★★★★★||2007|
|The Fall of Hyperion (Hyperion Cantos, #2)||Dan Simmons||★★★★★||1995|
|Hyperion (Hyperion Cantos, #1)||Dan Simmons||★★★★★||1990|
|Ender’s Game (The Ender Quintet, #1)||Orson Scott Card||★★★★★||1994|
|Foucault’s Pendulum||Umberto Eco||★★★★★||2007|
|Expert Political Judgment: How Good Is It? How Can We Know?||Philip E. Tetlock||★★★★★||2006|
|The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (Chronicles of Narnia, #3)||C.S. Lewis||★★★★★||2006|
|The Cyberiad||Stanisław Lem||★★★★★||2002|
|The Martian Chronicles||Ray Bradbury||★★★★★||1984|
|Catch-22 (Catch-22, #1)||Joseph Heller||★★★★★||2004||2014/05/27|
|Dune (Dune Chronicles, #1)||Frank Herbert||★★★★★||2006|
|The Selfish Gene||Richard Dawkins||★★★★★||2006|
|Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time||Michael Shermer||★★★★★||2002|
|Good and Real: Demystifying Paradoxes from Physics to Ethics||Gary L. Drescher||★★★★★||2006|
|The Player of Games (Culture, #2)||Iain M. Banks||★★★★★||1997|
|A Fire Upon the Deep (Zones of Thought, #1)||Vernor Vinge||★★★★★||2010|
|The Devil Is Dead||R.A. Lafferty||★★★★★||1999|
|Dangerous Visions||Harlan Ellison||★★★★★||2002|
|Fourth Mansions||R.A. Lafferty||★★★★★||1969|
|Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions||Edwin A. Abbott||★★★★★||1992|
|Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland & Through the Looking-Glass||Lewis Carroll||★★★★★||2000|
|A Study in Emerald||Neil Gaiman||★★★★★||2007|
|The Absolute Sandman, Vol. 2||Neil Gaiman||★★★★★||2007|
|The Absolute Sandman, Vol. 1||Neil Gaiman||★★★★★||2006|
|The Sandman: The Dream Hunters (The Sandman, #11)||Neil Gaiman||★★★★★||2000|
|The Sandman, Vol. 1: Preludes and Nocturnes (The Sandman, #1)||Neil Gaiman||★★★★★||1998|
|Nightside the Long Sun||Gene Wolfe||★★★★★||1993|
|The Book of the New Sun||Gene Wolfe||★★★★★||1998|
|Latro in the Mist||Gene Wolfe||★★★★★||2003|
|Sword and Citadel (The Book of the New Sun, #3-4)||Gene Wolfe||★★★★★||1994|
|The Shadow of the Torturer (The Book of the New Sun #1)||Gene Wolfe||★★★★★||1984|
|Shadow & Claw (The Book of the New Sun #1-2)||Gene Wolfe||★★★★★||1994|
|Great Mambo Chicken And The Transhuman Condition: Science Slightly Over The Edge||Ed Regis||★★★★★||1991|
|Le Ton beau de Marot: In Praise of the Music of Language||Douglas R. Hofstadter||★★★★★||1998|
|Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid||Douglas R. Hofstadter||★★★★★||1999|
|True Names: and the Opening of the Cyberspace Frontier||Vernor Vinge||★★★★★||2001|
|Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs (MIT Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)||Harold Abelson||★★★★★||1996|
|The Cathedral & the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary||Eric S. Raymond||★★★★★||2001|
|In the Beginning…Was the Command Line||Neal Stephenson||★★★★★||1999|
|The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier||Bruce Sterling||★★★★★||1993|
|Permutation City||Greg Egan||★★★★★||1995|
|Kiln People||David Brin||★★★★★||2002|
|The Demolished Man||Alfred Bester||★★★★★||1999|
|Stand on Zanzibar||John Brunner||★★★★★||1999|
|A Deepness in the Sky (Zones of Thought, #2)||Vernor Vinge||★★★★★||2000|
|The Gap Into Ruin: This Day All Gods Die (Gap, #5)||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★★★||1996|
|Ender’s Game, Volume 1: Battle School (Ender’s Saga)||Christopher Yost||★★★★★||2009|
|The Fellowship of the Ring (The Lord of the Rings, #1)||J.R.R. Tolkien||★★★★★||2003|
|Past, Present, and Future of Statistical Science||Xihong Lin||★★★★||2014||2014/07/13||Past, Present, and Future of Statistical Science (ed. Lin et al 2014) is a large (52 chapters by ~50 contributors, 643 pages, 9.8M PDF) anthology of essays/articles/reviews/lists touching on all sorts of topics by many famous names (Efron, Rubin, Gelman, Wasserman, Tibshirani, Laird, Cook) - some of whom I know solely from methods bearing their names! The typesetting is tasteful & of high quality, with so many equations & graphs my PDF viewer visibly lags when scrolling. I read about it on Andrew Gelman’s blog & thought it would be interesting to read a broad survey of what’s going on in statistics.
The anthology ranges from bureaucracy to professional autobio to reviews of subfields to speculations & challenges about future developments to advice about publishing & research. (Probably it would have been better to turn this into 2 volumes: the readers interested in careers & advice have to the technical material, while readers interested in that may not survive the sections about COPSS & autobios.) Since statisticians get involved with any topic they please, the subject areas range from deer in Canada - & trying not to fall out of the helicopter - to traveling to the moon to breast cancer to polygraphs.
Given the heterogeneity, much of it was boring or over my head or both, but much was interesting & I learned about novel topics. In one chapter, a survey statistician reminiscences about how she stumbled into statistics accidentally & fighting sexism in her early career & another mentions that the methodological debates over the famous Kinsey studies of sexuality were her entree to biostatistics while a third was unfairly treated by a Coast Guard exam & learned statistics to prove the exam was bogus while yet a fourth picked math as his major because the signup line at the college was shorter & thereby wandered into the intersection of statistics & agriculture, & in another chapter, Arthur Dempster is still gamely defending the Dempster-Shafer paradigm of statistics after all these years, while in yet another chapter there is a discussion of issues in high-dimensional data I couldn’t understand etc.
The introductory bits about the history of COPSS were boring, self-indulgent, & devoid of explanations why the organization functioned or what good it did or why outsiders valued it & what really went on inside it.
The autobiography section features people who can remember all the way back to the 1920s or so, a time when statistics was very different than it is now. Reading them a few at a time (they’re generally easy reads), a number of interesting trends pop up. For example, people seem to get married extremely young, as grad students or undergrads, after short romances; it’s impossible to mistake the computing revolution: before the 1960s or so, computers & techniques requiring a great deal of computation never come up, but then they become increasingly common (sometimes with shocking details: one person mentions that to test a cool new idea, using a simulation method, ate their department’s entire computer budget for that month) & transformed approaches starting in the ‘80s, & Bickel mentions in his essay his “pleased surprise that some of my asymptotic theory based ideas, in particular, one-step estimates, really worked” when implemented on modern computers; a subtrend here is also that Bayesian methods seem to explode overnight then too & even frequentists begin borrowing Bayesian techniques & logic when useful (thankfully, Tukey’s quip that “The collective noun for a group of statisticians is a quarrel” may no longer be true); WWII appears as a clear break-line in the earliest autobios, & to judge by the autobios (a selected sample to be sure!) academia used to be far less competitive & one could (in the great post-WWII expansion) almost fall into a tenured position. Some bios are humorous, like Olkin’s :
…Wald had a classic European lecture style. He started at the upper left corner of the blackboard and finished at the lower right. The lectures were smooth and the delivery was a uniform distribution.
Or the history related is surprising, for example, the revelation that the Chernoff bound was actually proven by Rubin (yes, he did that too) in Chernoff’s essay “A career in statistics”, where he mentions a tragicomic incident in rocketry where a clever method for course-correction turned out to be unnecessary.While Cook’s distance in looking for problems in linear models stems from one bizarre rat (“Reflections on a statistical career and their implications”):
…I redid his calculations, looked at residual plots and performed a few other checks that were standard for the time. This confirmed his results, leading to the possibilities that either there was something wrong with the experiment, which he denied, or his prior expectations were off. All in all, this was not a happy outcome for either of us.
And naturally, someone will choose to go meta & criticize the implicit goal of the autobios & explicit goal of the career advice section - as one would hope of statisticians, he recognizes the epistemological peril of a series of highly-selected freeform anecdotes; Terry Speed in “Never ask for or give advice, make mistakes, accept mediocrity, enthuse”:
What’s wrong with advice? For a start, people giving advice lie. That they do so with the best intentions doesn’t alter this fact. This point has been summarized nicely by Radhika Nagpal (2013). I say trust the people who tell you “I have no idea what I’d do in a comparable situation. Perhaps toss a coin.” Of course people don’t say that, they tell you what they’d like to do or wish they had done in some comparable situation. You can hope for better. What do statisticians do when we have to choose between treatments A and B, where there is genuine uncertainty within the expert community about the preferred treatment? Do we look for a statistician over 40 and ask them which treatment we should choose? We don’t, we recommend running a randomized experiment, ideally a double-blind one, and we hope to achieve a high adherence to the assigned treatment from our subjects. So, if you really don’t know what to do, forget advice, just toss a coin, and do exactly what it tells you. But you are an experiment with n = 1, you protest. Precisely. What do you prefer with n = 1: an observational study or a randomized trial? (It’s a pity the experiment can’t be singly, much less doubly blinded.) You may wonder whether a randomized trial is justified in your circumstances. That’s a very important point. Is it true that there is genuine uncertainty within the expert community (i.e., you) about the preferred course of action? If not, then choosing at random between your two options is not only unethical, it’s stupid.
Not all life incidents are amusing. In Gray’s “Promoting equity”, in between fighting the good fight, she proudly relates an incident I would be ashamed of, especially were I a statistician:
Early in my career I received a notice from Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA), the retirement plan used at most private and many public universities including American University, listing what I could expect in retirement benefits from my contribution and those of the university in the form of x dollars per $100,000 in my account at age 65. There were two columns, one headed “women” and a second, with amounts 15% higher, headed “men.” When I contacted the company to point out that Title VII prohibited discrimination in fringe benefits as well as in salary, I was informed that the figures represented discrimination on the basis of “longevity,” not on the basis of sex.
A statistician asking for guarantees! & why should voluntary lifestyle changes affect whether a predictable difference be compensated for? Pensions are job compensation, not a moral code handed down from on high, & if men do not live as long as women, ’equal’ pay is never equal & defrauds them. Or, would Gray be against maternal leave, seeing as pregnancy is a “voluntary lifestyle choice”? & consider the sophistry: “in large part” - so would she have supported a differential which corresponded to the residual? If their analysis had showed up that black men drink & smoke even more than white men, would Gray be pleased to see a ‘black penalty’ applied to their pension payments? When is equal not equal? As always, one merely needs to ask: “who, whom?”
The autobiographical essays are interesting, but somewhat dry. I was pleased to reach the meat of the anthology: the freeform technical papers. Some of the chapters introduced me to ideas I had missed, such as the “bet on sparsity” argument (Cook, pg103), which reminds me of one folk argument for Occam’s razor: you should assume the world is relatively simple & predictable & take actions based on that belief, because if the world is that way, then your actions will attain their ends & that is good, while if the world is inherently complex/unpredictable, then your actions will have no net effect which is neither good nor bad, so the former scenario dominates the latter. I paid close attention to Tibshirani’s paper later in the volume, “In praise of sparsity and convexity”.
Similarly, Dunson’s “Nonparametric Bayes” introduced me to an area I had little inkling of prior. The biostatistics papers (eg Breslow’s “Lessons in biostatistics” or Flournoy’s “A vignette of discovery”) bring up interesting challenges & biases to keep in mind when evaluating the latest clinical research (a skill useful for anyone), & leave me heartened at the life-saving practical work that field is doing. Nan M. Laird’s “Meta-analyses: Heterogeneity can be a good thing” reminded me of the need, when doing my own meta-analyses, to not simply ignore high I2/heterogeneity but think hard about what moderators I should include to try to explain some of it. Others raised interesting questions I’ve wondered about myself, for example, Xiao-Li Meng in “A trio of inference problems” asks how big a biased sample of a population has to be before it’s of comparable quality to a random sample:
Over the century, statisticians, social scientists, and others have amply demonstrated theoretically and empirically that (say) a 5% probabilistic/random sample is better than any 5% non-random samples in many measurable ways, e.g., bias, MSE, confidence coverage, predictive power, etc. However, we have not studied questions such as “Is an 80% non-random sample ‘better’ than a 5% random sample in measurable terms? 90%? 95%? 99%?” This question was raised during a fascinating presentation by Dr. Jeremy Wu…The synthetic data created for LED used more than 20 data sources in the LEHD (Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics) system. These sources vary from survey data such as a monthly survey of 60,000 households, which represent only .05% of US households, to administrative records such as unemployment insurance wage records, which cover more than 90% of the US workforce, to census data such as the quarterly census of earnings and wages, which includes about 98% of US jobs (Wu, 2012 and personal communication from Wu). The administrative records such as those in LEHD are not collected for the purpose of statistical inference, but rather because of legal requirements, business practice, political considerations, etc. They tend to cover a large percentage of the population, and therefore they must contain useful information for inference.
which is what I’ve wondered while working on my census of biracial characters, since my sample is biased but capture-recapture analysis indicates I’ve compiled up to 1/3 of the population, so how much does that compensate, does it drive the error from biases down to the same size as the sampling error? Meng derives an inequality:
For example, even if ns = 100, we would need over 96% of the population if ρN = .5 [level of bias]. This reconfirms the power of probabilistic sampling and reminds us of the danger in blindly trusting that “Big Data” must give us better answers. On the other hand, if ρN = .1, then we will need only 50% of the population to beat a SRS [simple random sample] with ns = 100…the same ρN = .1 also implies that a 96% subpopulation will beat a SRS as large as ns = … 2400, which is no longer a practically irrelevant sample size.
Berger’s “Conditioning is the issue” is a bit lost on me but interesting is one passage’s discussion of turning notorious p-values into something more meaningful, error probabilities:
The practical import of switching to conditional frequentist testing (or the equivalent objective Bayesian testing) is startling. For instance, Sellke et al. (2001) uses a nonparametric setting to develop the following very general lower bound on α(s), for a given p-value…p = .05, which many erroneously think implies strong evidence against H0, actually corresponds to a conditional frequentist error probability at least as large as .289, which is a rather large error probability. If scientists understood that a p-value of .05 corresponded to that large a potential error probability in rejection, the scientific world would be a quite different place.TABLE 23.1
Other papers are a bit of a misfire: I hadn’t heard of “symbolic data” before Lynne Billard’s “The past’s future is now: What will the present’s future bring?”, & the paper still leaves me wondering what it really is.
Some I had already read - Gelman & Wasserman has already blogged about their entries.
And still others make one wonder; in Rubin’s interesting retrospective of his greatest-hits, “Converting rejections into positive stimuli”, he encourages the reader to not be discouraged by the journal submission process as it is so random & some of his best papers were rejected - which makes me wonder, ‘so why have this whole journal rigmarole if rejection means so little…? would you use a statistical test which exhibited such poor calibration & discrimination?’ & his remark that “if you are repeatedly told by some reviewers that everyone knows what you are saying, but without specific references, and other reviewers are saying what you are writing is completely wrong but without decent reasons, you are probably on to something” is true.
Overall, the anthology is interesting & worth reading (if not each and every paper).
|The Iron Dragon’s Daughter||Michael Swanwick||★★★★||2012||2014/06/02||I read it based on Anatoly Vorobey‘s review:
“This is fantasy for adults: complex flawed characters, a world rich in detail, multitude of characters who live and do things for their own sake rather than to advance a plot point or help the hero. Utter disregard for conventions and cliches of the genre. A hero who is an anti-Mary Sue. Endless inventiveness of the author. To my taste, this novel is what books like The Kingkiller Chronicles promise, but then utterly fail to deliver. But if you’re a fan of Rothfuss, try Swanwick anyway, and you might get a fuller and richer taste of what you like.”
I liked it a lot after I got through the initial section in the factory, which was over-the-top Dickensian enough to make me wonder if it was worthwhile. But it got better, and began unfurling into a mad Victorian/fantasy cross, heavy on the social oppression & economic exploitation, reminiscent of China Miéville’s bourgeois imperialist New Crobuzon. The plot breaks down into a few discrete chunks of the protagonist Jane’s life, which while highlighting the ruthless nature of life in a universe where the gods are real (the homecoming queen being sacrificed may be horrifying, but the consequences of not sacrificing are even more dire, as one memorable nihilist character makes clear; and our own society does not hesitate to sacrifice lives for its own ends, as with, say, coal-burning power plants) also highlight her cowardice and selfishness in betraying her friends instead of… what? We’re not too clear, as the world begins melting and things get weird in an Invisibles or Dick-style turn towards radical ontological uncertainty. (The dragon, incidentally, appears in far less of the novel than one would expect from the title.)
This may sound tedious, but Swanwick really does throw all sorts of fascinating little twists in along the way that keep one reading: malls where time literally stops so you can shop to your heart’s content; factories with ’time clocks’ that age one if one doesn’t clock out; live gargoyles, with all the food requirements flying stone entails; a man who shrinks in his wife’s regard for being a coward until he’s the size of a homunculus & is trapped in a jar begging for death; markets in entertaining slaves among the eloi upper-class elves; magical engineers who are castrated to ensure they do not damage the magics they work with; academics who assault the castles of the gods in the quest for knowledge, and get burned; universities with purges that are literally decimating… Still, it’s a happy ending, I think. Swanwick puts it amusingly in a page of explanations:
I gave her T as a reward for making it through to the end of the novel he’s the one worldly thing she wants - and, quite to my surprise, the Goddess threw in K as well. What happens next? Does Jane marry T and keep K as best friend? Does K steal T from her? Do they all fall into bed together? This one I really don’t know because the real reward I gave Jane for making it to the end of the book was freedom. I ran across Carol Emshwiller just after she finished writing Ledoyt and she said she was in mourning, that all these people she had lived with for years were suddenly gone and it felt as if they’d all died. “Doesn’t it feel that way to you, too, when you finish a novel?” she asked. I thought about it. “No,” I decided. “It feels like all these characters who have suffered under my persecuting hand have been set free. I imagine them running joyfully in all directions, as hard and fast as they can, so that I can never catch them and put them in another book again.”
Anyway, going over some of the parts of it which amused me while I was reading… You know your fantasy is grim and imaginative when astrology is due to educational corruption:
“Hello? I was sent here for remedial?” The pale man looked up. He nodded wanly. Unhastily, without emphasis, he picked up a book, opened it, paged forward a leaf, and then back one. “There are three stars in the heavens,” he said, “moving about Jupiter, erratic sidereal bodies which establish a lesser zodiacal process for that wanderer in its mighty twelve-year progression about the sun.”…“Excuse me,” she said hesitantly, “but what effect do these minor planets have on our behavior and fortunes? I mean, you know, astrological influence?” He looked at her. “None.”“None at all?” “No.” “But if the planets affect our fortunes—” She stumbled to a stop at the dispassionately scornful look on the pale man’s face, the slow way he shook his head. “Surely you’ll agree that the planets order and control our destinies?” “They do not.” “Not at all?” “No.” “Then what does? Control our destinies, I mean.” “The only external forces that have any influence on us are those we can see every day: the smile, the frown, the fist, the brick wall. What you call ‘destiny’ is merely a semantic fallacy, the attribution of purpose to blind causality. Insofar as any of us are compelled to resist the flow of random events, we are driven solely by internal drives and forces.” Jane seized on this last. “Then what you’re saying is that our fate lies within us, right?” He shook his head. “If so, it must be extremely small and impossibly distant. I would not suggest you put any reliance in such an insignificant entity.”’…She waited, but he did not elaborate. “In introductory astrology they told us that each person has a tutelary star and that each star has its own mineral, color, and musical tone, and a plant as well that is a specific for the disease that is caused by that star’s occultation.” “All untrue. The stars do not concern themselves in the least with us. Our total extinction would mean nothing to them.” “But why?” Jane cried. “If it’s not true, why would they teach it to us?”A dry fingertip tapped the page not impatiently but pedagogically. “All courses require textbooks, charts, and teaching aids. By the time the information codified as astrology was discredited and became obsolete, it had a constituency. Certain…personages benefit from the supply contracts.”
Nihilist the plot may seem to be, but it’s leavened with some sharp satire; for example, bureaucracy in the factory:
At last, late in the day, the inspector general arrived. A wave of dread preceded the elf-lord through the plant. Not a kobold or korrigan, not a spunky, pillywiggin, nor lowliest dunter but knew the inspector general was coming. The air shivered in anticipation of his arrival. A glimmering light went just before him, causing all heads to turn, all work to stop, the instant before he turned a corner or entered a shop. He appeared in the doorway. Tall and majestic he was in an Italian suit and tufted silk tie. He wore a white hard hat. His face was square-jawed and handsome in a more than human way, and his hair and teeth were perfect. Two high-ranking Tylwyth Teg accompanied him, clipboards in hand, and a vulture-headed cost analyst from Accounting trailed in his wake.
After Grunt had called attendance, he cleared his throat. “The Three B’s,” he said. “The Three B’s are your guide to scholastic excellence. The Three B’s are your gold key to the doorway of the future. Now—all together—what are they?” “Be-lieve,” the class mumbled. “Be-have. Be Silent.” “What was that last?” He cupped a hand to his ear. “Be Silent!” “I caaaaaan’t heeeeear you.” “BE SILENT!” “Good.”
It was only when she went to empty out her locker that Jane realized how overgrown it had become. Orchids and jungle vines filled most of the space within and a hummingbird fled into the corridor when she banged open the door.
It was a scorcher outside, but the mall was kept so cool that Jane was sorry she hadn’t brought a sweater. The place was jammed with fugitives from the heat. They were recreational rather than serious shoppers, most of them. Their hands were empty and their eyes were clear.
College roommate strife:
“The dissection manual?” Monkey asked airily. “I ate it.” “You what?” “I ate it. Why else would I want it? I was hungry and I ate it.” “But I need it for class.”“Then you shouldn’t have given it to me.” Monkey’s beady eyes glittered strangely, maliciously, in her round face. “Really, Jane, you can be so dim at times.” With a sudden standing backflip she disappeared through the doorway. Jane’s hands clenched. But really it was no more than she had learned to expect. Roommates were forever eating your books, having anxiety attacks, adopting rats and carnivorous slimes which they then expected you to feed, getting drunk and throwing up on your best dress, moving into the closet and refusing to come out for months on end, threatening suicide the night before Finals, leaving piles of rotting leaves in the middle of the floor, entertaining boyfriends in your bed because it was made and theirs not, evolving into large bloodsucking insects. Monkey was actually good of her kind. Well, she could always pick up a new manual.
Monkey snatched the pencil from her hand and snapped it in two. Jane closed her eyes and traced the sigil of Baphomet with her inner vision. When she was calm again, she slid open a drawer.“All right.” There was a pair of latex gloves within. “I wasn’t going to do this.” She pulled them on. “But you don’t exactly give me much choice, do you?” Credit where credit is due, Monkey didn’t back down. There was a touch of the trickster in her heritage, and the trickster gene was a dominant. She licked her lips nervously as Jane pretended to lift an invisible box from the drawer. “You don’t scare me.” “Good.” Jane swung a hinged lid back and reached within. “It works best if you don’t believe.” She removed an equally imaginary scalpel and held it up between thumb and forefinger, admiringly turning it one way and the other. “What are you going to do with that?” Jane smiled. “This!” She slammed her fist into Monkey’s stomach.
“I have been going over your laboratory reports, Miss Alderberry.” Dr. Nemesis put an arm through hers, and walked her toward the front. “They are, if I may confide in you, disappointing, most disappointing in a student of your potential.” “I’ve been having trouble with the sophic—”…“You must surely realize why I am concerned for you.” “Well…” Jane didn’t really, but that double glare bored into her, waiting for an intelligent response. “I’m here on a merit scholarship, so I suppose—” “No!” Dr. Nemesis stamped her foot impatiently. As if in response the elevator door slid open. She steered Jane outside. They were on an office level now. The walls were decorated with large unframed oils of umbrellas and sides of beef. The runners on the hall floors smelled new. “I am not talking about mere money, but about your very survival! This is a Teind year, surely you must know that.” Jane nodded, meaning no. “The department heads are even now assembling the list of those 10% of the students who are… expendable. Your name, Miss Alderberry, is going to be on that list unless you straighten up and fly right.” She glared at her: weakly, sternly.
The University library opened its doors at midnight and closed at dawn. The rationale given for such extraordinary hours was that they discouraged dilettantes and idlers from wasting the library’s facilities.
Even for the School of Grammarie, which was widely held to have pushed the concept of liberal arts to an extreme, Professor Tarapple was grotesque. A burnt and crisped cinder of a creature was he, blackened and small, his limbs charred sticks, his torso rendered, reduced, and carbonized. His mouth hung open and his step was slow and painful. He seemed a catalog of the infirmities of age. He felt for the microphone. His hand closed about it with a soft boom, then retreated. The charred sockets of his eyes rose toward the ceiling. Jane realized that he was blind….Professor Tarapple groped for a laser pointer, leaving sooty handprints on the lectern top. He directed the pointer toward the slide with motions as jerky and unconvincing as a rod puppet’s. The red dot of light jiggled off to the side of the screen. “This is—” The head wobbled. “This is—is Spiral Castle itself.” Nobody so much as breathed. “No one but I myself has ever delved so deep into the Goddess’s mysteries. The Ocean above which it is suspended is Time itself, and so far as could be determined with our limited instrumentation extends to infinity in all directions. Next slide.”…Jane was having a hard time following the lecture. The harsh white image of Spiral Castle was like a magnesium flare. It swelled and dwindled in her vision, as if softly breathing. Her eyes pulsed, aching when she tried to follow the logic of its involutions. She had to look away…“Toadswivers! Curly-mounted bobtail jades! Codheaded pigfuck bastards!” With a start, Jane came to herself. Throughout the auditorium, the audience members were rousing themselves. A Teggish professor directly before Jane’s seat straightened with a lurch and a snort. A gnome to her left passed a hand over his mushroom-spotted pate. Professor Tarapple had abandoned his lecture in a rage. He was berating his audience. “Only one being—one! me!—has ever delved so far into the Goddess’s secrets and returned to talk of them. By cannon-fire, holy water, and bells, listen to me! I risked more than life and sanity to bring you these photographs. I—I—I was once young and tall and handsome. I had friends who died in this expedition and will never be reborn. We were caught and punished and punished again. I alone escaped. Look at me! See the price that I paid! So many times I have tried to tell you! Why do you never listen?” He was weeping now. “Woe!” he cried. “Alas for those who seek after Truth, for such is the Goddess’s most hoarded treasure. Ah, she is cruel and unfathomable, and bitter, bitter is her vengeance.” The lights came gently up. The applause was thunderous.
One of the parts towards the end which particularly reminded me of The Invisibles:
“One time, passing through the Carolinas somewhere between 2:00 and 3:00 A.M., Jerry and I picked up a white Lotus with two blonds in it. We honked and waved. They gave us the finger and put the pedal to the metal. I did the same, of course, but even with dual carbs it was no contest. We had a muscle car but they had a sex machine. They made us eat their dust….Ten-fifteen miles down the road we saw the Lotus in a Roy Rogers lot. We pulled in for some take-out burgers. There they were. We struck up a conversation. When we left, Jerry-D went with the driver of the Lotus. Her friend went with me…Anyway, there I was, a blond in pink hot pants rubbing up against me. I had my foot to the floor, her tongue in my ear, and her hand down my pants. I pushed up her halter top and squeezed her breasts. The air shimmered with the immanence of revelation. Little Richard was singing ‘Tutti-Frutti’ on the radio and it somehow seemed significant that what I was hearing had been electromagnetically encoded, transmitted as modulated radiation, reconstructed by the radio as sound, and only reinterpreted as music somewhere within the dark reaches of my head. I felt then that the world was an illusion - and a rather shabby one at that, an image projected upon the thinnest of membranes, and that were I to push at it just right, I could step out of the world entirely. I unbuttoned her shorts. She wriggled a little to help. I slid my hand under her panties. I was thinking that everything was information when I found myself clutching an erect penis. I whipped my head around. The blond was grinning wildly into my face. My hand involuntarily tightened about her cock. Her hand tightened about mine. They might have been the same hand. We might have been one person twinned. The car was up to about 100 mph. I wasn’t even looking where we were going. I didn’t care.
And finally, the gargoyle passage. It’s too long to quote, but I’ve posted it at http://pastebin.com/raw.php?i=HDrLMfQj
|The Many Worlds of Hugh Everett III: Multiple Universes, Mutual Assured Destruction, and the Meltdown of a Nuclear Family||Peter Byrne||★★★★||2010||2014/11/08||(~140k words, 4h read) Before reading, my knowledge of Hugh Everett was limited to basically the following sketch: a young American male who post-WWII suggested taking the Schrodinger wave-equation literally, yielding the infamous Many-Worlds Interpretation, and attacked over it, left academia for Wall Street where he became rich with an optimization algorithm, and in his absence, MWI very gradually gained adherents until it is now a respectable point of view (albeit still counterintuitive), and died at some point; also, some rumor that his daughter shot herself at a casino after losing, in a literal quantum suicide. This turns out to be incorrect and very incomplete: it wasn’t Wall Street but the Pentagon, he died quite young, MWI wasn’t attacked so much as ignored after being sabotaged, his daughter did commit suicide but it was at home with sleeping pills & had nothing to do with quantum suicide, and he did much more than just MWI & one optimization algorithm.
Byrne starts in media res, with Everett rich and drunk and self-destructing, then jumps back to his parents to start his tale; whether because ‘past is prologue’ or because of the heritability of personality traits, we get a sense that pathology (substance abuse, emotional problems) ran in the family, and his father survived some scrapes with corruption to finish out a reasonably good life; Everett bade fair to do better as a prodigy, excelling university, and arriving at Princeton & IAS in its golden WWII moment - the war won, von Neumann still alive & at the height of its powers (inventing game theory, modern computers, and steering the Cold War), and academia rushing into its Faustian post-war bargain with the US government and embarking on decade of exponential bloating (which, unsustainable, halted in the ‘80s or so, and this cauldron of legions of mediocre researchers + government funds + publish-or-perish has contributed to the modern scientific context in which we are awash in bogus results and worthless papers). An exciting time, and a fertile environment. I was surprised to learn that Everett made contributions to game theory, which turns out to later be relevant to one of the main mysteries of MWI (where the subjective or Born probabilities come from), and only then turned to quantum mechanics.
Byrne also covers his future wife, Nancy. He tries to be sympathetic, but it’s hard to like or find her interesting at all; her views are shallow and deeply conformist, she comes off as lacking real insight into herself despite all the navel-gazing, lies to herself and others, and to be a lump of flesh going nowhere fast. He wants to paint her as neglected and damaged by her relationship with Everett, and to paint Everett as a loathsome lecher who won’t take no for an answer, but it doesn’t succeed. I was left with a major question: why would Everett ever want to date her, much less marry her? (Dating her is the real question here since it’s clear why he married her: because she got pregnant and refused to abort, and given the straitlaced Pentagon world, he was put between a rock and a hard place. Byrne quotes her as denying this tactic, but that’s obvious bullshit, especially given the era.)
After a jump forward to Everett’s optimization work, we go back to Princeton and the genesis of MWI: like Columbus and Einstein and some others before him, Everett asked a deceptively simple question - what if we just take it literally? As a nice Schrödinger quote points out, it’s odd to accept that the world or objects act like a wave-function up until they are observed and then they collapse into normality but to refuse to accept that ’inside’ the wave-function it will also all add up to normality:
“Nearly every result [a quantum theorist] pronounces is about the probability of this or that … happening - with usually a great many alternatives. The idea that they be not alternatives but all really happen simultaneously seems lunatic to him just impossible. He thinks that if the laws of nature took this form for, let me say, a quarter of an hour, we should find our surroundings rapidly turning into a quagmire, or sort of a featureless jelly or plasma, all contours becoming blurred, we ourselves probably becoming jelly fish. It is strange that he should believe this. For I understand he grants that unobserved nature does behave this way - namely according to the wave equation. The aforesaid alternatives come into play only when we make an observation - which need, of course, not be a scientific observation. Still it would seem that, according to the quantum theorist, nature is prevented from rapid jellification only by our perceiving or observing it. And I wonder that he is not afraid, when he puts a ten-pound note into his drawer in the evening, he might find it dissolved in the morning, because he has not kept watching it.”
Pursuing his idea, Everett wrote his thesis, and here we run into the major theme of Byrne’s book, one he establishes admirably well: with many quotes from letters and recordings and referee reports, we see Everett’s thesis adviser, Wheeler, turn from a courageous physicist, well-regarded for his daring speculations, into a biased coward who bullies Everett into sabotaging & watering down his thesis so as to not give offense to his mentor Niels Bohr.
I’m a little familiar with Bohr’s philosophy of science & quantum mechanics from a course I once took on the topic, and I found it entirely without merit (the most unimaginatively instrumentalist ‘shut up and calculate’ viewpoint was preferable to Bohr’s ‘complementarity’, because at least one was not left with the illusion of knowledge), so to find an excellent case made that it sabotaged the initial presentation of MWI and responsible for a multi-decade drought in one of the best available interpretations… does not leave me with a good impression of Bohr, Wheeler, the power thesis advisors wield, or academic physics in general.
Certainly it is understandable that Everett would leave academia and enter the military-industrial complex where his work was interesting, valuable, valued, and well-remunerated. Everett dived straight into the heart of US nuclear politics, the intersection of nuclear physics with military strategy and game theory and computing and operations research: what levels of bombs would be developed (the Super? and even more exotic weapons?), what military services would get what delivery systems, what would be the effects of nuclear war, what was the best way to run the Cold War? (In the ‘50s, none of this was set in stone yet.) It’s a fascinatingly complicated period, for an overview see:
Byrne unfortunately is too unsympathetic to cover the period fairly, taking the Dr. Strangelove route: everyone was insane and evil. This biases his coverage badly since he’s so opinionated; in discussing the Prisoner’s Dilemma, for example, he implies it shows the irrationality of rationality and hence the intellectual bankruptcy of game theory and all related exercises - but this is a confusion of what he would like to be true with what is actually true, because the Prisoner’s Dilemma shows up again and again in all sorts of guises in the real world, along with the tragedy of the commons, and you know what? People in real life often do defect unless additional mechanisms are in place (often being put in place as a reaction to all the defecting). One of his footnotes reveals this strikingly:
In other words, rationality is a (sometimes) quantifiable quality. Most human beings would agree that it is not a rational act to cross the street in front of a speeding bus, or to poison the water supply in search of short term profit, or to depend on fossil fuels, etc. But people in power who do obviously irrational things are often compelled to rationalize these actions by falling back on agendized utility values and probability statements. Of course, if you start with an irrational premise, e.g. “nuclear war is a rational option,” no amount of utilitarian quantification can, believably, turn it into its opposite. Context is everything.
This is a tissue of nonsense which exposes clearly that Byrne does not deal with the real world, but with a world of ideals in which there are never any hard choices or necessity to make cost-benefit tradeoffs and all that matters is what sounds good. Accordingly, he presents a one-sided picture; a discussion of the Bohm hearings omits any mention of why the US government might be so paranoid and worried about spies (the Venona decrypts come to mind, as do the many high-ranking Soviet spies such as Harry Dexter White) and might target people involved with the Manhattan Project in particular; similarly, he uncritically cites Sakharov claiming the US was responsible for the arms races (which seems like an odd reading of Stalin’s character and his fellow researchers, for that matter), and later overestimates of nuclear winter. This bias on the biographer’s part makes one wonder to what extent Everett’s results about fallout were accurate: it’s not like he would tell us if the report was found to be fallacious or since debunked. Still, while irritating and depriving the reader of some key context, the WSEG section seems comprehensive as far as it comes to Everett up until he left the Pentagon to start his own consulting business, and that’s what really matters.
The business section is similar, but much less political as they consulted on more civilian topics. What he did is hard to tell: we’re held back by Byrne targeting the general audience - I would have liked to know more about the statistical techniques involved, rather than vague descriptions like “QUICK randomly sampled the vast range of probable outcomes to select the most probable results”, which could mean a lot of things; I can sort of guess what his ’Bayesian machine’ was (sounds like a Kalman filter implemented with MCMC), but I’m completely baffled by the section about ‘“attribute value” programming’ or what sort of database it was. It also sounds like Everett began drinking himself to death at this point (but why? he doesn’t come off as so deeply depressed about MWI being ignored that he’d be suicidal in the midst of all his financial success; given Byrne’s predilection for psychologizing, it’s odd that he seems to let this central mystery pass without much more comment than some speculation that Everett was just hedonistic), and the kids enter their troubled teens (but one would never grow out of it). Somewhat surprisingly, he didn’t manage his finances very well, living extravagantly, making deeply questionable investments, and failing to diversify, all in contravention to established financial advice, flaws somewhat surprising in a statistically and economically inclined man. Eventually, he dies.
In the mean time, MWI was gradually being rediscovered and rehabilitated by the likes of Deutsch and novel approaches like a Bayesian justification of Born probabilities developed, leaving off at the present time in which MWI is a respectable position leading to interesting research and believed in by a good-sized minority of physicists; this is interesting, but already familiar to me. I will have to leave it to other readers to judge how good these parts of the book are.
Overall, indispensable to anyone interested in the man, and a good account of a productive yet wasted life.
|Excuse Me Sir, Would You Like to Buy a Kilo of Isopropyl Bromide?||Max G. Gergel||★★★★||1979||2014/11/02||(~95k words, <3h read) Insider memoir of a relatively American wheeler-dealer in the chemical industry finished March 1977, following him from high school dabbling in chemistry through to graduation & WWII university work to founding a small chemical synthesis company until he turned it over to a successor. Gossipy, detailed, a vivid look inside the industry. Long out of print, I read the online scan (2.3M).
Gergel seems to have an amazing memory for all the details of his short stature, secular Jewishness, school life, colorful incidents (such as maiming a friend with injudicious safety procedures applied to potassium), the girls he swooned over (usually blonde), and classwork; unfortunately, some of the gossip aside, his school years aren’t that interesting since I have no idea what any of the chemistry he was studying was (the politics of draft deferment, official corruption, and the mindless patriotism of the day, are a bit interesting but he mostly hints at them). Things pick up markedly by pg60 or so when Gergel begins doing syntheses for pay, eventually escalating to his own business - and here a modern reader will start blinking and wondering whether Gergel is deliberately trying to make a deeply compelling case for the necessity of government regulation, expanded budgets for the EPA & FDA & DoJ, the Precautionary Principle, and (much) higher Superfund taxes, and whether his life might not be a proof of quantum immortality and a defeat for the forces of natural selection, so reckless and poisonous and dangerous are his concoctions and business dealings. So many of his co-workers and acquaintances die young of exotic ailments that I am shocked to read in discussions of Excuse Me Sir, Would You Like to Buy a Kilo of Isopropyl Bromide? that not only is Gergel still alive as of 2012, but Derek Lowe says he’s even written a sequel memoir, The Ageless Gergel!
Derek Lowe reviews it thusly:
I came across the book in Duke’s chemistry library in 1984, a few years after its publication, and read it straight through with my hair gradually rising upwards. Book 2 is especially full of alarming chemical stories. I suspect that some of the anecdotes have been polished up a bit over the years, but as Samuel Johnson once said, a man is not under oath in such matters. But when Gergel says that he made methyl iodide in an un-air-conditioned building in the summertime in South Carolina, and describes in vivid detail the symptoms of being poisoned by it, I believe every word. He must have added a pound to his weight in sheer methyl groups. By modern standards, another shocking feature of the book is the treatment of chemical waste. Readers will not be surprised to learn that several former Columbia Organic sites feature prominently in the EPA’s Superfund cleanup list, but they certainly aren’t alone from that era.
Throughout Max Gergel’s long career he has been an unforgettable character for all who encountered him in the many roles he has played: student, bench chemist, instructor of aviation cadets, entrepreneur, supplier to the Manhattan Project, buyer and seller of obscure reagents to a global clientele, consultant to industry, travelling salesman peddling products ranging from exotic halocarbons to roach killer and toilet bowl cleaner, and evangelist persuading young people to pursue careers in chemistry. With family and friends (and no outside capital) he founded Columbia Organic Chemicals, a specialty chemical supplier specialising in halocarbons but, operating on a shoestring, willing to make almost anything a customer was ready to purchase (even Max drew the line, however, when the silver-tongued director of the Naval Research Laboratory tried to persuade him to make pentaborane). The narrative is as rambling and entertaining as one imagines sharing a couple (or a couple dozen) drinks with Max at an American Chemical Society meeting would have been. He jumps from family to friends to finances to business to professional colleagues to suppliers to customers to nuggets of wisdom for starting and building a business to eccentric characters he has met and worked with to his love life to the exotic and sometimes bone-chilling chemical syntheses he did in his company’s rough and ready facilities. Many of Columbia’s contracts involved production of moderate quantities (between a kilogram and several 55 gallon drums) of substances previously made only in test tube batches. This “medium scale chemistry”-situated between the laboratory bench and an industrial facility making tank car loads of the stuff-involves as much art (or, failing that, brute force and cunning) as it does science and engineering, and this leads to many of the adventures and misadventures chronicled here. For example, an exothermic reaction may be simple to manage when you’re making a few grams of something-the liberated heat is simply conducted to the walls to the test tube and dissipated: at worst you may only need to add the reagent slowly, stir well, and/or place the reaction vessel in a water bath. But when DuPont placed an order for allene in gallon quantities, this posed a problem… All of this was in the days before the EPA, OSHA, and the rest of the suffocating blanket of soft despotism descended upon entrepreneurial ventures in the United States that actually did things and made stuff. In the 1940s and ’50s, when Gergel was building his business in South Carolina, he was free to adopt the “whatever it takes” attitude which is the quintessential ingredient for success in start-ups and small business. The flexibility and ingenuity which allowed Gergel not only to compete with the titans of the chemical industry but become a valued supplier to them is precisely what is extinguished by intrusive regulation, which accounts for why sclerotic dinosaurs are so comfortable with it. On the other hand, Max’s experience with methyl iodide illustrates why some of these regulations were imposed.
I made some excerpts conveying some of the key points.
|Chronicle of a Death Foretold||Gabriel García Márquez||★★★★||2003||2014/08/26||A quasi-police description of the events leading up to, then long preceding, an honor-killing of one Santiago. The style strikes me as vastly simpler and less magically-realistic than The Autumn of the Patriarch, and much shorter. An inversion of detective mysteries: it is agreed by all who the proximate killer is, and the mystery centers on the how & whydunnit. (Borges would approve.)
As the witnesses and reports pile up, it seems to become clear that it’s all a farcical assemblage of bad luck, buck-passing, murderous traditional cultures of machismo, and accident, but doubt is cast from the beginning - the murder happened on a beautiful clear day, which in the village’s memory has become a dark rainy day; witnesses crowd around the magistrate eager to tell their involvement and exaggerate their part (“…the crowd that was pouring in to testify without having been summoned, everyone eager to show off his own important role in the drama…”); and the basis for the murder itself was likely a lie. This uncertainty renders the story sinister by the end - did the village conspire to kill Santiago? Did he anger everyone in a way we are not told of, because to provide a motive would confirm their guilt, and they collectively fail to help him, explaining the repeated slurs like ‘“He thought that his money made him untouchable,” he told me. Fausta Lopez, his wife, commented: “Just like all Turks.”’? (A nice example of cunctation: the mayor stop in to check on a dominos match so and is too late to take away the murder-weapons.) How much is Angela responsible for failing to respect the charade of virginity and deliberately sabotaging her marriage? (She is ultimately punished by the deliciously cruel method of returning 20 years of love-letters, unopened.) The assembled villagers in the square shout advice at the last second, but somehow, their exhortations serve only to confuse him and maneuver him towards his killers; the killers are made to remark their knives are rather clean given they’re killing someone. And so on.
The more we read, the less we feel we know and the more worried we become that we’re being fed a pack of distortions and warped memories in which the events were far more dramatic and complicated than they actually were. The magistrate warns us that “Give [someone] a prejudice and [they] will move the world”, and the narrator remarks of one post hoc explanation that “It seemed to be such an easy truth that the investigator wrote it down…”, and “fatality makes us invisible” - or is it plot necessity that makes the victim invisible? The villagers know their stories must terminate in the death of the victim, and in the stories they confabulate, he must be invisible to have performed the actions ascribed to him. (Umineko no Naku Koro ni’s vocabulary is useful here: outside the cat box, it is known that Santiago was killed by two knife-wielding twins at such a time and place; but everything else before that is part of the cat box and can be endlessly revised.) But each story, however plausible in the singular, has a hard time surviving conjunction with all the other tales being peddled (“he never thought it legitimate that life should make use of so many coincidences forbidden literature”). And their story can always be continued by imagining or forcing consequences:
For years we couldn’t talk about anything else. Our daily conduct, dominated then by so many linear habits, had suddenly begun to spin around a single common anxiety. The cocks of dawn would catch us trying to give order to the chain of many chance events that had made absurdity possible, and it was obvious that we weren’t doing it from an urge to clear up mysteries but because none of us could go on living without an exact knowledge of the place and the mission assigned to us by fate….Hortensia Baute, whose only participation was having seen two bloody knives that weren’t bloody yet, felt so affected by the hallucination that she fell into a penitential crisis, and one day, unable to stand it any longer, she ran out naked into the street. Flora Miguel, Santiago Nasar’s fiancee, ran away out of spite with a lieutenant of the border patrol, who prostituted her among the rubber workers on the Vichada. Aura Villeros, the midwife who had helped bring three generations into the world, suffered a spasm of the bladder when she heard the news and to the day of her death had to use a catheter in order to urinate. Don Rogelio de la Flor, Clotilde Armenta’s good husband, who was a marvel of vitality at the age of eighty-six, got up for the last time to see how they had hewn Santiago Nasar to bits against the locked door of his own house, and he didn’t survive the shock. Plácida Linero had locked that door at the last moment, but with the passage of time she freed herself from blame. “I locked it because Divina Flor had sworn to me that she’d seen my son come in,” she told me, “and it wasn’t true.” On the other hand, she never forgave herself for having mixed up the magnificent augury of trees with the unlucky one of birds, and she succumbed to the pernicious habit of her time of chewing pepper cress seeds.
I am reminded of an old story:
One day, Korzybski was giving a lecture to a group of students, and he interrupted the lesson suddenly in order to retrieve a packet of biscuits, wrapped in white paper, from his briefcase. He muttered that he just had to eat something, and he asked the students on the seats in the front row, if they would also like a biscuit. A few students took a biscuit. “Nice biscuit, don’t you think,” said Korzybski, while he took a 2nd one. The students were chewing vigorously. Then he tore the white paper from the biscuits, in order to reveal the original packaging. On it was a big picture of a dog’s head and the words “Dog Cookies.” The students looked at the package, and were shocked. Two of them wanted to vomit, put their hands in front of their mouths, and ran out of the lecture hall to the toilet. “You see,” Korzybski remarked, “I have just demonstrated that people don’t just eat food, but also words, and that the taste of the former is often outdone by the taste of the latter.”
People do not live in facts, they live in stories; and as long as the story continues, they are satisfied.
Everything has been brought to light, it seems, but nothing has been enlightened. By the end, the death has been foretold but remains unknown.
|Existence||David Brin||★★★★||2012||2012/12/01||Existence is best-seen as a rewrite of Earth, and Earth was a sprawling futurological serious novel which was trying to both world-build by including countless perspectives and quotes and discussions and terms but also put them into context to build a overarching thesis. Similar to Tad William’s Otherland (the fantastic first book City of Golden Shadow, not the horrible sequels), Dos Passos’s USA, or particularly Brunner’s Stand On Zanzibar (to which Brin alludes, actually, in having a alien say “what an imagination I’ve got.”)
The overriding theme is, of course, the Great Silence. Brin’s solution, characteristically for a guy who wants to be the ultimate moderate and more moderate than thou, is to take up every solution: the Great Silence is due to more efficient physical transportation and memetic viruses and Berserkers and Lurkers and panspermia and ecological collapse and nuclear war and… This is a little impressive to behold, and overall, I did enjoy reading the book. Brin has had a few new ideas since Earth like the smart-mob.
But for the bad:
This jumping makes the book something like a huge primer on the Great Silence/Fermi’s Question, yes, but also for something of a mess of a book. The book is huge, but a good deal of the bulk is fat and self-indulgent:
1. the dolphin sub-plot is rehashed Uplift material, which only very charitably has any relevance to anything else in the book (I thought that we would at least see them towards the end on spaceships as a token nod toward justifying the time spent on them, but no!)
2. More germane subplots feel incomplete; the autistic kids, “cobblies” and the “Basque Chimera” form one such oddly underjustified subplot - is this a thing, now, lauding crippled autistic kids as secret savant heroes? I don’t know which narrative is more denigrating of the human suffering involved, the standard one or this one. (Autism spectrum may be useful in some areas, but only a little is necessary and even the high-functioning often fail: I read in the New York Times the other day that that famous tech firm which uses autistic workers has a 5/6 rejection rate of applicants just from the start. One must sift a lot of sand.)
3. much material is borrowed from his previous nonfiction or fiction; allusions to The Postman are well and good, but when I could predict the resolution of the Senator Strong mystery from the instant we were told it was an addiction… This also means that I can track how many authorial mouthpieces there are in the novel, and it’s pretty much all of them. Even people you think are wrong like Hamish are just acting as conduits for Brin’s own beliefs. This leads to the severe problem, in a repeated first contact novel, that none of the aliens were remotely alien, and the humans all seemed pretty similar to each other too. It made me wish for Stanislaw Lem, or at least Watts’s Blindsight.
Brin also has a very weird attitude towards what he calls extropianism but most people these days just call transhumanism. For example, the bogus anti-caloric restriction argument Hamish gives; it is bogus because (a) none of those monks or monasteries are following nutritionally balanced diets, indeed, usually for religious reasons they’re following highly unbalanced diets if they’re not like the Taoists possibly actively poisoning themselves with mercury, and (b) the records do claim countless instances of extreme longevity, which of course we don’t believe because record-keeping was terrible - which means the evidence is so worthless and biased and corrupt that we can’t use it to claim the opposite either! I’ve told Brin this like twice before, not that he cared. But by the time the story is set, the caloric restriction question will be settled: the primate studies will be finished, the human CRers will be dead, and the underlying biochemistry (or lack thereof) will have been elucidated. Suppose he’s wrong? He probably doesn’t care, he’s dead-set against it anyway! I was a little awe-struck when he has his mouthpiece badmouth cryonics, after saying it worked and there had been revivals? WTF?
WTF indeed. This attitude could be called schizophrenic. Throughout the novel, Brin seems to struggle with the fundamental problem posed by Vinge: how does he keep the story human given his belief in progress and his basic acceptance of the Strong AI thesis? He never comes up with a good answers, but blatantly hand-waves them away: an emulated rat brain goes critical and escapes into the Internet? Well, uh - nothing happens because I say so (wow, ain’t it strange)! There are even more AIs pervading the world, controlling countless key functions? Well, uh - nothing happens because I insinuate something about parents and children and them being grateful! (wow, ain’t it strange - ever see a grateful river, spider, tow-truck, computer…? Humans can barely be grateful, ever.) Humanity is a few decades away from a general nanofactory assembler in his story and thousands of crystal probes come to visit? Well, uh - the crystal probes are completely inactive and don’t carry nanofactories or anything despite it being a mindbogglingly great & evolutionarily fit idea and perfectly doable for them, because I say so and it lets me write adventure arcs with primates fighting over & chucking around glowing rocks! (wow, ain’t it strange) He’ll mock the extropians in the first part for believing in cryonics or uploads or AIs even though their most-criticized belief, cryonics, has been vindicated 100% in his story even beyond their hopes, their expectations of uploads are equally justified by events towards the end - non-destructive uploading, even! We’d settle for destructive uploads at this point… and so on and so forth. Well, uh - they’re right but they’re wrong, don’t you see! (wow, ain’t it strange)
|Singularity Rising: Surviving and Thriving in a Smarter, Richer, and More Dangerous World||James D. Miller||★★★★||2012||2013/04/25||You could see Miller’s Singularity Rising as an attempt to swim against the book current of Ray Kurzweil and present some of the other visions of the Singularity: specifically, the Intelligence Explosion school as exemplified by Eliezer Yudkowsky and Robin Hanson. It then mixes in a bunch of material on intelligence & genetics, so we might identify an additional subschool: that of Steve Hsu on embryo selection for increasing human intelligence.
Miller succeeds in giving a wide overview of quite a few topics, from Hanson’s ‘crack of a future dawn’ em scenario to the Great Filter to comparative advantage & the advantages of trade as it applies (and doesn’t apply) to AIs to the intelligence orthogonality thesis (that intelligence does not imply benevolence) to the logic of arms race and its particularly unpleasant applicability to AI development. And then he tosses in the mentioned intelligence & genetics material, which I was a little surprised to learn from - I had read many of his citations (and actually host a few of the online copies of the papers on my personal site, gwern.net), but he still threw in some ones that were new to me.
On a purely factual basis, I have relatively little to fault Miller for. He makes a risible claim about 1700s French life expectancies not hitting the 50s (true only if you include infant mortality, otherwise hitting 50s was perfectly routine - even in the worst tabulations, generally if you made it to 20 on average you would reach the 50s; see 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) but he is far from the first to make that mistake; he brings up dual n-back more than once, but he avoids making too many or overreaching claims on behalf of dual n-back such as the increasingly questionable effect on intelligence (see my meta-analysis); he seems to criticize people for not taking seriously the method of castration for life extension but doesn’t mention the issues with the data and the likelihood that the method would not work post-puberty (ie. for everyone who is able to morally consent to such a procedure). Otherwise…
Otherwise Miller’s sins are simply that the writing is merely OK and while he does a reasonable job of, as Hanson puts it in his own review of Singularity Rising, “explaining common positions and intuitions behind common arguments”, he barely defends them or clearly justifies them. While I and many others involved in the area dislike Ray Kurzweil’s theories and arguments and books as being superficial, right for the wrong reason, overly optimistic etc, they do at least do their job of convincing people (and then hopefully they can adopt more nuanced or different views); but though I agree with a large fraction of it, it’s hard to believe that anyone could read Miller’s book and come out genuinely convinced of pretty much anything in it (as opposed to reactions like “that’s interesting” or “maybe”). For example, he does a nice question-answer sequence against the kneejerk bad-philosophy reactions to cryonics, but one could easily bite all the bullets and simply question the incredibly sketchy case he makes (yes, it’s great that wood frogs do cryonics all the time, but we’re not frogs). He asks that anyone who signs up for cryonics email him about what convinced them - I immediately thought, “50% odds that no one has done so yet”. (After writing this review, I asked Miller about this and he said no one had yet.)
And aside from as comprehensive a layman discussion of the issues involved in AI economics and technological unemployment as I’ve ever seen, I can’t really name any original contribution this book makes.
I can’t say I’m really glad I read it, but then I can’t say I really regret reading it (I got a number of IQ-related citations, a discussion of neo-Luddism, and info on the more esoteric possibilities of embryo selection). This is because I already know almost everything in the book and have read many of the citations already, so I am not the target audience; it’s good if you want an overview of non-Kurzweilian Singularity ideas and you don’t want to read through scores of webpages and papers, and more or less unique in conveying them all in a compact single place - so in acknowledgment of this, I bump my rating up to 4 stars (though for me it was more like 3).
|Quantum Computing since Democritus||Scott Aaronson||★★★★||2013||2013/06/17||Aaronson’s book is based off his online lecture notes which I hadn’t read before though I’ve read his blog for years. I was really excited when the book was announced, since I hoped for expanded better version of his incredibly interesting paper/monograph “Why Philosophers Should Care About Computational Complexity” (abstract: “…In particular, I argue that computational complexity theory - the field that studies the resources (such as time, space, and randomness) needed to solve computational problems - leads to new perspectives on the nature of mathematical knowledge, the strong AI debate, computationalism, the problem of logical omniscience, Hume’s problem of induction, Goodman’s grue riddle, the foundations of quantum mechanics, economic rationality, closed timelike curves, and several other topics of philosophical interest. I end by discussing aspects of complexity theory itself that could benefit from philosophical analysis.”), and see also his more recent “The Ghost in the Quantum Turing Machine”.
The book turns out to be excellent, but not the 5-star universally-compelling, suitable for the layman & professional alike, complete coverage of all that is interesting about computational complexity and quantum I was hoping for. I’d say probably that one could get 80% of the value from reading “Why Philosophers Should Care About Computational Complexity”, and even more if one is not particularly interested in computational complexity or quantum computing for their own sakes.
- best book I’ve ever read on computational complexity
- repeatedly throws out fascinating observations
- learned a lot of new things even after years reading Aaronson’s blog - PAC learning, Blum’s speedup theorem, Tarski’s decision algorithm
- humor better than expected
- some key arguments are sketched out briefly or badly (eg. I don’t know how anyone would understand Aaronson’s version of Cantor’s diagonal proof, compared to longer better-illustrated versions like Hofstadter’s in Gödel, Escher, Bach)
- the complex-probability version of quantum mechanics didn’t seem much more transparent to me than other versions; maybe if I had a physics degree? (Not that I really understood the ‘Quantish’ universe in Drescher’s equally excellent book Good and Real, either.)
- overuse of complexity zoo abbreviations
- no discernible connection to Democritus or the Democritus quote
- some later chapters highly technical and specialized and uninteresting (eg. the size of quantum states), not always meaningfully connected
- Aaronson randomly inserts bizarre and sloppy anti-Bayesian digs - like at the end of his chapter on anthropics, he seems to think it refutes the ‘religion’ of Bayesianism. Dude, WTF? No one understands or agrees on anyone in anthropics, that’s the whole point of half the field, and you want to use anthropics as an argument against Bayesianism‽ You want to disprove the eminently successful and practical by the useless and bizarre? If ever there was a moment that the saying ‘one man’s modus tollens is another man’s modus ponens’ was appropriate…
I made excerpts of the book as I read it:
- chapters 1-3
|The Machiavellians, Defenders of Freedom||James Burnham||★★★★||1988||2012/10/05||The best part of the book for me was that section which is already available online, “Dante: Politics as Wish” - Burnham’s convincing examination of Dante’s little-known book on divine-right-monarchical politics as intellectually dishonest & servile justification of treason.
Less convincing is his idolization of Machiavelli† as a transparent writer who meant exactly what he said and had no ulterior motives or proximate politics underlurking his writings; this claim would come as quite a shock to any Straussians in the room, and also doesn’t explain why some of his advice to The Prince was terrible advice or why he didn’t ever try to spread it about (Dietz mentions these details as he makes the case in her 1986 paper “Trapping The Prince: Machiavelli and the Politics of Deception” that the Republican Machiavelli was dispensing deliberately bad and insane advice given the context) which rather makes one wonder what Burnham is going on about when he talks about Italy being told by Machiavelli to reunify to form a viable nation-state but refusing to.
† which actually surprised me: I had expected from the title that Burnham would go with some sort of Noble Lie theory in which Machiavellians ‘manufacture consent’ and defend republics or democracies from the illiberal masses
Similarly, his analyses of all politics or social movements as elite class warfare or expressions of the Iron Law of Oligarchy are interesting and I think to a large extent accepted these days (eg. the field of public choice), but his actual uses of the idea seem fairly inept. He is good enough to make a number of specific predictions… pretty much all of which are wrong.
For example, he predicts that post-WWII that the military would expand massively and form a real faction as opposed to a little ‘puddle’ (right) and that officers would enter the governing elites and change the composition of the ruling classes (wrong; Eisenhower was elected president, but there is no visible change in composition - few presidents or candidates have benefited from service, and contenders like Colin Powell or Wesley Clark have either not run or sunk like a stone. Congress remains a province of lawyers, and no one gets wealthy in the military until they take the revolving door), and further that his loosely defined Bonapartism is inevitable although I do not recognize Clinton, Bush, or Obama as being very Bonaparte-like figures.
On pg259-260, he presents a doozy of “scientific statements about social matters”:
…Thus we now may know, with considerably probability, that: if the state absorbs under centralized control all major social forces, then political liberty will disappear; if, after this war, Europe is again divided into a considerable number of independent sovereign states, then a new war will begin in Europe within a comparatively short time; if the present plan of military strategy (i.e., submarine attrition warfare, and “island-hopping”) continues unchanged in the East, then Japan will not be definitely crushed for many, many years, and perhaps never; if the present Administration plans to remain in office after 1944, then it will have to curtail political liberty further; and so on.
These statements were published in 1943, well after such events as the Battle of Midway (June 1942).
About the best I can say is that charitably, the counterfactual precondition for one may not have been true (if we assume ‘Administration’ refers to FDR, and not his Vice President, Truman, who succeeded FDR on his premature death and then was re-elected with no visible brownshirts stuffing pollboxes). The rest are simply embarrassing. The science of politics must indeed have been young… (Or perhaps there’s some other common thread to the political criticism that opens and closes the book. Always a problem with authors discussing deception.)
|The Black Company (The Chronicle of the Black Company, #1)||Glen Cook||★★★★||1992||2013/06/08||I read the trilogy in basically one sitting after reading the interesting opening to The Black Company on Tor.
I enjoyed the first book a great deal: it’s in a fairly stock medieval setting, but it handles the dark fantasy well and the plot quickly curdles into something more complex than expected as we gain entree via Croaker to the plotting of the Taken and the Lady, clever gambits & strategies, all ending in the resolution of all plots, defeat of the Dominator, and incidentally, the discrediting of the stock fantasy trope of a Joan-of-Arc-style messiah who will lead their forces to victory over the evil oppressor. It’s also interesting wondering what Croaker is concealing from us, what his sins are: he tells us, the readers of his Annals, that he has concealed a great deal and softened other parts.
The downsides are few since it’s a quick read: we see entirely too much of the Company’s wizards (how many times do we need to be told that Silent is silent? or that One-Eye has just one eye? or that Goblin gets the better of One-Eye?), and it doesn’t do a good job putting any real doubt into our minds about whether the Lady is the least of evils in the North, since she countenances quite a bit and the rebels’ sins seem like the usual sort of thing which happens in war and then the wild dogs are put down during peacetime.
Book 2, Shadows Linger, was in some respects even better than The Black Company. While almost all the Taken are gone and so the scope for plotting has diminished considerably, instead we get a cozy intense little drama set in Juniper, of plotting & murder & corruption with the black castle in the background rewarding & driving it all with its tempting silver as it works towards its own little doomsday (you might call it a collective action problem!). Shed’s plot thread is considerably more compelling than Croaker’s this time, as we watch him give in to weakness, folly, and bad luck time and again, each time helping the castle grow a little closer to completion and finally triggering an epic battle destroying the entire town and shattering the Black Company. (The focus on the locals also has the benefit of not over-exposing the Company wizards and letting us see them from an ‘outsider’ perspective to restore their sheen of interest.) While admittedly the black castle is more than a little contrived (the Dominator foresaw his defeat and this was the only countermeasure? the castle took 700 years to mature? he didn’t foresee the Juniper death cult before entrusting his last best hope of resurrection to it?), the plot overall still works well, and the creatures of the castle start to give an impression of why allying with the Lady might be a good idea.
Book 3, The White Rose, sees it all fall apart. We’re plopped on the Plain of Fear at the heart of the renewed rebellion, which is OK enough, and we start learning what happened with Bomanz to release the Lady & the Ten which is even better. But the rebellion is a tawdry little affair, and the plot unengaging. Raven’s foolishness is difficult to credit. The White Rose’s power is almost too powerful. Parts don’t seem to hang together (how do Tracker & Toadkiller Dog arrive with Raven’s letter if they are only released by his interference?). The final alliance is too easily accomplished. The new Taken are only names. The finale is a succession of deus ex machinas - Father Tree’s offspring on top of the silver spike on top of the true effect of naming (if all it takes to destroy someone’s powers is to name them, why did this never happen before, and why were we told that true names merely allowed penetrating a magician’s spells and defenses?) On top of that, the finale is almost anti-climactic: they dismantle the defenses and neutralize the Dominator using the Rose, and bury him more thoroughly. Oh. Well, OK… The book isn’t so much bad, as disappointing since it features none of the intricacy of the previous books, is almost oddly streamlined and ‘easy’, and takes some easy way outs. I had come to expect more from Cook.
|Tombstone: The Untold Story of Mao’s Great Famine||Yang Jisheng||★★★★||2012||2013/08/08||The statistics and anecdotes are fairly horrifying, and the sheer profusion drills in how widespread the famine was. But for me, the most fascinating part of Tombstone was how the vast Chinese government hierarchy rippled policies and misinformation up and down it - how the local cadres tried to bow to the demands they were hearing from higher up, how the higher ups took the falsified statistics and claims often at face value, and how the highest officials in Beijing seem almost childishly helpless as they stagger between skepticism of reports given them and unthinking acceptance of positive results. Mao particularly comes to mind in his constant swerving between “left deviationism” and “right deviationism” as he tries to get communal kitchens to work and takes at face value the harvest figures and “sputniks” (even as in other incidents, he scoffs at a local official, telling him flat out that such yields were simply impossible), as he is flattered by under-officials; despite his information problems, he astonishingly repeatedly engages in tactics of announcing liberal discussion and then brutally punishing anyone who was foolish enough to do aught but flatter Mao and his policies. Indeed, as Jisheng says, officials were placed into a situation of ‘slaves to those above, tyrants to those below’ (or however his phrase went).
With such perverse incentives, it’s no surprise that we run into such perfectly Hayekian examples as ‘deep plowing’ or ‘sputniks’ or ‘close planting’ or the failure of communes to realize any gains of scale (and did realize diseconomies, like the example of how communes needed lumber to fire their large ovens/stoves rather than the little bits of grass individual households could use).
What is surprising is how effective the Chinese government was in maintaining control despite these severe systemic problems. How could so many millions starve to death, and no province rise up in rebellion? How could the revolts be so small scale, when the abuses were so bad and the death tolls large fractions of entire local populations? How did emigration not overwhelm any checks set up? It’s easy to agree that Sen is basically right: Mao’s famine could not have happened in any country with remotely democratic institutions like India, because the pressure would simply have overwhelmed any coercion the feeble government could orchestrate. But there’s also a flip side here: Mao remarks with surprise ‘how good’ the Chinese people were, that he could summon millions and disperse them with a wave of his hand, and another high official says similarly that it is only the goodness of the people which prevented the Army from being called in. Jisheng is at pains to show that the Communist propaganda worked and the people were not uniformly cynical about the regime like the Russians at the end of the USSR were: many officials sacrificed their careers or lives for their people, high officials are routinely shocked when they return to their home villages, and throughout we see people who are in all seriousness convinced that all the faults stem from local or midlevel officials and if only they can get word to the Emperor in Beijing all will be made well. This naive faith, which initially strikes one as pathetic & moronic & lacking any critical thinking makes me wonder if it could also be related to how China seems to have vastly outperformed India in the past decades, since it switched to sane economic policies; if the Chinese people’s faith and hard work could lead to such utter disaster when applied to futile policies, does it yield equally unusual results when finally applied correctly?
|The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy||Adam Tooze||★★★★||2007||2014/05/07||A fascinating account of the economic transformation of Germany under the Nazis, the repression & distortion of the German economy, the strategic confusion & ignorance of their best options revealed by shifting armament priorities (such as the underemphasis on tanks & overemphasis on surface ships), the difficulties imposed by exchange rates, how often Germany teetered on the brink of disaster, and how Hitler’s constant focus on the danger of the American juggernaut guided his grand strategy; Nazi Germany’s militarization based on debt induced competing arms races / instability an the country quickly (and only temporarily) became the deadliest shark in the European waters, which had to desperately keep swimming forward & taking insane gambles if it was not to choke to death on its own accumulated wastes & bad decisions, in the hopes that it could eat all its enemies before they woke up & ate it, and while the shark got a reprieve in Austria and then the freak victory in France, it eventually hit a wall in Russia and died after thrashing around for a while.
Tooze’s account of WWII explains many otherwise baffling points for me, such as the focus on futuristic weapons or why Nazi Germany sought an alliance with Japan even at the cost of declaring war on the USA & striking FDR’s shackles, why it invaded the USSR with less than an ultimate effort, and the economic consequences of its conquests (predictable to anyone who’s read Tainter’s The Collapse of Complex Societies). Particularly surprising is Tooze’s description of how impoverished Germany was in comparison to rival countries (despite the gleaming technology and Blitzkrieg we associate with Nazi Germany, and the industrial conglomerates like IG Farben with Imperial Germany, most of Germany was still rural & unproductive, and the country abjectly dependent on imports to maintain its agriculture; Tooze includes a very telling anecdote: Ford Motors, when considering a plant in Germany, found that to give its blue-collar American workers their accustomed lifestyle would require expenses 4x that of normal blue-collar German workers; and horses will feature repeatedly throughout). Tooze also does a good job delineating how the Holocaust both exacerbated and helped with the severe labor & resource problems Nazi Germany began facing, and covers how it was a logical outcome of earlier policies: emigration failed because the German balance of payments did not allow for the Jews to leave with anything like their actual wealth, and unsurprisingly many Jews were not so fearful as to emigrate penniless, and starvation in camps was not far from the earlier Wehrmacht plan to make the conquest of the Ukraine pay by simply starving to death 30 million Slavs to free up food harvests. Indeed, given all the constraints and necessary imports in the 1930s and 1940s, one really has to wonder how contemporary Germany can be so wealthy and whether it really is due to labor reforms or thanks to the Euro…
One flaw is that Tooze freely goes from macro to micro, from the overall economy to very small subindustries or benchmarks, and it’s easy to get lost. And while the book covers the international finance in enough detail to understand it (and things like why Schacht was the ‘dark wizard of international finance’), I don’t think he does as good a job as Lords of Finance, which should probably be read before Wages of Destruction so one understands the international gold standard, and the French and British actions in the inter-war period.
|Packing for Mars: The Curious Science of Life in the Void||Mary Roach||★★★★||2010||2013/06/29||Hilarious, eye for details, incessant curiosity, good at tracking down bogus stories and rumors. Roach comes up with all the best quotes and stories, seems to have talked to everyone and done everything. And her running commentary is also hilarious - she’s almost as funny as she thinks she is. I laughed many times reading the book.
This is definitely more “mind candy” than educational as it jumps from food to sex to hygiene to acceleration issues to psychology without any overview or unifying ideas or concepts, although I did learn a fair bit anyway from the scattershot approach. (One chapter was a revelation for me in explaining why early science fiction often postulated space driving people insane). If there is any big picture to Packing for Mars, it’s that outer space is really hard for humans to survive in and everyone & everything has to be studied in microscopic detail for anyone to go there and come back alive. Reading all the checks and modifications and details, one is boggled that we made it to the Moon, much less we be musing a Mars mission.
(It makes for a pretty compelling argument that humans just don’t belong in space and that if we put half as much effort/time/money into automated exploration, we would know far more about the universe than we do - apparently, the ISS has cost us $150 billion‽ Roach is aware that this is the impression she gives in her conclusion where she criticizes ‘simulations’, but honestly, I didn’t find it a very compelling defense of the enormous difficulties & costs of shooting up some monkeys to walk around Mars compared to just sending probes.)
I compiled some excerpts from most of the chapters:
- chapters 1-2
|Turing’s Cathedral: The Origins of the Digital Universe||George B. Dyson||★★★★||2012||2012/09/06||Mixed feelings. On the one hand, Dyson digs up all sorts of quotable lines and anecdotes and biographical details, many genuinely new to me. I enjoyed those greatly. For these I give it 4 stars. On the other hand…
He is obsessed with Von Neumann’s IAS/MANIAC, to the detriment of the rest of the book. The pre-WWII history is OK but signally fails to explain things like the Hilbert program, Goedel or Turing’s actual halting theorem. Someone who read this expecting to understand ‘Turing’s cathedral’ would be vastly better served reading a book like Hofstadter’s Goedel, Escher, Bach (as old as it is). Instead, countless pages are taken up with detailed technical information that is simultaneously in depth and also poorly explained. I repeatedly got the feeling that Dyson is indulging in that common temptation, allocating material based on how much effort it took to find, not what would inform the reader - he went through a lot of work documenting MANIAC and the rest of us must enjoy (suffer) the fruits of it. I felt that if I didn’t already know a great deal of this material, I would be completely lost inside the book; I wonder how much other people could get out of it.
The repeated analogies to search engines and modern computing come off very poorly (search engines are analogue? Oookkaayyy….); much could have been said about how modern chip architectures and cloud computing designs are not very Von Neumannian now, so here again I wonder if it’s a forced attempt to show contemporary relevance or perhaps just influence from his Google visit.
Other parts make one question how much Dyson understands: he links Goedelian/Turing incompleteness to computer viruses and concludes with grand ’90s-esque visions (pace Kevin Kelly’s old Out of Control book) of viruses spreading out through the Internet and beating on the walls of clean computers - but viruses aren’t really a problem these days, nothing like they used to be, and the situation seems apt to only improve! Like spam, the solutions are not perfect and require a great deal of manpower & cleverness, but they are working and currently seem likely to steadily improve; this wouldn’t be a surprise to him if he had really appreciated that Goedelian/Turing-incompleteness implies that there are large decidable subsets of programs and we can build our systems out of those. (Every programmer who uses a language with a decent type system is doing something a naive understanding of incompleteness says is impossible: he’s executing nontrivial predicates over his program.)
For those reasons and others, this will never get 5 stars from me, and if there were a 3.5 stars, I’d go with that.
|The Ocean at the End of the Lane||Neil Gaiman||★★★★||2013||2014/06/28||A Gaiman novella of ~54236 words. It uses the device of a frame story around a flashback which is the meat of the novella. The frame story is a sad divorced English artist returning to where he grew up for a funeral, and recollecting the circumstances. This aspect is dry, mannered, and reminscent of Mitchell’s Black Swan Green or Kazuo Ishiguro. The flashback is vintage Gaiman, with a plot predictable by anyone’s who’s read his young adult works (particularly Coraline): an ordinary person meets uncanny folk, gets inadvertently involved in deep matters, goes through hell, defeats the enemy, and survives more mature for it. The narrator is wry, with many acute observations (indeed, why do so many people destroy pea by overcooking them when they’re tasty on their own?), and the antagonist is exceedingly cruel & clever in seducing & turning the protagonist’s family against him. It’s a quick read of perhaps 2 hours, and is not especially complex: the work is almost entirely set at the protagonist’s home or the Hempstock farm, and shows its origins as a short story.
What makes this more than Gaiman going back to the well of mythos he has drawn from so many times before (oh look, another triune of mysterious powerful women! oh look, the fairy tale motif of the one forbidden action & of course the character does it) is the frame story’s tone of sadness and loss and wasted opportunity which otherwise shows up rarely in Gaiman’s fiction - it’s comparable to the death of the Sandman. By the end, the protagonist is pitiable: it was his fault, time and again, and ultimately the sacrifice was for him, and what has he done with his life? Little enough. As the shadows warn him, “There can never be a time when you forget them, when you are not, in your heart, questing after something you cannot have, something you cannot even properly imagine, the lack of which will spoil your sleep and your day and your life, until you close your eyes for the final time, until your loved ones give you poison and sell you to anatomy, and even then you will die with a hole inside you, and you will wail and curse at a life ill-lived.” At the end, the best the trinity can say for him is that he’s growing a new heart. Not that he’ll remember even that faint progress report.
It’s an interesting combo, and helps excuse some of the lamer bits. (Talk of electrons is jarringly out of place in a Gaiman work, and some aspects are too explicit about fantasy elements better left for the reader to wonder about.)
|In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives||Steven Levy||★★★★||2011||2013/03/24||I learned a great deal from this book about Google, which put some of my own experiences with Google products in context. Levy has information, anecdotes, quotes, and interviews which no one else does, which, like the recent Steve Jobs biography, makes his book indispensable for anyone interested in the topic regardless of the book’s other merits.
To continue the Jobs analogy, I think Levy is more independent of his subject and more willing to criticize it and poke holes in their narratives - he covers the criticisms I expected, doesn’t drop any particularly glaring issues, and more than once undermines their narratives with contrasting quotes & observations. In particular, Page repeatedly comes off as a narcissistic paranoid asshole, possibly due to his father’s death, who cannot empathize with others or understand their points of views (a trait perhaps endemic of Googlers, to judge by the Buzz fiasco).
But to compensate for all the great info and explanations (more than once I thought to myself, ‘ah, so that is what happened!’), there are downsides to the book. The principle one being:
|Proving History: Bayes’s Theorem and the Quest for the Historical Jesus||Richard Carrier||★★★★||2012||2012/10/31||Overall, it’s an interesting book which I regard as basically correct and a fruitful approach for future research, and Richard Carrier is a good guy whose work should be supported.
On the other hand, so far it’s not quite as awesome as I was hoping it’d be when I was writing an essay on identifying the author of the Death Note movie script with Bayesian reasoning recently - I think Luke Muehlhauser was right in his LessWrong review that Carrier does his case a disservice by trying to expound Bayesian ideas in a New Testament context where, half the point of Bayesian ideas is to point out how useless the evidence is! That’s… not a good way to either demonstrate Bayes is good in history nor to convince people of his overarching claims like ‘all correct historical inference is Bayesian inference’.
The way to introduce a new paradigm is to start with its successes, where Bayesian methods led to a correct prediction or retrodiction of an issue where decisive evidence surfaced while before the issue was settled, conventional methods were confused, wrong, or underconfident; and then argue that its practical success combined with your philosophical arguments about Bayesian reasoning being the only correct reasoning is a convincing synthesis, maybe then work out verdicts/predictions/retrodictions on a non-controversial area so the experts can see how they like the conclusions, and only then extend it to highly controversial and difficult (scarce or low-quality evidence) material.
I understand how he would come to write it that way since that’s what he was paid to do and Biblical material has become his specialty but I can still regret that the outcome wasn’t as good as it could’ve been.
|Wired Love: A Romance of Dots and Dashes||Ella Cheever Thayer||★★★★||1879||2013/08/02||I read this on the strength of Clive Thompson’s review Wired Love: A tale of catfishing, OK Cupid, and sexting … from 1880; I downloaded & read the Google Books version.
Thompson summarizes it:
…Nattie is at work one day when a telegraph operator in another city, who calls himself “C”, begins chatting her up. They engage in a virtual courtship, things get funny and romantic, until suddenly things take a most puzzling and mysterious turn.
And also teens mooning over their cellphones!
“…and what with that and the telephone and that dreadful phonograph that bottles up all one says and disgorges at inconvenient times, we will soon be able to do everything by electricity; who knows but some genius will invent something for the especial use of lovers? something, for instance, to carry in their pockets, so when they are far away from each other, and pine for a sound of ‘that beloved voice’, they will have only to take up this electrical apparatus, and be happy. Ah! blissful lovers of the future!”
As promised, this was a very amusing Victorian novel, an easy read (perhaps a night’s worth), and the telegraphs were fascinatingly Internet-chat-like.
|The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field||Jacques Hadamard||★★★★||1954||2014/01/20||I took a gander at this for its possible relevance to an essay of mine on mathematical error - Hadamard’s book is one of the classics in the area of mathematical discovery, mentioned along with Poincaré’s lecture.
With due allowance for style and age, Hadamard ably describes and defends the basic model of ‘work, incubation, illumination, verification’, with reference to his own discoveries, his many famous acquaintances, Poincaré’s lecture, and a very interesting survey of mathematicians. In fact, it’s a little depressing that we don’t seem to have gone much beyond that in the half-century since this was published back in 1945 or so. While at least we no longer need his defense of the unconscious as a meaningful part of cognition, much of the rest is depressingly familiar - for example, his acute observations on mental imagery & people who solely think in words, and mention of Francis Galton’s survey (little-known outside of psychology), could be usefully read by many who commit the typical mind fallacy.
If Hadamard comes to no hard and fast conclusions, but merely raises many interesting points and criticizes a number of theories, we can hardly hold that against him, as we can do little better and so it becomes our failing, not his.
(I read the Internet Archive scan.)
|The Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair that Changed America||Erik Larson||★★★★||2003||2013/07/25||Two books in one: a relatively uninteresting psychopathic serial killer (I agree with Larson, anyone who’s read Cleckley will instantly see Holmes as a psychopath), and the other a very interesting portrait of a completely forgotten societal phenomenon - world fairs & expositions. They used to be so important, major matters of national prestige, key mechanisms in the spread of art (especially Japanese art, at the Paris one) and technology, and yet, they are completely forgotten; I hadn’t even heard of them until they came up in Men in Black because some leftover buildings got used in the movie. But as Larson tells the story, we learn that they were mega-events to which all celebrities attended, and a good fraction of the entire American population would attend; they were the originals of which Disney’s Epcot is the palest imitation, they were the reason we have the Eiffel Tower and the Ferris wheel and so many other things. This story is the fascinating story, and it’s almost a pity that Larson periodically interrupts the tale of the Chicago one to tell us more about Holmes, rather than giving us real photos and more stories from the fair (photos like those in Appelbaum’s The Chicago World’s Fair of 1893: A Photographic Record): after all we are told about the Court of Honor, it’s sad to be given only a tiny glimpse of it, and it’s really a pity we read only a few ‘con stories’, as it were, from the event itself. But so it goes.|
|The Mask of Sanity||Hervey M. Cleckley||★★★★||2003||2012/12/21||Cleckley scatters through this book constant fascinating anecdotes and remarks, some so outrageous or remarkable that one would assume he made them up if he were writing on some other topic.
Cleckley’s moralizing and occasional very old-fashioned comments are occasionally as interesting, and reading him in 2012, one feels very strongly just how distant (in a social mores sense) we are from him in the 1940s and earlier - when he writes of ‘miscegenation’ (I wonder how many teenagers now could tell you what ‘sexual miscegenation’ is), when he defends homosexuals as possibly not insane but sometimes even decent people, or when he speaks in horror of female psychopaths not guarding their virginity, or in a half-page fulminating against the hippies, or when he speculates that a healthy male adult might - after several years stranded on a desert island - enjoy masturbation (no, really?).
Sadly, Cleckley is not nearly as dated as one would hope after reading something like 200 pages detailing the endless wake of destruction, fraud, violence, deception, manipulation, and criminality: his basic conclusion that there are no effective treatments for psychopathy, and all previous attempts have been expensive failures, seems to remain true. Indeed, some attempts at treatment have backfired and resulted in even more crime being committed by subjects.
|The Signal and the Noise: Why So Many Predictions Fail - But Some Don’t||Nate Silver||★★★★||2012||2012/11/19||An excellent popular (easy to read) overview of a variety of statistical topics, with a good focus on not fooling yourself with overfitting. Some of the technical aspects are a little weak (the Hume discussion comes to mind), but what do you expect, Silver’s a busy guy.
|Hyperbole and a Half: Unfortunate Situations, Flawed Coping Mechanisms, Mayhem, and Other Things That Happened||Allie Brosh||★★★★||2013||2014/02/20||tl;dr: the webcomic is great, go read it.
I’ve been a devoted reader of Hyperbole and a Half for many years now, even through the long depression drought: Brosh is witty, ironic, self-aware, hilarious, and though her comics seem crudely drawn, they still perfectly convey the inner emotions of events, illustrate the prose, and (along with XKCD) give hope to us all that we may one day become world-class comic artists though we still draw like we’re in kindergarten.
Summary: I like her stuff. 5 stars.
I was curious how the book version would go, since I had already read all of the online ones (of course). I picked up the e-book, reader it in FBreader on my laptop, and… I’m not really impressed. These comic essays were written for scrolling web browsers, and it shows in the awkwardness of the pagination and book display form. I’m glad the book exists so she can make the money she deserves and for all the people who simply won’t read a web comic but will read a book, but at least for me, the original is best. (The extra content isn’t really enough to change my opinion.) Book: 4 stars.
|Declare||Tim Powers||★★★★||2002||2013/02/14||I enjoyed this greatly: Declare is a hybrid of a Le Carré espionage novel (The Spy Who Came In From The Cold in particular) and Eco’s Foucault’s Pendulum (in the meticulous pattern-seeking and warping of historical events and literature), with a bouncing action plot which appositely quotes from Fitzgerald-Khayyam, Spenser, Shakespeare and Swinburne especially to grant it greater depth than it might seem to merit. Even when you think it’s done on Mt Ararat (and Powers has in a final flourish explained Philby dying shortly before the Berlin Wall), the plot isn’t entirely over and there are multiple more deceptions and operations to go. And to top it all off, Powers takes an afterword to “show his work” and reveal how Cold War history was “freakier than fiction” (in TvTropes terms), but it’s hard to blame him for not being really pleased with some of the genuine incidents he works in. (The exploding car with Philby wearing a fox cape and escaping with a minor injury while everyone else died? Real. I was shocked.)|
|Chased by the Light: A 90-Day Journey-Revisited After the Storm||Jim Brandenburg||★★★★||2001||2007/01/01||I read this after reading Kevin Kelly’s review in Cool Tools, where he wrote
Take one, and only one, exposure per day. No second exposure, no second chance. A single arrow per day, and a bull’s eye each time. That’s zen. For amateurs and professionals alike this requires relying on the Force. Particularly since many of his subjects are wild birds and stealthy wolves. The ninety images stand strong, each on their own, but the complete symphony is one of the most impressive acts of mindfulness I’ve seen.
After finishing looking through it, I could not disagree too much. It is one of the best photo books I have seen. The subject matter is much less profound and terrifying than 100 Suns, but the general quality is higher. More than once I found myself wondering if Brandenburg was lying - these photos are too good and catch too many moments perfectly, surely he couldn’t’ve possibly really taken only 1 photograph a day and these were them, surely he sometimes took hundreds and is covering them up? But so it seems.
|The Theory That Would Not Die: How Bayes’ Rule Cracked the Enigma Code, Hunted Down Russian Submarines, and Emerged Triumphant from Two Centuries of Controversy||Sharon Bertsch McGrayne||★★★★||2011||Light history of Bayesian statistics & related topics. I enjoyed the book a lot; McGrayne has a good eye for the amusing details, and she conveys at least some of the intuition (although some graphs or examples would have helped the reader - I liked the flipping coin illustrations in Dasivia 2006 Bayesian Data Analysis). It’s also remarkably synoptic: I was repeatedly surprised by names popping up in the chronology, like BUGS, Bretthorst, Fisher’s smoking papers, Diaconis, the actuarial use of Bayes etc, and I have a better impression of Laplace and Good’s many contributions. The math was very light, which undermines the value of much of it since unless one is already an expert one doesn’t know how much the author is falsifying (for the best reasons), and means that some connections are missed (like empirical Bayes being a forerunner of hierarchical modeling, which aren’t well-explained themselves).|
|The Man Who Knew Infinity: A Life of the Genius Ramanujan||Robert Kanigel||★★★★||1992||2013/08/12||A long account of a short life. I knew only the bare outlines of Ramanujan’s story, but I think this does an excellent job in fleshing the famous anecdotes out; for example, I hadn’t realized how long he had twisted in the wind before his famous letter to Hardy, nor that he had spent a full year and more in India in a position before finally being brought to Cambridge. While Kanigel goes overboard in his novelistic scene-setting and psychologizing, one cannot say he does not try to set the scene for one and go beyond a bare recitations of events to the actual feel and texture of life in various places or of various persons; particularly noteworthy is his attempts to explain at least a little of the actual math which made Ramanujan worth a biography, beyond his romantic story, and here I think Kanigel does a really good job for the layman.|
|Debt: The First 5,000 Years||David Graeber||★★★★||2011||2011/09/24||Mixed feelings: many interesting little tidbits and quotes, but overall I get the feel of a vast thesis made up of confirmation bias and unreliable evidence like etymologies; some parts are flabbergastingly wrong, like his brief description of Apple Computer’s founding. (He apparently routinely makes factual mistakes; Brad DeLong apparently identified 50 in chapter 12 just to make that point.)
And while he’s very cynical about things he’s against, he exhibits a strange lack of cynicism about his in-groups (like the idle poor, or China - accusing the US of manipulating the rates!) Emphasizing the rather ideological bent of the book is his very thin skin as exhibited in response to online criticism like on Crooked Timber.
|Red Plenty: Inside the Fifties’ Soviet Dream||Francis Spufford||★★★★||2010||2012/06/02||Comparable to Dos Passos’s USA or Schulz’s Radiance, if that helps. Depicts how Russia fell into the middle-income trap and stagnated, and illuminates the early growth of Russia’s industrialization and why Khrushchev thought Russia could bury the US (not in dirt, but manufactured goods). Elegiac, enlightening, sympathetic.
- In Soviet Union, Optimization Problem Solves You, Cosma Shalizi (discussion)
- “The Myth of Asia’s Miracle”, Paul Krugman
|The Metropolitan Man||Alexander Wales||★★★★||2014||2014/08/02||The Metropolitan Man is an 80k-word novel following Lex Luthor as he realizes and then grapples with the threat Superman poses to the human race (now that I think about it, it is like Worm in this respect). I can’t fault Luthor’s analysis of the many risks of Superman or the ethics of his powers, and the plot develops well, finishing in an ending which however unexpected and abrupt is perfectly consistent with the plotter and thinker and careful preparer for all contingencies Luthor is shown as. But to some extent it leaves me cold - difficult to pin down what, but I think the writing may simply be too precise, dry, bloodless to really let me be absorbed by the story.|
|The End of History and the Last Man||Francis Fukuyama||★★★★||2006||2004/01/01||I’ve bumped this to 4 stars as, thinking back on the ~decade since I read this, Fukuyama is still right and yet no one seems to get this.
People, look at the Arab Spring. Did it yield any caliphates, say? Anarchistic self-governing communes? Self-governing city-states? Hanseatic Leagues? Or look at official rhetoric in places like China. Look at the gradual and continuing expansion of capitalism and democracy as the defaults for every country. Look at the discrediting of Putin’s Russian cronyism approach, or at the Muslim world’s shift away from marginal Salafist groups like al-Qaeda.
Fukuyama was right. There are no credible alternatives to the capitalist liberal democracy paradigm.
|The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements||Eric Hoffer||★★★★||2010||Many of his points and observations ring true, but Hoffer is fond of using only a few isolated examples to prove his points, and of affirming paradoxes; but the problem with each is that they are not as reliable as they may seem, and the general detachment from statistics and economics and demographics undermines my confidence in any of his claims. He cites Tocqueville approvingly on the lack of coherence of the narrative of the French Revolution with the observed facts that the French had never had it better than before the Revolution - but how can I then have any confidence in any of his narratives?|
|Dreams of Steel (The Chronicle of the Black Company, #5)||Glen Cook||★★★★||1990||2013/06/12||A major improvement over the previous two books and equal to the original The Black Company & Shadows Linger: we turn to the Lady’s perspective as she fights her way back from a debacle in the invasion of the Shadowlands, builds up an army, and imposes her own manipulative rule and empire-building tactics, heavily leavened by plotting by all parties. Pluses included no more Taken popping up, we saw very little of Goblin or One-eye, and soap-operatic twist at the end aside, the overall plot has built up nicely.|
|On China||Henry Kissinger||★★★★||2011||2012/01/31||Kissinger may be a duplicitous murderous bastard, but he’s an excellent analyst and while his ancient history is only so-so as far as I can tell from my other reading (eg. Needham), his takes on modern Chinese history is very interesting, and I learned a number of things I did not know before (I was shocked to learn that the Soviets at one point seriously considered pre-emptively attacking China’s nuclear program and had reached out to the USA to ask whether the USA would be very upset about it?).|
|The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires||Tim Wu||★★★★||2010||2010/01/01||His Cycle is a convincing paradigm. I already knew a lot of it from Lawrence Lessig and related copyright books & writings, but Tim Wu puts the history together nicely, and renders the 2000s a little clearer (not that I really needed to be told that Apple/Jobs are a clear incarnation of the empire-building trend; this was obvious even when Neal Stephenson pointed it out many years ago in “In The Beginning Was The Commandline…” )|
|The Circus of Dr. Lao||Charles G. Finney||★★★★||2002||2011/10/20||The book comes up often in Wolfe discussions of An Evil Guest, I noticed there was a copy on library.nu, so…
Short, but fairly funny; ending wasn’t quite as expected, but the dramatis personae and especially the section of questions listing contradictions/mistakes/obscurities made up for my lingering dissatisfaction. Don’t think it was directly useful for interpreting Wolfe’s An Evil Guest, but the dramatis personae is a clear inspiration for Wolfe’s own character lists.
|The Kindly Ones||Jonathan Littell||★★★★||2009||Very long, not a little tedious (although in places the detail reaches tour de forces, like the early discussion of German war on the Eastern front). Desensitized by the end. Not sure how to take it, but disagree with the protagonist - I don’t understand his constant depravity and murdering, and I don’t agree I would do much the same thing in his position. One or two murders, maybe, but even killing his best friend Thomas who time and again saved Aue’s ass?|
|The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution||Bernard Bailyn||★★★★||1992||2011/01/01||Bailyn was more or less as Moldbug described, and the quotes from the pamphlets fairly convincing. That said, I would have liked a lot more of those quotes about conspiracies and the origins of the plans to enslave the colonies for private profit, and much less paraphrase & political theorizing.|
|Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman||James Gleick||★★★★||1993||2014/04/08||A solid biography, though I don’t have anything in particular to say about it. It throws in all the classic anecdotes and quotes you expect, doesn’t try to whitewash Feynman and includes some critical examination, does make an effort to explain all the physics which earned Feynman his prestige, etc. It’s a well-regarded widely-read biography which I have nothing to say against.|
|Friendship is Optimal||iceman||★★★★||2012||It’s an excellent dystopia which makes you feel that it’s hell - but also better than our reality.
But as great as the premise is, and as chilling (or thrilling?) as the results are, on reflection I’m not quite sure I can give this a rare 5-stars (as I did initially): the prose is a little too journeyman-like, the characters a little too undifferentiated.
|Steve Jobs||Walter Isaacson||★★★★||2011||2011/10/24||Long but good biography; in some respects, too cheerleading of Jobs (balanced by Isaacson not truckling too much and being willing to cover the ugly parts of Jobs’s life). But overall, a good detailed bio. I do not admire Jobs - perhaps if he were less neurotic or chewed through people less, but I respect him: he was a real mensch.|
|Shades of Grey: The Road to High Saffron (Shades of Grey, #1)||Jasper Fforde||★★★★||2009||2013/03/29||Post-apocalyptic Flatland meets Hunger Games via Paranoia - that is, an insane bureaucratic totalitarian Victorian nightmare mediated by color perception whose protagonists rebel against the order of things instituted after some doomsday. I enjoyed it a lot.|
|I Know Who You Are and I Saw What You Did: Social Networks and the Death of Privacy||Lori Andrews||★★★★||2012||Remarkably thoroughly researched, with endless references and anecdotes, which is an achievement indeed for a topic as ephemeral and changing as social media. (I didn’t think too much of its critical analysis or conclusions, but the rest more than made up for it.)|
|World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability||Amy Chua||★★★★||2004||That was actually pretty good (better than one might guess from reading the discussions of her later tiger-mother book), many interesting observations. Her paradigm seems pretty generally applicable outside the First World. I took extensive notes.|
|Sum: Forty Tales from the Afterlives||David Eagleman||★★★★||2009||40 very short stories in the tradition of Borges, Calvino, and Stanislaw Lem (in ascending order). Overall, pretty good, although naturally the quality level varies considerably and the parables that spoke to me will not speak to others.|
|The Black Cloud||Fred Hoyle||★★★★||1998||2010/12/01||Good frame story, good science, good possibilities - the black cloud is still a novel proposal and interesting to think about in a panspermia context. Mind candy. (And short enough it doesn’t wear out its welcome.)|
|Promises I Can Keep: Why Poor Women Put Motherhood Before Marriage||Kathryn Edin||★★★★||2007||2011/11/13||Incredibly sobering, explains a lot about inner-city illegitimacy, and the best thing I’ve read about the topic and why women would do something which from far away seems like a completely terrible idea.|
|Intelligence: A Unifying Construct for the Social Sciences||Richard Lynn||★★★★||2012||2012/08/14||Very wonky, of course, but still many interesting correlation; I excerpted parts I found interesting to a Google+ post.|
|Proofs and Refutations: The Logic of Mathematical Discovery||Imre Lakatos||★★★★||2005||2011/12/28||Surprisingly interesting, like Wittgenstein if he wrote in a human fashion, and longer than one would think possible given how straightforward the problem initially appears.|
|Little Boy: The Arts of Japan’s Exploding Subculture||Takashi Murakami||★★★★||2005||2011/11/24||Main use for this book: encyclopedia entries, Murakami’s long essay, the dialogue with Okada - rest is completely impenetrable, featuring fine gobbledegook.|
|Snuff (Discworld, #39)||Terry Pratchett||★★★★||2011||2011/11/17||Curiously, this is the least funny but probably best Discworld book I’ve read so far. Vimes has grown a great deal since we first met him.|
|Birds||Aristophanes||★★★★||1998||I was mildly surprised by how much funnier than expected it was. One doesn’t expect such ancient contemporary humor to translate well.|
|Tuck Everlasting||Natalie Babbitt||★★★★||1985||1997/01/01|
|The Art of Writing: Lu Chi’s Wen Fu||Lu Chi||★★★★||2000||2013/01/01|
|Fragments of an Anarchist Anthropology||David Graeber||★★★★||2004||2014/06/18|
|The Quantum Thief||Hannu Rajaniemi||★★★★||2010|
|The Autumn of the Patriarch||Gabriel García Márquez||★★★★||2006||2014/04/28|
|Requiem of the Golden Witch (Umineko no Naku Koro ni Chiru #7)||07th Expansion||★★★★||2010||2013/09/01|
|End of the Golden Witch (Umineko no Naku Koro ni Chiru #5)||07th Expansion||★★★★||2009||2013/08/01|
|Alliance of the Golden Witch (Umineko no Naku Koro ni #4)||07th Expansion||★★★★||2008||2013/08/01|
|Turn of the Golden Witch (Umineko no Naku Koro ni #2)||07th Expansion||★★★★||2007||2013/07/01|
|Rogue Male||Geoffrey Household||★★★★||2002||2014/04/02|
|The Making of Prince of Persia||Jordan Mechner||★★★★||2011||2012/04/11|
|Shadows Linger (The Chronicle of the Black Company, #2)||Glen Cook||★★★★||1990||2013/06/08|
|The Old Regime and the French Revolution||Alexis de Tocqueville||★★★★||1955|
|The Clouds Should Know Me By Now: Buddhist Poet Monks of China||Mike O’Connor||★★★★||1998|
|Underground: Tales of Hacking, Madness, and Obsession on the Electronic Frontier||Suelette Dreyfus||★★★★||1997|
|George’s Marvellous Medicine||Roald Dahl||★★★★||2003|
|Fantastic Mr. Fox||Roald Dahl||★★★★||2002|
|Four Past Midnight||Stephen King||★★★★||1991|
|The Paranoid Style in American Politics||Richard Hofstadter||★★★★||2012|
|Global Price Fixing: Our Customers Are the Enemy||John M. Connor||★★★★||2001|
|Demian: Die Geschichte von Emil Sinclairs Jugend||Hermann Hesse||★★★★||1996|
|Three Worlds Collide||Eliezer Yudkowsky||★★★★||2009|
|Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions||Julian P.T. Higgins||★★★★||2008|
|The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture: The Effect of Early Christological Controversies on the Text of the New Testament||Bart D. Ehrman||★★★★||1996||2012/11/14|
|The Nuclear Taboo: The United States and the Non-Use of Nuclear Weapons Since 1945||Nina Tannenwald||★★★★||2008|
|Beyond Good and Evil||Friedrich Nietzsche||★★★★||2003|
|Walden||Henry David Thoreau||★★★★||2004|
|Liars and Outliers: Enabling the Trust that Society Needs to Thrive||Bruce Schneier||★★★★||2012||2012/10/22|
|Moral Basis of a Backward Society||Edward C. Banfield||★★★★||1967|
|When God Talks Back: Understanding the American Evangelical Relationship with God||T.M. Luhrmann||★★★★||2012||2012/10/04|
|Good & Plenty: The Creative Successes of American Arts Funding||Tyler Cowen||★★★★||2006|
|The Unincorporated Man||Dani Kollin||★★★★||2009|
|The White-Luck Warrior||R. Scott Bakker||★★★★||2011|
|The Darkness That Comes Before (The Prince of Nothing, #1)||R. Scott Bakker||★★★★||2005|
|City of Glass (The New York Trilogy, #1)||Paul Auster||★★★★||1987|
|De Profundis||Oscar Wilde||★★★★||2011||2012/08/13|
|Five Children and It (Five Children, #1)||E. Nesbit||★★★★||1996|
|War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War||John W. Dower||★★★★||1987|
|The UNIX Hater’s Handbook: The Best of UNIX-Haters On-line Mailing Reveals Why UNIX Must Die!||Simson Garfinkel||★★★★||1994|
|Reason & Persuasion: Three Dialogues By Plato||John Holbo||★★★★||2009|
|When Prophecy Fails: a Social and Psychological Study of a Modern Group that Predicted the Destruction of the World||Leon Festinger||★★★★||1964||2012/10/27|
|Collected Poems of Robert Frost||Robert Frost||★★★★||1930||2012/07/26|
|Goodnight Moon||Margaret Wise Brown||★★★★||2007|
|The Lorax||Dr. Seuss||★★★★||1998|
|A Study of History, Vol 1: Introduction; The Geneses of Civilizations (A Study of History, #1)||Arnold Joseph Toynbee||★★★★||1934|
|The Decline of the West||Oswald Spengler||★★★★||1991|
|Urantia: The Great Cult Mystery||Martin Gardner||★★★★||1995|
|The True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle||Avi||★★★★||1992|
|Red Ranger Came Calling||Berkeley Breathed||★★★★||1997|
|The Anatomy of Revolution||Crane Brinton||★★★★||1965|
|The Unabridged Devil’s Dictionary||Ambrose Bierce||★★★★||2002|
|The Epic of Gilgamesh||Anonymous||★★★★||2006|
|Wild Magic (Immortals, #1)||Tamora Pierce||★★★★||2005|
|Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph (The Authorized Doubleday/Doran Edition)||T.E. Lawrence||★★★★||1991|
|Psychological Warfare (WWII Era Reprint)||Paul M.A. Linebarger||★★★★||2010|
|A Journey To The Tea Countries Of China||Robert Fortune||★★★★||2005|
|The Iron Dream||Norman Spinrad||★★★★||1986|
|The Rise and Decline of the Medici Bank, 1397-1494||Raymond de Roover||★★★★||1966|
|Muslim Neoplatonists: An Introduction To The Thought Of The Brethren Of Purity, Ikhwān Al Ṣafāʾ||Ian Richard Netton||★★★★||1982|
|The Autobiography of a Criminal||Henry Tufts||★★★★||1993|
|Attending Daedalus: Gene Wolfe, Artifice and the Reader||Peter Wright||★★★★||2003|
|Krazy and Ignatz, 1939-1940: A Brick Stuffed With Moom-bins||George Herriman||★★★★||2007|
|Krazy and Ignatz, 1929-1930: A Mice, a Brick, a Lovely Night||George Herriman||★★★★||2003|
|Krazy and Ignatz, 1931-1932: A Kat Alilt With Song||George Herriman||★★★★||2004|
|Krazy and Ignatz, 1933-1934: Necromancy by the Blue Bean Bush||George Herriman||★★★★||2005|
|Krazy and Ignatz, 1937-1938: Shifting Sands Dusts Its Cheeks in Powdered Beauty||George Herriman||★★★★||2006|
|Krazy and Ignatz, 1919-1921: A Kind, Benevolent, and Amiable Brick||George Herriman||★★★★||2011|
|ANSI Common Lisp||Paul Graham||★★★★||1996|
|Red Mars (Mars Trilogy, #1)||Kim Stanley Robinson||★★★★||2003|
|The Debian System: Concepts and Techniques||Martin F. Krafft||★★★★||2005|
|The Mysterious Stranger||Mark Twain||★★★★||1916|
|The Grand Inquisitor||Fyodor Dostoyevsky||★★★★||1880|
|The Wind in the Willows||Kenneth Grahame||★★★★||2005|
|Wizard’s Bane (Wiz, #1)||Rick Cook||★★★★||1989|
|Inferno (The Divine Comedy, #1)||Dante Alighieri||★★★★||2003|
|Complete Tales of Uncle Remus||Joel Chandler Harris||★★★★||1955|
|The World Without Us||Alan Weisman||★★★★||2007|
|Neptune Crossing (The Chaos Chronicles, #1)||Jeffrey A. Carver||★★★★||1995|
|Bush at War||Bob Woodward||★★★★||2003|
|Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy||René Descartes||★★★★||1999|
|On Liberty||John Stuart Mill||★★★★||1985|
|Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator (Charlie Bucket, #2)||Roald Dahl||★★★★||2005|
|The Story of Doctor Dolittle (Doctor Dolittle, #1)||Hugh Lofting||★★★★||2005|
|Splendors of Meiji: Treasures of Imperial Japan: Masterpieces from the Khalili Collection||Joe Earle||★★★★||1999|
|Scythian Gold||Ellen Reeder||★★★★||1999|
|The Sufi Path Of Knowledge: Ibn Al ʻarabi’s Metaphysics Of Imagination||William C. Chittick||★★★★||0|
|The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism||Max Weber||★★★★||2003|
|Black American Students in an Affluent Suburb: A Study of Academic Disengagement||John U. Ogbu||★★★★||2003|
|IQ and the Wealth of Nations||Richard Lynn||★★★★||2002|
|The Double Axe, and Other Poems Including Eleven Suppressed Poems||Robinson Jeffers||★★★★||1986|
|Shadows of the New Sun||Peter Wright||★★★★||2006|
|Constantine’s Sword: The Church and the Jews, A History||James Carroll||★★★★||2002|
|On Thermonuclear War||Herman Kahn||★★★★||2007|
|A Journal of the Plague Year||Daniel Defoe||★★★★||2003|
|This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen||Tadeusz Borowski||★★★★||1992|
|Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam||Omar Khayyam||★★★★||2005|
|Terror and Liberalism||Paul Berman||★★★★||2004|
|The Guinea Pig Diaries: My Life as an Experiment||A.J. Jacobs||★★★★||2009|
|The New Hacker’s Dictionary||Eric S. Raymond||★★★★||1996|
|The Art of Unix Programming||Eric S. Raymond||★★★★||2003|
|The Rime of the Ancient Mariner||Samuel Taylor Coleridge||★★★★||1970|
|The King in Yellow||Robert W. Chambers||★★★★||2007|
|The Story of Hassan of Baghdad and How He Came to Make the Golden Journey to Samarkand||James Elroy Flecker||★★★★||2004|
|Nine Princes in Amber (Amber Chronicles, #1)||Roger Zelazny||★★★★||1986|
|Miyamoto Musashi: His Life and Writings||Kenji Tokitsu||★★★★||2006|
|Psychology of Intelligence Analysis||Richard J. Heuer Jr.||★★★★||2006||2012/07/21|
|The Questions Of King Milinda - Part I||T.W. Rhys Davids||★★★★||2011|
|Encyclopedia Brown and the Case of the Secret Pitch (Encyclopedia Brown, #2)||Donald J. Sobol||★★★★||2000|
|Encyclopedia Brown, Boy Detective (Encyclopedia Brown, #1)||Donald J. Sobol||★★★★||1985|
|Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny||Robert Wright||★★★★||2001|
|The World, the Flesh & the Devil;: An Enquiry into the Future of the Three Enemies of the Rational Soul||J.D. Bernal||★★★★||1969|
|Say Cheese and Die! (Goosebumps, #4)||R.L. Stine||★★★★||2003|
|Night of the Living Dummy (Goosebumps, #7)||R.L. Stine||★★★★||2003|
|Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture||David Kushner||★★★★||2004|
|Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals’ Abuse of Science||Alan Sokal||★★★★||1999|
|The Red Castle||H.C. Bailey||★★★★||0|
|Stuart Little||E.B. White||★★★★||2005|
|The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D’oh! of Homer||William Irwin||★★★★||2001|
|Bloodtaking and Peacemaking: Feud, Law, and Society in Saga Iceland||William Ian Miller||★★★★||1997|
|The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia||René Grousset||★★★★||1970|
|The Man in the Iron Mask (The D’Artagnan Romances, #3)||Alexandre Dumas||★★★★||2003|
|Japanese Court Poetry||Robert Brower||★★★★||1988|
|The Great Wave: Price Revolutions and the Rhythm of History||David Hackett Fischer||★★★★||1999|
|Once and Forever||Kenji Miyazawa||★★★★||1998|
|War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race||Edwin Black||★★★★||2004|
|The Anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since 1917||Jonathan Clements||★★★★||2001|
|Monkey: The Journey to the West||Wu Cheng’en||★★★★||1994|
|Indian Philosophy: An Introduction To Hindu And Buddhist Thought||Richard King||★★★★||1999|
|Philosophy of Mind||Jaegwon Kim||★★★★||2005|
|The Legacy of Parmenides: Eleatic Monism and Later Presocratic Thought||Patricia Curd||★★★★||2004|
|The Medici Bank: Its Organization, Management, Operations, and Decline||Raymond de Roover||★★★★||2008|
|Anthropic Bias: Observation Selection Effects in Science and Philosophy||Nick Bostrom||★★★★||2010|
|Haskell: The Craft of Functional Programming||Simon Thompson||★★★★||1999|
|The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance||K. Anders Ericsson||★★★★||2006|
|Star Wars: The Annotated Screenplays||George Lucas||★★★★||1997|
|Star Wars: The Essential Guide to Characters||Andy Mangels||★★★★||1995|
|Crimson Empire, Volume 1 (Star Wars: Crimson Empire, #1)||Mike Richardson||★★★★||1998|
|The Han Solo Adventures (Classic Star Wars)||Brian Daley||★★★★||1994|
|Iron Fist (Star Wars: X-Wing, #6)||Aaron Allston||★★★★||1998|
|The Bacta War (Star Wars: X-Wing, #4)||Michael A. Stackpole||★★★★||1997|
|I, Jedi (Star Wars)||Michael A. Stackpole||★★★★||1998|
|The Truce at Bakura (Star Wars)||Kathy Tyers||★★★★||1994|
|Shadows of the Empire (Star Wars)||Steve Perry||★★★★||1997|
|The Courtship of Princess Leia (Star Wars)||Dave Wolverton||★★★★||2011|
|The Last Command (Star Wars: The Thrawn Trilogy, #3)||Timothy Zahn||★★★★||1994|
|Heir to the Empire (Star Wars: The Thrawn Trilogy, #1)||Timothy Zahn||★★★★||1992|
|The Phoenix Exultant (Golden Age, #2)||John C. Wright||★★★★||2003|
|Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred Exemplary Creative Minds||Harold Bloom||★★★★||2003|
|Cities in Flight (Cities in Flight, #1-4)||James Blish||★★★★||2005|
|Eon (The Way, #1)||Greg Bear||★★★★||1991|
|The Trumpeter of Krakow||Eric P. Kelly||★★★★||1992||1999/01/01|
|The Man Who Was Thursday||G.K. Chesterton||★★★★||2001|
|The Jungle Book||Rudyard Kipling||★★★★||1992|
|Man Into Superman: The Startling Potential of Human Evolution – And How to Be Part of It||Robert C.W. Ettinger||★★★★||2005|
|Breakdown of Will||George Ainslie||★★★★||2006|
|The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire||Edward Gibbon||★★★★||2003|
|The Underground History of American Education: An Intimate Investigation Into the Prison of Modern Schooling||John Taylor Gatto||★★★★||2003|
|Finite and Infinite Games: A Vision of Life as Play and Possibility||James P. Carse||★★★★||1987|
|The Magus||John Fowles||★★★★||1988|
|And Then There Were None||Agatha Christie||★★★★||2004|
|A Scanner Darkly||Philip K. Dick||★★★★||2006|
|Hagakure: The Book of the Samurai||Yamamoto Tsunetomo||★★★★||2002|
|Reading in the Brain: The Science and Evolution of a Human Invention||Stanislas Dehaene||★★★★||2009|
|New Urban Immigrants: The Korean Community in New York||Illsoo Kim||★★★★||1981|
|Culture and Customs of Korea||Donald N. Clark||★★★★||2000|
|Sunset in a Spider Web: Sijo Poetry of Ancient Korea||Virginia Olsen Baron||★★★★||1974|
|When We Were Orphans||Kazuo Ishiguro||★★★★||2007|
|The Reptile Room (A Series of Unfortunate Events, #2)||Lemony Snicket||★★★★||2000|
|The Bad Beginning (A Series of Unfortunate Events, #1)||Lemony Snicket||★★★★||1999|
|Across the Sea of Suns (Galactic Center, #2)||Gregory Benford||★★★★||2004|
|Red Emma Speaks||Emma Goldman||★★★★||1996||2008/06/19|
|The Known World||Edward P. Jones||★★★★||2006|
|The Last Ringbearer||Kirill Yeskov||★★★★||2010|
|Deep Time:: How Humanity Communicates Across Millennia||Gregory Benford||★★★★||2001|
|Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States||Albert O. Hirschman||★★★★||1970|
|The Amber Spyglass (His Dark Materials, #3)||Philip Pullman||★★★★||2003|
|The Golden Compass (His Dark Materials, #1)||Philip Pullman||★★★★||1996|
|Where the Wild Things Are||Maurice Sendak||★★★★||2000|
|Maniac Magee||Jerry Spinelli||★★★★||2002|
|The Stinky Cheese Man: And Other Fairly Stupid Tales||Jon Scieszka||★★★★||1992||1997/01/01|
|A Little Princess (World’s Best Loved Classics)||Frances Hodgson Burnett||★★★★||1994|
|The Indian in the Cupboard (The Indian in the Cupboard, #1)||Lynne Reid Banks||★★★★||2003|
|Anne of Green Gables (Anne of Green Gables, #1)||L.M. Montgomery||★★★★||2003|
|Winnie-the-Pooh (Winnie-the-Pooh, #1)||A.A. Milne||★★★★||2001|
|The House at Pooh Corner (Winnie-the-Pooh, #2)||A.A. Milne||★★★★||1988|
|How the Grinch Stole Christmas!||Dr. Seuss||★★★★||1957|
|A Christmas Carol||Charles Dickens||★★★★||1999|
|The Garden of Abdul Gasazi||Chris Van Allsburg||★★★★||1979|
|Harriet the Spy (Harriet the Spy #1)||Louise Fitzhugh||★★★★||2001|
|The Cat in the Hat||Dr. Seuss||★★★★||1957|
|The Consolations of Philosophy||Alain de Botton||★★★★||2001|
|Well Played 1.0: Video Games, Value and Meaning||Drew Davidson||★★★★||2009|
|Mr. Popper’s Penguins||Richard Atwater||★★★★||1992|
|Giants’ Star (Giants, #3)||James P. Hogan||★★★★||1982|
|The Gentle Giants of Ganymede (Giants, #2)||James P. Hogan||★★★★||1983|
|Inherit the Stars (Giants, #1)||James P. Hogan||★★★★||1978|
|Heirs of Empire (Dahak, #3)||David Weber||★★★★||1996|
|Path of the Fury||David Weber||★★★★||1992|
|Field of Dishonor (Honor Harrington, #4)||David Weber||★★★★||2002|
|The Short Victorious War (Honor Harrington, #3)||David Weber||★★★★||1994|
|On Basilisk Station (Honor Harrington, #1)||David Weber||★★★★||2005|
|Necroscope II: Vamphyri! (Necroscope, #2)||Brian Lumley||★★★★||1989|
|Necroscope (Necroscope, #1)||Brian Lumley||★★★★||1994|
|The Metamorphosis of Prime Intellect||Roger Williams||★★★★||2010|
|The Voyage of the Space Beagle||A.E. van Vogt||★★★★||1963|
|Purely Functional Data Structures||Chris Okasaki||★★★★||2003|
|The Last Aerie||Brian Lumley||★★★★||1994|
|Producing Open Source Software: How to Run a Successful Free Software Project||Karl Franz Fogel||★★★★||2005|
|The Three Pillars of Zen||Philip Kapleau||★★★★||1989|
|Storm of Steel||Ernst Jünger||★★★★||2007|
|The Tibetan Book Of Living And Dying: A Spiritual Classic from One of the Foremost Interpreters of Tibetan Buddhism to the West||Sogyal Rinpoche||★★★★||2008|
|Sailing Bright Eternity||Gregory Benford||★★★★||1996|
|Beggars Ride (Sleepless, #3)||Nancy Kress||★★★★||1997|
|Magician’s Gambit (The Belgariad, #3)||David Eddings||★★★★||1983|
|Pawn of Prophecy (The Belgariad, #1)||David Eddings||★★★★||2004|
|The Sapphire Rose (The Elenium #3)||David Eddings||★★★★||1992|
|When Genius Failed: The Rise and Fall of Long-Term Capital Management||Roger Lowenstein||★★★★||2001|
|The Great Brain (Great Brain #1)||John D. Fitzgerald||★★★★||2004|
|The Wasp Factory||Iain Banks||★★★★||1998|
|Vacuum Diagrams (Xeelee Sequence, #5)||Stephen Baxter||★★★★||2001|
|The Timeless Way of Building||Christopher W. Alexander||★★★★||1979|
|The Architecture of Open Source Applications||Amy Brown||★★★★||2011|
|The Algebraist||Iain M. Banks||★★★★||2005|
|Myth Conceptions (Myth Adventures, #2)||Robert Lynn Asprin||★★★★||2005|
|Phule’s Company (Phule’s Company, #1)||Robert Lynn Asprin||★★★★||1990|
|Myth-Nomers and Im-Pervections (Myth Adventures, #8)||Robert Lynn Asprin||★★★★||2006|
|Phule’s Paradise (Phule’s Company, #2)||Robert Lynn Asprin||★★★★||1992|
|A Phule and His Money (Phule’s Company, #3)||Robert Lynn Asprin||★★★★||1999|
|The Keep (Adversary Cycle, #1)||F. Paul Wilson||★★★★||2006|
|How to Measure Anything: Finding the Value of “Intangibles” in Business||Douglas W. Hubbard||★★★★||2011|
|Revelation Space (Revelation Space, #1)||Alastair Reynolds||★★★★||2002|
|The Prose Edda||Snorri Sturluson||★★★★||2006|
|The Book of Lost Tales, Part One (The History of Middle-Earth, #1)||J.R.R. Tolkien||★★★★||1992|
|Ideas and Integrities: A Spontaneous Autobiographical Disclosure||R. Buckminster Fuller||★★★★||1969|
|Modern Japanese Diaries: The Japanese at Home and Abroad as Revealed Through Their Diaries||Donald Keene||★★★★||1999|
|Seeds in the Heart: Japanese Literature from Earliest Times to the Late Sixteenth Century (A History of Japanese Literature - Volume 1)||Donald Keene||★★★★||1999|
|Four Major Plays of Chikamatsu||Monzaemon Chikamatsu||★★★★||1997|
|Chushingura: The Treasury of Loyal Retainers||Takeda Izumo||★★★★||1971|
|World Within Walls: Japanese Literature of the Premodern Era - 1600-1867 (A History of Japanese Literature - Volume 2)||Donald Keene||★★★★||1999|
|Dawn to the West: Japanese Literature: Japanese Literature of the Modern Era||Donald Keene||★★★★||1984|
|The Tao of Pooh||Benjamin Hoff||★★★★||2003|
|The Te Of Piglet (The Wisdom Of Pooh)||Benjamin Hoff||★★★★||2003|
|The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus||Christopher Marlowe||★★★★||2009|
|Feynman And Computation||Anthony J.G. Hey||★★★★||2002|
|Bare-Faced Messiah||Frederic P. Miller||★★★★||2011|
|Excession (Culture, #5)||Iain M. Banks||★★★★||1998|
|Coders at Work: Reflections on the Craft of Programming||Peter Seibel||★★★★||2009|
|The Hedgehog, the Fox & the Magister’s Pox: Mending the Gap Between Science & the Humanities||Stephen Jay Gould||★★★★||2004|
|The Golden Bough, Abridged||James George Frazer||★★★★||1995|
|Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy: How Emperor Hirohito Led Japan Into War Against the West||David Bergamini||★★★★||2006|
|The Stainless Steel Rat for President (Stainless Steel Rat, #8)||Harry Harrison||★★★★||1988|
|The Stainless Steel Rat (Stainless Steel Rat, #4)||Harry Harrison||★★★★||1998|
|Ethics: History, Theory, and Contemporary Issues||Steven M. Cahn||★★★★||2005|
|Catastrophe: Risk and Response||Richard A. Posner||★★★★||2004|
|How to Live: A Life of Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at An Answer||Sarah Bakewell||★★★★||2010|
|The Cleanest Race: How North Koreans See Themselves and Why It Matters||B.R. Myers||★★★★||2010|
|The Authoritarians||Bob Altemeyer||★★★★||2006|
|Russian Silhouettes||Genna Sosonko||★★★★||2005|
|Superior Beings: If They Exist, How Would We Know?||Steven J. Brams||★★★★||2006|
|The Best Writing on Mathematics||William P. Thurston||★★★★||2011|
|The Center Cannot Hold: My Journey Through Madness||Elyn R. Saks||★★★★||2007|
|Melmoth the Wanderer||Charles Robert Maturin||★★★★||2001|
|Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative||Edward R. Tufte||★★★★||1998|
|Envisioning Information||Edward R. Tufte||★★★★||1992|
|The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice||Christopher Hitchens||★★★★||1997|
|Beautiful Evidence||Edward R. Tufte||★★★★||2006|
|Yon Ill Wind (Xanth, #20)||Piers Anthony||★★★★||1997|
|Juxtaposition (Apprentice Adept, #3)||Piers Anthony||★★★★||1987|
|Blue Adept (Apprentice Adept, #2)||Piers Anthony||★★★★||1987|
|Split Infinity (Apprentice Adept, #1)||Piers Anthony||★★★★||1987|
|And Eternity (Incarnations of Immortality, #7)||Piers Anthony||★★★★||1991|
|For Love of Evil (Incarnations of Immortality, #6)||Piers Anthony||★★★★||1990|
|Centaur Aisle (Xanth, #4)||Piers Anthony||★★★★||1997|
|Wielding a Red Sword (Incarnations of Immortality, #4)||Piers Anthony||★★★★||1987|
|Bearing An Hourglass (Incarnations of Immortality, #2)||Piers Anthony||★★★★||1984|
|On a Pale Horse (Incarnations of Immortality, #1)||Piers Anthony||★★★★||1986|
|Foundation’s Edge (Foundation, #4)||Isaac Asimov||★★★★||2010|
|Forward the Foundation (Foundation: Prequel, #2)||Isaac Asimov||★★★★||1994|
|Around the World in Eighty Days||Jules Verne||★★★★||2004|
|The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde||Robert Louis Stevenson||★★★★||2003|
|Where the Red Fern Grows||Wilson Rawls||★★★★||2000|
|The Tell-Tale Heart and Other Writings||Edgar Allan Poe||★★★★||2004|
|Journey to the Center of the Earth (Extraordinary Voyages, #3)||Jules Verne||★★★★||2006|
|Triss (Redwall, #15)||Brian Jacques||★★★★||2004|
|Taggerung (Redwall, #14)||Brian Jacques||★★★★||2003|
|Marlfox (Redwall, #11)||Brian Jacques||★★★★||2005|
|Pearls of Lutra (Redwall, #9)||Brian Jacques||★★★★||2004|
|The Long Patrol (Redwall, #10)||Brian Jacques||★★★★||2004|
|Salamandastron (Redwall, #5)||Brian Jacques||★★★★||2003|
|Redwall (Redwall, #1)||Brian Jacques||★★★★||2006|
|Interview with the Vampire (The Vampire Chronicles, #1)||Anne Rice||★★★★||2004|
|Life of Pi||Yann Martel||★★★★||2006|
|The Alienist||Caleb Carr||★★★★||2006|
|Famous First Bubbles: The Fundamentals of Early Manias||Peter Garber||★★★★||2000|
|Deep Survival: Who Lives, Who Dies, and Why||Laurence Gonzales||★★★★||2004|
|U.S.A.||John Dos Passos||★★★★||1996|
|On the Beach||Nevil Shute||★★★★||2002|
|Anti-Intellectualism in American Life||Richard Hofstadter||★★★★||1964|
|His Master’s Voice||Stanisław Lem||★★★★||1999|
|Li Po and Tu Fu: Poems||Li Bai||★★★★||1973|
|Lords of the Middle Dark (Rings of the Master, #1)||Jack L. Chalker||★★★★||1986|
|The Principles of Psychology||William James||★★★★||1983|
|The Varieties of Religious Experience||William James||★★★★||2000|
|Not the Impossible Faith||Richard Carrier||★★★★||2009|
|The Sagas of Icelanders||Jane Smiley||★★★★||2001|
|Exploring the World of Lucid Dreaming||Stephen LaBerge||★★★★||1991|
|Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective||J. Philippe Rushton||★★★★||2002|
|Dirk Gently’s Holistic Detective Agency (Dirk Gently #1)||Douglas Adams||★★★★||1991|
|The Three Musketeers||Alexandre Dumas||★★★★||2001|
|The Tombs of Atuan (Earthsea Cycle, #2)||Ursula K. Le Guin||★★★★||2001|
|Tehanu (Earthsea Cycle, #4)||Ursula K. Le Guin||★★★★||2001|
|Tales from Earthsea (Earthsea Cycle, #5)||Ursula K. Le Guin||★★★★||2001|
|Fables, Vol. 9: Sons of Empire (Fables, #9)||Bill Willingham||★★★★||2007|
|Fables, Vol. 7: Arabian Nights (and Days) (Fables, #7)||Bill Willingham||★★★★||2006|
|Fables, Vol. 10: The Good Prince (Fables, #10)||Bill Willingham||★★★★||2008|
|Fables, Vol. 5: The Mean Seasons (Fables, #5)||Bill Willingham||★★★★||2005|
|Fables, Vol. 6: Homelands (Fables, #6)||Bill Willingham||★★★★||2006|
|Fables, Vol. 2: Animal Farm (Fables, #2)||Bill Willingham||★★★★||2003|
|Fables, Vol. 4: March of the Wooden Soldiers (Fables, #4)||Bill Willingham||★★★★||2004|
|Fables, Vol. 1: Legends in Exile (Fables, #1)||Bill Willingham||★★★★||2002|
|Titus Groan (Gormenghast, #1)||Mervyn Peake||★★★★||1991|
|The Morning of the Magicians||Louis Pauwels||★★★★||2007|
|The Lost World (Professor Challenger, #1)||Arthur Conan Doyle||★★★★||2003|
|Count Belisarius||Robert Graves||★★★★||1982|
|Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960-2010||Charles Murray||★★★★||2012||2012/10/23|
|The Philosophical Baby: What Children’s Minds Tell Us About Truth, Love, and the Meaning of Life||Alison Gopnik||★★★★||2009|
|Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton||Edward Rice||★★★★||1991|
|The Case of the Animals Versus Man Before the King of the Jinn: An Arabic Critical Edition and English Translation of Epistle 22||Lenn E. Goodman||★★★★||2012|
|A Shadow in Summer (Long Price Quartet, #1)||Daniel Abraham||★★★★||2006|
|History of the Second World War||B.H. Liddell Hart||★★★★||1999|
|Queen Victoria’s Little Wars||Byron Farwell||★★★★||1985|
|Lucky Wander Boy||D.B. Weiss||★★★★||2003|
|Shadow Puppets (Ender’s Shadow, #3)||Orson Scott Card||★★★★||2003|
|Modern Operating Systems||Andrew S. Tanenbaum||★★★★||2001|
|The Crying of Lot 49||Thomas Pynchon||★★★★||2006|
|Lord of the Flies||William Golding||★★★★||1999|
|Gulliver’s Travels||Jonathan Swift||★★★★||2003|
|The Once and Future King||T.H. White||★★★★||1996|
|White Fang||Jack London||★★★★||2001|
|Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America||Barbara Ehrenreich||★★★★||2002|
|The Essays of Arthur Schopenhauer; The Wisdom of Life||Arthur Schopenhauer||★★★★||2006|
|A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court||Mark Twain||★★★★||2006|
|Where the Sidewalk Ends: The Poems and Drawings of Shel Silverstein||Shel Silverstein||★★★★||1974|
|The Autobiography Of Benjamin Franklin||Benjamin Franklin||★★★★||2010|
|The Great Stagnation: How America Ate All The Low-Hanging Fruit of Modern History, Got Sick, and Will (Eventually) Feel Better||Tyler Cowen||★★★★||2011|
|Waiting for Godot||Samuel Beckett||★★★★||1953|
|The Complete Maus (Maus, #1-2)||Art Spiegelman||★★★★||2003|
|Behemoth: β-Max (Rifters #3.1)||Peter Watts||★★★★||2004|
|Maelstrom (Rifters, #2)||Peter Watts||★★★★||2002|
|Starfish (Rifters, #1)||Peter Watts||★★★★||2000|
|The Ego Tunnel: The Science of the Mind and the Myth of the Self||Thomas Metzinger||★★★★||2009|
|The Brothers Karamazov||Fyodor Dostoyevsky||★★★★||2002|
|The Master and Margarita||Mikhail Bulgakov||★★★★||1996||2008/08/26|
|The Spy Who Came In from the Cold||John le Carré||★★★★||2001||2008/07/02|
|Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy||John le Carré||★★★★||2002|
|Democracy in America||Alexis de Tocqueville||★★★★||2003|
|Eaters of the Dead: The Manuscript of Ibn Fadlan, Relating His Experiences with the Northmen in A.D. 922||Michael Crichton||★★★★||2006|
|Jurassic Park (Jurassic Park, #1)||Michael Crichton||★★★★||2006|
|Cloud Atlas||David Mitchell||★★★★||2004|
|The Eye of the World (Wheel of Time, #1)||Robert Jordan||★★★★||1990|
|The Way Things Are: The De Rerum Natura||Lucretius||★★★★||1968|
|Tao Te Ching||Lao Tsu||★★★★||1997|
|A Modest Proposal||Jonathan Swift||★★★★||2008|
|The Myth of Sisyphus||Albert Camus||★★★★||2000|
|Common Sense||Thomas Paine||★★★★||2005|
|Startide Rising (The Uplift Saga, #2)||David Brin||★★★★||1984|
|What Technology Wants||Kevin Kelly||★★★★||2010|
|A Book of Five Rings: The Classic Guide to Strategy||Miyamoto Musashi||★★★★||1988||2004/01/01|
|Freedom Evolves||Daniel C. Dennett||★★★★||2004|
|The Wisdom of Crowds||James Surowiecki||★★★★||2005|
|Harry Potter and the Methods of Rationality||Eliezer Yudkowsky||★★★★||2010|
|Crime and Punishment||Fyodor Dostoyevsky||★★★★||2002|
|The Name of the Wind (The Kingkiller Chronicle, #1)||Patrick Rothfuss||★★★★||2007|
|The Door Into Summer||Robert A. Heinlein||★★★★||1997|
|The Last Unicorn (The Last Unicorn, #1)||Peter S. Beagle||★★★★||2008||1998/01/01|
|Perdido Street Station (Bas-Lag, #1)||China Miéville||★★★★||2003|
|Foundation and Empire (Foundation, #2)||Isaac Asimov||★★★★||2004|
|Fahrenheit 451||Ray Bradbury||★★★★||2006|
|Darwin’s Radio (Darwin’s Radio #1)||Greg Bear||★★★★||2003|
|Blue Mars (Mars Trilogy, #3)||Kim Stanley Robinson||★★★★||1997|
|Neuromancer (Sprawl, #1)||William Gibson||★★★★||1984|
|Stranger in a Strange Land||Robert A. Heinlein||★★★★||1991|
|The Forever War (The Forever War, #1)||Joe Haldeman||★★★★||2003|
|Never Let Me Go||Kazuo Ishiguro||★★★★||2010|
|The Man in the High Castle||Philip K. Dick||★★★★||1992|
|The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress||Robert A. Heinlein||★★★★||2005|
|Old Man’s War (Old Man’s War, #1)||John Scalzi||★★★★||2007|
|To Your Scattered Bodies Go (Riverworld, #1)||Philip José Farmer||★★★★||1998|
|Childhood’s End||Arthur C. Clarke||★★★★||1987|
|Consider Phlebas (Culture, #1)||Iain M. Banks||★★★★||2005|
|The Running Man||Stephen King||★★★★||1999|
|On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft||Stephen King||★★★★||2002|
|Charlotte’s Web||E.B. White||★★★★||2001|
|The War of the Worlds||H.G. Wells||★★★★||2002|
|The Years of Rice and Salt||Kim Stanley Robinson||★★★★||2003|
|Little Town on the Prairie (Little House, #7)||Laura Ingalls Wilder||★★★★||2007|
|Little House on the Prairie (Little House, #2)||Laura Ingalls Wilder||★★★★||2008|
|Little House in the Big Woods (Little House, #1)||Laura Ingalls Wilder||★★★★||2007|
|Tokyo Zodiac Murders (Detective Mitarai’s Casebook)||Soji Shimada||★★★★||2005|
|V for Vendetta||Alan Moore||★★★★||2005|
|Der Mond: The Art of Neon Genesis Evangelion||Yoshiyuki Sadamoto||★★★★||2006|
|Neon Genesis Evangelion, Vol. 01||Yoshiyuki Sadamoto||★★★★||2004|
|Yotsuba&!, Vol. 01 (Yotsuba&! #1)||Kiyohiko Azuma||★★★★||2005|
|From Hell||Alan Moore||★★★★||2007|
|The Invisibles, Vol. 7: The Invisible Kingdom||Grant Morrison||★★★★||2002|
|The Invisibles, Vol. 6: Kissing Mister Quimper||Grant Morrison||★★★★||2000|
|The Invisibles, Vol. 1: Say You Want a Revolution||Grant Morrison||★★★★||1996|
|Batman: The Dark Knight Returns||Frank Miller||★★★★||2002|
|Y: The Last Man, Vol. 1: Unmanned (Y: The Last Man, #1)||Brian K. Vaughan||★★★★||2003|
|Flight, Vol. 1 (Flight, #1)||Kazu Kibuishi||★★★★||2004|
|Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (Harry Potter, #2)||J.K. Rowling||★★★★||1999|
|Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (Harry Potter, #5)||J.K. Rowling||★★★★||2004|
|Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (Harry Potter, #3)||J.K. Rowling||★★★★||2004|
|The Diary of a Young Girl||Anne Frank||★★★★||1993|
|The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution||Gregory Cochran||★★★★||2009|
|The Tale of Genji||Murasaki Shikibu||★★★★||2002|
|I Am a Cat||Sōseki Natsume||★★★★||2001||2014/01/16|
|The Silence of the Lambs (Hannibal Lecter, #2)||Thomas Harris||★★★★||2002|
|Flowers for Algernon||Daniel Keyes||★★★★||2005|
|The Anubis Gates||Tim Powers||★★★★||1997|
|Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed||Jared Diamond||★★★★||2005|
|The Hunting of the Snark||Lewis Carroll||★★★★||2010|
|Philosophical Investigations||Ludwig Wittgenstein||★★★★||2001|
|Reave the Just and Other Tales||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★★||2000|
|The Gap Into Vision: Forbidden Knowledge (Gap, #2)||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★★||2010|
|The Gap Into Conflict: The Real Story (Gap, #1)||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★★||1992|
|The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, the Unbeliever (The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, #1-3)||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★★||1993|
|A Man Rides Through||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★★||2003|
|The Mirror of Her Dreams||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★★||2003|
|The Illearth War (The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant the Unbeliever, #2)||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★★||1989|
|Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies||Jared Diamond||★★★★||2005|
|The Art of War||Sun Tzu||★★★★||2005|
|Coup d’État: A Practical Handbook||Edward N. Luttwak||★★★★||1979|
|Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto||Stewart Brand||★★★★||2009|
|How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They’re Built||Stewart Brand||★★★★||1995|
|The Return of the King (The Lord of the Rings, #3)||J.R.R. Tolkien||★★★★||1986|
|The Silmarillion (Middle-Earth Universe)||J.R.R. Tolkien||★★★★||2004|
|All Quiet on the Western Front||Erich Maria Remarque||★★★★||1987|
|The Count of Monte Cristo||Alexandre Dumas||★★★★||2003|
|Good Omens: The Nice and Accurate Prophecies of Agnes Nutter, Witch||Terry Pratchett||★★★★||2006|
|Night Watch (Discworld, #29)||Terry Pratchett||★★★★||2011|
|Hogfather (Discworld, #20)||Terry Pratchett||★★★★||2006|
|The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (Oz, #1)||L. Frank Baum||★★★★||1995|
|The Picture of Dorian Gray||Oscar Wilde||★★★★||1998|
|2001: A Space Odyssey (Space Odyssey, #1)||Arthur C. Clarke||★★★★||2000|
|Lord of Light||Roger Zelazny||★★★★||2010|
|The Little Prince||Antoine de Saint-Exupéry||★★★★||2000|
|The Man-Kzin Wars (Man-Kzin Wars, #1)||Larry Niven||★★★★||2006|
|Tales of Known Space: The Universe of Larry Niven||Larry Niven||★★★★||1981|
|The Gripping Hand (Moties #2)||Larry Niven||★★★★||1994|
|The Mote in God’s Eye (Moties, #1)||Larry Niven||★★★★||2011|
|Mother Earth Mother Board||Neal Stephenson||★★★★||1996|
|The Big U||Neal Stephenson||★★★★||2001|
|The Hunt for Red October (Jack Ryan, #3)||Tom Clancy||★★★★||1999|
|Tao of Jeet Kune Do||Bruce Lee||★★★★||1975|
|A Brief History of Time||Stephen Hawking||★★★★||1998|
|The Diamond Age||Neal Stephenson||★★★★||2000|
|The Instrumentality of Mankind (Instrumentality of Mankind)||Cordwainer Smith||★★★★||1979|
|The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature||Matt Ridley||★★★★||2003|
|Ender’s Shadow (Ender’s Shadow, #1)||Orson Scott Card||★★★★||2002|
|Quantum Psychology: How Brain Software Programs You & Your World||Robert Anton Wilson||★★★★||1993|
|Schrödinger’s Cat Trilogy (Schrödinger’s Cat, #1-3)||Robert Anton Wilson||★★★★||2009|
|Animal Farm||George Orwell||★★★★||2003|
|The Poisonwood Bible||Barbara Kingsolver||★★★★||2005|
|A Clockwork Orange||Anthony Burgess||★★★★||1995|
|Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry Into Values||Robert M. Pirsig||★★★★||2006|
|The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable||Nassim Nicholas Taleb||★★★★||2007|
|Blood Meridian, or the Evening Redness in the West||Cormac McCarthy||★★★★||1992|
|Oh, The Places You’ll Go!||Dr. Seuss||★★★★||1990|
|Mindfulness in Plain English||Henepola Gunaratana||★★★★||1996|
|Gates of Fire: An Epic Novel of the Battle of Thermopylae||Steven Pressfield||★★★★||2005|
|King Rat (Asian Saga, #1)||James Clavell||★★★★||2009|
|Noble House (Asian Saga, #4)||James Clavell||★★★★||1986|
|Tai-Pan (Asian Saga, #2)||James Clavell||★★★★||2009|
|Learning GNU Emacs||Debra Cameron||★★★★||2004|
|The Soul of a New Machine||Tracy Kidder||★★★★||2000|
|The Fires of Heaven (Wheel of Time, #5)||Robert Jordan||★★★★||1994|
|Lord of Chaos (Wheel of Time, #6)||Robert Jordan||★★★★||1995|
|The Prince||Niccolò Machiavelli||★★★★||2003|
|The Origin of Species||Charles Darwin||★★★★||2004|
|Foundation (Foundation, #1)||Isaac Asimov||★★★★||2004|
|Stealing the Network: How to Own the Box||Ryan Russell||★★★★||2003|
|Feynman Lectures On Computation||Richard P. Feynman||★★★★||2000|
|The Book of Fantasy||Jorge Luis Borges||★★★★||1988|
|Selected Poems||Jorge Luis Borges||★★★★||2000|
|Gateway (Heechee Saga, #1)||Frederik Pohl||★★★★||2004|
|Tales from the Empire (Star Wars)||Peter Schweighofer||★★★★||1997|
|Flatterland: Like Flatland Only More So||Ian Stewart||★★★★||2002|
|The Dying Earth||Jack Vance||★★★★||1977|
|Tales from Jabba’s Palace (Star Wars)||Kevin J. Anderson||★★★★||1995|
|Tales from the Mos Eisley Cantina (Star Wars)||Kevin J. Anderson||★★★★||1995|
|Tales of the Bounty Hunters (Star Wars)||Kevin J. Anderson||★★★★||1996|
|Champions of the Force (Star Wars: The Jedi Academy Trilogy, #3)||Kevin J. Anderson||★★★★||1994|
|Jedi Search (Star Wars: The Jedi Academy Trilogy, #1)||Kevin J. Anderson||★★★★||1994|
|Maker of Dune||Frank Herbert||★★★★||1987|
|Under Pressure||Frank Herbert||★★★★||1979|
|The Road to Dune (Dune Universe)||Frank Herbert||★★★★||2006|
|The Dosadi Experiment (ConSentiency Universe, #2)||Frank Herbert||★★★★||2002|
|God Emperor of Dune (Dune Chronicles, #4)||Frank Herbert||★★★★||2003|
|Frank Herbert||William F. Touponce||★★★★||1988|
|Prayers to Broken Stones||Dan Simmons||★★★★||1997|
|How to Measure Anything: Finding the Value of “Intangibles” in Business||Douglas W. Hubbard||★★★★||2010|
|Consider the Lobster and Other Essays||David Foster Wallace||★★★★||2005|
|The City & the City||China Miéville||★★★★||2009|
|The Scar (Bas-Lag, #2)||China Miéville||★★★★||2004|
|The Hero of Ages (Mistborn, #3)||Brandon Sanderson||★★★★||2008|
|Mistborn: The Final Empire (Mistborn, #1)||Brandon Sanderson||★★★★||2006|
|A Wild Sheep Chase (The Rat, #3)||Haruki Murakami||★★★★||2002||2008/08/15|
|Kafka on the Shore||Haruki Murakami||★★★★||2006|
|The Name of the Rose||Umberto Eco||★★★★||1994|
|Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell||Susanna Clarke||★★★★||2006|
|The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals||Michael Pollan||★★★★||2006|
|The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe (Chronicles of Narnia, #1)||C.S. Lewis||★★★★||2005|
|I, Robot (Robot, #0.1)||Isaac Asimov||★★★★||2004|
|Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind||Hans Moravec||★★★★||2000|
|Brave New World||Aldous Huxley||★★★★||2008|
|Ubik||Philip K. Dick||★★★★||2004|
|Dragon Venom (Obsidian Chronicles #3)||Lawrence Watt-Evans||★★★★||2004|
|The Dragon Society (Obsidian Chronicles, Book 2)||Lawrence Watt-Evans||★★★★||2003|
|Dragon Weather (Obsidian Chronicles #1)||Lawrence Watt-Evans||★★★★||2000||2008/08/11|
|The Misenchanted Sword||Lawrence Watt-Evans||★★★★||2000|
|Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge||Paul Karl Feyerabend||★★★★||1993|
|The World of Parmenides||Karl Popper||★★★★||2001|
|Playing to Win: Becoming the Champion||David Sirlin||★★★★||2006|
|The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language||Steven Pinker||★★★★||2000|
|The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature||Steven Pinker||★★★★||2003|
|The Strategy of Conflict||Thomas C. Schelling||★★★★||1981|
|The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark||Carl Sagan||★★★★||1997|
|The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture||Jerome H. Barkow||★★★★||1995|
|Annals of Klepsis||R.A. Lafferty||★★★★||2001|
|The Fall of Rome||R.A. Lafferty||★★★★||1971|
|The Reefs of Earth||R.A. Lafferty||★★★★||1977|
|Okla Hannali||R.A. Lafferty||★★★★||1991|
|Nine Hundred Grandmothers||R.A. Lafferty||★★★★||1970|
|The Hobbit or There and Back Again||J.R.R. Tolkien||★★★★||1997|
|The Tao Is Silent||Raymond M. Smullyan||★★★★||1977|
|The Absolute Sandman, Vol. 4||Neil Gaiman||★★★★||2008|
|The Absolute Sandman, Vol. 3||Neil Gaiman||★★★★||2008||2008/06/26|
|The Sandman, Vol. 10: The Wake (The Sandman #10)||Neil Gaiman||★★★★||1999|
|The Sandman, Vol. 8: Worlds’ End (The Sandman, #8)||Neil Gaiman||★★★★||1999|
|The Sandman, Vol. 9: The Kindly Ones (The Sandman #9)||Neil Gaiman||★★★★||1999|
|The Sandman, Vol. 7: Brief Lives (The Sandman #7)||Neil Gaiman||★★★★||1999|
|The Sandman, Vol. 5: A Game of You (The Sandman #5)||Neil Gaiman||★★★★||1999|
|The Sandman, Vol. 4: Season of Mists (The Sandman #4)||Neil Gaiman||★★★★||1999|
|The Sandman, Vol. 3: Dream Country (The Sandman #3)||Neil Gaiman||★★★★||1999|
|The Sandman, Vol. 2: The Doll’s House (The Sandman #2)||Neil Gaiman||★★★★||1999|
|Anansi Boys||Neil Gaiman||★★★★||2006|
|Lexicon Urthus: A Dictionary for the Urth Cycle||Michael Andre-Driussi||★★★★||2008|
|The Sandman, Vol. 6: Fables & Reflections (The Sandman, #6)||Neil Gaiman||★★★★||1993|
|The Island of Dr. Death and Other Stories and Other Stories||Gene Wolfe||★★★★||1997|
|Soldier of the Mist||Gene Wolfe||★★★★||1987|
|Epiphany of the Long Sun (The Book of the Long Sun, #3-4)||Gene Wolfe||★★★★||2000|
|Litany of the Long Sun (The Book of the Long Sun, #1-2)||Gene Wolfe||★★★★||2000|
|The Fifth Head of Cerberus||Gene Wolfe||★★★★||1994|
|The Citadel of the Autarch (The Book of the New Sun #4)||Gene Wolfe||★★★★||1983|
|The Urth of the New Sun (The Book of the New Sun #5)||Gene Wolfe||★★★★||1997|
|The Claw of the Conciliator (The Book of the New Sun #2)||Gene Wolfe||★★★★||1982|
|Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology||K. Eric Drexler||★★★★||1987|
|Introduction to Algorithms||Thomas H. Cormen||★★★★||2001|
|Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems, and the Economic World||Kevin Kelly||★★★★||1995|
|Free Culture: The Nature and Future of Creativity||Lawrence Lessig||★★★★||2005|
|Burning Chrome||William Gibson||★★★★||2003||2008/08/26|
|Consciousness Explained||Daniel C. Dennett||★★★★||1992|
|Metamagical Themas: Questing For The Essence Of Mind And Pattern||Douglas R. Hofstadter||★★★★||1996|
|The Meme Machine||Susan J. Blackmore||★★★★||2000|
|Founders at Work: Stories of Startups’ Early Days||Jessica Livingston||★★★★||2007|
|Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution||Steven Levy||★★★★||2001|
|The Cuckoo’s Egg: Tracking a Spy Through the Maze of Computer Espionage||Clifford Stoll||★★★★||2005|
|All The Myriad Ways||Larry Niven||★★★★||1971|
|Blood Music||Greg Bear||★★★★||2005|
|Beggars in Spain (Sleepless, #1)||Nancy Kress||★★★★||2004|
|Look to Windward (Culture, #7)||Iain M. Banks||★★★★||2002|
|Infinity’s Shore (Uplift Storm Trilogy, #2)||David Brin||★★★★||1997|
|In the Ocean of Night (Galactic Center, #1)||Gregory Benford||★★★★||2004|
|Beyond the Blue Event Horizon (Heechee Saga, #2)||Frederik Pohl||★★★★||2000|
|Mission of Gravity (Mesklin, #1)||Hal Clement||★★★★||1953|
|The Rise of Endymion (Hyperion Cantos, #4)||Dan Simmons||★★★★||1998|
|Green Mars (Mars Trilogy, #2)||Kim Stanley Robinson||★★★★||1995|
|The Uplift War (The Uplift Saga, #3)||David Brin||★★★★||1987|
|The Gap Into Power: A Dark and Hungry God Arises (Gap, #3)||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★★||2009|
|Beggars and Choosers (Sleepless, #2)||Nancy Kress||★★★★||1996|
|Tea with the Black Dragon (Black Dragon, #1)||R.A. MacAvoy||★★★★||2001|
|The Sword of the Lictor (The Book of the New Sun #3)||Gene Wolfe||★★★★||1986|
|The Wise Man’s Fear (The Kingkiller Chronicle, #2)||Patrick Rothfuss||★★★★||2011|
|Stone of Tears (Sword of Truth, #2)||Terry Goodkind||★★★★||1995|
|The Well of Ascension (Mistborn, #2)||Brandon Sanderson||★★★★||2007|
|Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, and Sir Orfeo||Unknown||★★★★||1995|
|The Hobbit: Graphic Novel||Chuck Dixon||★★★★||1990|
|The Dragon Reborn (Wheel of Time, #3)||Robert Jordan||★★★★||2002|
|Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone (Harry Potter, #1)||J.K. Rowling||★★★★||2003|
|The Media Lab: Inventing the Future at M.I.T.||Stewart Brand||★★★||1988||2010/01/01||A well-done bit of technological investigation & prognostication, now very dated & historical. That said, enough time has passed since 1988 to enable us to judge the basic truthfulness of a lot of the predictions and expectations held by the dreamers such as Nicholas Negroponte: & they were remarkably accurate!
If you aren’t struck by a sense of déjà vu or pity when you read this book, compare the people at the Media Lab with contemporary works like Cliff Stoll’s Silicon Snake Oil, & you’ll see how right they were.
But the sad thing is noting how few future millionaires & billionaires grace the page of TML - one quickly realizes that yes, person X was absolutely 100% right about Y happening even when everyone thought that was insane, but X was off by a few years & jumped the gun & so Z was the person who wound up taking all the spoils. I read it constantly thinking ‘yes, you were right, for all the good it did you’ or ‘not quite, it’d actually take another decade for that to really work out’.
“If you’re so smart, why aren’t you rich?” The lesson I draw is: it is not enough to predict the future, one has to get the timing right to not be ruined. To borrow from my LW comments (1/2/3):
A good idea will draw overly-optimistic entrepreneurs to it like moths to a flame: all get immolated but the one with the dumb luck to kiss the flame at the perfect instant. (How many payment startup were there before Paypal? How many social networks before Facebook? How many search engines before Google?) How can you catch a falling knife?
Many ‘bubbles’ can be interpreted as people being 100% correct the future - but missing the timing (Thiel’s article on China & bubbles, The Economist on obscure property booms, Garber’s Famous First Bubbles). Consider the ill-fated Pets.com: was the investor right to believe that Americans would spend a ton of money online such as for buying dogfood? Absolutely, Amazon (which has rarely turned a profit & has sucked up far more investment than Pets.com ever did) is a successful online retail business that stocks thousands of dog food varieties, to say nothing of all the other pet-related goods it sells. But the value of Pets.com stock still went to ~$0. Many startups have a long list of failed predecessors who tried to do pretty much the same thing, & what made them a success was that they happened to give the pinata a whack at the exact moment where some cost curves or events hit the right point. (Facebook is the biggest archive of photographs there has ever been, with truly colossal storage requirements; could it have succeeded in the 1990s? No, & not even later, as demonstrated by Orkut & Friendster, & the lingering death of MySpace.) You can read books from the past about tech visionaries & note how many of them were spot-on in their beliefs about what would happen (The Media Lab is a great example, but far from the only one) but where a person would have been ill-advised to act on the correct forecasts. Or look at computers: imagine an early adopter of an Apple computer saying ‘everyone will use computers eventually!’ Yes, but not for another few decades, & ‘in the long run, we are all dead’.
Examples of this pop up all the time. I watched impressed recently as my aunt used the iPhone application FaceTime to videophone with her daughter half a continent away, & though about how people were disappointed by the failure of videophones in the ‘90s & previous & then concluded that perhaps people didn’t really want videophones at all - but really, it looks like the videophones back then simply weren’t good enough! & I’ve noticed geeks express wonderment at the Oculus Rift looking like it’ll bring Virtual Reality to the masses, & won’t that be a real kick in the teeth for Cliff Stoll or Jaron Lanier (who gave up VR for dead ages ago & has earned his daily bread being court jester to the elites & criticizing them)?
Smartphones are an even bigger example of this. How often did I read in the ’90s & early ’00s about how amazing Japanese cellphones were & how amazing a good smartphone would be, even though year after year the phones were jokes & used pretty much solely for voice? You can even see the smartphones come up again & again in TML, as the visionaries realize how transformative a mobile pocket-sized computer would be. Yet, it took until the mid-00s for the promise of smartphones to materialize overnight. I was reminded of this recently reading an interview with Eric Jackson:
Q: What’s your take on how they’re [Apple] handling their expansion into China, India, & other emerging markets?
Or to look at VR; a recent The Verge article on VR took a historical look back at past efforts, & what’s striking is that VR was arguably thought of back in the 1950s or so, more than half a century before the computing power or monitors were remotely close to what was needed for truly usable VR. The idea of VR was that obvious, it was that overdetermined, & so compelling that VR pioneers resemble nothing so much as moths to the flame, garnering grants in the hopes that this time things will improve. & of course, the money was largely wasted, because researchers can spend arbitrary amounts of money on topics without anything to show for it. Scott Fisher:
“I ended up doing more work in Japan than anything else because Japan in general is so tech-smitten & obsessed that they just love [VR]. The Japanese government in general was funding research, building huge research complexes just to focus on this. There were huge initiatives while there was nothing happening in the US. I ended up moving to Japan & working there for many years.”
Indeed, this would have around the Japanese boondoggle the Fifth Generation Project (note that despite Japan’s prowess at robotics, it is not Japan’s robots who went into Fukushima / flying around the Middle East / revolutionizing agriculture & construction). All those ’huge initiatives’ and…? Don’t ask Fisher, he’s hardly going to say, “yes, all the money was completely wasted, we were trying to do it too soon”. Researchers in general have no incentive to say, “this is not the right time, wait another 20 years for Moore’s law to make it doable”, even if everyone in the field is perfectly aware of this - Palmer Luckey:
“I spent a huge amount of time reading…I think that there were a lot of people that were giving VR too much credit, because they were working as VR researchers. You don’t want to publish a paper that says, ‘After the study, we came to the conclusion that VR is useless right now & that we should just not have a job for 20 years.’ There were a few people that basically came to that conclusion. They said, ‘Current VR gear is low field of view, high lag, too expensive, too heavy, can’t be driven properly from consumer-grade computers, or even professional-grade computers.’ It turned out that I wasn’t the first person to realize these problems. They’d been known for decades.”
And Lanier implies that Japan alone spent a lot of money:
Jaron Lanier: “The components have finally gotten cheap enough that we can start to talk about them as being accessible in the way that everybody’s always wanted…Moore’s law is so interesting because it’s not just the same components getting cheaper, but it really changes the way you do things. For instance, in the old days, in order to tell where your head was so that you could position virtual content to be standing still relative to you, we used to have to use some kind of external reference point, which might be magnetic, ultrasonic, or optical. These days you put some kind of camera on the head & look around in the room & it just calculates where you are - the headsets are self-sufficient instead of relying on an external reference infrastructure. That was inconceivable before because it would have been just so expensive to do that calculation. Moore’s law really just changes again & again, it re-factors your options in really subtle & interesting ways.”
Michael Wolfe offers some examples of this:
Thiel (Zero to One): “Every moment in business happens only once. The next Bill Gates will not build an operating system. The next Larry Page or Sergey Brin won’t make a search engine. And the next Mark Zuckerberg won’t create a social network. If you are copying these guys, you aren’t learning from them.”; this is precisely the opposite of reality: Bill Gates was not the first & only Gates, he was the last Gates; many people made huge fortunes off OSes, both before & after Gates - you may have forgotten Wang, but hopefully you remember Steve Jobs (before, Mac) & Steve Jobs (after, NeXt). Mark Zuckerberg was not the first & only Zuckerberg, he was the last Zuckerberg; many people made fortunes before him - maybe Orkut didn’t make its Google inventor a fortune, but you can bet that Myspace’s DeWolfe & Anderson did well. & there were plenty of lucrative search engine founders (is Jerry Yang a billionaire? Yes.)
Certainty is irrelevant, you still have problems making use of this knowledge. Example: in retrospect, we know everyone wanted computers, OSes, social networks - but the history of them is strewn with flaming rubble. Suppose you somehow knew in 2000 that “in 2010, the founder of the most successful social network will be worth at least $10b”; this is a falsifiable belief at odds with all conventional wisdom & about a tech that blindsided everyone. Yet, how useful would this knowledge be, really? What would you do with it? Do you have the capital to start a VC & throw multi-million-dollar investments at every social media until finally in 2010 you knew for sure that Facebook was the winning ticket & could cash out in the IPO? I doubt it.
It’s difficult to invest . There is no convenient CMPTR you can buy 100 shares of & hold indefinitely to capture gains from your optimism about computers. IBM & Apple both went nearly bankrupt at points, & Microsoft’s stock has been flat since 1999 or whenever (translating to huge real losses & opportunity costs to long-term holders of it). If you knew for certain that Facebook would be as huge as it was, what stocks, exactly, could you have invested in, pre-IPO, to capture gains from its growth? Remember, you don’t know anything else about the tech landscape in the 2000s, like that Google will go way up from its IPO, you don’t know about Apple’s revival under Jobs - all you know is that a social network will exist & will grow hugely. The best I can think of would be to sell any Murdoch stock you owned when you heard they were buying MySpace, but offhand I’m not sure that Murdoch didn’t just stagnate rather than drop as MySpace increasingly turned out to be a writeoff. In the hypothetical that you didn’t know the name of the company, you might’ve bought up a bunch of Google stock hoping that Orkut would be the winner, but while that would’ve been a decent investment (yay!) it would have had nothing to do with Orkut (awww!); illustrating the problem with highly illiquid markets in some areas…
And even when there are stocks available to buy, you only benefit based on the specifics - like one of the existing stocks being a winner, rather than all the stocks being eaten by some new startup. Let’s imagine a different scenario, where instead you were confident that home robotics were about to experience a huge growth spurt. Is this even nonpublic knowledge at all? The world economy grows at something like 2% a year, labor costs generally seem to go up, prices of computers & robotics usually falls… Do industry projections expect to grow their sales by <25% a year?
But say that the market is wrongly pessimistic. If so, you might spend some of your hypothetical money on whatever the best approximation to a robotics index fund you can find, as the best of a bunch of bad choices. (Checking a few random entries in Wikipedia, maybe a fifth of the companies are publicly traded, so… that will be a pretty small index.) Suppose the home robotic growth were concentrated in a single private company which exploded into the billions of annual revenue & took away the market share of all the others, forcing them to go bankrupt or merge or shrink. Home robotics will have increased just as you believed - keikaku doori! - yet your ‘index fund’ gone bankrupt (reindex when one of the robotics companies collapses? Reindex into what,? Another doomed firm?). Then after your special knowledge has become public knowledge, the robotics company goes public, & by the Efficient Market Hypothesis, their shares then become a normal gamble where you could easily fail to outperform.
(Is this impossibly rare? Well, it sounds like Facebook! They grew fast, roflstomped other social networks, stayed private, & post-IPO, I believe investors have done the opposite of profit.)
And to make matter worse, because of the winner-take-all dynamics, there’s no way to solve the coordination problem of just holding off on an approach until the prerequisites are in place: entrepreneurs & founders will be hurling themselves at an obvious goal like social networks or VR constantly, just on the off chance that maybe the prerequisites just became adequate & they’ll be able to eat everyone’s lunch. A predictable waste of money, perhaps, but that’s how the incentives work out. The first person to try at the right time may win the lottery; Palmer Luckey (founder of Oculus, sold to Facebook for ~$2 billion):
“Here’s a secret: the thing stopping people from making good VR & solving these problems was not technical. Someone could have built the Rift in mid-to-late 2007 for a few thousand dollars, & they could have built it in mid-2008 for about $500. It’s just nobody was paying attention to that.”
(At the margin, compared to other competitors in the VR space, did Luckey & co really create $2b+ of new value? Or were they lucky in trying at the right time?)
It’s a weird perspective to take, but we can think of other technologies which may be like this.
Bitcoin is a topical example: it’s still in the early stages where it looks either like a genius stroke to invest in, or a fool’s paradise/Ponzi scheme. We see what looks like a bubble as the price inflates from ~$0 to $130 as I write this, which look like a bubble - yet, if Bitcoin were the Real Deal, we would expect large price increases as people learn of it & it directly gains value from increased use, an ecosystem slowly unlocking the fancy cryptographic features, etc.
Or take niche visionary technologies: if cryonics was correct in principal, yet turned out to be worthless for everyone doing it before 2030 (because the wrong perfusion techniques or cryopreservatives were used & some critical bit of biology was not vitrified) while practical post-2030 say, it would simply be yet another technology where visionaries were ultimately right despite all nay-saying & skepticism from normals but nevertheless wrong in a practical sense because they jumped on it too early, & so they wasted their money.
When a knife drops, a fraction of a second divides a brilliant save from an emergency-room visit. The ‘bleeding edge’.
|Pioneers of Soviet Computing||Boris Nikolaevich Malinovsky||★★★||2010||2014/07/06||This review is based on the 2010 online 2nd edition: http://www.sigcis.org/files/SIGCISMC2010_001.pdf
Malinovsky (b1921) is a Russian/Ukrainian who began working on computers as a grad student in the 1950s in the USSR. His book is a mix of personal reminiscences, short biographies, primary documents & long quotations from memoirs, a diary contrasting ‘40s/’50s to his life in the ’90s after a heart problem sent him to the hospital, and in this American edition a preface explaining the circumstances of an online release & appendix containing a few academic reviews of the English-translation manuscript.
As such, it is unique. The early American development of computing has been covered well & in detail by works such as Dyson’s Turing’s Cathedral, but Russian development is shrouded in obscurity. Before reading PoSS, about the only thing I knew about Soviet computing was that there wasn’t much of it & that they had tried an interesting experiment in not binary but trinary or ternary-based computers, the Setun. Any attempt to give an overview of the history is bound to be interesting. It also vividly conveys the oppression that they worked under: blacklisting of people for trivial reasons like having an unusual Greek surname, discouragement of Jews, stringent security checks (why? given that no one in the world cared), difficulty in acquiring parts, expensive production, opaque bureaucratic decision-making about what projects to fund & the consequence reliance on military sponsorship to cut through red tape… (but also some of the benefits, like spies & industrial espionage of American projects).
That said, the informativeness is limited by the chaotic organization of topics, bouncing from person to person. This book would have benefited a good deal from some graphs or timelines to help one keep things straight, especially as PoSS spends a lot of time on the many overlapping projects in the ’40s-’50s to develop varying flavors of computers. For example, I often found myself confusing Lebedev with other pioneers. (The confusing nondescriptness of many organizations’ names also didn’t help.) Malinovsky also deliberately limits the discussion to computer hardware, mentioning that “Beyond the scope of this book is the whole range of Soviet software developed during the Cold War and the distinguished scientists behind it, this including A.A. Lyapunov, M.R. Shura-Bura, A.P. Ershov, V.M. Kurochkin, E.L. Yuschenko, and others”; unfortunately, it is the software developments which would still be comprehensible & of interest to technical readers, whose eyes glaze over at the endless mentions of hardware details like one kind of semiconductor chip vs a slightly larger kind of semiconductor chip; worse, it is difficult to evaluate hardware achievements without information about the software which ran on it, since code & hardware are a continuum (anyone can design an ultra-fast computer which is a nightmare to write for; indeed, that has oft happened).
Paton writes “Lebedev suggested that his students prepare and publish materials about the formation and development of computer technology in the Soviet Union. ‘In the West, they consider us to be worse than we really are. We have to change their opinion of us’, he said. Unfortunately, his idea was not properly implemented at that time and only now has been embodied in this book.” Indeed… In his attempt, Malinovsky omits perspective/context & is biased, which overall render the book more a source for future historians writing a history of Soviet computing than a history itself. Malinovsky patriotically protests
…the establishment and development of computer technology in the USSR advanced in the post-war years virtually without any contact with the Western scientists. The development of computers abroad was conducted secretly because at first, digital electronic computers were designated for military purposes. At the same time, the computer technology in the USSR evolved independently as well, led by top Soviet scientists.
Despite repeated quotes how they would avidly study American publications for any available details! If he cannot say a Soviet computer is faster, then it used less parts, or was more reliable, or was built quicker, or a cluster of 76 (!) was faster than an American supercomputer… In the biographies, each & every pioneer is hardworking, kind, modest, attentive, & loyal, & how each created computers in breathtakingly short times & how every computer seemed to operate perfectly & be competitive with the fastest American machines, & how many superlatives each super pioneer deserved (backed up by endless mentions of awards that they received, or occasionally, didn’t receive due to bureaucratic sabotage). As the Abbate review notes, “Occasionally the prose takes on a heroic or patriotic tone that may be jarring to American readers (though quite common in its Russian/Ukrainian context).” More importantly, through the book Malinovsky damns following the IBM 360 paradigm rather than continuing domestic lines of development; the Slava review:
As a participant first-hand account, Malinovsky’s book is both valuable & problematic. Like any other personal account, it is prone to certain biases. When Malinovsky touches upon controversial topics, he often provides only one side of the story. For example, the rivalry between the two first Soviet large-size digital computer projects, the BESM & the STRELA, is narrated largely from the viewpoint of the BESM camp. A historian would have written a more balanced account. Other topics that may require a historiographic commentary include the wide introduction of automated control systems actively promoted by the director of the Institute of Cybernetics in Kiev Viktor Glushkov (many observers claimed that this campaign led to inefficiency & waste) or the controversy over the decision to build the Unified Series of Computers that supposedly “copied” IBM 360 (Malinovsky claims that this decision directly led to the “demise” of the Soviet computer industry). In both cases, Malinovsky covers one side of the story in great detail but gives little voice to Glushkov’s critics or to the supporters of the Unified Series, who claimed that Unified Series computers were no copies of IBM but were only software-compatible with IBM & had high performance characteristics. Anne Fitzpatrick’s explanatory comments are very helpful; & it would be very beneficial for the reader if she could also address controversial historiographic issues, either in the endnotes or in the Introduction.
Malinovsky never really justifies his claims, and one wonders. The IBM 360 was a landmark design, successful in the market for all sorts of purposes, and in general, the computing market has been unkind to any attempts to take alternate paths from the current leading contender (the Lisp machines being an example), as by doing so, one cuts oneself off from an entire world of innovation & Moore’s law. (Vigoda: “In practice replacing digital computers with an alternative computing paradigm is a risky proposition. Alternative computing architectures, such as parallel digital computers have not tended to be commercially viable, because Moore’s Law has consistently enabled conventional von Neumann architectures to render alternatives unnecessary. Besides Moore’s Law, digital computing also benefits from mature tools & expertise for optimizing performance at all levels of the system: process technology, fundamental circuits, layout & algorithms. Many engineers are simultaneously working to improve every aspect of digital technology, while alternative technologies like analog computing do not have the same kind of industry juggernaut pushing them forward.”) Isn’t it more likely that Soviet computing could have gone down a dead end & stagnated permanently?
Indeed, there are many signs that Soviet computing could easily have disappeared up its own navel. For example, the parts dealing with Glushkov’s grandiose plans to turn the Soviet economy into a centrally-computer-planned cybernetic program by the 1970s - this sounds like complete idiocy to the modern mind, aware of the full complexity of a modern economy & how inefficient Soviet management was & how centralization inevitably fails & of the incredible computing power needed to efficiently run even a small chunk of the economy like Walmart or Amazon - & yet Malinovsky, even after the fall of the USSR & complete discrediting of centralized economies, seems to think it was a great idea killed by politicians & could have saved the USSR & Glushkov was a prophet rather than a dreamer! It’s no surprise that the politicians were not eager to spend 20 billion rubles on a plan with no guarantee of working. And even has the chutzpah to claim “And now a huge information network - the Internet - is stretching across the Commonwealth of Newly Independent States and around the world, fulfilling Viktor Mikhailovich’s dreams and predictions of forty years ago.” The Glushkov sections also exemplify Malinovsky’s willingness to claim credit for Soviet software achievements but not discuss any of the details, many of which sound like awful ideas or meaningless, leading one to wonder if he doesn’t understand what he’s talking about or just is bad at describing them eg he quotes Glushkov as writing:
What was the difference between Mir & other computers? We considerably upgraded the machine language. However, back then the popular point of view was that machine language must be as simple as possible & the rest would be done by software. We were even mocked for our efforts to develop different computers. The majority of computer scientists in the world believed that it was necessary to develop computer-aided programming, that is, to create software that would help produce other programs.
Yes, that was the popular view then & still is, because it’s right. RISC is still the dominant view of Western computer scientists as baroque CISC architectures are always left in the dust. Glushkov was dead-wrong, but no mention is made of this. Or,
In designing the Mir machines, we had tackled a daring problem - to match the machine language as close as possible to the human language, and here I mean mathematical nonverbal language, though later we made attempts with normal human language. So, we created ‘Analytic,’ a special mathematical language, supported by an internal interpretation system. Mir computers were used in all regions of the Soviet Union. Their creation became an intermediate stage in research aimed at the development of artificial intelligence, since the intelligence realized in them was still fairly primitive. It also looked very impressive when a machine quickly solved independent and dependent integrals, while not many professors of mathematics were able to solve them. In addition, the machine found substitutions, not just the easy ones from tables, but the difficult ones as well…the Mir computer family was quickly developed and put into serial production, receiving high marks from its users. Its creation was a giant step in the development of artificial intelligence in small computers.
In what sense? Solving integrals isn’t much of an accomplishment. What does it mean to “match the machine language as close as possible to the human language”? I’m not aware of any important work in AI stemming from USSR research. Or:
Glushkov proposed a macro-conveyer principle based on the idea that each processor was given a separate task during every step of the computing process, which allowed it to work independently for a long time without the interference from other processors. In 1959, at the Soviet All-Union Conference on Computer Technology in Kiev, Glushkov spoke about the idea of a brain-like computer structure that could be realized when the designers were able to integrate not thousands, but billions of elements with practically limitless connections between them, into a single system. There would also be a confluence of memory and data processing, a system in which data would be processed throughout the memory with a highest possible degree of parallelism in all operations…only the development of new non-Von Neumann computer architecture…would solve the problem of creating a supercomputer with unlimited growth in productivity and progressively more sophisticated hardware. Unfortunately, further research showed that a comprehensive realization of the construction principles of recursive computers and brain-like structures was beyond the level of electronic technology at that time.
Despite being a programmer interested in AI, I have no idea what any of it means. This culminates in idiotic boasting: “Unfortunately, the potential of the Mir computer line was never fully realized. During my 1979 presentation in Novosibirsk on the integration of artificial intelligence into computers, I heard the academician Andrei Ershov criticize the Institute of Cybernetics by saying: ‘If you had not stopped upgrading the Mir family, the USSR would have had the best personal computers in the world.’” No, there was 0 chance. Not in a system as pathological/impoverished/repressed as the USSR was - there were no opportunities for the economies of scale which power microchip development, & if there had, PCs would never have been allowed outside of a few restricted roles. The whole point of the PC revolution in America was that anyone, including little kids who would grow up to be great programmers & entrepreneurs, could access cheap unrestricted computing power for the most trivial of reasons & create whatever they wanted to without friction.
Nor was Glushkov alone. No matter how much dead, he’ll still hold out hope that a dead end is not a dead end. “To this day, Brusentsov maintains that the trinary system is superior to binary, but only time will be able to tell whether or not he is correct” - how long should we wait, exactly? Or from the Setun article, we read that its programming language, DSSP, “was not invented. It was found. That is why DSSP has not versions, but only extensions. Forth is created by practice. DSSP is created by theory. It is not a word.” This is pathological linguistic mysticism, one of the delusions of the 20th century - the idea that language is terribly important & that a better purer language would unlock wasted powers & enable undreamed-of productivity. If we could invent a more logical & compact language, if we could strip out the illusions built into language, if we could come up with a better one, we would solve AI / create world peace / become geniuses etc. What’s the stock trope for becoming superintelligent in 20th century SF? Your own language in which you can convey concepts more efficiently & fast; we see this in Heinlein’s Speedtalk, Anderson’s Brain Wave, even Chiang in (and anything to do with that nebulous cluster of Californian stuff called ), or enthusiasm for conlangs like Loglan/Lojban… it’s why Russian fascists intently studying Ithkuil feel like such an anachronism. It is the fallacy that strong Sapir-Whorf is correct, that languages powerfully shape thoughts rather than channel trivialities like color-name choices. The truth is that specialized languages & notations are indeed powerful, but they always succeed innovation & insight, not precede it: they codify powerful insights & choices, & can only be created after having had the insight they embody. to design a language before the powerful ideas it embodies is to put the cart before the horse. To go from Leibnizian calculus notation to say ‘Lojban will make your life more awesome’ is to ignore the specialization that gave the notation power. There are no general powerful insights you can embody in a language to turn its users into geniuses, although you can take the insights of past geniuses in statistics & design a specialized statistics language which is far better than ordinary language. Learning Ithkuil won’t give you access to any ideas or heuristics you didn’t have before, because natural language is already general & flexible. (Would Newspeak actually work? Consider Gene Wolfe’s counter-example, “Loyal to the Group of Seventeen’s Story - The Just Man” or the Darmoks of Star Trek).
The politics of Soviet computing are interesting. There remains a great deal of lingering guilt & doubt around the Manhattan Project - whether it was really a good thing. scientists working on the SDI missile defense program are even more prickly about whether their work was harmful in destabilizing the precarious peace. One wonders about Russian counterparts: did they regret endeavoring mightily to put atomic bombs in the hands of a psychopath like Stalin? Or assisting bomb & ICBM development to ensure that all of humanity would live under a Damoclean sword? Or how about the environmental consequences, far from limited to Chernobyl. But there is no such doubt in the people Malinovsky quotes: “In retrospect, the rush was justified: possession of such missiles gave our country weapons parity with the United States.”; ‘Once, one of Sergei Alexeevich’s daughters asked him: “Why do you make computers for the military?” He replied: “To avoid a war.”’; etc. Indeed, the worse the USSR treated its researchers, the more loyal & devoted they seemed to become. For example, Rameev saw his grandfather expropriated, his father fatally purged under Stalin & his great invention stolen from him, & Rameev’s conclusion? “a stern voice warned him: ‘Live quietly & don’t contact us ever again!’ At that moment, Rameev understood that he had to do something unusual, outstanding, & very important for his people & nation in order to give his life meaning.” Is that so? Or in the story of the researcher Akushsky who was threatened with summary execution because a plane went down, & who cleverly saves himself by proving it was the pilots’ fault; very amusing, & chilling. Malinovsky blandly remarks at one point, “Things did not go smoothly at first because some Communist leaders overseeing the project remembered that Kisunko was the son of a repressed kulak.”
|A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History||Nicholas Wade||★★★||2014||2014/09/24||Wade’s book is a short fairly breezy overview of population genetics, combined with some long overviews of a few previous works speculating on possible grand historical evolutionary changes in human groups like the Jews. Because he takes seriously all the genetics research, unsurprisingly it’s controversial.
I was waiting eagerly for it to come out to see whether Wade had put together a synthesis for the layman of all the extraordinary research which has been done over the past 20 years and summarized the flood of genetics research which has been unleashed by the crashing price of genome sequencing. I was disappointed. Wade’s book will convince no one: he hits a few highlights, but omits anything like comprehensive coverage of the theoretical and empirical grounds for accepting the laws of behavioral genetics (everything is partially heritable & usually highly polygenic, the effects of shared environment like family socioeconomic status is weak, and the rest of variance is unpredictable noise). All such a short overview can do is inflame the debate, when what is needed is to end it.
Wade doesn’t describe a century of consistent results from twin studies (it’s remarkable that he could write such a book without, as far as I could tell, mentioning Plomin even once!), the missing heritability’s problem resolution by GCTA as due to traits being highly polygenic & affected by rare variants, doesn’t describe the successes of GWAS (for example, to borrow one out-of-date tabulation we now have 23% of Alzheimer’s, 3% bipolar, 13% breast cancer, 25% CAD, 13% Crohn’s disease, 31% prostate cancer, 13% lupus, 14/28% type I/II diabetes; and schizophrenia seem to have recently yielded a bit), and in some cases dramatically understates the state of the art - he confidently predicts that as far as linking genes with intelligence, “that is unlikely to happen anytime soon”, because “each of which [genes] has too small an effect to be detectable with present methods”, citing a well-known paper on the failure of early hits due to small sample sizes, except that at the estimated effect sizes, with reachable sample sizes like 100k SNP samples, the hits were predicted to be detected, and indeed, before A Troublesome Inheritance was even published, the first hits came out and have been replicating well (see Rietveld et al 2013, Rietveld et al 2014, Ward et al 2014, Zhu et al 2015). Another passage I noted with a raised eyebrow argues that a change in a population’s mean of a trait is unimportant since it would be relatively small, which is wrong since that could have a profound impact on the tails of how many members of that population are extremely high or extremely low on that trait, which is something he acknowledges in a later chapter on Jewish intelligence - that their somewhat higher mean intelligence than the surrounding goyim would explain their enormous overrepresentation among geniuses and other elites. When I look through just some of my reading on related subjects over the past year, I find hardly any of it covered:
…Well, I could continue listing fascinating recent research for a while, let’s say. I don’t think Wade does a good job conveying the ferment and output of the field as increasing sample sizes and sophistication are making headway.
And it’s not like he’s omitting the cutting-edge research in favor of a detailed discussion for the layman of what genes are, what terms like “SNPs” or “haplotypes” are, what’s the distinction between your $99 23andMe purchase and the $1000 thing you might otherwise buy, the principles of population genetics like drift, fixation, IQ etc - actually, quite the opposite, he freely talks about variants and genes and only chapters later explains his terms, if at all.
So what is the book about if he isn’t covering those topics? Well, for the most part it seems to be a summary of The 10,000 Year Explosion, Pinker’s Better Angels of Our Nature, Clark’s Farewell to Alms & The Son Also Rises, Fukuyama’s Origins of Political Order, Botticini & Eckstein’s The Chosen Few: How Education Shaped Jewish History, and Cochran’s Ashkenazi intelligence hypothesis. Wade is interested in the possible different selective pressures on each population as they co-evolve with their institutions and environment, sometimes tending towards domestication, sometimes not. His presentation is not terrible, but I think most readers would be better off simply reading the source books (I have read most of them and they are worth reading in their entirety).
|New Legends||Greg Bear||★★★||1996||2013/12/04||New Legends is an anthology of SF stories picked by Bear with an eye toward the psychological & personal lives of scientists/researchers. I purchased a copy of it to look at the novella “Radiance” by Carter Scholz and compare it with the full novel Radiance for the annotated ebook of Radiance I have been working on for a while. That will be its own review, so I will pass over it for now. An unexpected bonus for me was Gregory Benford’s contribution: not a story, but an autobiographical essay “Old Legends” on the real-life background to “Radiance” that he lived through, discussing his physics career, time at LLNL (where “Radiance” is set), experiences with other SF authors in the Reagan-era lobbying for SDI/Star Wars, the Cartmill incident, his admiration of Edward Teller, etc. Scholz clearly drew on Benford for his novella, and so it was unusually interesting for me.
The collection overall is good, but not great. A number of the stories are too clearly the product of early ‘90s anxious liberalism and have not aged well since they were written in 1993 or earlier (~20 years ago), some are half-baked, and some are just bad. A few are very good. They are grouped into thematic sections. To go through them in order (there are many spoilers below):
|A Memory of Light (Wheel of Time, #14)||Robert Jordan||★★★||2013||2013/01/09||So. It has come to this. WoT finally ended.
I remember how the wheel of dharma began to turn for me: my mother ran a Girl Scouts troop while I was in middle school, and sometimes they met at a local town rec center. Rather than try to participate, I would sometimes kill time in the lounge reading their old donated paperbacks. One of them was remarkably thick, but the cover looked interesting, and I was hooked by the opening passages: a Tolkien-esque chapter about a young lad heading back to the Shire and haunted by a Ring-wraith. (Not so much the Prologue, which was too mystifying.) I’d read Tolkien by this point, of course, and wondered if it’d be an awful shameful ripoff like Sword of Shannara, but I kept reading.
The opening was nifty enough but not gripping, at least until I reached Moiraine’s speech to the villagers about Manetheren. I was spellbound and had not been so gripped at least since Tolkien with Gimli’s dirge for the dwarves in the Mines of Moria. And the book didn’t stop there: there was the creepy interlude at the cursed city of Shadar Logoth, the even more creepy Machin Shin of the Waygates, the unusual Templar/Children of the Light, the intriguing uncertainty about which of the kids was the Main Character (you thought it was Rand, of course, as the major viewpoint, but the dreams kept you uncertain - surely the author wouldn’t throw those in if there weren’t a good chance the obvious choice wouldn’t be picked?), the good troll character who is a scholar rather than a warrior, a Western-samurai militaristic setting a whole city of female magicians, Old Tongue on every other page culminating in no less than the Green Man at the Eye of the World (just one of many nods to real-world things). I was impressed as I read it over the weeks, meeting by meeting, and soon checked out the other 6 or so. This was a long time ago. A very long time ago.
Indeed, WoT could be considered Tolkien turned up. Tolkien had a cast of hundreds? WoT would have a cast of thousands! Tolkien had a few countries going to war against a dark lord? WoT would have dozens of countries and regions! Tolkien had two or three scheming magicians? WoT would have scores of scheming magicians, and they would be split into more than a dozen groups, all scheming. Tolkien had one or two trolls? WoT would have trolls too, all over the place, and they’d be the good kind, peaceful scholar; and Tolkien had a character recording events for a history, well, that’s a perfect task for one of the scholar-trolls. Tolkien had a few Ring-wraiths and a big fight against one at the end, well, WoT would have ring-wraiths in every book and they’d be a standard foe (which makes sense given all the magical powers given to every other character: you need to power up the bad guys if you power up the good guys). The Shire would be tainted by evil due to the hero & companions coming from there and eventually have to be led to an uprising? Emond’s Field would never fall and would wage epic battle against Padan Fain et al. And so on.
You couldn’t say that Wheel of Time had the restrained scholarly English sensibility of LotR, but it packed a punch. If LotR was the novel, WoT was the video game or maybe movie adaptation, with everything dialed up to 11 and an unlimited budget for explosions & exotic locations. And it did this very well in the early books. In that sense, it’s an excellent ‘Tolkien for teenagers’. (In another sense, reusing the old ‘hidden prince’ trope of being born to a destiny and with arcane powers, WoT is also good for teens: they’ve long loved that trope, perhaps because at that age they desperately love the idea of being given a defined role and the (unearned) ability to fill it. This trope is perhaps a bit too narcissistic for adults to enjoy as much, although given how popular Frozen has been and how many people, child or adult, claim to identify with Elsa, I may be wrong here.)
One of the lessons I learned from WoT was learning the hard way why one should avoid in-progress series: the mental suffering and time expended is radically out of proportion to the pleasure. (I am handily applying this lesson now to that other endless vast fantasy epic, GRRM. Given my pre-2007 comments that it was entirely possible that Jordan would die before finishing, I wonder how that one will turn out.) Another lesson is that length and a big cast of characters should not be taken as a goal in its own right because you descend into repetition and cliche.
In some sense, Sanderson’s AMoL for me succeeds just by existing and giving me closure. I would be happy if it is not as enraging as King’s ending to The Dark Tower, or as unremittingly awful and a disgrace to all parties involved as Brian Herbert & KJA’s work in the Dune universe. Perhaps all the people on Goodreads who are leaving laudatory 5 star reviews without even reading the book and apparently are ignorant of what a “review” is feel the same way - that as long as it’s not awful, it deserves 5 stars for giving them closure.
And it’s neither enraging nor terribly awful, so I am satisfied.
I share a lot of the complaints I’ve seen in other reviews. Some characters like Moiraine do nothing interesting; others have compressed endings like Luc/Isam and Padan Fain. Bela dies despite an expectation that she would continue her improbable luck. The body-swapping is unprecedented and confusing, since it apparently is not due to Rand indulging in cosmic powers but a mysterious gray-haired woman who I could not understand after two reads and googling a bit. The resolution of confrontation with the Dark One was clever as far as it went, but it relied on a feature of Callandor I am pretty sure was not mentioned before and I feel a bit deus ex machina-d, although I’m relieved that the general interpretation of Herid Fel’s basic point that because of the Wheel, you have to restore the prison to how it was before the Bore (rather than patch it again, kill the Dark One, etc) was correct.
There were many great bits. Rand and Matt bragging in one of their last meetings. Lan taking down Damodred (although didn’t we see the suicidal maneuver in a previous book…). Min vs spies. Demandred and Graendal make the Forsaken look less incompetent than usual. Thom casually knifing women while composing a poem.
Many bad parts.
The endless grinding battle - by the time I finished the book, I felt as exhausted as if I’d been pushing pikes with Trollocs myself. The worst part was, despite the endless pages of battle, the battles still didn’t feel epic or hardfought; they lacked any urgency or real drama. Perhaps WoT just massively over-indulged in battles before, or perhaps the battles were just disconnected - it’s a bad thing when you have characters lampshading the triviality of what they’re doing and asking ‘so why does this matter when the only battle that matters is Rand vs DO?’ The battles are weirdly parochial and limited to a few locations. 4 battlefronts is impressive? For the Last Battle, a worldwide struggle against the Shadow? We didn’t get so much as one point of view in, I dunno, Seanchan which was supposed to have waged its own epic struggle against Shadowspawn during the original colonization! We don’t get Waygates popping open in hundreds of locations, the entire Randland convulsed in thousands of battles… Basically, we didn’t see a world at war. We bounced between 4 locations again and again and again until it was an incredible chore to read another page. Last minute rescues are a storytelling device that work only a few times. In a chapter. Before they lose any impact.
Some of the writing seems stiff and clumsy, and I liked Matt less than in the previous book so I suppose that was just an anomaly.
The ‘philosophy’ bits of the Rand vs DO encounter were seriously juvenile; so Rand overcomes the DO with the Power of Love but then he realizes that to destroy the DO, he would take away Free Will! And just as any idiot could have predicted, he has to leave the DO alone and repair the prison good as new. And of course the DO whines at him and Rand has to lecture him self-righteously… Give me a break. I’m sure that this must have been Jordon’s notes, because I remember Sanderson doing better in Mistborn.
I suspect people will be identifying loose ends and missed prophecies or Min-visions for years to come. At least we did sorta find out who killed Asmodean.
So now that it is finished, what should I think of WoT? Would I recommend it to a younger version of me? I think I would. In bulk, WoT’s flaws are reduced. The repetition fades away like the Homeric epithets filling out lines, and the multi-million word count becomes less intimidating. The awful middle-late books, like possibly the series nadir Winter’s Heart, lose their severe aggravation when you have all the books in a pile waiting to be read instead of an unknown multi-year wait upon an author who may (and did) die on you. Without years between reads, the plots and characters will be easier to track, and even if one fails to pick up on clues or asides, the resolution will be delivered soon and one can go ‘ah!’ as one newly appreciates a new thread of the pattern.
But I would accompany it with this caution:
“WoT, in small chunks, is not good. The characters and writing is repetitious, the descriptions pedestrian; few passages will move you with the beauty of strangeness or exoticism that marks the best fantasy. What WoT does is take the ‘quantity vs quality’ tradeoff, and jam it all the way to ‘quantity’, to see what happens, and does so more extremely than any other fantasy series I know of. If you want to see ‘epic fantasy’, with a cast of who knows how many thousands, spread over more countries than you can keep straight, and watch this tapestry evolve over years and millions of words, then you must read WoT. If you want to maximize your enjoyment per word, if you want the heights of what the fantasy genre can deliver in terms of quality, then put away WoT for another day and instead do something like read through chronologically the winners of the Locus & World Fantasy Awards.”
There have been worse obituaries for pieces of your childhood.
|Renaming of the Birds||David Troupes||★★★||2013||2014/01/01||
I’ve been a fan of the obscure webcomic Buttercup Festival since ~2005 when I discovered it and A Lesson Is Learned But The Damage Is Irreversible (probably my 2 favorites were “Another Day” and the yeti) through Dinosaur Comics, and was pleased to see it restart in 2008.
It ended in 2013 with the announcement of a Kickstarter for his book Renaming of the Birds. I will be honest, I am not a big fan of Troupes’s realistic prose and poetry as compared to Buttercup Festival, An Island People Go To, or his unfinished Green Evening Stories - for the most part, they strike me as embodying the worst sins of English poetry in the 20th & 21st centuries, while his artwork at its best nears the spare beauty of some East Asian traditions. I was not pleased to hear that it was ending in favor of a short novel, but I did notice in the announcement:
and on the Kickstarter page:
Now that was a different story. I’ve always been a little bit impressed how effectively Troupes deployed Sharpies for his comics, and this was too good an opportunity to pass up. Plus, apparently I might get some books or something as well. I immediately subscribed and submitted my preferences:
Luckily, I spoke up quickly enough to get my first choice.
The Kickstarter succeeded and the printing of the book went through apparently without much issue, so I received my package in early January 2014.
The original of comic #120 turns out to be a sheet of stiffish paper about 29.2x20.3 centimeters, much larger than the web image. The image also doesn’t do it justice: the original is actually visibly textured with whiteout, you can see variation in the intensity of black, and between that, the stars in the stream seem to shine a little bit. So I was satisfied and just needed to find a frame for it. I scanned it to have a backup copy:
I also received:
Hastings’s artwork was interesting but not really in my vein. David’s poetry was decent enough that I copied part of 2 of the better ones; from “Their Daughter”:
And from “Pumpkinseeds”:
Not bad. I eventually wound up using the postcards for a prank.
Renaming of the Birds (2013; ISBN 978-0-9927133-0-0) is a 74pg novel with ~56 black-white sketches of birds/landscapes/people as illustrations. (There is one short poem at the end, but it seems they were all split out as the companion pamphlet The Fountain along with unused illustrations.) The Kickstarter for it describes it as
This is not inaccurate a summary, but it overemphasizes the ‘renaming’ part: one might think it’s a sort of magical realist novel or more upbeat Kafkaesque novel or an experimental novel, but the renaming part and the new names passes quickly. Which is too bad because I thought it was a nice parody; for example, the letter with the assignment:
It is Orwellian bureaucratic reasoning that would not be one bit out of place in England. Why not?
So the protagonist sets about his task, renaming mockingbirds to ‘Yelling Birds’, Crows to Rattles, Gulls to Tattles, Pigeons to Ladyfriends, Mourning Doves to Vinegar Doves, Grackles to Velvet Inkdrops, and runs out. So he sets off to the woods, and of course meets a woman there. In a few more vignettes wandering the woods, he kills time and renames some more birds. He declines to rename swans, and is puzzle by sparrows. It becomes an extended camping trip: the narrator sees some more trees, watches a kestrel kill one, sleeps in trees, and winter comes. He survives the snow by making a lean-to. (No mention of where he gets food initially before learning how to scavenge roots, which was a major concern of
The illustrations are appropriate and well-done.
The writing is fair enough. It’s not as overripe as much of Troupes’s poetry, and he generally underplays incidents and avoids too much mawkishness and invocations of God. It does indeed feel like a journal of a long camp-out, and Troupes is doubtless taking a lot of material from life. It’s pleasant, but not much beyond that.
|Double Entry: How the Merchants of Venice Created Modern Finance||Jane Gleeson-White||★★★||2012||2014/10/31||(56k words, 1-2h read) Popularizing overview of Luca Pacioli’s publication of double-entry bookkeeping, and some historical tracing of its subsequent spread through Europe and use in modern corporate-capitalism. As an active user of ledger for my personal finances, writer of the WP article on the Medici Bank, & reader of Nick Szabo, I thought I might find Double Entry interesting.
The book sets up as a morality play, pointing to the many well-known corporate scandals in the 2000s, before quickly going to Ancient Sumeria & the invention of writing for business purposes (‘accounting’ might be a bit of an anachronism there), a few tantalizing Roman quotes & the possibility of Indian invention (although as with so many other things, the Indian dreamtime makes certainty difficult to reach), and settling down in the 1300s and sketching out Venice’s rise with its associated mercantile class, such as Datini, whose well-preserved business documentation is familiar to anyone interested in Renaissance commercial practices.
This sets the scene for Pacioli: Venice’s trade throughout the Mediterranean and Adriatic and Black Sea and especially Constantinople, its navy, which Pacioli witnessed as a young mathematician traveling and tutoring. He learned well, returning to Venice in time for the Gutenberg revolution to make financially feasible an enormous encyclopedia laying out the use of indispensable Arabic numerals and, as it happens, double-entry accounting. Along the way, he hung out with Leonardo da Vinci, compiled a book of cool magic tricks like handling molten lead barehanded (apparently featured on Mythbusters), wrote the first book on chess, got that portrait done, and so on. Pacioli turns out to be far more interesting than I would have guessed for a monk known for popularizing something as dull as double-entry!
We get a short introduction to double-entry; I’m not sure how well one would learn double-entry from that chapter if one didn’t already have a little experience. (It’s not that complex, but it can be tricky deciding what should be added/subtracted from what accounts.) The brevity of this section is a little odd since it is the major theme of the book: you expect a book on the history of accounting to discuss in detail accounting, like a book on physics or any other intellectual topics.
It’s also not a very good overview of Renaissance capitalism either: the great fairs appear in one or two sentences, the tricky methods of interest (exploiting exchange rate variations between currencies and geographic variation) are discussed too briefly to clarify, and we don’t get a good idea of how banks and trading companies were organized as a series of yearly partnerships (for example, the Medici bank was structured as several affiliated partnerships which dissolved and reformed every year; and this was how the financial state was calculated, and new partners/employees brought on) though later Gleeson-White contrasts the yearly partnership form to the continuous joint-stock corporation form - apparently forgetting that she never really covered the original form.
This leads into the Industrial Revolution. A few examples of the moralizing of good accounting are provided, but not that much. (There seems to be a lot of fertile material in the Netherlands which got omitted, judging from Soll’s article “The vanished grandeur of accounting”.) An interesting example of the effect of double-entry is provided by the famed Wedgwood pottery factory, which was staggering under financial problems despite enormous success until Wedgwood got his books in order and figured out where all his money was going. I wish Gleeson-White had provided a dozen examples in that vein: how was double-entry used in real life? The first railway bubble provided the impetus for British wholesale adoption, but I wonder how double-entry related to the Gilded Age in America? Since accounting is subjective in some senses, it would have been interesting to dig into the details of some of the collapses briefly mentioned to see what went into the differing appraisals - for example, I am intrigued by the final line of this quote, but the thread is dropped without any further discussion:
In the 1920s the US construction business Kreuger & Toll became one of the largest conglomerates and multinationals imaginable, like Enron seventy years later. After its founder Ivar Kreuger died in 1932, millions of investors discovered the company’s financial statements had been falsified over many years. But because of the company’s extraordinary organisational complexity, the investigating accountants Price Waterhouse could not determine the exact extent of the fraud and so the investors lost their money. The Wall Street Crash of 1929 revealed the accounts of another titanic company, Insull Utility Investments, to be ‘grossly misleading’. Its CEO Samuel Insull was tried for fraud in 1932 and acquitted on all counts. A considerable part of Insull’s defence rested on the persuasiveness of the commonsense rationale behind his accounting practices (he had treated stock dividends as income, which was prohibited at the time, but the prosecution was unable to make a clear case against it)-and, by implication, ‘the financial nonsense peddled in the conventional accounting wisdom’. The prosecution was left without a case, unable to deny that the accounting rules of the day were controversial and unable to claim that there was any consensus within the accounting profession on the particular rule in question. The Insull case highlighted the contentious and arbitrary nature of corporate accounting, especially regarding valuation and depreciation, issues which are essentially unresolvable and continue to be hotly debated today. Significantly, some of Insull’s accounting practices, which then lay outside conventional accounting practice, are now accepted wisdom.
I’m concerned because as useful as double-entry is, I don’t see a good case for identifying it as a major technology worthy of a book or marketing like ‘created modern finance’ (the Dutch would seem to have a better claim there); to quote the book:
“But detractors argue that a close reading of the historical evidence does not support Sombart’s generalisation: in fact the few merchants’ books which survive from the 1300s to 1800 indicate the double-entry system was not then widely adopted in practice. As part of his career-long dispute with Sombart, economist Basil Yamey argues that the spirit of capitalism animated numerous prominent Italian mercantile ventures before they adopted Venetian bookkeeping: ‘Perhaps it is sufficient to note that the Italian enterprises of the Bardi, Peruzzi, Alberti and Medici cannot be said to have been run less efficiently and “capitalistically” before they had adopted the double-entry system than after they had done so.’”
Indeed. The point is made even more strongly, inadvertently, by the emphasis on modern accounting scandals and Buffett’s observation that derivatives make a corporation’s true financial state nearly unknowable, combined with the observation that the world keeps on ticking and annual global growth continues: if modern financial reporting is so ambiguous and unreliable, doesn’t that imply that clear transparent books were never that important?
The book gets weaker as it returns to the original theme of the corruption of capitalism and its focus on internalizing gains while externalizing costs. While it’s true that GDP may not be a perfect measure, can we say that it’s really that bad? (Is it really plausible that a Big Mac actually costs $200 when all externalities are priced in?) I recall environmentalist activists making a big deal of Bhutan adopting ‘Gross National Happiness’, but last I heard, you still want to live in China with its focus on GDP and not impoverished unfree Bhutan (ask the Bhutanese refugees how well things worked out for them). There seems to be little critical consideration of this topic, or of arguments for optimism about the environment from the Kuznets curve (although Kuznets is certainly mentioned often enough) & the cornucopians. One feels that in the attempt to turn a long good article on Pacioli into a short book, some rather weak material got included.
|Mathematical People: Profiles and Interviews||Donald J. Albers||★★★||2008||2014/10/08||A collection of interviews and occasional professional autobiographies in the 1960s-1980s focusing on mathematicians who worked in the 1920s-1970s or people closely associated with the field in other capacities (Martin Gardner, while describing himself as a journalist, impacted the field majorly through his famed Scientific American columns on recreational mathematics; another interview is with a biographer of Hilbert & Neyman, Constance Reid).
Some of these mathematicians one may well be familiar (Conway, Diaconis, Erdos, Gardner, Graham, Kline, Knuth, Mandelbrot, Pólya, Smullyan, Ulam), but many just made me draw a blank (Birkhoff, Blackwell, Chern, Coxeter, Halmos, Hilton, Kemeny, Lefschetz, Pollak, Rees, Reid, Robbins, Taussky-Todd, Tucker), so there’s a wide range from the famous and public intellectuals to the working mathematicians.
The interest of the interviews likewise range: Smullyan’s autobiographical essay (extracted from his autobiography, apparently) is stuffed full of hilarious stories and jokes as any reader of his books might expect, Diaconis has an interesting life story in going from a traveling stage magician to a mathematician/statistician who continues to dabble in magic (like Smullyan), Knuth’s reminiscences are of interest to any programmer, while Chern’s life is an unusual look into what it’s like to bring modern mathematics to a place like early Communist China; others are just terribly dull. Another issue is that the more pure mathematicians struggle to describe to interviewers in a short approachable fashion what, exactly, they’ve accomplished and why it’s of interest, while the geometers can at least draw pictures of some sort and the ones who dabble in application and especially statistics have all sorts of immediately-interesting topics to discuss. I admit I got very little out of the pure mathematicians, aside from being a bit amused at the aesthetic prejudices on display as algebraists sniff at analysts who sniff at topologists who sniff at combinatorics and meanwhile I have hardly any idea what those specialties are much less any opinion on their respective merits. It is difficult to maintain an interest in topics you don’t know anything about and the discussants can’t explain, so a good deal of the book was wasted on me.
Some topics surface repeatedly, to one’s surprise: “New Math”, a failed American program to rewrite lower mathematical pedagogy into teaching math in a much more abstract fashion, comes up repeatedly (perhaps because of the striking failure, none of the interviewees are willing to endorse it although Kline spends much time attacking it); the Hungarian Martians seem to come up in every other interview as the interviewee either taught or worked with a Hungarian, was inspired by a Hungarian, or was a Hungarian (Von Neumann, Halmos, Pólya, Erdős, Wald, and others), although none of the interviewees seemed to have any good suggestions for why the Martian cluster seems to exist (yes, Hungary was poor and so geniuses there might turn to math preferentially, but then why don’t we see similar clusters from other impoverished countries? the Hungarian per capita GDP in the early 1900s is probably equaled or exceeded by scores of countries since and present). Other tendencies in the biographies remind me of similar observations I noted in my review of Past, Present, and Future of Statistical Science - academia seems to have been infinitely less cutthroat than it is now and many of the subjects seem to almost luck into jobs and positions (Mandelbrot in particular seems to have been a beneficiary as he was able to continue his tertium quid career until fractals became a phenomenon), and in every professional life there is a clear discontinuity at WWII where it seems all of Europe’s intelligentsia packed up for America and get sucked into the military-industrial complex for application to complex Cold War topics (the Cold War was particularly good to statistics, as one can see how statistics & probability are mentioned only occasionally pre-WWII but then suddenly everyone is dabbling in it post-WWII; likely the Cold War/WWII influence would be even more obvious if interviewers & interviewees didn’t step so gingerly around the topic out of a mix of patriotism & shame, the former exemplified by a mention of the cryptographic work in WWII which the interviewee doesn’t describe but assures us has been written up in abstract form for the open literature); people married remarkably young and had children immediately which would be a bit odd in this age of prolonged PhDs & multiple postdocs & ‘the two-body problem’.
Other topic don’t: computers are surprisingly rarely mentioned, with the exception of one or two discussions of the four-color computer proof, and Kemeny who turn out to have been quite prophetic about computers becoming ordinary tools of scholars & to have been one of the developers of BASIC; a mathematically-inclined layman or technologist will be surprised at the general absence of topics like P=NP or Fermat’s last theorem, but of course those problems were only formulated or solved long after most of these interviews were conducted.
And I did like some of the anecdotes related. For example, I learned that the origin of Wald’s celebrated frequentist sequential analysis came from an incident which for all the world sounds like Bayesian reasoning: “These two men were puzzled because a Navy captain with whom they had discussed the problem of destructive sampling of munitions had said that he didn’t see why he had to destroy so much of the evidence—that there ought to be a way whereby, after a while, an experimenter, like a savvy captain, would know that this was a good batch or a bad one and stop sampling…Since they were unable to get anywhere with it because it required very special mathematical skills, they took it to an outstanding mathematical statistician who was associated with them—Abraham Wald, an émigré from Hitler’s He was intrigued by the problem and solved it by developing a new technique in statistics that is now one of great importance: sequential analysis.”
Active mathematicians may find these old interviews of great interest, but I think most people would be better off reading just a few of them: Diaconis, Knuth, Smullyan, Pólya, the 2 Gardner articles, Conway, Chern, Kemeny, Kline, and Mandelbrot (in no particular order).
|Pirate Freedom||Gene Wolfe||★★★||2007||2012/11/24||(This review is copied from an email sent to the Gene Wolfe mailing list.)
Quick read, reasonably entertaining. Sadly, I find myself even less interested than The Sorcerer’s House in figuring out the secret - but I am more interested, and I enjoyed Pirate Freedom more, than An Evil Guest. Faint praise, perhaps. Reading through the old email threads to see what I missed, I’m not sure about some of the ideas floating around.
First, where’s this stuff about him being cloned coming from? The one bit of evidence I’ve seen is a quote to the effect that “my father made me”; I can’t find this in my Pirate Freedom EPUB (but FBReader seems to have buggy search so this may not count). But at face value, this seems completely unconvincing to me: he’s a Mafia guy! All “my father made me” means is that he’s a “made man”, as one would expect of the son of a big Mafia figure. Chris even says at one point to a new pirate something to the effect ‘now you’re a made man’. Presumably no one thinks Chris just zapped him with some tailored RNA viruses… “Half-human monster” is more promising, but in context, there’s no mention of simply human: “The artists of the Middle Ages painted allegories, we say. What really happened was that they saw more clearly than we do, and painted what they saw - angels and devils, beasts, and half-human monsters like me.” The artists were painting clones? Or is this just more Christian thought a la Pope? The best line is “I am taller than most people - my father told me once he got me engineered that way - and I was taller than he was by quite a bit.” but height has been known to be heritable since Galton and a fair number of genes & SNPs have already been identified responsible for variance (eg. ~50% from SNPs), so even simple embryo selection (make multiple embryos, sequence the genomes of each, implant the best-scoring one) would work for that.
Second, there’s something really weird about the lack of attention paid to the timeslips. Chris doesn’t even explicitly mention anything about time travel until like pg 80 where he says it just sank in (?!!?!), and the implication is that the timeslip happened long before he left for the entire monastery: the enrolled kids are, after the closure of the school is announced, implied to be different from the previous kids, and at some point Chris notices no one has wristwatches. Now, this is the same Chris who after wandering around colonial age Cuba and sailing ships still hasn’t noticed what time period he is in, so the safe assumption is that the wristwatches disappeared when the school closed. So the entire monastery has been timeslipped for many years, and we are told that some of the monks go out to hear confessions each week, so the timeslip could not have gone unnoticed for more than a week at worst. So what’s going on here with the monastery? The lack of contact is curious, as Chris points out and as is emphasized when we learn that Chris thinks his house is so close that he’ll just walk there - he didn’t sneak out at any point, or have a vacation or break? (His father can’t visit him, but nothing is said of Chris visiting his father.)
His obliviousness and rationalizations are supposedly not that: he claims to pump for information the farmer he meets with the horse, but why didn’t he just turn around and go back to the monastery and ask ‘hey guys - what happened?’ He also then rationalizes blatantly: “And it was not there. I decided then that there were two Havanas, or maybe the city had changed its name and this little town had taken it over.” Sure, Chris. Sure. That’s totally plausible.
Having read a bunch of theories on the ML, I can’t say any of them seem especially plausible. No one has a good explanation of Jaime’s self-immolation or disappearance, Valentin & dog’s murder, the apparent foreknowledge of Lesage, Chris’s father (if he is a later Chris, why is he much shorter than his ‘son’?) or the monastery’s behavior. Nothing that ties them all together. It’s a little frustrating, since once the various points are identified it feels like there should be an obvious answer.
I feel a little like after reading The Sorcerer’s Houseor An Evil Guest here: by the end we’ve identified what the solution ought to look like (another time traveler acting at various points in the story / Bax killing his twin and usurping his identity / Cassie going to Woldercon and maybe time-traveling herself), but we don’t know how to go beyond that and make the whole thing fall into a satisfying whole (who and how and why / how the letters were mistakenly or deliberately rearranged and the deceptions before the final deception-letter / what Cassie actually did).
On a side note, the speech about the many Church sex abuse scandals is disgusting. I don’t take this as Wolfe deliberately giving us evidence of Chris being a depraved monster, it reads too sincerely and is consistent with the increasingly conservative crankery I’ve documented elsewhere (although I fully expect someone to reply saying ‘no, don’t confuse the text with the author, let’s interpret it as charitably as possible’, just like they did with the nonfiction predictions by Wolfe I posted); the lead-up to his speech is itself misleading and slanted, completely ignoring the central enabling coverup role the Church played for decades upon end. There is no reason to not mention the Church’s role, since the Bishop is not otherwise portrayed sympathetically and mentioning it would both be factually accurate and continue characterizing the Bishop… The setup is also, shall we say, curious for making the victims adolescents and not younger still as they so often were. It’s also a little strange that Wolfe expects the ‘Communists to fall’. Even when this was being written, Cuba’s government had been substantially liberalizing and privatizing. There’s pretty much no reason to expect them to ‘fall’ as opposed to follow a gradual transition to being, like China, Communist in name-only.
|Selected Poems||Paul Celan||★★★||1972||2014/06/01||Modern verse is always difficult to read, and I expect little from it since the freedom gives people far too much rope to hang themselves (“you need an infallible ear, like D. H. Lawrence, to determine where the lines should end”); Paul Celan is no exception in that most of his poems leave me simply baffled. Part of the problem is the shadow of the Holocaust lingering over many of the poems: an event too awesome and sublime to reduce to words, seemingly reducing Celan to slapping down words and fractured lines in frustration and despair, and not a little guilt, circling around the themes again and again (reminding me of Wittgenstein’s famous introduction to Philosophical Investigations).
That said, a few of the poems or parts of the poems worked for me - not just the famous “Fugue of Death” (WP) but several of the others. In poetry, a few gems is enough, because they stay with one in a way that prose rarely does, and so I forgive Celan for the poems I did not like and myself for the poems I did not get. Some excerpts:
“Aspen Tree…”, pg24:
“Aspen tree, your leaves glance white into the dark. / My mother’s hair was never white. / Dandelion, so green is the Ukraine. / My yellow-haired mother did not come home. / Rain cloud, above the well do you hover? / My quiet mother weeps for everyone. / Round star, you wind the golden loop. / My mother’s heart was ripped by lead. / Oaken door, who lifted you off your hinges? / My gentle mother cannot return.”
“Autumn eats its leaf out of my hand: we are friends. / From the nuts we shell time and we teach it to walk: / then time returns to the shell.”
“…We stand by the window embracing, and people look / up from the street: / it is time they knew! / It is time the stone made an effort to flower, / time unrest had a beating heart. / It is time it were time. / It is time.”
“Fugue of Death”, pg33:
“Black milk of daybreak we drink it at nightfall / we drink it at noon in the morning we drink it at night / drink it and drink it / we are digging a grave in the sky it is ample to lie there / A man in the house he plays with the serpents he writes / he writes when the night falls to Germany your golden / hair Margarete / he writes it and walks from the house the stars glitter / he whistles his dogs up / he whistles his Jews out and orders a grave to be dug in / the earth / he commands us strike up for the dance / Black milk of daybreak we drink you at night / we drink in the mornings at noon we drink you at / nightfall / drink you and drink you / A man in the house he plays with the serpents he writes / he writes when the night falls to Germany your golden / hair Margarete / Your ashen hair Shulamith we are digging a grave in the / sky it is ample to lie there…”
“Thread Suns”, pg83:
“…there are / still songs to be sung on the other side / of mankind.”
“I Hear that the Axe has Flowered”, pg106:
“I hear that the axe has flowered, / I hear that the place can’t be named, / I hear that the bread which looks at him / heals the hanged man, / the bread baked for him by his wife, / I hear that they call life / our only refuge.”
Ironically, the reason I looked up Celan in the first place was a Japanese novella (a doujin for Touhou), Iyokan & Surrounded By Enemies’s Dream and Reality, included as a running theme quotes from Celan’s From Threshold to Threshold (perhaps because Celan’s poems in Japanese bring out the repeated themes of gates/thresholds/transitions, which complements the plot of the novella & a key character). I had been particularly struck by the poem “The Guest” from Threshold:
“Long before nightfall / someone who exchanged greetings with darkness / comes to spend the night with you. / Long before daylight / he wakes / and, before leaving, kindles a sleep, / a sleep echoing with footsteps: / you hear him going off, measuring distances, / and you throw your soul / after him.”
And since Selected Poems was available but Threshold was not, I downloaded it to read… and “The Guest” was not in it.
|Before the Storm (Star Wars: The Black Fleet Crisis, #1)||Michael P. Kube-McDowell||★★★||1996||As a kid collecting EU novels and stories, I was always puzzled by The Black Fleet Crisis trilogy. It was wildly different in tone and subject matter from most of the EU, I didn’t know whether I hated it or loved it, and it seemed to have been largely ignored by the rest of the EU (ever see the Yevetha or Black Sword Command or the White Current mentioned elsewhere?). This ignoring has happened for a number of other books like the Dark Empire comics or Crystal Star, but usually for good reasons: Dark Empire was so over-the-top and gothic that to take it seriously would undermine many other stories and so it’s usually name-checked briefly, if that, and ignored, while Crystal Star was just so terrible it can be ignored. Neither of these seem especially applicable, though, so I didn’t know what to think.
Having reread the trilogy now, I think I understand it better. It’s essentially a Weber/Drake/Clancy-style military or mil-sf novel, which happens to be set in the EU and feature 2 distracting large subplots. From the great opening Fifth Fleet exercise to the equally great small subplot of discovering the Black Sword records (I’m nerdy enough to really like that, and also the various library/research issues in the Lando subplot) to the excellent finish, that’s what it really is.
The problem is in large part the non-Yevethan subplots:
1. there’s a reasonably interesting first-contact story using Lando which keeps distracting from the real story and which has absolutely no relevance to the other 2 subplots and is completely unnecessary. (Another reviewer comments that it would fit nicely as a stand-alone story like the pulpy Han Solo Adventures; I agree, and actually there were multiple Lando Calrissian Adventures, so even more reason…)
2. The subplot for Luke has more justification than Lando, but is still problematic for how sheerly boring and pointless it is. The ultimate justification seems to be the White Current assistance in the final battle and revelation of how they had been working against the Yevetha all along, but this is not much of a justification. It’s probably just as well, since any real info about Luke’s mother would have been rendered moot by the prequels (and I wonder if that’s why the ending had to be so disappointing?). The positive side is that in some respects, this subplot seems to anticipate how a lot of later writers would handle Luke - so perhaps we should not criticize Luke’s hermetical ways and musings. (Some of the resemblances to the Yuuzhan Vong/New Jedi Order story-arcs are striking, although I hated them enough that I stopped reading the EU after they started coming out.) Certainly he serves as a vehicle for some interesting bits like reflecting on the death toll of the first Death Star (although the Imperial Museum in Wedge’s Gamble is still a far better scene).
(One missed opportunity is Drayson; since Drayson is a key player in the major arc, and a key player in the start and end of Lando’s arc, the trilogy missed a chance to make an interesting and subtle move: have Drayson be the topic of the trilogy! It would examine his methods, choices, and beliefs as contrasted against those he manipulates and serves. Most people would not appreciate this subtlety, but that only makes it mirror the life of its subject all the more. But he plays no role in Luke’s subplot, so the interpretation fails. Too bad. The spy novel aspects were a major reason why Zahn’s trilogy was, and probably still remains, the greatest EU series.)
The criticism of Leia in the trilogy is, I think, off-base. A good character is not a omni-perfect automaton who never makes mistakes; Leia needs to make mistakes, and this depicts one of them. Calling that ‘bad characterization’ is just fanboyism. I am reminded of a foreword to one of the character encyclopedias which enthused, “Check it out, Leia never misses [in A New Hope]”. I did. She does, several times.
|Uncontrolled: The Surprising Payoff of Trial-and-Error for Business, Politics, and Society||Jim Manzi||★★★||2012||2013/01/25||Speaking as a die-hard believer in the value of randomization and meta-analysis, I’m not entirely sure how much I got from this book other than some useful assertions and interesting claims. To go through it roughly in order:
1. the first few chapters are a serviceable philosophy of science primer. We get discussion of how the Scientific Revolution was a break, we get some Popper and falsificationism, and as a very important correction, some Duhem-Quine; we get some cultural and vocation material, and discussion of the value of prediction even in non-experimental sciences. Chapter 6 is a bit of a waste as Manzi makes the standard criticism of frequentism that the basic ideal - probability as the limit of some particular set of events - is extremely imprecise since it gives absolutely no guide as to which set of events, since you can choose arbitrarily complicated events, but he does so on his own terms and without any reference to competing paradigms such as the many flavors of Bayesianism.
2. then we get into genuinely important material on the development of RCTs (he uses the term “RFT”, which I find silly). Personally, I could wish for a whole book on the gradual development and refinement, and many more examples of the superiority of RCTs to other approaches; his summaries of things like the US social program experiments is short and in many ways inferior to, say, Rossi’s “metallic laws”. ch9’s example analyses read like columns folded into the chapter, but I still enjoyed them as fun examples of critical thinking and how analyses can reach any goal.
3. with ch10 we finally get into Manzi’s own career. This section is… weirdly lacking in many examples, even though it’s the section where you would expect Manzi to just lay the smack down with countless scores of anecdotes and stories and statistics about how experimentation is the ne plus ultra of epistemology and exactly how much money it made all these corporations. There’s a few, like Capital One and some Internet companies, but it is not very thematically separate from point #2.
4. he issues some policy recommendations. Hard to argue with some of them: why not let in some immigrants as part of randomized experiments? It can hardly be worse than the current system. Fairly anodyne.
So overall good, and maybe great for people who aren’t familiar with the topics. But I think in general if I wanted a layman to appreciate statistics and its pitfalls and experiments, I might actually be better off giving them Nate Silver’s The Signal and the Noise (although they’re not totally comparable, of course).
People seem impressed by his Hayekian libertarian arguments using genetic algorithms as arguments. I don’t think they’re as well supported as they may seem. Just to name the obvious, society has changed massively over short time-spans, corporate mortality is astonishingly high, corporations do not replicate with high fidelity (“corporate culture” is fragile) etc; evolution, as it happens, can only filter out so many mutations per generation so past a certain point, a genome just decays. This, along with other considerations, strongly suggests that corporate ‘evolution’ is nothing but a poetic metaphor.
|Game Programming Patterns||Robert Nystrom||★★★||2011||2014/05/18||(I read the online version.)
This book follows the standard pattern for design pattern books: short chapters on each particular style, with definition, pros & cons, simple pedagogic example, comparisons with other design patterns, and possibly some discussion of real-world implementations & game engines. I haven’t heard of any other place where one could find this sort of game-oriented programming design advice, and in that respect, this book is unrivaled.
While far from encyclopedic, the chosen design patterns all seem like reasonable choices for video game programmers: there are some architectural ones like Flyweight & Singleton which everyone needs to know, and then a good helping of high-performance or game-specific patterns (eg. Data Locality/Object Pool/Dirty Bit & Double Buffer/Game Loop/Spatial Partition, respectively), as well as a few fairly exotic patterns which often show up in games but not that many other areas (for example, Byte Code shows up in a lot of games to support modding, but you’ll otherwise spot such things only in a few extremely-extensible applications like text editors or programming languages).
The web presentation is in standard 2.0-style: big font, lots of whitespace. Not too bad for reading, although the sidebar notes were annoying since a lot of them would have been better off incorporated into the text or simply axed, and their relation to the text could be very confusing if there were 2 or 3 on the same page. The web presentation also omits a major advantage of being online: comments! I started reading the site solely because I saw one of the chapters submitted to Hacker News & found it interesting. By a quick count, there’s 18 relevant discussions on Hacker News and another 37 on Reddit, yet someone reading it has no idea. There were many interesting comments and suggestions in those submissions, why not excerpt the best? Or at least link them at the end of each chapter as a “further reading” or something?
|The Dark Side of the Enlightenment: Wizards, Alchemists, and Spiritual Seekers in the Age of Reason||John V. Fleming||★★★||2013||2013/08/09||The title might lead one to believe that Fleming is trying to show an inherent duality to science and the Enlightenment in general - its reliance on irrational methods or its oppression or inherent contradictions, say, perhaps an updated (and more factual) Foucault. But while it’s a clever play on words, The Dark Side of the Enlightenment boils down to some short biographies of minor figures in Europe: the obscure English faith healer Valentine Greatrakes, the French Jansenists, the Rosicrucians, the Freemasons, Cagliostro, and Julie de Kruedener. If one looks for any sort of demonstration of a duality to the Enlightenment, one will be disappointed, as all the examples seem amply explained by simply pointing out that alchemists and religious types and fraudsters have always existed, and the case studies simply show that the Enlightenment did not sweep them away instantaneously, lock stock and barrel; one is surprised to note Fleming’s lack of emphasis on the more famous examples of the coexistence of religion & science, like Isaac Newton. Perhaps this is to ascribe a failure at goals that Fleming never aimed at, but regardless none of the sections are particularly compelling: while the Rosicrucian and Freemason sections seem like reasonable overviews of their subjects for people who don’t know anything about the topic, Greatrakes and Kruedener left me completely bored and wondering why Fleming considered them interesting enough to write a good chunk of a book on them summarizing other people’s books on them, and the Cagliostro section seems rather apologetic (although I have only seen passing references to Cagliostro before and know little about him).
Fleming’s medievalist traits show in his resentment for the low modern opinion of the Dark Ages, which is a little amusing, and his predilection for using very old and obscure books as sources. But this is the cause of the best aspect of this book: Fleming’s genuine appreciation that even in the Enlightenment, a great many people thought very differently than we do today, centuries later in a completely transformed age, and his attempt to lay out the forgotten background and bring home the difference in consciousness. For example, Fleming points out the absurdity of claiming that Milton either subconsciously or consciously wrote Paradise Lost with the Devil as admirable, given the intense religious convictions of that age and Milton’s own strong beliefs, and he does a credible job of conveying how so many Europeans and Catholics could seriously and factually believe that Napoleon Bonaparte was the literal Anti-Christ foretold by John in Revelations who would usher in the end of the world and sketching the gematria-based arguments Christian occultists concocted to ‘prove’ this. Getting in the “mind” of past ages is always hard, and I appreciate any author who gives me a little insight, even if much of the rest of his book left me feeling like I was wasting my time.
|Echopraxia||Peter Watts||★★★||2014||2014/08/15||We’ve been waiting for this since Blindsight came out in 2006 and blew away all its readers. It’s been a long wait and those who read Watt’s blog and are familiar with his many travails (from a fight with the US federal government to flesh-eating bacteria) will understand the long wait. Was it worthwhile?
Not really. Echopraxia is a short fast read (~3-4h) which largely expands on the ideas that B introduced: the concept of new apex predators, vampires; the minimal value of consciousness and what non-conscious upgrades of the brain like the Bicamerals could do with the horsepower; hyper-advanced aliens; and subconscious manipulation. Watts adds in scientific ‘zombies’, but the idea never really goes anywhere - Watts’s side-story “The Colonel” is in some respects more interesting than the novel, and fleshes out the major character The Colonel in a way the novel never really does. (Although the novel at least does raise interesting questions about whether Siri Keeton really escaped alive in B, to recontextualize it - perhaps we’re simply reading alien propaganda!) The Bicamerals themselves are something of a disappointment compared to the invention of the Scramblers or vampires. The plot moves on rails from the biologist in the desert to the sun back to the desert, and likely B readers will see coming the major plot twists with the alien & vampire (it’s almost identical). Some potentially intriguing ideas go unexplored; for example, the spider/“eight-legged cat” suggestion is quite interesting, but the alien fungus winds up not doing anything beyond what a more normal version of intelligence would do and so it doesn’t illustrate the idea of a timesharing slow-but-powerful intelligence. The ending is opaque and knotty, but I think with some thought and review of terminology it becomes clear: the Bicamerals and emergent AIs have completed their plan in which the hijacked fungus is incubated in the protagonist to upgrade baseline humans to vampire-like entities (sans the vampire weaknesses and without consciousness), which will be able to go toe to toe with the God-like alien invader.
So, not a waste of time and probably pretty impressive to people unacquainted with Watts, but below B, some of the Rifter books, and the better short stories. I suggest reading B, then “The Colonel”, then Echopraxia.
|空ろの箱と零のマリア 1 [Utsuro No Hako To Zero No Maria 1]||Eiji Mikage||★★★||2009||2014/10/23||(55k words, ~3-4 hour read; read the Baka-Tsuki translation.) Time loop mystery.
Those familiar with novel/light-novel series like Hyouka or The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya (particularly “Endless Eight”) will be at home here: yes, there’s a Japanese high school classroom, yes there will be a beautiful long-haired girl who interacts with the narrator, yes there will be a silent mousy short-haired girl who looks an awful lot like Rei Ayanami/Yuki Nagato in it who is inexplicably popular with the protagonist & readers, yes there will be a goofball sidekick. But the core of Hakomari is not tired romcom tropes, but rather a somewhat intelligent exploration of time-loops/Groundhog Days: besides the obvious like being able to acquire many skills and ‘predict the future’, how would you detect the center of such a time-loop and escape? What happens to people over many loops? Perfect time loops are too boring since by definition they cannot change, so what kinds of imperfect time loops are there? Are the ‘awake’ people really as powerful as they seem, or might the loopers be powerful in some ways themselves, as they can keep doing the same thing indefinitely and can be guaranteed to do so?
The answer to each question may seem to be pretty obvious, but Mikage lets the reader infer an answer and then yanks it away several times, using reasoning that would not be out of place in Death Note or Hyouka, using the out-of-order chapters to, like Memento, maintain suspense and mimick forgetting - mysteries are often as much about figuring out why something happened in the past as what happened in the past. (In this respect, it’s a trickier exercise than “Endless Eight”, where there’s multiple bits of time-travel but they’re all straightforward to understand.) By the end, it seems all mysteries have been tidily resolved, and the answers are good.
The riddle aspect works well, but the characters and setting otherwise leave me unmoved. The writing is unremarkable, setting is arbitrary, the characters are (as already indicated) stereotypes, and the ending is both a partial copout in averting a death which had been giving it pathos/depath and also a blatant gimmick for continuing to write the series if the first one sold well enough (which given there’s 6 of them now, it must’ve). The mystery part is fun, but like Primer it’s too lacking in the other departments to be more than good.
|A Confederacy of Dunces||John Kennedy Toole||★★★||1994||2013/03/13||It’s hard to know what to make of this… I’ve rarely read a book where the main protagonists inspires such disgust in me - even for a picaresque, the main character Ignatius is extreme. It is as if Toole read Cleckley’s Mask of Sanity and a psychology textbook, and said to himself, “how can I make the most offensive moronic character which mashes up the traits of both psychopaths and autists?” and then wrote a novel on it in which the protagonist’s countless evil actions, glib lies, narcissism, ignorance, sloth, leeching, and other flaws finally brought down an appropriate punishment - only to rescue him at the last moment for further adventures.
In particular, I’m not bothered that Ignatius pretends to be a medievalist Catholic. I’m bothered that as far as I can tell, Toole seems to genuinely try to present Ignatius as educated and learned and with a worldview (and reading the reviews here, it seems that most people do indeed take this for granted). The problem is, Toole fails. Utterly. In the entire book, Ignatius’s learning is displayed solely as repeated surface allusions to Boethius and Hroswitha, and a few other dropped names, and never anything of substance. Someone who read Wikipedia on Boethius and Hroswitha would know more than Ignatius does, and is probably literate enough to spot Ignatius (and by extension, Toole’s) failures, like writing ‘gyro’ where they were trying to make an allusion to Yeats’s ‘gyre’ (way to mess up an allusion to only one of the most famous poems ever!).
So, with the complete failure of Ignatius to offer any sort of Catholicly-grounded interesting critique or reflection on society (as a good picaresque is supposed to!), we’re left with the evocation of New Orleans (seems good enough, although I don’t know enough about New Orleans to really judge), the humorous value of each set piece (overall, low. Jeeves this is not.), and the final convergence of plot threads at the bar (a decent enough denouement but still leaves the first 150 pages a drag).
Is that enough to make it a masterpiece? I should think not. Indeed, A Confederacy of Dunces overall stands in stark contrast to Gene Wolfe or R.A. Lafferty’s better novels.
|Bitter Seeds (The Milkweed Triptych, #1)||Ian Tregillis||★★★||2010||2013/03/20||I loved Stross’s “A Colder War”, and enjoyed Powers’s Declare and Jonathan Strange & Mr. Norrell, so this was right up my alley. I enjoyed the concept and a few touches like the Thule Society, and don’t regret reading it: taking blood sacrifice seriously in a “beware while fighting monsters” makes for a gradually creeping sense of doom which is fitting, and I was impressed to see the old medieval debate over the language of infants resurrected and then taken to the max, which was a real bit of esoterica. The logical conclusion, a British program into Enochian, is a nasty enough conclusion that it convinced me to keep reading the series.
Downsides: the repeated use of raven sections is blunt; Gretel’s character is even blunter, we’re told almost on sight that “she sees the future and is manipulating everyone” and this is ground in ad nauseam, while subtlety would’ve worked better (maybe 1 hint at the beginning and then a revelation at the end for the inattentive reader - but we get what must be dozens instead); Nazi Germany is a total caricature; while sometimes the descriptions of places or events are excellent (like the opening), characters can be pretty wooden and I feel like Marsh is made to punch people to move the plot along (eg. to get himself fired, and then to ignore Will and not ask the sane thing like ‘why would you suggest something so horrible as an abortion when you know how much losing our child hurt us?’). The alt history is a little crude and lacking in details: in contrast to Declare or “A Colder War”, which wove in and rewrote all sorts of historical tidbits (some extremely obscure, in Declare), Bitter Seeds only does big brushstrokes - tanks going through the Ardennes, bad winter weather in Russia, a failure of a hypothetical Operation Sea Lion - and it omits all sorts of historical backgrounds that could’ve enriched it (Nazi occultism is a bizarre subject which is surprisingly underused by Tregillis; someone should’ve given him a copy of Morning of the Magicians or something). Hopefully he’ll weave a more intricate tapestry for the Cold War books; at least, I’ll be quite disappointed if James Jesus Angleton doesn’t make some appearances.
|Voyage of the Beagle||Charles Darwin||★★★||1989||2012/12/14||Frequently exceedingly dry and of no interest except to naturalists, and probably not always them either: Darwin’s voyage was so long ago that much of his information and speculation is simply outdated (his talk of ‘miasmas’ is one instance where later information makes his material of purely historical interest).
If one is reading it for background on evolution and Origin of Species, one will be disappointed: there are a handful of lines in the main part of the work which may be taken as prefiguring or groping towards evolution, and then there’s some speculation in the surprisingly short Galapagos section (I suspect he spends as much time describing the gauchos’ methods of horsemanship and dealing with cattle as he does on all of the Galapagos material!). In general, the ‘pacing’ is quite odd: reams of material on South America, some pages on the Galapagos, a dash to New Zealand & Australia, a long section on islands and ‘cacao-nuts’ (coconuts), a mini-monograph on coral atolls, and the book abruptly ends.
Which is not to say he doesn’t occasionally drop in interesting or acute observations, for he does. (The shepherd-dog of South America quite took my fancy, for example.) They are just rare welcome morsels in the general desert of this door-stopper. If I had to recommend it to my past self, I would tell him to skip the bulk but to read the Tierra del Fuego sections where the events are both interesting and evocative of the long uncivilized past of man (and perhaps his future), the Galapagos section for its substantial historical interest, and maybe the brief conclusion.
My National Geographic anniversary edition is substantially lacking in additional material; there is surprisingly little about its reception, what contributions it made, where it was prescient and where it was wrong (disturbing, since one doesn’t know what mistakes, misimpressions, outdated information, plausible yet wrong speculation, etc. one might be absorbing over the 400+ pages). As well, Darwin’s original illustrations would benefit mightily from additional material like color photographs and maps.
|Inside WikiLeaks: My Time with Julian Assange at the World’s Most Dangerous Website||Daniel Domscheit-Berg||★★★||2011||2011/11/08||I give it 3 stars solely because it is a unique primary source about WikiLeaks; if this was not from a principal player, it would not be worth reading as it is shallow incomplete garbage.
Negatives: the writing is absolutely atrocious, although I don’t know if this is due to the translation from the German or whether the co-author journalist screwed it all up.
And Domscheit comes off in some passages as too ignorant to even understand Assange’s beliefs (for example, I seem to recall that there was an irritating passage where Domscheit mocks Assange’s use of red light to help his sleep - even though this is standard chronobiology, that blue light influences melatonin secretion to retard the sleep cycle and keep one awake!). One is strongly reminded of Russell’s famous description of Xenophon’s writings on Socrates: “A stupid man’s report of what a clever man says is never accurate, because he unconsciously translates what he hears into something that he can understand. I would rather be reported by my bitterest enemy among philosophers than by a friend innocent of philosophy.” Which is not to say that Domscheit’s portrait of Assange as a megalomaniac asshole is wrong, because from all the other coverage of him, it’s clear there’s a lot of truth to this portrayal.
Domscheit’s personal failings are only highlighted by the since-complete & unmitigated failure of his ‘OpenLeaks’ project.
It’s also bizarrely lacking in technical details, which is the one part one would hope a supposed geek like Domscheit would at least make sure his book got right! (Probably also thanks to the journalist.)
Still, many interesting bits. I remember thinking way back that for a group claiming so many participants & advisers, it had an oddly low flow of leaks - which Domscheit says was because it was mostly him and Assange; makes sense. I was amused to learn that the Iceland laws were based by Assange in part on Stephenson’s Cryptonomicon - again, makes sense in a curious way.
|The City of Falling Angels||John Berendt||★★★||2006||2014/01/07||An American writer with access to Venetian high society moves there and writes down all the gossip and good stories he witnesses or hears about while living there for a few years. This book has all the strengths and weaknesses that this sounds like: on the one hand, these are pretty much all stories I am completely unfamiliar with since the reflections of Venice in things I have read or seen are typically of pre-20 century Venice (think stories like The Count of Monte Cristo or film works like Aria or histories of the Mediterranean region) and so stories like theaters burning or the Save Venice feuds or the Pound scandal are news; on the other hand, they were news to me because I didn’t care about any of them before and I don’t care much about them having read Falling Angels either. As one might expect, there’s not much cohesiveness to the stories beyond the narrator himself because real life is not so cooperative as to combine all the storylines into a single satisfying conclusion.
On the positive side: Berendt is a fine writer who smoothly narrates events and lets people speak for themselves more than most writers would. He is aware of the danger of relying on gossip and seems to keep an open mind as he critically examines all the versions and stories he’s told, and he seems to have spoken to everyone so he has plenty to compare. He also has a good eye for details and and interesting people and anecdotes. I don’t regret reading it, even if I don’t expect to ever re-read it nor learned any ‘big’ truths or stories.
|The Autobiography Of Benvenuto Cellini||Benvenuto Cellini||★★★||1999||2012/10/05||To read this, one wonders how Cellini survived to age 20, much less age 70! He is constantly killing and being attacked, wenching his models, contracting hideous illnesses (or noting in passing the constant unexpected death of others), and being betrayed (by this account) or insulting others. It’s an endless exhausting cycle such that even Cellini had to notice its futility and danger. One has to wonder how much he exaggerates: aside from the demonology and weather-controlling, it seems so routine for people to go around armed and attacking for minor insults and then dying of a scratch. Then there is his strange attitude to his patrons: on the one hand, he seems largely unable to criticize them or the system despite wallowing in their corruption and wealth (surely the King of France wasn’t all that, and given the sheer servility & ignobility & criminality of the popes he deals with, his tolerance of them is astounding), but on the other hand, he almost goes out of his way to mess with them.
Well, it’s fun in small doses, the constant tumult of Cellini’s life suggests that the constant murder & assault & theft & large gifts we read of in picaresques or stories (like the Decameron) are much more realistic than we give them credit for, and it’s pretty cool to look at the Wikipedia article and see images of the works he labors over at such length in his autobiography.
|Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World’s Greatest Scientist||Thomas Levenson||★★★||2009||2014/03/21||A quick breezy read good for an evening; Levenson touches on the highlights of Newton’s early life & throughout keeps an eye out for the telling detail or quote which might bring the past to life for us, is sympathetic towards the alchemy and tries to put it in a context, and then plunges into Newton’s war with an obscure counterfeiter.
This section would make good background reading for Neal Stephenson’s Baroque Cycle (despite Levenson’s book being published in 2009 and the cycle finished in 2004, and the latter being one of the few places a reader might have encountered Newton in the same breath as counterfeiters, entirely unmentioned), as it pretty clearly explains the monetary issues of clipping, recoining, balance of exchange with Asia, etc, in a less digressive & action-packed manner than Stephenson’s doorstoppers.
It’s interesting that Newton was so involved in criminal matters, but in some respects Levenson is trying to wring blood from a stone: Newton doesn’t seem to have been any Sherlock Holmes (an apt comparison since Moriarty was an expert on Newtonian mechanics), but rather, just obsessive & hardworking and applying all the standard investigative techniques. The story is hampered also by the relatively low amount of documentation (one wonders what the boxes of documents Newton burned would have revealed).
|Daemon (Daemon, #1)||Daniel Suarez||★★★||2009||2013/03/27||An unfriendly AI designed by a dead billionaire (who for some reason reminded me a little of an evil John Carmack) takes over the world. The overall combination is good but nothing to write home about. The frequent appearance of autonomous vehicles is a nice touch and one too often absent from SF, near or far. Most of the technical details were good (I was not surprised to read the short author bio and learn Suarez is a practicing programmer, since the Ross character felt like an author self-insert).
But the decentralized conspiracy was done better in Sterling’s “Maneki Neko”, the creepy persuasive AI was done better in ‘Friendship is Optimal’, the technical detail in Cryptonomicon, the futuristic developments in Otherland, and the plutocracy/government stuff in multiple William Gibson novels (Suarez’s version being more than a little bit crude - citing Confessions of an Economic Hitman, really?).
And despite the lauded technical detail, the AI presented is farcical; it’s hard to see how any ‘logic tree’ could possibly handle all that the AI does even if Suarez throws in some failures to parse responses and writes up . (If I had an iPhone I’d probably snark about how Siri can understand the responses given by various characters fine, and hasn’t taken over the world.)
|Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas||Hunter S. Thompson||★★★||1998||2014/08/19||Fear and Loathing is famous through osmosis: the opening chapters, the lines about bats, ether, drug collections, etc. The first quarter or so of the novel is justly famous. The rest of it… one wonders. After Duke & his lawyer wake up to go to the race, most of the rest is fairly unmemorable (in particular, the two halves stitched together structure is fairly crude.) The story is not terribly long, and it feel like the mostly-nonfiction it is: drug fiction tends to the ‘you had to be there’ kind of humor, and we were none of us there.
It also aspires to a greater import than it ever achieves, gesturing toward the ‘American dream’ and finding ‘fear and loathing’, which from this remote perspective, looks like bombast & bluff - we know the Nixonian moment would pass in an epic crash, that the USSR would fall, that the War on Drugs would not be “a boot stamping on a human face - forever”. (In particular, the famous ‘wave’ quote seems arbitrary and unsupported by its surrounding text, although I don’t doubt that Thompson felt those sentiments deeply.) So, the opening is fantastic, but the rest isn’t really worth reading now, for an average less than its repute would suggest.
|Tau Zero||Poul Anderson||★★★||2006||2013/08/10||The single central conceit is outstanding and excellent hard SF, an interesting entry in what one might call ‘time dilation horror’; there’s only one central idea, however, which becomes strained with repetition over the length of the novel (as short as it is), and while I appreciate that Anderson tried to leaven the hard SF with real characters and interpersonal drama, I can’t say he succeeded.
For punch, some of Larry Niven’s Known Universe short stories using ramjets may be better (“Rammer” and “The Ethics of Madness” come to mind) and I would be remiss to not mention Peter Watts’s “The Island” (suggested soundtrack: Cloud Cult’s “There’s So Much Energy In Us”), although Tau Zero is much more ambitious.
|Matter (Culture, #8)||Iain M. Banks||★★★||2008||Absurdly lengthy, with one of the slowest setups ever followed by an equally abrupt and unsatisfactory resolution which kills off pretty much every character we might have even a faint interest in† thanks to something which is introduced out of nowhere maybe 4/5s of the way through. Banks is a great author, so of course there are plenty of rewarding nuggets scattered through out (the haunted ex-Culture man, the deceptive artifact, the general convincingness of ‘the stage is small but the audience great’ theme etc.), but much less than expected from a groaning tome’s worth of Banks. The shell world concept is not developed or employed well (you could replace all of the maneuverings with 2D equivalents if you wished), and the rest of the background and concepts seem pretty stock Culture.
† eg. I was expecting the betrayal to be linked to alien machinations, but no, it turns out to be exactly as simplistic as it seems, the ex-SC guy’s good argument to the contrary, and a complete red herring as he dies with everyone else, the complexity of his character never ascending beyond cackling evil.
|50 in 50: Fifty stories for fifty years!||Harry Harrison||★★★||2002||2012/08/22||I downloaded it to read ‘The Streets of Ashkelon’ (which did not disappoint, even though I read an earlier version in Borges and a much later version in Simmons’s Hyperion).
It’s a fun collection of relatively light stories; in classic SF style, each story is usually short, punchy, with a single point or idea highlighted by the ‘twist’ or punchline-style ending.
This means that they are rarely subtle (eg. I see complaints online that ‘Streets’ is an unfair caricature and reveals Harrison’s stock atheism, but it’s hard to lay out the world, story, maintain a decent style, and also be subtle or fair in just a few pages), but that’s a price I’m willing to pay. Also on the downside for a modern reader, Harrison shared the common SF preoccupation with the ‘population bomb’ and coming Peak Oil/great dieback; neither of which seem to have happened, thankfully, but they still irritate one to read just a little bit.
Hence, I couldn’t give this a 4 or a 5, but I don’t regret reading it since some were pretty good and I did laugh while reading some. So a 3 it is. RIP, Harrison.
|Shadow Games (The Chronicle of the Black Company, #4)||Glen Cook||★★★||1989||2013/06/12||Croaker and company head south, and things go surprisingly smoothly and well in the African countries they travel through until south of the Nile, they discover an evil empire is in their path menacing an innocent Babylonian-style city. Naturally, Dances with Wolves style, they’ll help the hapless natives protect themselves. And we get not one but four of the old Taken coming back to life (Howler, Shaper, Stormbringer, and Soulcatcher) -_-. Oh and also a ‘buried evil’ a la the Dominator. Yes, another one. That’s what, the third now? Good grief.
Like the previous book, my complaint here is that the plot is simple and straightforward, parts of it are very ham-handed (eg. once I got over my disgust at yes, another Taken was back, it was pretty obvious where the crows were coming from).
The upside is that it’s fun watching Croaker becoming the Captain and growing still more.
|Silicon Snake Oil: Second Thoughts on the Information Highway||Clifford Stoll||★★★||1996||I read this not long after publication, and re-read it a year ago weeding through my books. Between the two, I would have to give it 2-3 stars.
The good part is that at the time, he was correct in puncturing or deflating a lot of the most hyperbolic claims about the benefits of computers and the Internet: online shopping did have a ways to go, kids’ education was not being improved by computers (and may still not be), etc.
The bad part is, he was correct only in the short run. On many claims or predictions where he was absolutist, he is laughably wrong now, and we can expect his track record to continue to worsen as time passes.
This is actually a pretty common failure mode for skeptics of technologies: I call this the Amara effect, after Roy Amara: “We tend to overestimate the effect of a technology in the short run and underestimate the effect in the long run.”
|iWoz||Steve Wozniak||★★★||2006||Fairly interesting, although i wish he had dilated more on his technical achievements: he described them in enough detail, I think, to annoy the non-geeks but just tantalize the geeks.
Steve Wozniak strikes me as a naive guy who seems to willfully let himself be exploited because to be less exploited would entail abandoning some idealized sense of childlike innocence (I was particularly incensed by Wozniak handing free millions to a hedge fund just because Wozniak had made a verbal agreement months or years before - that the hedge fund broke! - and they came back asking for more); Steve Jobs inadvertently comes off as a grasping penny-pinching asshole. My opinion was modified only somewhat by reading Isaacson’s Steve Jobs: Jobs could be munificent and non-penny-pinching - for anything to do with himself.
|House of Leaves||Mark Z. Danielewski||★★★||2000||As impressive and inventive a multimedia presentation this is, it’s hard not to think that the fictional Navidson movie described by the novel would be far more interesting or moving than the actual novel is, dragged down by a narrator who is interesting neither in voice nor message; ‘trying too hard’ is a phrase I apply to some experimental or postmodern works, and it fits here better than most. And are we to be moved by this? The labyrinth is constantly described and discussed in it, but one thing that goes unnoticed is that with the exception of Daedalus’s labyrinth, at the enter of almost all labyrinths is nothing at all, and when one reaches it, the only thing to is shrug and head back out.|
|The Judging Eye (Aspect-Emperor, #1)||R. Scott Bakker||★★★||2009||Bakker says he’s influenced by Frank Herbert, and it’s nowhere clearer than here - the reader of Dune Messiah will notice the uncanny echos. The final sequence is the almost inevitable theft from Tolkien of the Mines of Moria, but it’s sufficiently exciting and well-done that unlike a similar theft in The Sword of Shannara I didn’t put down the book in disgust.
The Thousandfold Thought was a sheer disappointment, and I did wonder whether to continue on to The Judging Eye, but I don’t much regret it. The new characters are still pretty dubious (Mimara is just an annoyance), but the psychopathic son has real promise as a very dark inversion of Leto II.
|No Country for Old Men||Cormac McCarthy||★★★||2006||2012/08/28||Somehow a disappointment, especially compared with Blood Meridian. It has some fantastic moments & writing (eg. Chigurh’s first coin toss), but wrapped in a plot which feels simplistic, cheap, linear, and video game-like; I thought at one moment that it was no surprise that it made what was apparently a great movie, since it read like a screenplay version of the real novel. Harold Bloom mentioned that the apocalypticism was a flaw, and here I would agree: it’s a flaw I’ve also seen surface in Gene Wolfe, and which tarnishes the stories or novels which take up a crude - dare I say, conservative? - sort of jeremiad against these fallen latter days.|
|The Rapture of the Nerds: A tale of the singularity, posthumanity, and awkward social situations||Cory Doctorow||★★★||2012||A mixed bag. A third of the way through, I was ready for 2 stars, and reading only because I remembered the preview as being pretty good; it was reading like the worst parts of Doctorow crossed with cutting-floor scraps from Stross’s Accelerando (general advice: if you haven’t read Accelerando yet, I strongly strongly recommend it over Rapture of the Nerds).
After suffering through the crap of the first half, I finally get to the real story (recommendation: C-f to “It’s the Singularity!” if you want to save yourself the grief). This is pretty fun and decent, although the judge scenario is far from new.
|Chinese History in Economic Perspective||Thomas G. Rawski||★★★||1992||2012/09/08||Fairly technical, largely not of interest to non-specialists. Some of the papers captured my interest: the demographic analysis revealing very high infanticide rates and mortality patterns of females was quite interesting, and some of the papers revealed a better integrated and more sophisticated Chinese market economy than I had expected, with less income inequality or dysfunctionality than one gets the picture of when reading of pre-WWII warlordism and civil war.
(I read the online version.)
|The Wallet of Kai Lung (Kai Lung #1)||Ernest Bramah||★★★||2002||2013/07/19||One reads this for the language on display by Bramah: the absurd sustained Latinate circumlocutions which forever perendinate and cunctate on expressing their simple sense. As far as that goes, it’s quite an interesting exercise and the source of a number of parodic versions of China/Japan, I suspect. I am not sure how many people are up to a entire sustained anthology of this, though: the stories are relatively flimsy and one can drown in the prose while losing track utterly of the plot and personages, which certainly is not calculated to create charm nor cheer in the consumer.|
|Portfolios of the Poor: How the World’s Poor Live on $2 a Day||Daryl Collins||★★★||2009||2012/12/10||The first 2 or 3 chapters are very interesting and enlightening on the risk borne by the poor and how they do their best to cope; however, the rest is generally repetitive and shows the same data in somewhat different ways and countries, and become boring quickly - making this one of the padded books which would’ve been a better read as a longform article or essay. (One exception is the discussion of APRs and how the loans actually are done which renders them far less usurious.) Ironically, the appendices were more interesting than many of the narratives in the later chapters.|
|A Random Walk Down Wall Street||Burton G. Malkiel||★★★||2004||It’s hard to believe at this point that Malkiel’s views on the desirability of indexing and not trading and the basic truth of the efficient market hypothesis were ever controversial or not conventional wisdom (the 1 and 2 star reviews here notwithstanding… how many geniuses like Peter Thiel blew up betting against Treasuries in the past few years, guys? Efficient markets FTW.), but nevertheless, he was a pioneer. I didn’t wind up learning too much from this since it’s targeted at beginners, but that is not its fault and the advice is generally sound.|
|Kim||Rudyard Kipling||★★★||1981||Though it’s one of his most famous, I found it hard to like. It’s laden in Orientalism, picaresque almost to a fault, the Buddhism is a little laughable for all that it might have been state of the art in the 1800s (although less laughable than the ornate antique language forced on every character), and the plot is a bit of a trainwreck with endless pages lavished on Kim growing up only to abruptly end in a short theft of documents and an equally abrupt and unsatisfying finish to the religious quest that previously drove events.|
|Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age||Clay Shirky||★★★||2010||2012/10/03||Short, fluffy - an attempt to expand on what is a pretty short idea at core. If you read or watched any of his previous talks like “GIN, TELEVISION, AND COGNITIVE SURPLUS” and have followed some of his other writings, there’s little new here for you. One advantage of being in book form is that he includes his references.|
|Everything Bad is Good for You||Steven Johnson||★★★||2006||2011/11/03||I thought it was very short and not in depth at all; yeah, his handful of graphs of episodes was interesting from the data visualization viewpoint, but most of his arguments, such as they were, were qualitative and hand-wavey. (What, there are no simplistic shows these days?) The best I can say is: the thesis is not obviously impossible or wrong a priori, but needs a heck of a lot more empirical backing.|
|Spice and Wolf, Book 1||Isuna Hasekura||★★★||2009||2013/07/28||I’m afraid this suffers badly in comparison with the anime: Hasekura isn’t nearly as good at conveying Lawrence & Holo’s interactions as good animators + good seiyuu, and really, that’s the heart of the story. If you can’t get that perfect, then there’s not much to it, and the irritating aspects of light novels come to the fore (very short, sketchy chapters, endings that feel almost rushed, etc).|
|Psychiatry And The Human Condition||Bruce G. Charlton||★★★||2000||2012/10/23||Not really sure what to make of it; it has interesting ideas but so broad that one has no idea if they’re right or if Charlton is hiding fatal evidence (he doesn’t have the best reputation these days, and this book way back when wasn’t received with acclamations), and one would have to be an expert oneself to know whether Charlton is putting the pieces together in a licit way.|
|The Chicago World’s Fair of 1893: A Photographic Record||Stanley Appelbaum||★★★||1980||2013/08/07||As the other reviews say: worth it for the photographs, not so much the commentary. Some might be a little disappointed by the focus on the neo-classical prestige buildings and not parts us moderns would find of vastly more interest, like the first Ferris wheel, the first Japanese building in the US, Wild Bill’s show, etc, but it’s still much better than nothing.|
|Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error||Kathryn Schulz||★★★||2010||Touched on a lot of the standard points and citations you’d see somewhere in skeptical literature like LessWrong, but in a very much fuzzier humanities sort of way. Couldn’t really recommend it unless you’re the sort of person who has never heard of Tetlock or Quine or the studies on eyewitness fallibility or read their Kahneman etc - for beginners only.|
|Silently and Very Fast||Catherynne M. Valente||★★★||2011||2012/01/01||Read this on Cosma Shalizi’s recommendation.
While the writer is clearly skilled, the style grates and the story leaves me cold: the only fairy tale that really spoke to me was Turing’s (but turning his life into a fairy tale, given his death, is almost cheating).
|The Cinema of George Lucas||Marcus Hearn||★★★||2005||2012/04/26||Like any authorized, lots of interesting details, gorgeous photos, and thorough with the glaring exception of zero critical thought or criticism or appraisal (except, perhaps, for brief discussions of how Lucas wrote the Star Wars movies drawing on friends and acquaintances, a system which seemed to break down for the prequels - with dismal results).|
|The Difference Engine||William Gibson||★★★||1992||2011/03/10||Struck me as a lot like Stephenson’s Baroque Cycle though it came long before, and while very interesting and inventive, somehow the overall story never really gelled for me - I think the problem may be that Gibson doesn’t develop his milieu in enough detail or imaginatively enough that the world and its characters can really come to life for one.|
|It’s behind you - The making of a computer Game||Bob Pape||★★★||2013||2013/09/30||Vividly conveys the fly-by-night and chaos of early computer games and some of the contortions & challenges of dealing with the limited computers of the day. All in all, though, I think Mechner’s The Making of Prince of Persia is a better read if you’re not specifically interested in R-Type.|
|Policeman’s Beard is Half-Constructed: Computer Prose and Poetry||Racter||★★★||1984||2010/01/01||Summary: the dreams quote in the Wikipedia article really was the most evocative part of the collection. Most of it wasn’t worth reading, and extremely suspiciously sophisticated and likely written by Chamberlain, which reduces the novelty value. (I read the online version.)|
|Making Money (Discworld, #36)||Terry Pratchett||★★★||2007||2012/01/18||Pretty mediocre, hard to believe plot (since when did Ankh-Morpork need fiat money? the gold standard went fine for highly industrialized countries right up to the Depression), and when did the patrician become the philosopher-king? I enjoyed it much less than Hogfather, which I read around the same time.|
|A Transatlantic Tunnel, Hurrah!||Harry Harrison||★★★||2000||2011/05/25||Rather short, but a fast read - Victorian flavored but not unreadable like a lot of steampunk. Decent but not great alternate history. (To call it great, I’d want it to be harder alt history with more details about how a transatlantic tunnel could even work at all, wrapped into a more engrossing story.)|
|Handbook of Psychopathy||Christopher J. Patrick||★★★||2007||2012/09/07||Highly technical and definitely not for anyone who has not read on the topic before or read a great deal of psychology research. Some papers are a waste, but some other papers are really good: I admired Harris & Rice 2006, and especially their careful analysis/takedown of the Salekin meta-analysis.|
|Shop Class as Soulcraft: An Inquiry Into the Value of Work||Matthew B. Crawford||★★★||2009||2012/10/15||Overall, makes many good points.
His discussions of computers, though, are not very well-informed; in particular, his footnote on Godel and Turing is pretty bad, although I think he may just have been misled by the authors he’s relying on like Searle, Penrose, and Andrew Hodges.
|Back to Methuselah||George Bernard Shaw||★★★||2007||2013/01/15||Strange - a sort of extremely slow progress that runs antithetical to modernity. In many ways (in terms of the nonfiction aspect of Shaw’s project), J.B.S Haldane’s “Daedalus, or, Science and the Future” is far superior, or Bernal’s The World, the Flesh, and the Devil.|
|Ragnarok||A.S. Byatt||★★★||2011||2011/10/19||Byatt’s Norse is not mine; she writes very well, but to me, Norse myth is about the striking verse, the illuminating kenning, the weirdly powerful line, yoked to phantasmagoric unconnected incidents under the dark shadow of Wyrd… (Much shorter than expected.)|
|10 Print Chr$(205.5+rnd(1)); Goto 10||Nick Montfort||★★★||2012||2012/12/02||A “world in a grain of sand” enterprise, it succeeds better at the task than I expected. (The sections on modern art are very strained, however. I would’ve preferred some mathematical analysis of the mazes generated and their properties to that whole section.)|
|Vader’s Little Princess||Jeffrey Brown||★★★||2013||2013/08/02||Cute, but superficial as intended. The main appeal of this for me was seeing just how many classic Star Wars lines or scenes could be twisted into hoary stereotypical teen jokes - it was many more than I would have expected!|
|Musa Pedestris - Three Centuries of Canting Songs and Slang Rhymes [1536 - 1896]||John S. Farmer||★★★||2007||A great source for writers wishing to use cant since it shows them off in context. The best poem (most are pedestrian in the negative sense) would be “Villon’s Straight Tip To All Cross Coves”, which is a marvel of its kind.|
|Economic Analysis of the Law: Selected Readings||Donald A. Wittman||★★★||2002||2011/10/20||Best essays were the blackmail, aboriginal, sports, and baby markets. The earlier ones were terribly dry, theoretical, and often justified themselves by appealing to rational actors and the status quo.|
|Empty Words: Buddhist Philosophy and Cross-Cultural Interpretation||Jay L. Garfield||★★★||2001||2012/08/27||Much of it is relatively technical, especially the parts dealing with Nagarjuna, and not suited to those who haven’t read the key texts. I did enjoy the comparison with Sextus Empiricus a lot, though.|
|The Luck Factor: Changing Your Luck, Changing Your Life - The Four Essential Principles||Richard Wiseman||★★★||2003||2011/05/23||This book is almost too padded to be worth reading. Is there a condensed version anywhere? The ideas seem like they might have something to them, but it’s hard to find the meat under the flab.|
|The Sword of Good||Eliezer Yudkowsky||★★★||2009||A clever subversive ending doesn’t make a story great. To some extent, this critique was done much better in Spinrad’s The Iron Dream or Herbert’s Dune/Dune Messiah for that matter.|
|Surface Detail (Culture, #9)||Iain M. Banks||★★★||2010||2011/07/20||The usual intertwined Banks plotting was easier to follow this time, and the overall resolution very satisfactory. Not as interesting as Player of Games, but still a solid Culture novel|
|The Children of the Sky (Zones of Thought #3)||Vernor Vinge||★★★||2011||2011/11/01||As much as I like the Zones of Thought universe, this drags in the middle, Tine society isn’t as interesting second time around, and it doesn’t end the storyline.|
|The Night Land||William Hope Hodgson||★★★||2001||2012/02/28||Very strange, studiedly & almost unreadably archaic, not really recommended except for the excellent early worldbuilding & evocation of the dying earth setting|
|A Book of Luminous Things: An International Anthology of Poetry||Czesław Miłosz||★★★||1998||2012/10/09||A fairly mediocre collection, with many cliched inclusions and far too many Polish or Chinese selections; Milosz’s prefaces shed little light.|
|The Closing of the American Mind||Allan Bloom||★★★||1988||2011/11/27||More interesting than I expected (not just a conservative cliched curmudgeon) but ultimately leaves me mostly unmoved.|
|Bleak Seasons (The Chronicle of the Black Company, #6)||Glen Cook||★★★||1997||2013/06/13||A dark fantasy version of Slaughterhouse Five, but more so.|
|Blood and Beauty: The Borgias; A Novel||Sarah Dunant||★★★||2014||2014/09/21|
|A Night in the Lonesome October||Roger Zelazny||★★★||1994||2014/07/18|
|Roadside Picnic||Arkady Strugatsky||★★★||2000||2014/07/16|
|The Story of Life Insurance||Burton Jesse Hendrick||★★★||1907||2009/01/01|
|Guerrilla Warfare||Ernesto Guevara||★★★||1985||2003/01/01|
|Six Memos For The Next Millennium||Italo Calvino||★★★||1996||2014/01/29|
|Letters from a Stoic||Seneca||★★★||1969||2014/05/05|
|Dawn of the Golden Witch (Umineko no Naku Koro ni Chiru #6)||07th Expansion||★★★||2009||2013/09/01|
|The Invention of Morel||Adolfo Bioy Casares||★★★||2003||2014/04/01|
|Myth-Taken Identity (Myth Adventures, #15)||Robert Lynn Asprin||★★★||2005||2008/07/15|
|An Island Out of Time: A Memoir of Smith Island in the Chesapeake||Tom Horton||★★★||1997|
|Mrs. Astor Regrets: The Hidden Betrayals of a Family Beyond Reproach||Meryl Gordon||★★★||2008||2013/06/21|
|Water Sleeps (The Chronicle of the Black Company, #8)||Glen Cook||★★★||2000|
|How to Read Donald Duck: Imperialist Ideology in the Disney Comic||Ariel Dorfman||★★★||1984|
|Introducing Nietzsche: A Graphic Guide||Laurence Gane||★★★||2005|
|History of the Conquest of Mexico/History of the Conquest of Peru||William H. Prescott||★★★||2000|
|The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte||Karl Marx||★★★||2005|
|Modern Egypt||Evelyn Baring Cromer||★★★||0|
|Young Philby||Robert Littell||★★★||2012||2013/04/01|
|Dreamland: Travels Inside the Secret World of Roswell and Area 51||Phil Patton||★★★||1998||2013/03/27|
|Buddhist Ethics: A Very Short Introduction||Damien Keown||★★★||2005|
|Heisenberg and the Nazi Atomic Bomb Project, 1939-1945: A Study in German Culture||Paul Lawrence Rose||★★★||1998||2013/02/15|
|Man’s Search for Meaning||Viktor E. Frankl||★★★||2006|
|Heaven and Hell||Aldous Huxley||★★★||1956|
|The Doors of Perception & Heaven and Hell||Aldous Huxley||★★★||2004|
|Twilight of the Elites: America After Meritocracy||Christopher L. Hayes||★★★||2012|
|Harry Potter and the Natural 20||Sir Poley||★★★||2012|
|The Goal: A Process of Ongoing Improvement||Eliyahu M. Goldratt||★★★||2004|
|Mr. Penumbra’s 24-Hour Bookstore||Robin Sloan||★★★||2012|
|How to Succeed in Evil||Patrick E. McLean||★★★||2007|
|The Complete Guide to Asperger’s Syndrome||Tony Attwood||★★★||2006|
|The Testament||John Grisham||★★★||1999|
|The Drive-In||Joe R. Lansdale||★★★||2005|
|A Vindication of the Rights of Women||Mary Wollstonecraft||★★★||2004||2012/09/01|
|The Warrior Prophet (The Prince of Nothing, #2)||R. Scott Bakker||★★★||2005|
|The Locked Room (The New York Trilogy, #3)||Paul Auster||★★★||1986|
|Ghosts (The New York Trilogy, #2)||Paul Auster||★★★||1987|
|The Koreans: Who They Are, What They Want, Where Their Future Lies||Michael Breen||★★★||2004|
|On Bullshit||Harry G. Frankfurt||★★★||2005|
|The Psychopath: Emotion and the Brain||James Blair||★★★||2005|
|What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry||John Markoff||★★★||2006|
|Rules of Engagement (The Serrano Legacy, #5)||Elizabeth Moon||★★★||2000|
|Everyman and Other Miracle and Morality Plays (Dover Thrift Editions)||Anonymous||★★★||1995|
|The Historian||Elizabeth Kostova||★★★||2005|
|The Planet Buyer||Cordwainer Smith||★★★||1975|
|The Waterworks||E.L. Doctorow||★★★||2007|
|The Brain Makers||H.P. Newquist||★★★||1994|
|The Secret History||Procopius||★★★||1982|
|Arms and the Man: Dr. Gerald Bull, Iraq and The Supergun||William Lowther||★★★||1991|
|The Perfect Store: Inside eBay||Adam Cohen||★★★||2003|
|Modern Egypt||Evelyn Baring||★★★||2009|
|Weird Water and Fuzzy Logic||Martin Gardner||★★★||1996|
|Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science||Martin Gardner||★★★||1957|
|The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine||Michael Lewis||★★★||2010|
|The Last Basselope: One Ferocious Story||Berkeley Breathed||★★★||2001|
|Communities in Cyberspace||Peter Kollock||★★★||1999|
|The Art of Reasoning||David Kelley||★★★||1998|
|Banks, Palaces, and Entrepreneurs in Renaissance Florence||Richard A. Goldthwaite||★★★||1995|
|Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among Apes||Frans de Waal||★★★||2000|
|Dark Empire Sourcebook||Michael Allen Horne||★★★||1998|
|Veil: The Secret Wars of the CIA, 1981-87||Bob Woodward||★★★||1987|
|Pippi Longstocking||Astrid Lindgren||★★★||1972|
|The Fall of the House of Usher||Edgar Allan Poe||★★★||1839|
|The Hidden Persuaders||Vance Packard||★★★||1972|
|A Day No Pigs Would Die||Robert Newton Peck||★★★||1979|
|Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays||Richard M. Stallman||★★★||2002|
|The Jungle||Upton Sinclair||★★★||2003|
|The Forlorn||Dave Freer||★★★||1999|
|The Wizardry Compiled (Wiz, #2)||Rick Cook||★★★||1990|
|The Mysterious Island||Jules Verne||★★★||1998|
|Purgatorio (The Divine Comedy, #2)||Dante Alighieri||★★★||2004|
|The Age Of Turbulence: Adventures In A New World||Alan Greenspan||★★★||2008|
|Rules for the Direction of the Mind||René Descartes||★★★||1961|
|The Voyages of Doctor Dolittle (Doctor Dolittle, #2)||Hugh Lofting||★★★||2005|
|The Ruling Caste: Imperial Lives in the Victorian Raj||David Gilmour||★★★||2006|
|Bioethics Reader||Helga Kuhse||★★★||2007|
|Symmetries and Reflections||Eugene Paul Wigner||★★★||1979|
|Six Chapters Of Life In A Cadre School: Memoirs From China’s Cultural Revolution||Chiang Yang||★★★||1986|
|In the Shadow of No Towers||Art Spiegelman||★★★||2004|
|Balance of Power: International Politics as the Ultimate Global Game||Chris Crawford||★★★||1986|
|H.P. Lovecraft: Against the World, Against Life||Michel Houellebecq||★★★||2005|
|Rats, Bats & Vats (The Rats and the Bats, #1)||Dave Freer||★★★||2001|
|The Nine: Inside the Secret World of the Supreme Court||Jeffrey Toobin||★★★||2007|
|Bangkok Tattoo (Sonchai Jitpleecheep #2)||John Burdett||★★★||2006|
|Bangkok 8 (Sonchai Jitpleecheep #1)||John Burdett||★★★||2004|
|The Captive Mind||Czesław Miłosz||★★★||1990|
|Opening the Xbox: Inside Microsoft’s Plan to Unleash an Entertainment Revolution||Dean Takahashi||★★★||2002|
|The Know-It-All: One Man’s Humble Quest to Become the Smartest Person in the World||A.J. Jacobs||★★★||2005|
|Notes from Underground||Fyodor Dostoyevsky||★★★||2004|
|Secrets of the Samurai: The Martial Arts of Feudal Japan||Oscar Ratti||★★★||2000|
|The Importance of Being Earnest||Oscar Wilde||★★★||2005|
|Going Postal (Discworld, #33)||Terry Pratchett||★★★||2005|
|Rogue Moon||Algis Budrys||★★★||1978|
|The Hand of Oberon (Amber Chronicles, #4)||Roger Zelazny||★★★||1977|
|Sign of the Unicorn (Amber Chronicles, #3)||Roger Zelazny||★★★||1976|
|The Guns of Avalon (Amber Chronicles, #2)||Roger Zelazny||★★★||1974|
|Joel on Software||Joel Spolsky||★★★||2004|
|Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media||Noam Chomsky||★★★||2002|
|The Eyre Affair (Thursday Next, #1)||Jasper Fforde||★★★||2003|
|Encyclopedia Brown Gets His Man (Encyclopedia Brown, #4)||Donald J. Sobol||★★★||1982|
|Encyclopedia Brown Finds the Clues (Encyclopedia Brown, #3)||Donald J. Sobol||★★★||1982|
|Brain Wave||Poul Anderson||★★★||1985||2014/07/01|
|Deep Trouble (Goosebumps, #19)||R.L. Stine||★★★||2003|
|How I Got My Shrunken Head (Goosebumps, #39)||R.L. Stine||★★★||2003|
|Ghost Beach (Goosebumps, #22)||R.L. Stine||★★★||2003|
|Be Careful What You Wish For… (Goosebumps, #12)||R.L. Stine||★★★||2005|
|Welcome to Camp Nightmare (Goosebumps, #9)||R.L. Stine||★★★||2003|
|Blue Wizard Is about to Die!: Prose, Poems, and Emoto-Versatronic Expressionist Pieces about Video Games, 1980-2003||Seth Fingers Flynn Barkan||★★★||2004|
|Me Talk Pretty One Day||David Sedaris||★★★||2001|
|Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close||Jonathan Safran Foer||★★★||2006|
|Fire Sea (The Death Gate Cycle, #3)||Margaret Weis||★★★||1992|
|Dragon Wing (The Death Gate Cycle, #1)||Margaret Weis||★★★||1990|
|Surfing Through Hyperspace: Understanding Higher Universes in Six Easy Lessons||Clifford A. Pickover||★★★||1999|
|Sushi Never Sleeps||Clifford A. Pickover||★★★||2002|
|E-Prime||Frederic P. Miller||★★★||2010|
|The Old Man and the Sea||Ernest Hemingway||★★★||1996|
|An Introduction to Japanese Court Poetry||Earl Roy Miner||★★★||1968|
|Like Froth Floating on the Sea: The World of Pirates and Seafarers in Late Imperial South China||Robert J. Antony||★★★||2004|
|Mechademia 3: Limits of the Human||Frenchy Lunning||★★★||2008|
|Mechademia 1: Emerging Worlds of Anime and Manga||Frenchy Lunning||★★★||2006|
|Mechademia 2: Networks of Desire (Mechademia)||Frenchy Lunning||★★★||2007|
|Ex-Prodigy: My Childhood and Youth||Norbert Wiener||★★★||2007|
|Conversations with Shotetsu =: Shotetsu Monogatari||Shotetsu||★★★||2007|
|Hamlet’s Mill: An Essay Investigating the Origins of Human Knowledge & Its Transmission Through Myth||Giorgio De Santillana||★★★||2014|
|Eaten Alive (Star Wars: Galaxy of Fear, #1)||John Whitman||★★★||1997|
|Planet of Twilight (Star Wars)||Barbara Hambly||★★★||1998|
|Death, Lies, and Treachery (Star Wars: Boba Fett)||John Wagner||★★★||1998|
|Crimson Empire, Volume 2: Council of Blood (Star Wars: Crimson Empire, #2)||Mike Richardson||★★★||1999|
|Star Wars Omnibus: Tales of the Jedi, Volume 1||Kevin J. Anderson||★★★||2007|
|Dark Empire II||Tom Veitch||★★★||2006|
|Dark Empire I||Tom Veitch||★★★||2003|
|Delusions of Grandeur (Star Wars: Young Jedi Knights, #9)||Kevin J. Anderson||★★★||1999|
|Darkest Knight (Star Wars: Young Jedi Knights, #5)||Kevin J. Anderson||★★★||1999|
|The Lost Ones (Star Wars: Young Jedi Knights, #3)||Kevin J. Anderson||★★★||1999|
|Lightsabers (Star Wars: Young Jedi Knights, #4)||Kevin J. Anderson||★★★||1999|
|Starfighters of Adumar (Star Wars: X-Wing, #9)||Aaron Allston||★★★||1999|
|Tyrant’s Test (Star Wars: The Black Fleet Crisis, #3)||Michael P. Kube-McDowell||★★★||1996|
|Shield of Lies (Star Wars: The Black Fleet Crisis, #2)||Michael P. Kube-McDowell||★★★||1996|
|Wraith Squadron (Star Wars: X-Wing, #5)||Aaron Allston||★★★||1998|
|The Hutt Gambit (Star Wars: The Han Solo Trilogy, #2)||A.C. Crispin||★★★||1997|
|The Paradise Snare (Star Wars: The Han Solo Trilogy, #1)||A.C. Crispin||★★★||1997|
|Children of the Jedi (Star Wars)||Barbara Hambly||★★★||1996|
|Wedge’s Gamble (Star Wars: X-Wing, #2)||Michael A. Stackpole||★★★||1996|
|Rogue Squadron (Star Wars: X-Wing, #1)||Michael A. Stackpole||★★★||1996|
|Specter of the Past (Star Wars: The Hand of Thrawn, #1)||Timothy Zahn||★★★||1998|
|Dark Force Rising (Star Wars: The Thrawn Trilogy, #2)||Timothy Zahn||★★★||1993|
|The Golden Transcendence (Golden Age, #3)||John C. Wright||★★★||2004|
|Orphans of Chaos (Chronicles of Chaos, #1)||John C. Wright||★★★||2006|
|Kabbalah and Criticism||Harold Bloom||★★★||2005|
|Legacy (The Way, #3)||Greg Bear||★★★||1996|
|Eternity (The Way, #2)||Greg Bear||★★★||1994|
|The Club Of Queer Trades||G.K. Chesterton||★★★||2004|
|The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks||Rebecca Skloot||★★★||2010|
|Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind: Informal Talks on Zen Meditation and Practice||Shunryu Suzuki||★★★||1973|
|Climbing Mount Improbable||Richard Dawkins||★★★||2006|
|The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex||Murray Gell-Mann||★★★||1995|
|Korean Etiquette Ethics Business||Boyé Lafayette de Mente||★★★||1994|
|The Mouse That Roared||Leonard Wibberley||★★★||2003|
|Ten Thousand Sorrows : The Extraordinary Journey of a Korean War Orphan||Elizabeth Kim||★★★||2000|
|The Foreign Student: A Novel||Susan Choi||★★★||2004|
|Kal Flight 007: The Hidden Story||Oliver Clubb||★★★||1985|
|Modern Korean Fiction: An Anthology||Bruce Fulton||★★★||2005|
|The Hidden People of North Korea: Everyday Life in the Hermit Kingdom||Ralph Hassig||★★★||2009|
|Gang Leader for a Day: A Rogue Sociologist Takes to the Streets||Sudhir Venkatesh||★★★||2008|
|The Penultimate Peril (A Series of Unfortunate Events, #12)||Lemony Snicket||★★★||2005|
|The Grim Grotto (A Series of Unfortunate Events, #11)||Lemony Snicket||★★★||2004|
|The Slippery Slope (A Series of Unfortunate Events, #10)||Lemony Snicket||★★★||2003|
|The Ersatz Elevator (A Series of Unfortunate Events, #6)||Lemony Snicket||★★★||2001|
|The Austere Academy (A Series of Unfortunate Events, #5)||Lemony Snicket||★★★||2000|
|The Wide Window (A Series of Unfortunate Events, #3)||Lemony Snicket||★★★||2000|
|Market Forces||Richard K. Morgan||★★★||2005|
|The Constant Gardener||John le Carré||★★★||2005|
|Split Heirs||Lawrence Watt-Evans||★★★||1993|
|Furious Gulf (Galactic Center, #5)||Gregory Benford||★★★||1994|
|Tides of Light (Galactic Center, #4)||Gregory Benford||★★★||2004|
|Great Sky River (Galactic Center, #3)||Gregory Benford||★★★||2004|
|Foundation’s Fear (Second Foundation Trilogy, #1)||Gregory Benford||★★★||2000|
|Karl Marx: A Reader||Jon Elster||★★★||2006|
|Terror and Consent : The Wars for the Twenty-First Century||Philip Bobbitt||★★★||2008||2008/07/01|
|Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East: 1776 to the Present||Michael B. Oren||★★★||2007||2008/07/03|
|Patterns of Software: Tales from the Software Community||Richard P. Gabriel||★★★||1996||2008/08/04|
|Command Failure in War: Psychology and Leadership||Philip Langer||★★★||2014||2008/06/18|
|The Last Lecture||Randy Pausch||★★★||2008|
|Edison’s Conquest of Mars: The Original 1898 Sequel to The War of the Worlds||Garrett P. Serviss||★★★||2010|
|1001 Things Everyone Should Know About Science||James Trefil||★★★||1991|
|The True Story of the 3 Little Pigs||Jon Scieszka||★★★||1996|
|The BFG||Roald Dahl||★★★||2001|
|Holes (Holes, #1)||Louis Sachar||★★★||2000|
|The Witch of Blackbird Pond||Elizabeth George Speare||★★★||1978|
|The Chosen||Chaim Potok||★★★||1987|
|The Secret Garden||Frances Hodgson Burnett||★★★||1998|
|The Black Cauldron (The Chronicles of Prydain #2)||Lloyd Alexander||★★★||1980|
|The Book of Three (The Chronicles of Prydain #1)||Lloyd Alexander||★★★||1980|
|Anne of Avonlea (Anne of Green Gables, #2)||L.M. Montgomery||★★★||1997|
|Bridge to Terabithia||Katherine Paterson||★★★||2003|
|A Separate Peace||John Knowles||★★★||2003|
|When We Were Very Young (Winnie-the-Pooh, #3)||A.A. Milne||★★★||1988|
|The Sneetches and Other Stories||Dr. Seuss||★★★||1961|
|The Polar Express||Chris Van Allsburg||★★★||2009|
|The Boxcar Children 1-4 (The Boxcar Children, #1-4)||Gertrude Chandler Warner||★★★||1990|
|Machine of Death: A Collection of Stories About People Who Know How They Will Die (Machine of Death #1)||Ryan North||★★★||2010|
|It’s a Busy, Busy World||Richard Scarry||★★★||1965|
|Northworld Trilogy (Northworld, #1-3)||David Drake||★★★||1999|
|The Armageddon Inheritance (Dahak, #2)||David Weber||★★★||1993|
|More Than Honor (Worlds of Honor, #1)||David Weber||★★★||1998|
|Mutineers’ Moon (Dahak, #1)||David Weber||★★★||1999|
|At All Costs (Honor Harrington, #11)||David Weber||★★★||2005|
|Ashes of Victory (Honor Harrington, #9)||David Weber||★★★||2001|
|Echoes of Honor (Honor Harrington, #8)||David Weber||★★★||1999|
|Flag in Exile (Honor Harrington, #5)||David Weber||★★★||1995|
|Honor Among Enemies (Honor Harrington, #6)||David Weber||★★★||1997|
|The Honor of the Queen (Honor Harrington, #2)||David Weber||★★★||2001|
|Vampire World I: Blood Brothers (Necroscope, #6)||Brian Lumley||★★★||1993|
|Necroscope V: Deadspawn (Necroscope, #5)||Brian Lumley||★★★||1991|
|Necroscope IV: Deadspeak (Necroscope, #4)||Brian Lumley||★★★||1992|
|Necroscope III: The Source (Necroscope, #3)||Brian Lumley||★★★||1989|
|Someone Comes to Town, Someone Leaves Town||Cory Doctorow||★★★||2006|
|The Hacker and the Ants||Rudy Rucker||★★★||2003|
|Equal Rites (Discworld, #3)||Terry Pratchett||★★★||2005|
|The Pelican Brief||John Grisham||★★★||1992|
|The Light Fantastic (Discworld, #2)||Terry Pratchett||★★★||2000|
|The Red Badge of Courage||Stephen Crane||★★★||2006|
|The Eudaemonic Pie||Thomas A. Bass||★★★||2000|
|Vampire World III: Bloodwars (Necroscope, #8)||Brian Lumley||★★★||1995|
|The Nimrod Flipout: Stories||Etgar Keret||★★★||2006|
|Castle of Wizardry (The Belgariad, #4)||David Eddings||★★★||1984|
|Queen of Sorcery (The Belgariad, #2)||David Eddings||★★★||1982|
|The Ruby Knight (The Elenium, #2)||David Eddings||★★★||1991|
|The Diamond Throne (The Elenium, #1)||David Eddings||★★★||1990|
|Gentlemen of the Road||Michael Chabon||★★★||2007|
|Powers, Vol. 1: Who Killed Retro Girl?||Brian Michael Bendis||★★★||2006|
|Me and My Little Brain (Great Brain #3)||John D. Fitzgerald||★★★||2004|
|The Great Brain at the Academy (Great Brain #4)||John D. Fitzgerald||★★★||1982|
|More Adventures of the Great Brain (Great Brain #2)||John D. Fitzgerald||★★★||2004|
|The State of the Art (Culture, #4)||Iain M. Banks||★★★||2007|
|Timelike Infinity (Xelee Sequence, #2)||Stephen Baxter||★★★||1997|
|Flux (Xeelee Sequence, #3)||Stephen Baxter||★★★||1998|
|Raft (Xelee Sequence, #1)||Stephen Baxter||★★★||1992|
|Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds||Charles Mackay||★★★||2003|
|Look Me in the Eye: My Life with Asperger’s||John Elder Robison||★★★||2007|
|Hit or Myth (Myth Adventures, #4)||Robert Lynn Asprin||★★★||2006|
|Little Myth Marker (Myth Adventures, #6)||Robert Lynn Asprin||★★★||2006|
|M.Y.T.H. Inc. in Action (Myth Adventures, #9)||Robert Lynn Asprin||★★★||2007|
|Sweet Myth-Tery of Life (Myth Adventures #10)||Robert Lynn Asprin||★★★||1995|
|Another Fine Myth (Myth Adventures, #1)||Robert Lynn Asprin||★★★||2005||2008/07/15|
|The Tomb (Adversary Cycle, #2) (Repairman Jack, #1)||F. Paul Wilson||★★★||1998|
|Hunter’s Death (The Sacred Hunt, #2)||Michelle West||★★★||1996|
|Hunter’s Oath (The Sacred Hunt, #1)||Michelle West||★★★||1995|
|The Riven Shield (The Sun Sword, #5)||Michelle West||★★★||2003|
|The Sun Sword (The Sun Sword, #6)||Michelle West||★★★||2004|
|Sea of Sorrows (The Sun Sword, #4)||Michelle West||★★★||2001|
|The Broken Crown (The Sun Sword, # 1)||Michelle West||★★★||1997|
|The Uncrowned King (The Sun Sword, #2)||Michelle West||★★★||1998|
|The Shining Court (The Sun Sword, #3)||Michelle West||★★★||1999|
|The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture||Roger J. Davies||★★★||2002|
|An Introduction to Jung’s Psychology||Frieda Fordham||★★★||1970|
|The Battles of Coxinga: Chikamatsu’s Puppet Play, Its Background and Importance||Donald Keene||★★★||1951|
|Sources of Japanese Tradition, Volume One: From Earliest Times to 1600||Donald Keene||★★★||2002|
|The Pleasures of Japanese Literature||Donald Keene||★★★||1993|
|Anthology of Japanese Literature: From the Earliest Era to the Mid-Nineteenth Century||Donald Keene||★★★||1994|
|How Would You Move Mount Fuji?: Microsoft’s Cult of the Puzzle: How the World’s Smartest Companies Select the Most Creative Thinkers||William Poundstone||★★★||2004|
|Reading Graphs, Maps, and Trees: Responses to Franco Moretti||Jonathan Goodwin||★★★||2011|
|Romeo and Juliet||William Shakespeare||★★★||2004|
|Night (The Night Trilogy, #1)||Elie Wiesel||★★★||2006|
|The Stainless Steel Rat Goes to Hell (Stainless Steel Rat, #9)||Harry Harrison||★★★||1998|
|The Adventures of the Stainless Steel Rat (Stainless Steel Rat, #4-6)||Harry Harrison||★★★||1987|
|Critical Point of View: A Wikipedia Reader||Geert Lovink||★★★||2011|
|Comics and Sequential Art||Will Eisner||★★★||2001|
|Manga Impact: The World of Japanese Animation||Philip Brophy||★★★||2010|
|Is Marriage for White People?: How the African American Marriage Decline Affects Everyone||Ralph Richard Banks||★★★||2011|
|The Truth Machine||James L. Halperin||★★★||1996|
|The Visual Display of Quantitative Information||Edward R. Tufte||★★★||2001|
|The Ultimate Harry Potter and Philosophy: Hogwarts for Muggles||Gregory Bassham||★★★||2010|
|Endgame: Bobby Fischer’s Remarkable Rise and Fall - from America’s Brightest Prodigy to the Edge of Madness||Frank Brady||★★★||2011|
|Statesman (Bio of a Space Tyrant, #5)||Piers Anthony||★★★||1986|
|Executive (Bio of a Space Tyrant, #4)||Piers Anthony||★★★||1985|
|Politician (Bio of a Space Tyrant, #3)||Piers Anthony||★★★||1985|
|Mercenary (Bio of a Space Tyrant, #2)||Piers Anthony||★★★||2000|
|Refugee (Bio of a Space Tyrant, #1)||Piers Anthony||★★★||2000|
|Phaze Doubt (Apprentice Adept, #7)||Piers Anthony||★★★||1991|
|Out of Phaze (Apprentice Adept, #4)||Piers Anthony||★★★||1988|
|The Color of Her Panties (Xanth, #15)||Piers Anthony||★★★||1992|
|Ogre, Ogre (Xanth, #5)||Piers Anthony||★★★||1997|
|With a Tangled Skein (Incarnations of Immortality, #3)||Piers Anthony||★★★||1986|
|The Source of Magic (Xanth, #2)||Piers Anthony||★★★||1997|
|A Spell for Chameleon (Xanth, #1)||Piers Anthony||★★★||1977|
|Foundation and Earth (Foundation, #5)||Isaac Asimov||★★★||2004|
|Second Foundation (Foundation, #3)||Isaac Asimov||★★★||2004|
|The Giving Tree||Shel Silverstein||★★★||1964|
|The Crucible||Arthur Miller||★★★||2003|
|The Adventures of Tom Sawyer||Mark Twain||★★★||2006|
|Confessor (Sword of Truth, #11)||Terry Goodkind||★★★||2007|
|Temple of the Winds (Sword of Truth, #4)||Terry Goodkind||★★★||2007|
|Blood of the Fold (Sword of Truth, #3)||Terry Goodkind||★★★||1997|
|Outcast of Redwall (Redwall, #8)||Brian Jacques||★★★||2004|
|The Bellmaker (Redwall, #7)||Brian Jacques||★★★||2004|
|Mariel of Redwall (Redwall, #4)||Brian Jacques||★★★||2003|
|Martin the Warrior (Redwall, #6)||Brian Jacques||★★★||1995|
|Mattimeo (Redwall, #3)||Brian Jacques||★★★||1999|
|Heaven’s Reach (Uplift Storm Trilogy, #3)||David Brin||★★★||1999|
|Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-Earth||J.R.R. Tolkien||★★★||2000|
|The Haunted Mesa||Louis L’Amour||★★★||1988|
|Polyamory in the Twenty-First Century: Love and Intimacy with Multiple Partners||Deborah Anapol||★★★||2012|
|Randomized Clinical Trials: Design, Practice and Reporting||David Machin||★★★||2010|
|Distrust That Particular Flavor||William Gibson||★★★||2012|
|The Intelligent Universe: A New View of Creation and Evolution||Fred Hoyle||★★★||1983|
|Mr Palomar||Italo Calvino||★★★||1994||2008/07/29|
|Shining Steel||Lawrence Watt-Evans||★★★||1986|
|Infinite in All Directions||Freeman Dyson||★★★||2004|
|Due Considerations: Essays and Criticism||John Updike||★★★||2007||2008/09/06|
|TAZ: The Temporary Autonomous Zone (New Autonomy)||Peter Lamborn Wilson||★★★||2003|
|Peace on Earth||Stanisław Lem||★★★||2002|
|Lilith: A Snake in the Grass (The Four Lords of the Diamond, #1)||Jack L. Chalker||★★★||1981|
|The Return of Nathan Brazil (Saga of the Well World, #4)||Jack L. Chalker||★★★||2005|
|Twilight at the Well of Souls (Saga of the Well World, #5)||Jack L. Chalker||★★★||1986|
|Charon: A Dragon at the Gate (The Four Lords of the Diamond, #3)||Jack L. Chalker||★★★||1982|
|Medusa: A Tiger by the Tail (The Four Lords of the Diamond, #4)||Jack L. Chalker||★★★||1983|
|Pirates of the Thunder (Rings of the Master, #2)||Jack L. Chalker||★★★||1987|
|Echoes of the Well of Souls (Watchers at the Well, #1)||Jack L. Chalker||★★★||1993|
|Shadow of the Well of Souls (Watchers at the Well, #2)||Jack L. Chalker||★★★||1994|
|The Watchers at the Well: Echoes of the Well of Souls; Shadow of the Well of Souls; Gods of the Well of Souls||Jack L. Chalker||★★★||1994|
|Exiles at the Well of Souls (Saga of the Well World, #2)||Jack L. Chalker||★★★||2003|
|Midnight at the Well of Souls (Saga of the Well World, #1)||Jack L. Chalker||★★★||2002|
|Sense and Goodness Without God: A Defense of Metaphysical Naturalism||Richard Carrier||★★★||2005|
|Why I Am Not a Christian: Four Conclusive Reasons to Reject the Faith||Richard Carrier||★★★||2011|
|Everything is Obvious: Once You Know the Answer||Duncan J. Watts||★★★||2011|
|Foreign Babes in Beijing: Behind the Scenes of a New China||Rachel DeWoskin||★★★||2006|
|The Singers of Time||Frederik Pohl||★★★||1991|
|Heechee Rendezvous (Heechee Saga, #3)||Frederik Pohl||★★★||1985|
|3001: The Final Odyssey (Space Odyssey, #4)||Arthur C. Clarke||★★★||1999|
|Rendezvous with Rama (Rama, #1)||Arthur C. Clarke||★★★||2000|
|Artemis Fowl (Artemis Fowl, #1)||Eoin Colfer||★★★||2003|
|The Long Dark Tea-Time of the Soul (Dirk Gently, #2)||Douglas Adams||★★★||1991|
|The Other Wind (Earthsea Cycle, #6)||Ursula K. Le Guin||★★★||2003|
|Fables, Vol. 17: Inherit the Wind (Fables, #17)||Bill Willingham||★★★||2012|
|Fables, Vol. 16: Super Team (Fables, #16)||Bill Willingham||★★★||2011|
|Fables, Vol. 13: The Great Fables Crossover (Fables, #13)||Bill Willingham||★★★||2010|
|Fables, Vol. 14: Witches (Fables, #14)||Bill Willingham||★★★||2010|
|Fables, Vol. 15: Rose Red (Fables, #15)||Bill Willingham||★★★||2011|
|Fables, Vol. 12: The Dark Ages (Fables, #12)||Bill Willingham||★★★||2009|
|Fables, Vol. 11: War and Pieces (Fables, #11)||Bill Willingham||★★★||2008|
|Fables, Vol. 8: Wolves (Fables, #8)||Bill Willingham||★★★||2006|
|Fables, Vol. 3: Storybook Love (Fables, #3)||Bill Willingham||★★★||2004|
|The History of the Peloponnesian War||Thucydides||★★★||1954|
|Vitality, Energy, Spirit: A Taoist Sourcebook (Shambhala Dragon Editions)||Thomas Cleary||★★★||2009|
|Breaking Open the Head: A Psychedelic Journey Into the Heart of Contemporary Shamanism||Daniel Pinchbeck||★★★||2003|
|Tomorrow’s Eve||Villiers de L’Isle-Adam||★★★||2000|
|Influence Of Seapower Upon History, The||Alfred Thayer Mahan||★★★||1995||2012/07/18|
|Twisting the Rope (Black Dragon, #2)||R.A. MacAvoy||★★★||1986|
|The Advent of the Algorithm: The 300-Year Journey from an Idea to the Computer||David Berlinski||★★★||2001|
|Shadow of the Giant (Ender’s Shadow, #4)||Orson Scott Card||★★★||2005|
|Shadow of the Hegemon (Ender’s Shadow, #2)||Orson Scott Card||★★★||2001|
|Speaker for the Dead (The Ender Quintet, #2)||Orson Scott Card||★★★||1994|
|Mason and Dixon||Thomas Pynchon||★★★||2004|
|The Professor and the Madman: A Tale of Murder, Insanity and the Making of the Oxford English Dictionary||Simon Winchester||★★★||2005|
|Anna Karenina||Leo Tolstoy||★★★||2001|
|The Firm||John Grisham||★★★||1997|
|Behemoth: Seppuku (Rifters #3.2)||Peter Watts||★★★||2005|
|Rational Choice in an Uncertain World||Robyn M. Dawes||★★★||1988|
|The Tailor of Panama||John le Carré||★★★||1996|
|Smiley’s People||John le Carré||★★★||2002|
|Rising Sun||Michael Crichton||★★★||2004|
|The Lost World (Jurassic Park, #2)||Michael Crichton||★★★||1995|
|The Andromeda Strain||Michael Crichton||★★★||2003|
|The Path of Daggers (Wheel of Time, #8)||Robert Jordan||★★★||1999|
|The Gathering Storm (Wheel of Time, #12)||Robert Jordan||★★★||2009|
|The Ghost Brigades (Old Man’s War, #2)||John Scalzi||★★★||2007|
|Black Swan Green||David Mitchell||★★★||2007||2008/09/03|
|Foundation’s Triumph (Second Foundation Trilogy, #3)||David Brin||★★★||2000|
|Brightness Reef (Uplift Storm Trilogy, #1)||David Brin||★★★||1996|
|Thus Spoke Zarathustra||Friedrich Nietzsche||★★★||1978|
|On the Genealogy of Morals/Ecce Homo||Friedrich Nietzsche||★★★||2010|
|The Hero With a Thousand Faces||Joseph Campbell||★★★||1972|
|Sundiver (The Uplift Saga, #1)||David Brin||★★★||2010|
|Franz Kafka’s The Castle (Dramatization)||David Fishelson||★★★||2003|
|Zen in the Art of Archery||Eugen Herrigel||★★★||1999|
|Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon||Daniel C. Dennett||★★★||2006|
|The Hunger Games (The Hunger Games, #1)||Suzanne Collins||★★★||2008|
|An Artist of the Floating World||Kazuo Ishiguro||★★★||2005|
|Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?||Philip K. Dick||★★★||1996|
|Singularity Sky (Eschaton, #1)||Charles Stross||★★★||2012|
|America (The Book): A Citizen’s Guide to Democracy Inaction||Jon Stewart||★★★||2004|
|The Tempest||William Shakespeare||★★★||2004|
|Monkey Brain Sushi: New Tastes in Japanese Fiction||Alfred Birnbaum||★★★||2002|
|Everything’s Eventual: 14 Dark Tales||Stephen King||★★★||2005|
|The Tommyknockers||Stephen King||★★★||1993|
|The Waste Lands (The Dark Tower, #3)||Stephen King||★★★||2003|
|Needful Things||Stephen King||★★★||1992|
|’Salem’s Lot||Stephen King||★★★||1991|
|Deathbird Stories||Harlan Ellison||★★★||2006|
|The Yiddish Policemen’s Union||Michael Chabon||★★★||2007|
|A Wizard of Earthsea (Earthsea Cycle, #1)||Ursula K. Le Guin||★★★||2004|
|Count Zero (Sprawl, #2)||William Gibson||★★★||2006|
|Mona Lisa Overdrive (Sprawl, #3)||William Gibson||★★★||1989|
|The Long Winter (Little House, #6)||Laura Ingalls Wilder||★★★||2007|
|On the Banks of Plum Creek (Little House, #4)||Laura Ingalls Wilder||★★★||2007|
|The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Vol. 1||Alan Moore||★★★||2002|
|The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Vol. 2||Alan Moore||★★★||2004|
|Neon Genesis Evangelion, Vol. 04||Yoshiyuki Sadamoto||★★★||2004|
|Neon Genesis Evangelion, Vol. 03||Yoshiyuki Sadamoto||★★★||1999|
|Neon Genesis Evangelion, Vol. 05||Yoshiyuki Sadamoto||★★★||2004|
|Neon Genesis Evangelion, Vol. 02||Yoshiyuki Sadamoto||★★★||1998|
|The Invisibles, Vol. 5: Counting to None||Grant Morrison||★★★||1999|
|The Invisibles, Vol. 4: Bloody Hell in America||Grant Morrison||★★★||1998|
|The Invisibles, Vol. 2: Apocalipstick||Grant Morrison||★★★||2001|
|100 Bullets, Vol. 3: Hang Up on the Hang Low||Brian Azzarello||★★★||2001|
|100 Bullets, Vol. 2: Split Second Chance||Brian Azzarello||★★★||2000|
|100 Bullets, Vol. 1: First Shot, Last Call||Brian Azzarello||★★★||2000|
|Y: The Last Man, Vol. 6: Girl on Girl (Y: The Last Man, #6)||Brian K. Vaughan||★★★||2005|
|Y: The Last Man, Vol. 8: Kimono Dragons (Y: The Last Man, #8)||Brian K. Vaughan||★★★||2006|
|Y: The Last Man, Vol. 9: Motherland (Y: The Last Man, #9)||Brian K. Vaughan||★★★||2007|
|Y: The Last Man, Vol. 4: Safeword (Y: The Last Man, #4)||Brian K. Vaughan||★★★||2004|
|Y: The Last Man, Vol. 7: Paper Dolls (Y: The Last Man, #7)||Brian K. Vaughan||★★★||2006|
|Y: The Last Man, Vol. 3: One Small Step (Y: The Last Man, #3)||Brian K. Vaughan||★★★||2004|
|Y: The Last Man, Vol. 5: Ring of Truth (Y: The Last Man, #5)||Brian K. Vaughan||★★★||2005|
|Y: The Last Man, Vol. 2: Cycles (Y: The Last Man, #2)||Brian K. Vaughan||★★★||2003|
|Zot!: The Complete Black-and-White Collection: 1987-1991||Scott McCloud||★★★||2008|
|Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (Harry Potter, #7)||J.K. Rowling||★★★||2007|
|The 4-Hour Work Week||Timothy Ferriss||★★★||2007|
|A Tale of Two Cities||Charles Dickens||★★★||2003|
|The Time Traveler’s Wife||Audrey Niffenegger||★★★||2003|
|Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error||Kathryn Schulz||★★★||2010|
|Beyond the Hoax: Science, Philosophy and Culture||Alan Sokal||★★★||2010|
|The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood||James Gleick||★★★||2011|
|The Lifecycle of Software Objects||Ted Chiang||★★★||2010|
|Doomsday Book (Oxford Time Travel, #1)||Connie Willis||★★★||1992|
|To Say Nothing of the Dog (Oxford Time Travel, #2)||Connie Willis||★★★||1998|
|King Lear||William Shakespeare||★★★||2004|
|I Am Legend||Richard Matheson||★★★||1999|
|The Master of Go||Yasunari Kawabata||★★★||1996|
|Sophie’s World||Jostein Gaarder||★★★||1995|
|Two Treatises of Government||John Locke||★★★||1988|
|Daughter of Regals and Other Tales||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★||1985|
|The Second Chronicles of Thomas Covenant (The Second Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, #1-3)||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★||1994|
|Fatal Revenant (The Last Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, #2)||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★||2007|
|The Runes of the Earth (The Last Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, #1)||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★||2004|
|The One Tree (The Second Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, #2)||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★||1997|
|White Gold Wielder (The Second Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, #3)||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★||1997|
|The Wounded Land (The Second Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, #1)||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★||1997|
|Lord Foul’s Bane (The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant the Unbeliever, #1)||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★||1989|
|The Power of Myth||Joseph Campbell||★★★||2011|
|Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-Free Productivity||David Allen||★★★||2002|
|If on a Winter’s Night a Traveler||Italo Calvino||★★★||1982|
|The Two Towers (The Lord of the Rings, #2)||J.R.R. Tolkien||★★★||2003|
|The End of Eternity||Isaac Asimov||★★★||1971|
|The Alchemist||Paulo Coelho||★★★||1993|
|The Trial||Franz Kafka||★★★||2001|
|The Color of Magic (Discworld, #1)||Terry Pratchett||★★★||2005|
|Mort (Discworld, #4)||Terry Pratchett||★★★||2001|
|Guards! Guards! (Discworld, #8)||Terry Pratchett||★★★||2001|
|Reaper Man (Discworld, #11)||Terry Pratchett||★★★||2005|
|Sourcery (Discworld, #5)||Terry Pratchett||★★★||2001|
|Monstrous Regiment (Discworld, #31)||Terry Pratchett||★★★||2003|
|Moving Pictures (Discworld, #10)||Terry Pratchett||★★★||2005|
|The Stranger||Albert Camus||★★★||1989|
|The God Delusion||Richard Dawkins||★★★||2006|
|A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man||James Joyce||★★★||2003|
|Robinson Crusoe||Daniel Defoe||★★★||2001|
|The Magic Goes Away||Larry Niven||★★★||1979|
|Flatlander (Known Space)||Larry Niven||★★★||2003|
|A World Out of Time (The State, #1)||Larry Niven||★★★||1986|
|The Integral Trees||Larry Niven||★★★||1985|
|Ringworld’s Children (Ringworld, #4)||Larry Niven||★★★||2005|
|The Ringworld Throne (Ringworld, #3)||Larry Niven||★★★||1997|
|The Ringworld Engineers (Ringworld, #2)||Larry Niven||★★★||1997|
|Megatokyo, Volume 4||Fred Gallagher||★★★||2006|
|Megatokyo, Volume 1||Fred Gallagher||★★★||2004|
|Marooned in Realtime (Across Realtime, #2)||Vernor Vinge||★★★||2004|
|The Great Hunt (Wheel of Time, #2)||Robert Jordan||★★★||1991|
|The System of the World (The Baroque Cycle, #3)||Neal Stephenson||★★★||2005|
|The Confusion (The Baroque Cycle, #2)||Neal Stephenson||★★★||2005|
|Quicksilver (The Baroque Cycle, #1)||Neal Stephenson||★★★||2004|
|Principia Discordia, Or, How I Found Goddess and What I Did to Her When I Found Her: The Magnum Opiate of Malaclypse the Younger||Gregory Hill||★★★||1980|
|Children of the Mind (The Ender Quintet, #4)||Orson Scott Card||★★★||2002|
|On the Road||Jack Kerouac||★★★||1976|
|The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time||Mark Haddon||★★★||2004|
|Outliers: The Story of Success||Malcolm Gladwell||★★★||2008|
|Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us||Daniel H. Pink||★★★||2009|
|Prometheus Rising||Robert Anton Wilson||★★★||2010|
|The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe Without Design||Richard Dawkins||★★★||2006|
|A Crown of Swords (Wheel of Time, #7)||Robert Jordan||★★★||1997|
|Crossroads of Twilight (Wheel of Time, #10)||Robert Jordan||★★★||2003|
|Knife of Dreams (Wheel of Time, #11)||Robert Jordan||★★★||2006|
|A Wrinkle in Time (A Wrinkle in Time Quintet, #1)||Madeleine L’Engle||★★★||1973|
|The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference||Malcolm Gladwell||★★★||2002|
|Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation||Lynne Truss||★★★||2006|
|The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology||Ray Kurzweil||★★★||2006|
|Pattern Recognition (Blue Ant, #1)||William Gibson||★★★||2005|
|Rainbows End||Vernor Vinge||★★★||2007|
|Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World||Jack Weatherford||★★★||2005|
|This Craft of Verse||Jorge Luis Borges||★★★||2002|
|The Book of Sand and Shakespeare’s Memory||Jorge Luis Borges||★★★||2001|
|The Mandalorian Armor (Star Wars: The Bounty Hunter Wars, #1)||K.W. Jeter||★★★||1998|
|Tales from the New Republic (Star Wars)||Peter Schweighofer||★★★||2011|
|Darksaber (Star Wars)||Kevin J. Anderson||★★★||1996|
|Dark Apprentice (Star Wars: The Jedi Academy Trilogy, #2)||Kevin J. Anderson||★★★||1994|
|Soul Catcher||Frank Herbert||★★★||1987|
|The Ascension Factor (Destination: Void, #4)||Frank Herbert||★★★||1990|
|Whipping Star||Frank Herbert||★★★||1986|
|Chapterhouse: Dune (Dune Chronicles, #6)||Frank Herbert||★★★||1987|
|Heretics of Dune (Dune Chronicles #5)||Frank Herbert||★★★||1987|
|House Atreides (Prelude to Dune, #1)||Brian Herbert||★★★||2000|
|I Am Legend||Richard Matheson||★★★||1995|
|The Hollow Man||Dan Simmons||★★★||1993|
|Carrion Comfort||Dan Simmons||★★★||1990|
|Olympos (Ilium, #2)||Dan Simmons||★★★||2006|
|Ilium (Ilium, #1)||Dan Simmons||★★★||2005|
|King Rat||China Miéville||★★★||2000|
|Infinite Jest||David Foster Wallace||★★★||2005|
|Iron Council (Bas-Lag, #3)||China Miéville||★★★||2005|
|Town of Cats||Haruki Murakami||★★★||2011|
|After Dark||Haruki Murakami||★★★||2007|
|Norwegian Wood||Haruki Murakami||★★★||2000|
|The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle||Haruki Murakami||★★★||1997||2008/08/12|
|Travels in Hyperreality||Umberto Eco||★★★||1990|
|Starship Troopers||Robert A. Heinlein||★★★||1987|
|The Chronicles of Narnia (Chronicles of Narnia, #1-7)||C.S. Lewis||★★★||2002|
|The Silver Chair (Chronicles of Narnia, #4)||C.S. Lewis||★★★||2008|
|The Horse and His Boy (Chronicles of Narnia, #5)||C.S. Lewis||★★★||1995|
|The Magician’s Nephew (Chronicles of Narnia, #6)||C.S. Lewis||★★★||2005|
|Prince Caspian (Chronicles of Narnia, #2)||C.S. Lewis||★★★||2005|
|The Positronic Man (Robot, #0.6)||Isaac Asimov||★★★||1994|
|Three Men in a Boat||Jerome K. Jerome||★★★||1994|
|Life, the Universe and Everything (Hitchhiker’s Guide, #3)||Douglas Adams||★★★||2008|
|So Long, and Thanks for All the Fish||Douglas Adams||★★★||2008|
|Mostly Harmless (Hitchhiker’s Guide, #5)||Douglas Adams||★★★||2009|
|The Ethical Slut: A Guide to Infinite Sexual Possibilities||Dossie Easton||★★★||2004|
|Freakonomics||Steven D. Levitt||★★★||2006|
|The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, #1)||Douglas Adams||★★★||1995|
|The Restaurant at the End of the Universe (Hitchhiker’s Guide, #2)||Douglas Adams||★★★||1997|
|The Phantom Tollbooth||Norton Juster||★★★||1996|
|The Book of Silence: Book 4 of the Lords of Dus||Lawrence Watt-Evans||★★★||1983|
|The Sword of Bheleu||Lawrence Watt-Evans||★★★||2002|
|Seven Altars of Dusarra||Lawrence Watt-Evans||★★★||2002|
|The Cyborg and the Sorcerers||Lawrence Watt-Evans||★★★||1982|
|The Lure of the Basilisk||Lawrence Watt-Evans||★★★||2001|
|With a Single Spell||Lawrence Watt-Evans||★★★||2000|
|The Structure of Scientific Revolutions||Thomas S. Kuhn||★★★||1996|
|Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases||Daniel Kahneman||★★★||1982|
|The Flame is Green||R.A. Lafferty||★★★||1985|
|Sodom and Gomorrah, Texas||R.A. Lafferty||★★★||2008|
|Arrive at Easterwine: The Autobiography of a Ktistec Machine||R.A. Lafferty||★★★||1971|
|The Moral Animal: Why We Are the Way We Are: The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology||Robert Wright||★★★||1995|
|Harlequin Valentine||Neil Gaiman||★★★||2001|
|American Gods (American Gods, #1)||Neil Gaiman||★★★||2005|
|Wastelands: Stories of the Apocalypse||John Joseph Adams||★★★||2008|
|Castle of Days||Gene Wolfe||★★★||1995|
|Free Live Free||Gene Wolfe||★★★||1999|
|An Evil Guest||Gene Wolfe||★★★||2008|
|The Sorcerer’s House||Gene Wolfe||★★★||2010|
|Return to the Whorl (The Book of the Short Sun, #3)||Gene Wolfe||★★★||2001|
|In Green’s Jungles||Gene Wolfe||★★★||2001|
|The Knight (The Wizard Knight, #1)||Gene Wolfe||★★★||2005|
|The Mind’s I: Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul||Daniel C. Dennett||★★★||1985|
|The Lucifer Principle: A Scientific Expedition into the Forces of History||Howard Bloom||★★★||1997|
|Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity||Gregory Bateson||★★★||2003|
|Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software||Sam Williams||★★★||2002|
|The Shockwave Rider||John Brunner||★★★||1995|
|The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene||Richard Dawkins||★★★||1999|
|The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence||Ray Kurzweil||★★★||2000|
|On Intelligence||Jeff Hawkins||★★★||2005|
|Hackers & Painters: Big Ideas from the Computer Age||Paul Graham||★★★||2004|
|The Time Ships||Stephen Baxter||★★★||1995|
|The Peace War (Across Realtime, #1)||Vernor Vinge||★★★||2003|
|Iron Sunrise (Eschaton, #2)||Charles Stross||★★★||2005|
|Protector (Known Space)||Larry Niven||★★★||1987|
|Neutron Star (Known Space)||Larry Niven||★★★||1977|
|Against a Dark Background||Iain M. Banks||★★★||1993|
|The Many-Coloured Land (Saga of Pliocene Exile, #1)||Julian May||★★★||1981|
|The Adversary (Saga of Pliocene Exile, #4)||Julian May||★★★||1987|
|The Golden Torc (Saga of the Pliocene Exile, #2)||Julian May||★★★||1985|
|Trumps of Doom (Amber Chronicles, #6)||Roger Zelazny||★★★||1986|
|The Power That Preserves (The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant the Unbeliever, #3)||Stephen R. Donaldson||★★★||1987|
|The Courts of Chaos (Amber Chronicles, #5)||Roger Zelazny||★★★||1979|
|Towers of Midnight (Wheel of Time #13)||Robert Jordan||★★★||2010|
|The Shadow Rising (Wheel of Time, #4)||Robert Jordan||★★★||1993|
|The Treason of Isengard: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part Two (The History of Middle-earth, #7)||J.R.R. Tolkien||★★★||1989|
|The Subtle Knife (His Dark Materials, #2)||Philip Pullman||★★★||1997|
|The Farthest Shore (Earthsea Cycle, #3)||Ursula K. Le Guin||★★★||2004|
|The Simple Men||David Troupes||★★||2012||2014/07/24||(For background, see my review of Renaming of the Birds.)
The Simple Men (2012; ISBN 978-1-906120-60-3) is a 70pg paperback book of ~42 free verse poems and a few short prose pieces, most a few stanzas in length but the longest, “The Ice Fisherman at Dusk” covers ~20 pages; some have been previously published in obscure academic poetry journals. Some of his pieces are online, linked from his poetry page: “The River Bridge”, “The Brook”, “The Mill River”, “A Stop on the Road North” & “The Simple Man Arriving Through the Fields” (both also in The Simple Men). Those are representative. How much you like the collection will depend on your fondness for modern free verse about nature, vaguely spiritual musings, and incidents from ordinary lives - how much, for example, you thrill to lines like the last 2 stanzas of “The Simple Man in Love with the Sound of Things”:
One piece that struck me is the short prose piece “The Ghost” (which works better for not being jammed into a free verse formatting):
The Buddhist undertones reminds me of Christine Hartzler’s “The Teachings”, as does to some extent the final stanza of “The Boy Who Got Lost Following a River”, “I walk the starry meadows, the cool hampers of August / where the bees of midnight / gather their strange pollen.” I wouldn’t emphasize this too much since being genuinely Buddhist would be a bit contradictory to the ethos of the poems, put explicitly in the end of the prose piece “Ocean Point”:
I didn’t think much of “At Whately Dinner”, which seems to try for shock value in explicitness, and comes off juvenile and degrading to read. Troupes often tries too hard with phrases and obscure words, using them when there is no particular impact; “The Deer on the Sunsetting Hill” offers many examples: “rich vernum”, “Flees / across the lea, through evening’s / furnace-draft”, “Exquisite vacancy”, “Taper of autumnal sabbath”, “the betrothed / quicken their beauty and truth”, “the rubied heat of the fragile imperfect”, “an owl / downs its mouse-pith”, “O Love, listen / please, listen, and remember me to the whole - / the deer settled in its truth / the air velvet-smooth / with river smell”.
T.S. Eliot and Wallace Stevens could get away with what they did because they had an infallible ear for rhythm and expression, so their glittering generalities worked. They don’t usually work here, and it’s a bit agonizing trying to get through some of the poems (I must confess, while I’ve read it twice, I have not actually read “The Icefisherman at Dusk” because my eyes keep glazing over a few pages in). A less kind reviewer might mock some of the expressions (“each tree in the rain shaking / grandly / like a tree in the rain”) but I cannot because I detect no insincerity or dishonesty here; Troupes deserves to write good poems, but I’m not sure he can. (Randall Jarrell puts his thumb on this tendency: “When one reads the verse of people who cannot write poems — people who sometimes have more intelligence, sensibility, and moral discrimination than most of the poets — it is hard not to regard the Muse as a sort of fairy godmother who says to the poet, after her colleagues have showered on him the most disconcerting and ambiguous gifts, ‘Well, never mind. You’re still the only one that can write poetry.’”)
My usual standard for poetry anthologies is whether I felt compelled to copy or keep any; like The Fountain, I found nothing in The Simple Men I wanted to keep.
|Intellectuals and Society||Thomas Sowell||★★||2010||I started this hoping that it would be a bit like Scott’s Seeing Like A State, which is one of my favorite books, or if not exactly like that, at least like something Charles Murray, who is one of my favorite writers, might have written on the topic.
I was quickly disabused of both hopes. Sowell is not that great a prose stylist and has a gift for putting things in ways that irritate the hell out of me even when I already agree with him.
More importantly, the promise of the flaps and introduction is not borne out as far as I read. It was not an investigation, either psychological or historical or economic, of intellectuals or recent intellectual history. It was simply a partisan rant bringing up all the old arguments and citations we’ve seen a million times before; I give him points for thorough - dare I say, intellectual - sourcing, which is more than one can say about eg. Michael Moore or Ann Coulter’s books (he wrote, damning with faint praise).
There are arguments in it which I find hard to believe would pass Sowell’s own muster if they were dressed up in liberal guise.
For example, on pg27 I was shocked to see - in the middle of his haranguing liberals for insufficient attention to economics - him seriously argue that oil company executive salaries are irrelevant because they add only a dime to the cost of gasoline gallons! Wow! Imagine Sowell’s reaction to the following argument: “regulation XYZ is not worth debating about because, after all, when implemented it will add no more than a dime to the cost of gas” - can there be any doubt that he would rip this argument to little eeny-weeny shreds for failing to ‘think on the margin’ and realize that an extra dime will make or break many economic decisions and ramify throughout the economy? How was it possible for him to write such a transparently partisan thing? Because it was a good bash at his enemies.
(‘Politics is the mind-killer’, as we say on LessWrong.)
Or another example from pg21; having finished reciting the Hayekian argument that no one can generalize over the entire economy or populace and central planning is impossible, he then goes on (???) to discuss how Cicero told his friend all English slaves were completely worthless and how Teddy Roosevelt hated all Indians and rather than criticizing their opinions as a perfect example of the intellectual’s arrogance in generalizing from tiny tiny samples (both Cicero and Teddy were intellectuals par excellance), he defends their bigotry, arguing that critics are themselves being arrogant! What is this I don’t even -
It came as no surprise on pg28 to see a caricature of economic libertarianism and zero mentions of standing disproofs of the simplistic models like Coase’s point about large firms being economic absurdities and central planning in a different disguise, since I wasn’t expecting very much any more.
By pg30, I abandoned my sporadic note-taking and began playing a little game: write down every time a thinker or politician who could be described as conservative or libertarian is criticized or given as an example of the evils of intellectualism.
Naturally, I didn’t expect to see Hayek come up for hobnobbing with dictatorships (any more than people discussing Mother Theresa usually bring up her more questionable funding sources), but still - an entire book ought to provide at least 1 or 2 examples.
In the 70s or 80s, I thought I might finally have something to add to my list: Naziism and Italian fascism. Surely those would get criticized, as they notoriously aimed to remake their entire societies, with disastrous results? But no! I learned, to my surprise, apparently fascism and Naziism are socialist liberal parties and they are just more liberal examples of intellectual arrogance!
Apparently no one on the right end of the political spectrum has ever proposed or implemented any bad idea, ever. Even if I granted the fairness and accuracy of all his descriptions of left-wingers, his conclusions or synthesis would be completely worthless as it omits half the political spectrum! It would be like doing a study of cancer patients and throwing out every patient who was a Democrat - what could you possibly hope to learn at the en, after you did that?
The Naziism-is-socialism finally broke me. Writing a bad review is not so worthwhile as to be worth going through this. The book was nothing but capsule hitjobs of everyone Sowell disliked at any point, and gave no indication that it would be anything but that for the entire rest of the book.
Life is too short to read Sowell, and I had Charles Murray’s Coming Apart: The State of White America to read, which I’ve been looking forward to reading for a long time.
|The Fountain||David Troupes||★★||2014||2014/07/24||(For background, see my review of Renaming of the Birds.)
Next in my Kickstarter bundle was a small pamphlet titled The Fountain, apparently renamed:
The little book is as described. The bulk of the pamphlet is short poems, most under a page and 1-4 irregular-length stanzas, all in free verse (no stronger meters or organizations), typically on natural themes. There’s a bit of prose. The middle few pages are devoted to miscellaneous drawings, some of which I enjoyed. The verse itself is without a doubt in the vein of academic 20th/21st century free verse; at its best, it can produce striking images and little diamonds, and at its worse it is just words placed wearisomely one after another hinting out sentiments too juvenile to ever be written out plainly. For example, Troupes actually starts the collection with a nice one in “As the Crow Flies”:
Basho would have approved. Once or twice Troupes tries a formalist game; it works well in the case of “At Beckett Street Cemetery”:
The second one, “Excerpt From Waterbody Crossing Table”, does not work at all and I won’t bother quoting it.
Some just end lamely, and whatever moment prompted them flees uncaptured; for example, “At the World Hater’s Cafe”:
One gets nothing out of this, and it might as well be prose with the lines messed up. The worst may be the final eponymous poem, “The Fountain”:
One gets the idea what the collection is like. Overall, when it comes to poetry, my criterion is fairly simple: did I like any of the poems enough to want to copy them out and to memorize them? If there were 1 or 2, that was a good collection, and if there were more, it was a great collection. After reading The Fountain twice, I feel the need to copy none of them, so it was not a good collection for me.
|Fascinating Mathematical People: Interviews and Memoirs||Donald J. Albers||★★||2011||2014/10/18||Interviews with 16 mathematicians 1990 - 2010, similar to the earlier volume Mathematical People (see my review of it). I don’t recognize any of the interviewees: Ahlfors, Apostol, Bacon, Banchoff, Bankoff, Beckenbach, Benjamin, Cartwright, Gallian, Guy, Hunt, McDuff, Saari, Selberg, Taylor, Tondeur.
On the whole, I found this volume far less interesting than the other collection. Most of the subjects are post-WWII, non-European (certainly not part of the fascinatingly aristocratic-but-democratic pre-war European mathematical communities), and their lives come off as colorless beneficiaries of the post-WWII expansion of higher ed, moving fairly easily from undergrad to grad to tenure. The interviewers don’t have as much personal connection to the interviewees. The exceptions are not always pleasant to read about; Ahlfors, a Finn who had made his way to the USA before WWII, recounts how he patriotically moved himself and his family back to Finland, contributed zilch to the war effort, and then had to place himself & his family at great risk in getting back out of Europe, the sort of story one expects to end with “and then 15 years later, their remains were discovered in a shallow grave near the main road” (meanwhile, I am thinking “you stupid Finn - you went back? You would have helped infinitely more if you had stayed back in the USA or UK!”) Few of them can claim to be nearly as colorful as Conway or Diaconis etc, and there’s a really striking absence of computers or statistics or anything you might call application. (I think there is one meaningful mention of computers, in the context of computing many zeros of the Riemann function as a heuristic argument for it being true.) This is particularly astonishing given the time period they were interviewed over. I also think that the earlier interviews did better jobs of explaining their professional topics than these do; how they manage the trick of simultaneously being boring or uninformative about the people and being boring or uninformative about their work too, I am not sure. I think they may simply be much shorter but I haven’t done a word-count.
The interviews are not 100% rubbish, though. Guy & Selberg make some interesting remarks. Saari is quite amusing. Joseph Gallian’s interview paints a memorable picture of union factory work and the occupational hazards which frightened him into mathematics. Dusa McDuff had both a somewhat unusual life and an interesting grandmother. Other than that
Overall, the selection of interviews gave me an impression that in some respects, these were the leftovers. To be read only if one is already interested in one of the interviewees.
|Soldiers Live (The Chronicle of the Black Company, #9)||Glen Cook||★★||2001||2013/06/16||A weirdly quiet and sedate endin|